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Sample records for female genital tracts

  1. Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

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    Pongsakdi Chaisilwattana

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of septicemic and nonsepticemic isolates of group B streptococci (GBS to inhibit in vitro the principal bacterial groups found in the normal bacterial flora of the female genital tract.

  2. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

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    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

  3. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

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    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  4. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

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    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  5. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

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    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  6. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

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    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  7. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

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    Juliana Reis Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

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    Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

    1991-03-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

  9. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

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    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  10. Surfactant protein D in the female genital tract

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    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Floridon, C; Nielsen, O;

    2004-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a role in innate immunity against various pathogens and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SP-D also has anti-inflammatory properties. SP-D was originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP......-D indicating a systemic role for the protein. This study describes the presence of SP-D in the female genital tract, the placenta and in amniotic fluid using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SP-D was observed in cells lining surface epithelium and secretory glands in the vagina...

  11. Current approach to metastasis of extra-genital system malignancies to the female genital tract

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    Kemal Güngördük

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the female genital tract from extra-genital malignancies are very uncommon and have a poor prognosis. The most common extra-genital primary sites are breast and gastrointestinal system. The ovaries are frequent targets of metastasis for malignant tumors. Distinction between primary and metastatic tumors is important because misinterpretation of a metastatic tumor as primary tumor may lead to inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment outcome. The routes of tumor spread to the genital system are variable such as lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis or direct extension. Multidisciplinary approach is required to management and follow-up for these patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 406-413

  12. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

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    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Triple independent primaries of female genital tract: A rare event

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    Suprio Ray Chaudhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronous presence of endometrioid carcinoma of ovary and uterus in a single patient is an uncommon occurrence; but, finding a patient having a third simultaneous primary in cervix along with carcinoma ovary and endometrium is an extremely rare entity. In this article we describe a 40-year-old female who presented with gradual distension of abdomen, and underwent extended radical hysterectomy operation following diagnosis of an ovarian tumor on ultrasonography. On examination of the specimen, it was found to harbor endometrioid carcinoma of uterus and endometrioid carcinoma of ovary along with a small focus of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. The presence of three coexistent primary tumors in female genital tract is an extremely rare event. Further molecular and genetic studies may throw light on the probable etiology of such rare cases.

  14. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

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    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  15. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

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    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

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    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  17. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems).

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    Offman, Saul L; Longacre, Teri A

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.

  18. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

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    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

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    Xiang-sheng Zhang, Hong-yan Dong, Lei-lei Zhang, Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki, Chengquan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported.Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1 one case affecting the endometrium, 2 one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3 one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains.Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging.

  20. [Morphogenesis and differentiation of the female genital tract. Genetic determinism and epithelium-stromal interactions].

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    Amălinei, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    The epithelium-stromal interaction is important in the process of morphogenesis, differentiation, and hormone response, in female genital tract. This review is organized in four sections: i) female genital tract morphogenesis, based on genetic determinism; ii) hormonal control of endometrial proliferation; iii) TGF-beta key-role in epithelium-stromal communication; iv) endometrial apoptosis. Female genital tract derives from the Müllerian ducts, a number of genes being involved in its regulation, like Lim1, Lhx9, Emx, Pax-2, Hox-A9, Hox-A10, Hox-A11, Hox-A13, Wnt-4, Wnt-7, WT1, SF-1, and GATA-4. TGF-beta, whose expression is modulated by ovarian steroids, regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses, extracellular matrix deposition, adhesion molecules, proteases, and protease inhibitor expression. In the endometrium, TGF-beta regulates its own expression, and that of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules and proteases implicated in trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis during embryo implantation, endometriosis, irregular bleeding, and endometrial cancer. Cellular response elicited by TGF-beta, mediated through a serine/threonine kinase receptor, induces the recruitment of multiple intracellular signals, specifically Smads, whose activation and subsequent translocation into the nucleus results in gene expression. Ubiquitin is involved in the degradation of short lived, regulatory or misfolded proteins, by tagging them to be taken to the proteasome. In the endometrium, ubiquitin may allow cells of stromal origin to grow, survive and evade T-cell mediated disposal, showing a functional duality. A complete understanding of the complex regulatory endometrial epithelium-stromal mechanism, concertating genes, hormones, and cytokines, may provide new therapeutic targets in female reproductive tract pathology.

  1. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

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    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    that PACAP was located in delicate varicose nerve fibers that were most abundant in the internal cervical os, where they mainly seemed to innervate blood vessels and smooth muscle cells. PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the spontaneous activity......The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... of the nonvascular smooth muscle strips from fallopian tube and myometrium in vitro. Likewise, both peptides (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused relaxation of nonrepinephrine (10(-6) M)-precontracted intramyometrial arteries. No effect of the PACAP sequences, PACAP-(6-27), PACAP-(16-38), and PACAP-(18-27), on fallopian tube...

  3. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhu; Hao Wen; Xiaohua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas of the female genital tract are highly aggressive and rare tumors, differing from other malignant gynecological tumors in that they contain both malignant carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Because carcinosarcomas are rapidly progressive, less sensitive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and have a high probability of recurrence, patients with advanced uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas have poorer survival than those with endometrial or high-grade serous carcinomas. Although the treatment strategies are controversial, a comprehensive management approach is recommended, which involves complete debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Molecular-targeted therapies are promising for the management and improvement in the overall survival of patients with car-cinosarcomas.

  4. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

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    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  5. Innate immunity to infection in the lower female genital tract 

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    Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the contact with the external environment, the lower female genital tract is non-sterile. The innate immune system has evolved many mechanisms to protect vaginal tissues from pathogens at the same time allowing for survival of the comensal flora. Innate immunity in the lower female genital tract undergoes hormonal regulation. Estrogen and progesterone levels also influence the vaginal mucosal epithelium remodeling with the neutrophlis playing a crucial role, as the most numerous leukocytes in the vaginal tissue. Being exposed to the environment, the vaginal epithelium consists a physical barrier for pathogens, but it also shows the presence of MHC class I and pattern recognition receptors. By production of cytokines and chemokines, the vaginal epithelium attracts innate immune cells such as neutrophiles, macrophages, dendritic cells or NK cells. Vaginal comensal flora is another important mechanism of innate immunity by production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, inhibiting pathogen’s growth. Disturbances of vaginal microflora can result in pathogenic infections such as bacterial vaginosis or candidosis. Together with herpes genitalis, HPV infection, chlamydiosis, trichomatosis and gonorrhoea, vaginal infections increase the risk of acquiring another sexually transmitted disease, includig HIV due to the impaired mucosal integrity, facilitating for tissue penetration by pathogens and development of local inflammation.

  6. Use of cervicovaginal fluid for the identification of biomarkers for pathologies of the female genital tract

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    Tjalma Wiebren AA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions. This review provides a detailed discussion about the human cervicovaginal proteome and the proteomics studies performed to characterize this biological fluid. Furthermore, infection-correlated pathological conditions of the female genital tract are discussed for which cervicovaginal fluid has been used in order to identify potential biomarkers. Recent years, numerous studies have analyzed cervicovaginal fluid samples utilizing antibody-based technologies, such as ELISA or Western blotting, to identify biomarkers for preterm birth, premature preterm rupture of membranes, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The present article will discuss the importance of proteomic technologies as alternative techniques to gain additional meaningful information about these conditions. In addition, the review focuses on recent proteomic studies on cervicovaginal fluid samples for the identification of potential biomarkers. We conclude that the use of proteomic technology for analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid samples is promising and may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers which can improve disease prevention and therapy development.

  7. Efficacy of an Immune Modulator in Experimental Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Female Genital Tract

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if vaginal application of the immune response modifier imiquimod (Aldara cream, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn would alter the course and/or outcome of female genital tract infection with a human isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in a murine model. Methods. Groups of CF-1 mice were treated with Aldara on three different schedules: (1 ongoing beginning 5 days prior to and continuing through day 5 of infection; (2 a single prophylactic dose 2 hours prior to infection; and (3 therapeutic from day 4 to day 14 of infection. Mice were infected vaginally with a serovar D strain of C trachomatis, and monitored by culture to determine the level of shedding and duration of infection. Results. We observed a significant reduction in both duration of infection and the level of shedding during the acute phase in mice treated on an ongoing basis commencing 5 days prior to infection. There was no effect with respect to the other regimens. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that ongoing Aldara treatment has efficacy and may enhance local innate immunity which reduces the duration of subsequent infection with human isolates of C trachomatis in a murine model of female genital tract infection.

  8. Adenomatoid tumor of the female genital tract: Report of three cases

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    Filiz BOLAT

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are benign proliferations that are most often encountered in the female and male genital tracts. The mesothelial phenotype of these unusual tumors has been established by a variety of ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies, although their histogenesis is by no means certain. In this paper we report three cases that were diagnosed as genital tract adenomatoid tumors and discussed the clinical signs, origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the this type of tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin, HBME-1, vimentin, pancytokeratin, EMA, and CD31 were analyzed in three ATs, using formaline-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. The age of the patients were ranging from 40 to 46 years with a median of 43.3. Tumors were located in uterus (one, and fallopian tube (two. Tumor sizes were ranging between 0.6-5 cm. Immunohistochemically all tumors exhibited strong and diffuse positivity for pancytokeratin, calretinin, HBME-1 and vimentin, but negativity for EMA, and CD31. The immunohistochemical results support histogenetic theories of the adenomatoid tumor that claim it as a type of benign mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical phenotypes can play an important role in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules in the lower female genital tract: relationship to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon.

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    Bhagavan, B S; Ruffier, J; Shinn, B

    1982-10-01

    Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, the in vivo formation of eosinophilic radiate structures around microorganisms and biologically inert substances, may simulate actinomycotic sulfur granules and has been recognized in extragenital sites. In the lower female genital tract, the authors have noted these pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) in both the presence and the absence of intrauterine contraceptive devices. To elucidate the nature and morphogenesis of PAMRAGs, the light microscopic morphologic features of PAMRAGs were studied by means of a battery of special stains. The absence of central branching filaments or diptheroid forms in PAMRAGs serves to distinguish them from true actinomycotic sulfur granules. Using the immunoperoxidase technique, the authors examined PAMRAGs for the presence of immunoglobulin, complement, and fibrin. Their studies showed that PAMRAGs contain neutral glycoproteins, lipid, and calcium with no demonstrable microorganisms, immunoglobulin, complement, or fibrin. The authors do not support the assertions of others that Splendore-Hoeppli radiate bodies are immune complexes derived from host serum proteins. They speculate that PAMRAGs of the genital tract are derived from host leukocytes that aggregate in response to the commonly present bacteria, parasites, or inert foreign bodies that initiate the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and the morphogenesis of PAMRAGs.

  10. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract.

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    Franko, Angela; Magliocco, Anthony M; Duan, Quili; Duggan, Máire A

    2010-09-01

    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract. WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) is both a tumor suppressor gene and oncogene overexpressed in the nuclei of some gynecologic carcinomas. Expression in MMMT is incompletely described. Whole sections from 16 MMMTs were stained with WT1 (N terminus) using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. There were 7 heterologous and 9 homologous tumors and 10 were endometrial, 5 were ovarian, and 1 was of peritoneal origin. The tissue and cell staining pattern and score (intensity by amount) were evaluated and correlated with the tumor subtype and anatomic location. Among the 16 tumors, 81.3% showed mostly stromal and cytoplasmic staining and a score of 3 or 6. Staining was positive in 80% of the endometrial and ovarian tumors and the 1 peritoneal tumor and in all heterologous and 66.7% of the homologous tumors. The immunoprofile correlated with tumor subtype but not with anatomic location. Stromal and epithelial staining was more frequent (83.3%) in homologous tumors and differed significantly (P=0.009) from the heterologous types where stromal staining prevailed (85.7%). MMMT is another genital tract malignancy which can over express WT1 and the immunoprofile may assist in tumor subtyping.

  11. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

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    Madelene Lindqvist

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs.

  12. Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Schwartz, Erich J; Rouse, Robert V; Longacre, Teri A

    2009-09-01

    Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts are well characterized as mesothelial in origin, but a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis comparing both traditional and newer mesothelial markers across gender and site has not been formally conducted. A variety of morphologic features previously described as characteristic of adenomatoid tumors were evaluated in 44 adenomatoid tumors from the male and female genital tracts. Immunohistochemical analysis with pankeratin (AE1/CAM5.2), WT-1, calretinin, CK5/6, D2-40, and caldesmon was also performed. The extent and intensity of staining were scored semiquantitatively on one representative section per case and mean value for each parameter was calculated. All (n=44) the adenomatoid tumors from both the female and male genital tracts demonstrated a distinctive thread-like bridging strand pattern. Lymphoid aggregates were seen in all 12 adenomatoid tumors of male patients, but in only 4 of 32 (13%) tumors in female patients (Pgenital tract adenomatoid tumors. Adenomatoid tumors expressed WT-1 in 11/12 (92%) male patients and in 31/32 (97%) female patients. In male patients, reactivity for CK5/6 and caldesmon was found in 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) adenomatoid tumors (respectively), whereas reactivity in female patients was found in 5/32 (16%) and 1/32 (3%); respectively. Female tumors differ from their male counterparts by the frequent absence of lymphoid aggregates and the presence of a circumscribed margin when occurring in the fallopian tube. Of the putative mesothelial markers evaluated, calretinin, D2-40, and WT-1 show a similar immunoprofile and have a higher sensitivity than CK5/6 and caldesmon in genital tract adenomatoid tumors. However, the presence of additional, often strong expression of WT-1 in normal tissues of the female genital tract limits the utility of WT-1 in this setting.

  13. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  14. The expression and diagnostic utility of p63 in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Oisin; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2009-09-01

    p63 plays a key role in epithelial development in various organs, being expressed in myoepithelial cells and in basal cells of stratified epithelia. In the female genital tract, p63 is expressed in the basal and parabasal cells of mature cervical, vaginal and vulval squamous epithelium, and also in cervical reserve cells at the transformation zone and in immature metaplastic and atrophic cervical squamous epithelium. In this review, the diagnostic utility of p63 immunohistochemical staining in various pathologic scenarios within the female genital tract is discussed. Cervical microglandular hyperplasia is p63 positive with a characteristic subcolumnar location due to expression in reserve cells. There is increased expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, in accordance with the degree of dysplasia. One of the most useful applications of p63 is in the evaluation of problematic cervical carcinomas; most squamous carcinomas exhibit diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity whereas most adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative or focally positive. In conjunction with neuroendocrine markers, p63 is useful in distinguishing between a squamous carcinoma and a small cell or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the normal endometrium, a population of p63-positive cells is present which may act as a stem cell population and which is increased in various forms of metaplasia. Placental site nodule and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast) are usually p63 positive whereas placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from implantation site intermediate trophoblast) are usually negative; thus, p63 may be useful in the diagnostic algorithm of trophoblastic lesions. p63 positivity in ovarian epithelial tumors is uncommon and largely restricted to squamous and transitional neoplasms, including benign and borderline Brenner tumor. p63 is also positive in cervical

  15. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system...... in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system......Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good...

  16. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Zevin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism(s by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity.

  17. Microbiome Composition and Function Drives Wound-Healing Impairment in the Female Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kelly; Romas, Laura; Westmacott, Garrett; McCorrister, Stuart; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Mackelprang, Romel; Lingappa, Jairam; Lauffenburger, Doug A.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Burgener, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity. PMID:27656899

  18. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  19. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

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    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis (TB remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography is still the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and "leopard skin tube". Part II describes adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings such as "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes, "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudounicornuate" uterus and "Collar-stud abscess", which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

  20. Ultrastructural morphology of the male and female genital tracts of Psoroptes spp. (Acari: Astigmata: Psoroptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekimme, Mireille; Leclercq-Smekens, Michèle; Devignon, Chantal; Leclipteux, Thierry; Poumay, Yves; Losson, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    The structure of the male and female genital systems of the astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis (Hering) is described. The male genital system is composed of a paired testis, fused at its proximal part, two vasa deferentia, an ejaculatory duct, into which a single accessory gland opens, and a copulatory organ. The testis is characterized by a peripheric syncytial cell surrounding spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa which are distributed regularly in the gonad according to the sequence of spermatogenesis. The female genital system consists of a copulatory pore (the bursa copulatrix), a seminal receptacle, paired ovaries and oviducts, a glandular uterus and an ovipositor which leads to the oviporus. Ovaries are composed of somatic cells, germ cells and a central cell, with a multilobular nucleus, connected to oocytes by a stalk. Similarities with other astigmatic mites belonging to Psoroptidia and Acaridia are also discussed.

  1. p53 is not related to Ki-67 immunostaining in the epithelial and mesenchymal components of female genital tract carcinosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Beata; Kaznowska, Ewa; Ignatov, Atanas; Steć, Anna; Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Jóźwik, Maciej; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Cybulski, Marek; Szumiło, Justyna; Semczuk, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas (CSs) are composed of two separate histological components and are rare neoplasms of the female genital tract. Therefore, CS pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the role of p53 and Ki-67 overexpression in female genital tract CSs. The study group was comprised of 36 patients with CSs originating from the uterus (n=31), cervix (n=3) and ovary (n=2), as well as 3 metastatic tissues. p53 was overexpressed in the epithelial component of 23 out of 36 (64%) tumors, and in the mesenchymal component of 20 out of 36 (56%) tumors. In both CS components, there was a significant correlation between p53 overexpression and patient age and ovarian metastases. Ki-67 overexpression was detected in the epithelial component in 15 out of 36 (42%) cases, and in the mesenchymal component in 13 out of 36 (36%) neoplasms. There was a significant correlation of p53 overexpression between the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components (R=0.884, Ptumor components. In conclusion, based on immunohistochemical results, p53 was overexpressed in more than half of the female genital tract CSs included in the present study, either at the epithelial or mesenchymal component. The correlation between p53 or Ki-67 overexpression in both tumor components supports the combination theory of histogenesis in the majority of these tumors.

  2. [Systemic lymphoma cells with T precursor condition of extreme female genital tract. A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died.

  3. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  4. GATA3 Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker of Benign and Malignant Mesonephric Lesions in the Lower Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Emori, Megan M; Drapkin, Ronny; Gaspar, Cynthia; Barletta, Justine A; Nucci, Marisa R; McCluggage, W Glenn; Oliva, Esther; Hirsch, Michelle S

    2015-10-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor critical for embryogenesis, development, and cell differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that GATA3 is a sensitive and relatively specific biomarker for urothelial and breast carcinomas, with most Müllerian carcinomas being negative. We investigated GATA3 expression in mesonephric/Wolffian remnants and tumors in the female genital tract. A western blot was performed to assess specificity for the GATA3 antibody. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mesonephric samples, including 17 mesonephric remnants (MR; 11 cervical and 6 fallopian tube), 15 mesonephric hyperplasias, 21 mesonephric carcinomas, and 6 female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin. Thirty conventional endocervical adenocarcinomas (ENDO-CA), 9 gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas, and 165 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EM-CA) were also evaluated. GATA3 nuclear intensity and extent of staining was evaluated. The western blot revealed GATA3 expression in seminal vesicle and cell lines derived from breast and urothelial carcinomas, but not in other cell lines including ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers. All cervical MRs and mesonephric hyperplasias, 5/6 (83%) fallopian tube MRs, and 20/21 (95%) mesonephric carcinomas were GATA3 positive, although with great variability in both intensity (weak to strong) and extent (1+ to 3+) of staining. Only 1/6 (17%) female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin showed weak multifocal staining. One of 30 (3%) usual-type ENDO-CAs and 3/165 EM-CAs exhibited weak-moderate GATA3 immunoreactivity; all gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas were negative. GATA3 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for mesonephric lesions in the lower genital tract; however, its utility in the upper genital tract may be more limited. In addition, GATA3 can aid in distinguishing lower genital mesonephric lesions from usual-type and gastric-type ENDO-CAs and uterine EM-CAs.

  5. Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes.

  6. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the female genital tract in a 27-year-old female: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL of the female genital tract is a rare tumor mainly affecting the elderly age group. A preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach due to varied clinical presentation and lack of diagnostic features on radiological investigations. We present an unusual case of primary NHL affecting uterus, cervix, and bilateral ovaries in a 27-year-old female.

  7. The uterine peristaltic pump. Normal and impeded sperm transport within the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, G; Beil, D; Deiniger, H; Einspanier, A; Mall, G; Leyendecker, G

    1997-01-01

    double the frequency of contractions during the early and mid- as well as midluteal phase in comparison to the fertile and healthy controls. During midcycle these women display a considerable uterine dysperistalsis in that the normally long and regular cervico-fundal contractions during this phase of the cycle have become more or less undirected and convulsive in character. Hyperperistalsis results in the transport of inert particles from the cervix into the tubes within minutes already during the early follicular phase, and may therefore constitute the mechanical cause for the development of endometriosis in that it transports detached endometrial cells and tissue fragments via the tubes into the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, dysperistalsis may contribute to the infertility in these patients since it results in a break down of sperm transport within the female genital tract.

  8. Pseudomembranous disease (ligneous inflammation) of the female genital tract, peritoneum, gingiva, and paranasal sinuses associated with plasminogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Angela C; Prichard, Elizabeth; Richardson, Mary S; Rasenberger, Kenneth P; Weathers, Dwight R; Neville, Brad W

    2009-04-01

    Pseudomembranous disease (or ligneous inflammation) is a rare condition characterized by accumulations of fibrin-rich eosinophilic material. Recent investigations have linked the etiology of this condition to plasminogen deficiency (hypoplasminogenemia). Although much of the literature concerning this disease has focused upon the often clinically striking ocular manifestations, it is important to note that pathologic changes may develop in a variety of anatomic locations, including the oral cavity, upper and lower respiratory tract, female genital tract, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman who initially presented with gingival inflammation. In subsequent years, she developed additional signs and symptoms related to sinonasal and genital tract involvement. Despite numerous clinical evaluations, biopsies, and laboratory tests, the patient's diagnosis remained elusive for 7 years. Ultimately, it was the distinctive appearance of the gingiva that led to a diagnosis of plasminogen deficiency. Unfortunately, the complicated clinical course and elapsed time between initial presentation and diagnosis illustrated by the present case are not uncommon among patients with this condition. Greater familiarity with the clinical and histopathologic features of this condition among pathologists and treating clinicians is essential for timely diagnosis and management.

  9. Ultrastructure of the Z-organ and Parts of the Female Genital Tract in Xiphinema coxi coxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Robbins, R T; Kim, K S

    2000-09-01

    Ultrastructure of the Z-organ and associated apophyses in Xiphinema coxi coxi was studied by transmission electron microscopy to determine their structural origin and relationship with other parts of the genital tract. The Z-organ of X. coxi coxi is oval-shaped, ca. 30 microm long and 16 microm wide. It is clearly distinguished from the other parts of the female genital tract by its thick muscular outer wall, epithelium-lined lumen, and 4-5 centrally located apophyses. Each apophysis is continuous with the epithelial lining of the Z-organ, suggesting that it originated from epithelium. The apophyses appear as thickened and densely folded masses forming numerous interlaced pores and (or) chambers containing mucous-like materials and electron-dense crystals. These apophyses are characteristic of a typical Z-organ; no globular structures characteristics of the pseudo-Z-organ were observed. The thickness of the muscular layer of the oviduct and uterus varied with position. The overall Z-organ ultrastructure of this study, including body wall and internal apophyses, was comparable to the typical Z-organ of X. ifacolum. This suggests that X. coxi coxi should be classified as a Xiphinema species that contains the typical Z-organ.

  10. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse

  11. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  12. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  13. Microecological barrier of female genital tract%女性生殖道微生态屏障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌宗欣; 刘霞; 项春生

    2011-01-01

    With the development of infectious mieroecology especially host-microbe interplay, researchers found that the microecological barrier of female genital tract played a vital role in maintaining human health. The microecological barrier of female genital tract constituted with microbial barrier, physical barrier, immune barrier and chemical barrier. While physical barrier is the basis, microbial barrier is the key component. Immune barrier is the core of microecological barrier, and chemical barrier is the integral part. The role of microecological barrier is to maintain the eubiosis of the host microhabitat, to prevent the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and infection occur.%随着感染微生态学的发展,尤其是宿主-微生物相互作用的研究深入,越来越多的研究发现,新的微生态屏障在维持宿主健康方面发挥着重要作用.微生态屏障包括微生物屏障,机械屏障,免疫屏障和化学屏障四个部分.其中机械屏障是微生态屏障的基础,微生物屏障是微生态屏障的关键,免疫屏障是微生态屏障的核心,化学屏障是微生态屏障的有机组成部分.微生态屏障可维持宿主生境的微生态平衡,防止病原微生物的入侵和感染的发生.

  14. Eubacterium nodatum mimics Actinomyces in intrauterine device-associated infections and other settings within the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G B

    1992-04-01

    Eubacterium nodatum is an obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, branching rod that markedly resembles Actinomyces, particularly Actinomyces israelii, in its cellular and colonial characteristics. Its isolation from the female genital tract was examined for a study period in which use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) was common, and additional characteristics of the organism were investigated. Fifteen genital isolates of E nodatum were all associated with the presence of a foreign body, usually an IUD (12 patients). Six of these 12 patients had presented with clinically severe pelvic inflammatory disease. The remaining six had signs and symptoms related to IUD use and/or had a report of probable Actinomyces (five patients) by a Papanicolaou smear, demonstrating that E nodatum can be mistaken for Actinomyces in a Papanicolaou-stained smear. The three other patients had different types of foreign bodies. The frequency of isolation from cultures associated with IUD use during the study period was five (6.4%) of 78 for Actinomyces versus the 12 (15.4%) of 78 for E nodatum. In vitro-prepared E nodatum was not demonstrated to cross-react with A israelii or A naeslundii antisera. Both E nodatum and A israelii were shown to adhere in vitro to an inanimate object, indicating their propensities to colonize a foreign body. The present data, with the previous reports of isolation of E nodatum from cases of lumpy jaw and severe periodontitis, suggest that it is an opportunistic pathogen very much like A israelii.

  15. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  16. Diagnosis and staging of female genital tract melanocytic lesions using pump-probe microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.

  17. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  18. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J.; Chappell, Catherine A.; Debo, Brian M.; Meyn, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (Pmicroorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract. PMID:27437931

  19. Distribution and viability of spermatozoa in the canine female genital tract during post-ovulatory oocyte maturation

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    Karre Inga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other domestic mammals, in which metaphase-II oocytes are ovulated, canine ovulation is characterized by the release of primary oocytes, which may take 12 to up to 36 hours. Further 60 hours are needed for maturation to secondary oocytes which then remain fertile for about 48 hours. Oestrus takes 7 to 10 days on average and may start as early as a week before ovulation. This together with the prolonged process of post-ovulatory oocyte maturation requires an according longevity of spermatozoa in the female genital tract in order to provide a population of fertile sperm when oocytes have matured to fertilizability. Therefore the distribution and viability of spermatozoa in the bitch genital tract was examined during post-ovulatory oocyte maturation. Methods Thirteen beagle bitches were inseminated on the day of sonographically verified ovulation with pooled semen of two beagle dogs containing one billion progressively motile spermatozoa. Ovariohysterectomy was performed two days later (group 1, n = 6 and four days later (group 2, n = 7. The oviduct and uterine horn of one side were flushed separately and the flushing’s were checked for the presence of gametes. The oviducts including the utero-tubal junction and the uterine horns, both the flushed and unflushed, were histologically examined for sperm distribution. Results The total number of spermatozoa recovered by flushing was low and evaluation of viability was limited. Prophase-I oocytes were collected from oviduct flushing in group 1, whereas unfertilized metaphase-II oocytes were detected in group 2. From day 2 to day 4 after ovulation a significant decrease in the percentage of glands containing sperm (P Conclusions Oocyte maturation to metaphase-II stage is accompanied by a continuous sperm detachment and elimination in the uterine horns. Entrance of spermatozoa into the caudal oviduct seems to be steadily controlled by the utero-tubal junction thus

  20. Genital tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, and reproductive health issues among Lima-based clandestine female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  1. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Perla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%. Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%, but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%. In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR=0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96. Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.. Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57% and induced abortion was common (68%. High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  2. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  3. Clinico-morphological features of the female genital tract: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Nikogosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review are provided data of the world literature on clinical and morphological features of neuroendocrine tumors of the female sexual sphere. Questions of pathogenesis and stages of development of new growths in embryogenesis considered. Historical references are given. Besides, in article questions of diagnostics and treatment of these tumors are taken up.

  4. High level of soluble HLA-G in the female genital tract of Beninese commercial sex workers is associated with HIV-1 infection.

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    Valérie Thibodeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs, as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009 and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006. The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008, and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002 were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038. When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02 and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Lactobacillus crispatus dominant vaginal microbiome is associated with inhibitory activity of female genital tract secretions against Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny P Ghartey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Female genital tract secretions inhibit E. coli ex vivo and the activity may prevent colonization and provide a biomarker of a healthy microbiome. We hypothesized that high E. coli inhibitory activity would be associated with a Lactobacillus crispatus and/or jensenii dominant microbiome and differ from that of women with low inhibitory activity. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swab cell pellets from 20 samples previously obtained in a cross-sectional study of near-term pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women were selected based on having high (>90% inhibition or low (<20% inhibition anti-E. coli activity. The V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Filtered culture supernatants from Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also assayed for E. coli inhibitory activity. RESULTS: Sixteen samples (10 with high and 6 with low activity yielded evaluable microbiome data. There was no difference in the predominant microbiome species in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women (n = 8 each. However, there were significant differences between women with high compared to low E. coli inhibitory activity. High activity was associated with a predominance of L. crispatus (p<0.007 and culture supernatants from L. crispatus exhibited greater E. coli inhibitory activity compared to supernatants obtained from L. iners or G. vaginalis. Notably, the E. coli inhibitory activity varied among different strains of L. crispatus. CONCLUSION: Microbiome communities with abundant L. crispatus likely contribute to the E. coli inhibitory activity of vaginal secretions and efforts to promote this environment may prevent E. coli colonization and related sequelae including preterm birth.

  6. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    -glucosidase activity that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (P<0.001. These studies present compelling evidence that the vaginal ecosystem responds to the presence of different vaginal microorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract.

  7. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  8. Local synthesis of IgG antibodies to HIV within the female and male genital tracts during asymptomatic and pre-AIDS stages of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélec, L; Tévi-Bénissan, C; Lu, X S; Prazuck, T; Pillot, J

    1995-06-01

    Paired sera and cervicovaginal secretions or seminal fluids, obtained from HIV-1-infected, clinically asymptomatic women (n = 41) and men (n = 12), were investigated in order to test the hypothesis of a local synthesis of IgG to HIV in the female and male reproductive tracts. Anti-gp41 + p24 IgG was evaluated by an IgG immunocapture assay, and anti-gp160 IgG by an indirect ELISA. Estimation of anti-HIV IgG-specific activities was carried out after ponderal determination of total IgG and evaluation of anti-HIV IgG activity. IgG to gp41 + p24, as well as IgG to gp160, were specifically detected in all sera, cervicovaginal secretions, and seminal fluid samples from all tested HIV-1-infected subjects. The mean specific activities of IgG to gp41 + p24 in cervicovaginal secretions and in seminal fluids were about 33-fold (in women) and 16-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera; similarly, the mean specific activities of IgG to gp160 in genital secretions were about 17-fold (in women) and 10-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera. IgGs to HIV are constantly detected in genital secretions from HIV-1-infected subjects, and appear to be largely synthesized in situ within the genital tract of both genders.

  9. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with the use of injectable hormonal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-08-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing the risk of STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive growth factors and hematopoietic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV-negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; Nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and the chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared with those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was broadly associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that the effects of injectable HCs were similar in STI-positive and STI-negative participants.

  10. OBSTETRICAL MORBIDITIES IN GENITAL TRACT INFECTION S

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    Sapna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION- Sub clinical ascending infections through the lower female genital tract are predominant worldwide. Important morbidit ies related to poor perinatal outcome both for the mother and for the fetus and new born compr ise preterm birth, prelabor rupture of membranes, post partum sepsis and maternal anaemia. In the fetus, sepsis and intrauterine growth retardation are suspected to be the consequences of ascending maternal infection. Both the direct effect of the infection and the maternal immune r esponse contribute to these eventualities. This study was done to identify antenatal women with va rious genital infections and to know the outcome of pregnancy in presence of these infection s. OBJECTIVES- Diagnosis treatment and preventive measures in genital infections in Antena tal period to improve the pregnancy out come . MATERIAL AND METHODS- One thousand women were studied for lower genital tract infection by ELISA KITS for chlamydia trachomatis, hanging dr op preparation of vaginal discharge for trichomoniasis and mycelia of candida albicans can be seen by wet mount of vaginal dischage in 10% KOH. Gardnerella vaginal infection was diagnose d by Amsel's criteria . RESULT- out of thousand women 53% were positive for single or mult iple infections (gp-1, 47% women had no infection (gp-11 . Labour outcome was studied in 4 15 antenatal women of gp -1 &395 antenatal women of gp -11 . In gp-1 51.80% had no effect ,7.7 1% had abortions and 40.48% had pre term labour and/or PROM .Which was significantly higher than in non infected group . IN INFECTED GROUP- 41.92% neonates had no effect others had some effec t in terms of LBW, birth asphyxia, neonatal death & IUD. Which was significantly highe r than in non infected group. P=0.00 CONCLUSION- The study showed significantly higher incidence of obstetrical morbidities in women with lower genital tract infection,since geni tal infections are the root cause of these obstetrical

  11. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  12. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  13. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  14. Genital sores - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  16. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  17. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Changes in reproductive tract histomorphology, and estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression throughout the breeding cycle were evaluated in free-ranging stranded female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. During a large portion of the cycle, ovaries contained both a corpora lutea (CL) and follicles in varying stages of development. In the periods of pupping and estrus during June and July, and in the spring morphologic features of the endometrium suggested estrogen influence. There were areas of squamous differentiation in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the cervix and vagina in some animals during estrus and in the spring. Estrogen receptor immunohistochemical scores were highest during pupping and estrus and in the spring and lowest during embryonic diapause. Cyclic changes in uterine PR expression throughout the cycle were minimal. Both ERalpha and PR were expressed in epithelial and stromal cells throughout the cervix and vagina, however, receptor expression was typically higher in the stroma. Stromal cell hormone receptors may play an important role in epithelial responses to circulating sex hormones. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of California sea lion reproduction and establish baseline information on reproductive tract hormone receptors that will aid in determining the factors involved in urogenital cancer development in sea lions.

  18. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  19. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  20. Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K Kyongo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. METHODS: Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17 expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10 CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity

  1. Diminished CD103 (αEβ7) Expression on Resident T Cells from the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, David C.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Saag, Michael S.; Richter, Holly E.; Mestecky, Jiri; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). Methods Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L−CCR7−CD103+CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. Results We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women. The expression of the mucosal retention receptor, CD103, from HIV-positive women was reduced compared to healthy women and was lowest in women with CD4 counts < 500 cells/mm3. Furthermore, CD103 expression on mucosa-derived CD8+ T cells correlated with antigen-specific IFN-γ production by mucosal CD4+ T cells and was inversely correlated with T-bet from CD8+CD103+ mucosa-derived T cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CD4+ T cells, known to be impaired during HIV-1 infection and necessary for the expression of CD103 in murine models, may play a role in the expression of CD103 on resident T cells from the human FGT. PMID:28164171

  2. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma in the Female Genital Tract:A Report of Six Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jusheng An; Lingying Wu; Bin Li; Haizhen Lu; Ning Li; Shaokang Ma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical characteristics,pathologic diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of amelanotic melanoma in the female genital tract (AMFGT).METHODS The medical records of 6 patients with AMFGT between 1991 and 2006 in our hospital were reviewed.RESULTS Of these cases,4 were preliminarily misdiagnosed as chorioepithelioma,sarcoma,adenocarcinoma or lymphoma.Two patients were determined to have AMFGT preoperatively after positive immunohistochemical staining for both S-100 protein and HMB-45.Specimens removed from all 6 cases were tested for immunohistochemical staining,as well as H & E histochemical stains.S-100 and vimentin were both positive in all patients,and HMB-45 was positive in 3 out of 5 patients.Four patients recurred (at 6,6,12 and 19 months) after primary treatments.Three patients died (at 13,18 and 19 months) after the initial diagnosis.CONCLUSION Because of an absence of pigmentation AMFGT is extremely difficult to diagnose.Combined immunohistochemical staining,such as the S-100 protein,HMB-45 and vimentin etc,is important in the evaluation of AMFGT.Correct diagnosis plays a crucial role in the treatment of this disease.

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  5. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  6. Hematopoietic tumors of the female genital system: imaging features with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Usama; Menias, Christine O; Shaaban, Akram; Bhosale, Priya R; Youssef, Ayda; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-08-01

    Various hematopoietic neoplasms can involve the female genital system. The most common hematological malignancy that involves the female genital system is lymphoma and secondary involvement is more common than primary genital lymphoma. Rarely, leukemic infiltration and extramedullary plasmacytomas of the female genital tract may also occur. Being infrequent, these lesions are commonly misdiagnosed radiologically. Therefore, understanding these malignancies of the female genital system and recognizing their imaging features are of utmost clinical importance. Although definitive diagnosis can be made only by histological analysis, imaging of these tumors plays an important role in detecting lesion extensions, guiding biopsies, staging disease, planning therapy, and detecting recurrence.

  7. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  8. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  9. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  10. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Role of imaging to identify and evaluate the uncommon variation in development of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Taglieri, Amedeo; Gisone, Vito; Coco, Irene; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a spectrum of Müllerian duct anomalies characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, in young women presenting otherwise with normal endocrine status. The ovaries and fallopian tubes are present. It is one of the most common causes of primary amenorrhea and affects at least 1 out of 4500 women. Its penetrance varies, as does the involvement of other organ systems and itcan be isolated (type I) or associated with other malformations (type II). The MRKH syndrome usually remains undetected until the patient presents with primary amenorrhea despite normal development of secondary sexual characteristics, so imaging evaluation can demonstrate in one setting, non invasively, the anomalies in development of genital tract. We report a case of MRKH syndrome in a 16-year-old woman who presented with primary amenorrhea, stressing the role and benefit of imaging in the differential diagnosis.

  11. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  12. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    2000-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s. Succ

  13. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Islam. 137. 24.2. Traditionalist. 0. 0. Total. 565. 100. Ethnicity. Hausa. 23. 4.1. Ibo ... Evidence of FGM ... among adult females followed by South-East zone.

  14. Various hysterosalpingography findings of female genital tuberculosis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG. Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis

  15. Transplantation of female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Díaz-García, César

    2011-04-01

    Transplantation of gynecological organs is a medical field where considerable advancements have been made in research during the last 25 years and with some procedures already introduced as clinical treatments. These types of transplantations aim at curing permanent infertility. Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models with proof of concept concerning surgery, control of rejection and fertility. There has already been one human transplantation attempt, which, however, was unsuccessful. Based on the progress in this area, we predict that the first successful uterus transplantation attempt will come within 2-3 years. Orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation has overcome the status of an experimental procedure since more than 20 pregnancies have been reported. Its main field of application is fertility preservation in oncologic patients undergoing high gonadotoxic risk therapies. The role of heterotopic ovarian cortex transplantation still remains at the research level, although co-transplantation with an orthotopic cortex might facilitate a more accurate endocrine environment. The major drawback of ovarian cortex transplantation remains the long ischemic interval between re-implantation and the establishment of neovascularization. Whole ovary cryopreservation followed by transplantation through vascular anastomosis may emerge as an important procedure in this field, because the warm ischemic time would be reduced from several days to less than 1 h, which will most likely improve follicle survival. In summary, transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures.

  16. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2010-12-01

    The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

  17. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  18. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  19. Female Genital Mutilation - the Importance of Recognition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, AC

    2010-01-01

    Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...

  20. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  1. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  2. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  3. Fatores de risco para recidiva após tratamento de lesões provocadas pelo HPV no trato genital feminino Risk factors for relapse of HPV-induced lesions of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Ricardo Cosiski Marana

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliação de fatores de risco [grau da lesão e associação com o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida tipo 1 (HIV-1 e gestação] para recidiva após tratamento de lesões provocadas pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV no trato genital feminino. Material e métodos: foram avaliadas 70 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico, colposcópico e citológico de infecção pelo HPV. O seguimento clínico foi de no mínimo 6 meses após o tratamento inicial, possibilitando avaliar os resultados terapêuticos. Neste grupo, 26 pacientes eram grávidas, sendo 12 com sorologia positiva para o HIV-1. As 44 pacientes restantes encontravam-se fora do período gravídico-puerperal, sendo que destas, 14 eram contaminadas pelo HIV-1. Segundo os critérios citológicos as lesões de colo foram classificadas em alterações associadas ao HPV ou neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC graus I (lesões de baixo grau ou NIC II/III (lesões de alto grau. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância para pPurpose: evaluation of the risk factors [lesion grade, seropositivity for type 1 acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and association with pregnancy ] for relapse of human papillomavirus (HPV induced lesions of the female genital tract. Patients and Methods: seventy patients with a clinical, colposcopic and cytologic diagnosis of HPV infection were studied. Clinical follow-up lasted at least 6 months after the initial treatment, thus permitting the evaluation of the therapeutic results. Twenty-seven of these patients were pregnant and 12 were seropositive for HIV-1. The remaining 44 patients were not in the pregnancy-puerperium cycle and 14 of them were HIV-1 positive. According to cytologic criteria, the cervical lesions were classified as changes associated with HPV or grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I (low grade lesions or CIN II/III (high grade lesions. Data were analyzed statistically by

  4. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  5. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

  6. Blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in the genital tract and blood of HIV-exposed, seronegative female sex workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Chege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells producing the cytokine IL17 (Th17 cells, may represent a highly susceptible target for HIV infection after sexual exposure. Therefore, we characterized the cellular pro-inflammatory and IL17/IL22 cytokine immune milieu in the genital mucosa and blood of HESN female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blinded lab personnel characterized basal and mitogen-induced gene and cytokine immune responses in the cervix and blood of HESN FSWs (n = 116 and non-FSW controls (n = 17 using qPCR and ELISA. IL17 and IL22 production was significantly reduced in both the cervix and blood of HESNs, both in resting cells and after mitogen stimulation. In addition, HESN participants demonstrated blunted production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and β-chemokines. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HIV exposure without infection was associated with blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory responses, both systemically and at the site of mucosal HIV exposure. It will be important for further studies to examine the causal nature of the association and to define the cell subsets responsible for these differences.

  7. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Reig Alcaraz, María; Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz,María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation. Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors th...

  8. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented.

  9. A randomized trial to assess anti-HIV activity in female genital tract secretions and soluble mucosal immunity following application of 1% tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. METHODS: 30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood. RESULTS: A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001 and fit a sigmoid E(max pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and

  10. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  11. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and other preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides in the female and male genital tract: localization, biosynthesis, and functional and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    1995-01-01

    in the control of erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been suggested as a causative factor in some diseases of the genital organs (e.g., it may play a pathophysiologic role in male impotence and the peptide is currently used in the treatment of this condition). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide may...

  13. Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

  14. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

  15. Actinomyces israelii in the genital tract of women with and without intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, E; Holmberg, K; Dahlgren, S; Nilsson, L

    1983-01-01

    Actinomycosis involving the female genital tract is more common among IUD users than others. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. It has been suggested that the finding of Actinomyces-like organisms or A. israelii in cervical smears indicates a risk of developing actinomycosis. A. israelii has not been regarded as a part of the indigenous genital flora. A group of IUD users without symptoms of genital tract infections were compared with a control group without IUDs. No Actinomyces-like organisms were found on cytological examination of cervical smears. Immunofluorescent staining and cultures identified A. israelii in 4% of the IUD users and in 3% of the non-users. Serologic precipitin tests for actinomycosis were negative in all women. None developed actinomycosis on follow-up of positive cases. The study indicates that A. israelii is a commensal of the female genital tract. The identification of A. israelii alone does not indicate that the patient risks developing actinomycosis. Other methods such as a serology test should be useful in defining the clinical significance of the findings.

  16. Comparison on Different Test Methods Applied in Female Genital Tract Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection%不同检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quantitative analysis of fluorescent PCR assay and colloidal gold in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis value in the diagnosis of infection.Methods:Gynecological hospital in July 2012 to June 2013 were treated 350 suspected female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a clinical observation of the object,respecti vely,using fluorescence quantitative PCR assay and colloidal gold pathogens in these patients detection sensitivity of comparing two test methods in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection,specificity,false-positive rate,false negative rate,the degree of diagnostic and You den index.Results:The sensitivity and colloidal gold fluorescence quantitative PCR assays were 90.91% and 52.41% (P0.05);false positive rate of 9.09% and were 1.84%(P0.05);diagnosis degree were 94.29% and 73.43% (P<0.01);Yourdon index were 0.89 and 0.50.Conclusion:The two methods have advantages and disadvantages;PCR detection method is applicable to large hospitals,colloidal gold method applied to the primary hospital.%目的:比较分析荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取我院妇科2012年7月~2013年6月收治的350名疑为女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染患者作为临床观察对象,分别采用荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法对这些患者进行病原体检测,比较两种检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的灵敏度,特异性,假阳性率,假阴性率,诊断符合度与Youden指数。结果:荧光PCR定量检测法的与胶体金法的灵敏度分别为90.91%与52.41%(P<0.01);特异性分别为98.16%与97.55%(P>0.05);假阳性率分别为9.09%与1.84%(P<0.01);假阴性率分别为1.84%与2.45%(P>0.05);诊断符合度分别为94.29%与73.43%(P<0.01);Youden指数分别为0.89与0.50。结论:两种检测方法各有利弊,荧光PCR检测方法

  17. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  18. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  19. Cancer of the genital tract among the Ibo women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megafu, U

    1979-11-01

    An analysis of female genital tract cancer among the Ibos of Nigeria has proven to be preponderantly cervical cancer. It is therefore obvious that the practice of ritual circumcision among the Ibo men does not protect the women from cervical cancer. The most important etiological factors contributing to cervical cancer among the Ibo women are early marriage, early age of coitus, and grand multiparity. Corpus cancer is relatively rare among the Ibo women.

  20. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract.

  1. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility . The continued increase in incidence rates of genital chlamydial infection over...bacterial numbers from vaginal swab material to assess the kinetics of infection. Given the differences in tissue anatomy, hormonal regulation, and immune...provide in-depth insight into the kinetics of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection in defined regions of the murine female reproductive tract. vi

  2. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  3. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

  4. Correction of Free Radical Lipid Oxidation in Internal Female Genital Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Belyaevsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper descries a specific view on the mechanism responsible for development of the resistance of an inflammatory process in the female genital tract to drugs and on the role of a free radical process activation factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Emphasis is laid on the importance of measures to diminish cell membrane permeability, by correcting their structural and functional states with antioxidants. Key words: inflammatory processes in the female genital organs, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative defense, cell membrane structural and functional state.

  5. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  6. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  7. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  9. 1530例女性生殖道支原体感染及药敏试验分析%The analysis on female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug sensitivity test in 1 530 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the positive rate of female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility to assist clinical rational drug use.Methods Mycoplasma culture and drug susceptibility test were performed in 1 530 female outpatients in Women's and Children's Center Hospital of Chengdu City from Nov 2013 to Oct 2014.All cases were divided into different groups on the basis of clinical information, positive rate of mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility for each group were analyzed.Results In 1 530 cases of female genital tract secretions sample test, mycoplasma infection were positive in 650 cases ( 42.5%) .Sensitive rates of mycoplasma to tetracycline, doxycycline, josamycin, mincycline and clarithromycin were high ( all above 98 %), followed by rom erythromycin (84.6 %), while ofloxacin (19.2 %), azithromycin (18.8 %), sparfloxacin (11.5 %), levofloxacin (4.31 %) were with high drug resistance rate of mycoplasma.In different groups of genital tract secretions samples, the positive rates of mycoplasma detection and the drug resistance rates had statistically differences ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Overall positive rate of the mycoplasma infection is high in gynecologic patients, and the positive rate and drug resistance rate differ between groups.For women of childbearing age who have no obvious self-conscious symptoms, mycoplasma screening can be more scientific, more timely to guide the clinical treatment and prenatal care which promotes eugenics.%目的:探讨女性生殖道支原体感染检测的阳性率和药敏情况,以辅助临床合理用药。方法对2013年11月至2014年10月成都市妇女儿童中心医院门诊就诊的1530例女性生殖道分泌物进行支原体培养及体外药敏试验。依据临床信息,将其进行分组,对各组支原体检测阳性率和药敏试验结果进行分析。结果1530例女性生殖道分泌物标本的检测结果中,支原体检测结果阳性650例(42.5

  10. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

  11. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulhakim Ali Al eryani

    2015-01-02

    Jan 2, 2015 ... Of a total 151 women who had tubal factor infertility, 61 cases were investigated ... Introduction. Female genital tuberculosis (GTB) is a common health ... had normal hormonal profile, and normal male parameters assessed by ...

  12. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S A

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

  13. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  14. Actinomycosis of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, C W; Harbert, G M; Thornton, W N

    1976-09-01

    Four cases of actinomycosis involving the uterus and adnexal structures are reported. In 2 cases the infection was transmitted from a ruptured appendix. Ascending actinomycosis involving the endometrium and resulting in adnexal abscesses was associated with the use of an IUD in 2 patients. This infection should be suspected in any patient who develops a pelvic abscess with an IUD in place. Culture and histologic examination of tissue removed with the IUD may be a means of early diagnosis. The nature of these infections became apparent only after serious complications developed. Each patient required several surgical procedures. The diagnosis remained unsuspected until repeated laboratory examinations detected the fungus. The difficulty encountered identifying Actinomyces israeli indicates the infection is often undetected. Gallium scans were helpful in localizing occult abscesses in 2 patients.

  15. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  16. Proteomic profiling of epididymis and vas deferens: identification of proteins regulated during rat genital tract development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Umar (Arzu); M.P. Ooms (Marja); T.M. Luider (Theo); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpididymis and vas deferens form part of the male internal genital tract and are dependent on androgens for their growth and development. To better understand the molecular action of androgens during male genital tract development, protein expression profiles were gener

  17. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  18. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  19. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

  20. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  1. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    2000-09-16

    Concern about upper-genital-tract infection related to intrauterine devices (IUDs) limits their wider use. In this systematic review I summarise the evidence concerning IUD-associated infection and infertility. Choice of an inappropriate comparison group, overdiagnosis of salpingitis in IUD users, and inability to control for the confounding effects of sexual behaviour have exaggerated the apparent risk. Women with symptomless gonorrhoea or chlamydial infection having an IUD inserted have a higher risk of salpingitis than do uninfected women having an IUD inserted; however, the risk appears similar to that of infected women not having an IUD inserted. A cohort study of HIV-positive women using a copper IUD suggests that there is no significant increase in the risk of complications or viral shedding. Similarly, fair evidence indicates no important effect of IUD use on tubal infertility. Contemporary IUDs rival tubal sterilisation in efficacy and are much safer than previously thought.

  2. 治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床研究%Clinical analysis on treatment of ureaplasma urealyticum infection in female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜仁托娅

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection. METHODS:50 patients with ureaplasma urealyticum infection admitted to our hospital from May 201 1 to May 2013 were divided into two groups randomly,the test group and the control group (25 cases in each group).The control group received treatment of Azithromycin,Azithromycin tablet administered (0.25 mg/piece),twice a day for three weeks.We give the test group anti-bacterial gel in the treatment of vaginal along with Azithromycin tablets therapy (the same usage and dosage as the control group). Patients cleaned the vulva before bedtime,and then one pushed vagina antibacterial gel into the vagina,once a day for three weeks.Improvement and adverse reactions of the clinical symp-toms of the situation between the two groups were compared.RE-SULTS:The total effective rate of 25 patients in the control group was 68.0%;The total effective rate of 25 patients in the test group was 92.0%,and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).CONCLUSION:Clinical effects of Azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection are better than the treatment of Azithromycin solely,and the adverse reactions are equal to treatment of Azithromycin solely.Therefore,we recom-mend the clinical use of Azithromycin combined with vaginal anti-bacteria gel.%目的:探讨阿奇霉素联合阴道抑菌凝胶治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床疗效及不良反应.方法:选取我院于2011-05/2013-05收治的生殖道解脲支原体感染女性患者共50例,将其随机分为两组,分别为试验组和对照组,每组25例,其中对照组给予阿奇霉素治疗,每天给予阿奇霉素片剂(0.25 mg/片),每次1片,2次/d,连服3周.试验组在给予阿奇霉素片剂治疗的基础上(

  3. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  4. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  5. Female genital mutilation in the world today: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosken, F P

    1981-01-01

    Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.

  6. Health Care Personnel challenges encountering patients with Female Genital Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Raili

    2015-01-01

    Background: People are moving more and it demands more of health care in the countries receiving people from cultures and countries different from their own. I wanted to write this essay to try to answer what are the challenges for healthcare staff, and how to solve those problems when it comes to female genital-mutilation which is a widespread practice in Africa and in Islam. Aim: Female genital mutilation is an important issue because it affects a woman's life, both mentally and physical...

  7. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases

  8. The prevalence and practice of female genital mutilation in Nnewi, Nigeria: the impact of female education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwegbe, A O; Egbuonu, I

    2000-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-five consecutive live female deliveries at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were followed up for 9 months for evidence of any genital mutilation. Their mothers were examined for genital mutilation and a questionnaire based on face-to-face interview of the mothers was also administered. There was no genital mutilation observed among the 200 female babies whose mothers completed the 9 months follow up, The prevalence of genital mutilation among the mothers was 48%. The prevalence of female genital mutilation among the mothers increased with age. The circumcision index C.I. was zero and 3.0 at 16-20 years and 31-35 years age groups, respectively. Also the prevalence decreased with increasing level of education. The circumcision index was 1.0 for mothers at primary level education and least 0.33 at tertiary level of education. There was no relationship with parity. None of the mothers was willing to allow genital mutilation to be performed on her baby but 36% applied local treatment to the clitoris especially powder (28%). Dystocia was the commonest complication in the mothers and the knowledge about female genital mutilation was acquired informally from fellow women. Female education is paramount in the campaign and advocacy against female genital mutilation.

  9. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  10. INFANT-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (IFGM) IN CITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLESSING

    Key words: female genital mutilation, child rights, health, postpartum birthing rituals, girl- ... countries like Canada, France Australia, United States, Sweden, Norway, .... and it also makes the girl to become too crazy about sex. ... “Many people continue the practice of FGM because, it is part of ..... similar/same as the foreskin.

  11. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  12. FEMALE_GENITAL. NEW.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection and injury to adjacent organs. Long term damage ... the practice of infant circumcision is highly prevalent among the ... proportion of the females were older than 60 years (12.4% .... if the head touches the clitoris during delivery . Every.

  13. Female genital mutilation - postcircumcision vulval complications in Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, A O; Fakokunde, F A; Odukogbe, A A; Fawole, A O

    1999-11-01

    Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice that can adversely affect the health of women. Vulval complications of female circumcision in 39 patients managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria over a period of 10 years were reviewed. The complications were: labial adhesions of varying degrees (51.3%) and clitoral retention cysts (48.7%). However, both types of complications occurred concurrently in two (5.1%) patients. All patients were treated surgically with good outcome. The only immediate complication of treatment was secondary haemorrhage in one patient with clitoral cyst. Regrettably, one patient with labial adhesion required a repeat surgical procedure 2 months later. The histological examination of all the retention cysts revealed epidermal inclusion cysts. Emphasising the reproductive health implications of female genital mutilation may prove an effective strategy towards eradication of the practice.

  14. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  16. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice.

  17. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Serour

    2013-09-01

    In some Muslim countries where FGM/C is prevalent it is often wrongly quoted that the basis for performing FGM/C is religious instruction. FGM/C has no religious basis what so ever and has been condemned by Al-Azhar based on several verses in the Holy Quraan that relates explicitly or implicitly to female circumcision. The use of the gender term “Sunna circumcision” is nothing but a form of deceit used to misguide people and give the impression that this act is one of the Islamic practices. As for the traditions attributed to Prophet Mohamed (PBUH, scholars of the past and present have agreed that none of these traditions are authentic and therefore should not be attributed to the Prophet (PBUH.

  18. Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1997-12-01

    This is a study of 189 women attending a family planning clinic in rural South Africa to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized genital tract infections. Genital samples were taken from these women to diagnose infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV, and to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. Among the 189 women, 41 (22%) reported having had an STD treated in the preceding 12 months. By direct questioning, 74 women stated the following symptoms: genital itch -- 38 (20%); vaginal discharge -- 56 (30%); dysuria -- 33 (18%); dyspareunia -- 22 (12%); and genital ulcers -- 4 (2%). 45 (24%) women had more than one symptom. 119 (63%) women had at least one genital infection, and 49 (26%) had multiple infections. Most of the infections were asymptomatic; while those that were symptomatic, were unrecognized or not reported. Results showed a high prevalence of genital tract infection among the participating women, with most of their infections remaining asymptomatic or unrecognized. Thus, strategies to detect and treat genital tract infections in rural South Africa need to be developed.

  19. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  20. Localized neurofibromatosis of the female genital system: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laencina, Ana M; Martínez Díaz, Francisco; Izquierdo Sanjuanes, Blanca; Vicente Sánchez, Elena M; Fernandez Salmerón, Rosario; Meseguer Peña, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis within the female genital tract is uncommon. The vulva is the most frequent genital location, but it has rarely been reported in the context of the vagina, uterine cervix or ovaries. In spite of its rarity, neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis. In this paper we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with pelvic pain and a uterine mass who underwent a hysterectomy after having been diagnosed with an 11-cm neurofibroma occupying the myometrium of the entire uterine corpus. There were no neurofibromas in the endometrium, serosa, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The patient had an unknown von Recklinghausen's disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. What nurses need to know about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Comfort; Olufade, Olamide; Redman-Pinard, Patrice

    Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision (FGM/C) is a deep-rooted practice in some countries that needs to be addressed if the health needs of women and girls are to be met. FGM/C has no medical or health benefits. This article will discuss the different types of FGM/C, the law and legal implications and urological complications. Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C.

  2. Raltegravir concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women treated with a raltegravir-containing regimen (DIVA 01 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Cyril; Peytavin, Gilles; Tubiana, Roland; Soulié, Cathia; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Heard, Isabelle; Bissuel, François; Ichou, Houria; Ferreira, Claudia; Katlama, Christine; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    We studied the penetration of raltegravir and HIV shedding in the genital tract among 14 HIV-1-infected women receiving a raltegravir-containing regimen who had <40 copies/ml blood plasma (BP) HIV RNA. None of the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples showed detectable HIV RNA. Median raltegravir concentrations were 235 ng/ml in BP and 93 ng/ml in CVF, with a CVF/BP ratio of approximately 2.3. This good penetration of raltegravir may contribute to the control of viral replication in the female genital tract.

  3. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy.

  4. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  5. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan McClure

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM. A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of

  6. The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mladonova, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  8. Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2016-10-10

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were "female genital mutilation", "female genital circumcision", "female genital cutting" and "female circumcision". Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal's impact factor. One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 - 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on

  9. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  10. An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Bio...

  11. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  12. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.

  13. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction......, but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic...... and psychological disorders are highlighted, and different somatic and psychological assessment and treatment modalities are discussed. Methods.  The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) committee was composed of a chair and five additional experts. No corporate funding or remuneration was received. The authors...

  14. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. ... usually performed at home without anesthesia.5 It has four .... sexual function than control in all aspects namely sexual desire ...

  15. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  16. Detoxified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin and induction of toxin specific antibodies in the genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Annika; Fernandez-Rodrigues, Julia; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2010-08-16

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes genital ulceration (chancroid), a sexually transmitted infection and still an important factor which contributes to the spread of HIV in developing countries. The bacterium produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis of human cells and contributes to the aggravation of ulcers. The aim of the study was to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies in the genital tract of mice. Repeated subcutaneous (sc) immunisations with 5-10microg active HdCDT induced low levels of serum anti-HdCDT IgG without neutralizing capacity. High levels of specific IgG1 antibodies in serum and genital tract were generated after sc immunisations with 10microg formaldehyde detoxified HdCDT toxoid alone and the addition of aluminium salts or RIBI (based on the lipid A moiety) as adjuvant further increased the level of serum antibodies. A high correlation was found between elevated levels of anti-HdCDT IgG in sera, the level of neutralizing activity and the antibody level in genital tract (r=0.8). Thus, induction of high antibody levels specific to HdCDT in the genital tissue can be achieved by parenteral immunisation with the toxoid. The HdCDT toxoid can be considered as a candidate component in vaccine against chancroid.

  17. Female genital mutilation : a hidden epidemic (statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Neubauer, David

    2014-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one

  18. Long term health consequences of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises various procedures which remove or damage the external female genital organs for no medical reason. FGM has no health benefits and is recognised to cause severe short and long term damage to both physical and psychological health. Although FGM is primarily performed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, migration of FGM practising communities means that the health complications of FGM will have a global impact. It is important that health professionals world wide are aware of the damage FGM causes to long term health. In some cases it may be possible to offer interventions that will alleviate or improve symptoms. However whilst there is some high quality research on FGM and pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the effects on gynaecological, psychological and sexual function. Research is hampered by the problems of data collection on such a sensitive topic as well as the practical difficulties of analysis of studies based mainly on retrospect recall. Well planned hospital based studies of the impact of FGM on physical and psychological health are urgently need but are currently absent from the medical literature. Such studies could generate robust evidence to allow clinicians to benchmark clinical effectiveness and high quality medical care for survivors of FGM.

  19. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a worldwide human rights and health issue. Contrary to the belief that it is a practice carried out by Muslims only, it is also practiced by Christians and a minority group of Ethiopian Jews. However, FGM is neither mentioned in the Torah, nor in the Gospels, and – like in Islam – bodily mutilation is condemned by both religions. In fact, FGM is a mix of mainly cultural and social factors which may put tremendous pressure on the members of the society in question.

  20. Estimating the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Lisboa, M

    2016-10-01

    Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. Prevalence estimation. Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged policies for protection of females who have undergone or are at risk of undergoing FGM/C. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the male genital tract. Report of eleven cases and a review of Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cases of involvement of the genital tract in paracoccidioidomycosis were collected in a retrospective study of the clinical records of 683 patients seen in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. These cases are herein summarily reported. Eighteen similar cases were gathered in review of the Brazilian literature. Obtained data are discussed.

  3. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L R Brennan

    Full Text Available Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5->40 cm and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i dead end sacs, and (ii clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.

  4. Female genital mutilation and the unborn female child in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlola, I O; Orji, E O; Owolabi, A T

    2003-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, despite efforts to abolish it, is still widely practised in Nigeria. The risk of female genital mutilation to a female child in southwest Nigeria was investigated by interviewing 430 consecutive pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between July 2001 to October 2001. The results show that 60% of the pregnant women studied had a type of genital mutilation. The decision to mutilate a female child is taken before she is born. Seventy-four (17.2%) of the women and 146 (34%) of their husbands would circumcise their female child. The decision to circumcise a female child is made between the husband and wife but the final decision comes mainly from the husband. Because the majority of the women (58.4%) were yet to decide whether or not to circumcise their female children, they could sway the decision either way before the husband makes up his mind. Therefore, every effort should be taken to involve men in the struggle to eradicate this unwholesome practice.

  5. The evolution of a female genital trait widely distributed in the Lepidoptera: comparative evidence for an effect of sexual coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sánchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry, presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually

  6. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Female genital mutilation: what every paediatrician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Sarah M; Hodes, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost always performed on children and consequently paediatricians should have a central role in the detection and prevention of FGM. FGM has no health benefits and can cause lifelong damage to physical and psychological health. Extensive migration of FGM practising communities means that FGM is now a global problem. Paediatricians worldwide need to be familiar with the identification and classification of FGM and its impact upon health as well as current trends in practice. However information about FGM is hampered by the secrecy surrounding the procedure and a lack of rigorous evidence based research. This review summarises what is currently known about the health aspects of FGM and how paediatricians should manage children with FGM in their clinical practice.

  8. Female genital mutilation: what do we know so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddig, Israa

    2016-09-08

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM. Sociocultural barriers make research and data-collection difficult in a cohort of women who prefer not to discuss or disclose such intimate issues. New guidelines on the management of health consequences in FGM have been published, but evidence is of poor quality.

  9. Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Nwakeze, Ngozi; Kandala, Shadrack Ngianga I I

    2009-11-01

    The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother's decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.

  10. Management of female uro-genital fistulas: Framing certain guidelines

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    Singh R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was carried out to discuss the pathogenesis and management protocol of seven different varieties of female uro-genital fistulas (FUGFs. Patients and Methods: During 2000-2007, total of 15 FUGFs were operated, which belonged to seven different varieties requiring different routes and surgical procedures for their repair. Different fistulas with different pathophysiological factors required specific examinations and investigations preoperatively. Results: The results of the repaired FUGFs, following the general surgical principles, were acceptable with formation of only one residual fistula. Conclusions: Successful correction of FUGFs is a surgical challenge. Detailed history, through examination and planning, atraumatic tissue handling, routine use of the interposition or onlay reinforcement flaps and vigilant postoperative care were found the key factors in successful outcome of the repaired fistulas.

  11. Egyptian Activism against Female Genital Cutting as Catachrestic Claiming

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    An Van Raemdonck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions of the politics of location in knowledge and norm production within the context of Egyptian feminist activism for abandoning female genital cutting practices. It seeks to determine underlying schemes of international campaigning discourse and analyzes how these predicate and complicate Egyptian postcolonial activism. It draws on a broad literature study in addition to fieldwork in Cairo consisting of in-depth interviews with activists and policy makers. My focus is on the national Task Force against FGM from 1994 until 1999 and its subsequent cooptation by the National Council of Childhood and Motherhood. I argue through the concept of catachresis that location matters in setting the terms of anti-FGC discourse and its relation to religion.

  12. [Melatonin effects on the female genital system: a brief review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganhin, Carla C; Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida Ferraz; Hatty, Juliana Halley; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; Oliveira-Júnior, Itamar Souza de; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Simões, Ricardo S; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares-Jr, José Maria

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle. It is an antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the jet-lag stage, in several physiological reactions and in control of the biologic rhythm. Human melatonin has an important influence on the female genital system. In fact, melatonin may influence production and action of steroids, modifying cellular signalization on the target tissue. There are many evidences that the melatonin therapy may be interfering with neoplasia development, mainly of the estrogen-dependent tumor. This paper aims to analyze the actions of melatonin on the neuroendocrine, immunological and cardiovascular systems, as well as on the reproductive function.

  13. Female genital mutilation: A tragedy for women's reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rushwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girls and women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences, both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the past few decades. Medicalisation of the practice has added to its propagation, and this is not valid from ethical and professional standpoints. Further efforts need to be exerted to eliminate the practice and alleviate the sufferings that millions of girls and women worldwide are unnecessarily subjected to. This article reviews the problem and discusses the consequences to health for women and girls, and suggests ways to eradicate the practice.

  14. Females with paired occurrence of cancers in the UADT and genital region have a higher frequency of either Glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 null genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhavar Sameer G

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upper Aero digestive Tract (UADT is the commonest site for the development of second cancer in females after primary cervical cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and / or T1 null genotype modulates the risk of developing UADT cancer (primary as well as second cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in GST null genotype frequencies in females with paired cancers in the UADT and genital region as compared to females with paired cancers in the UADT and non-genital region. Forty-nine females with a cancer in the UADT and another cancer (at all sites-genital and non-genital were identified from a database of patients with multiple primary neoplasms and were analyzed for the GSTM1 and T1 genotype in addition to known factors such as age, tobacco habits, alcohol habits and family history of cancer. Frequencies of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and either GSTM1/T1 null were higher in females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and genital site (54%, 33% and 75% respectively in comparison to females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and non-genital sites (22%, 6% and 24% respectively. The significantly higher inherited frequency of either GSTM1/T1 null genotype in females with a paired occurrence of cancers in UADT and genital region (p = 0.01, suggests that these females are more susceptible to damage by carcinogens as compared to females who have UADT cancers in association with cancers at non-genital sites.

  15. Uterine artery embolization: The interventional treatment of female genital diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The uterus is the major female sex organ and is essential for pregnancy. The organ is located in the pelvic cavity. It is usually fist-sized with its volume changing from 75 to 200 cc depending on the menstrual cycle. There are various diseases associated with the uterus, including malignancy, uterine myoma, postpartum hemorrhage, and vascular malformation. The conventional surgical treatment for these diseases is hysterectomy. However, hysterectomy has some risk, and there may be complications associated with the surgery and anesthesia. In addition, hysterectomy results in loss of fertility and loss of female characteristics, both of which may lead to emotional problems. After uterine artery embolization (UAE) was performed for post-partum bleeding in 1979 and for uterine myoma in 1995, interventional treatment of UAE replaced the existing surgical treatment of hysterectomy. UAE is performed widely as a minimally invasive treatment modality that can preserve the uterus, make pregnancy and childbirth possible and resolve emotional problems. The interventional treatment has become increasingly popular to treat various female genital diseases.

  16. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  17. 四川东北地区女性生殖道感染沙眼衣原体、淋球菌和解脲脲原体的结果分析%Analysis on detection results of Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许媛; 方莉; 赵维皎; 赵明才; 谢宁; 苏中龙; 廖涛; 黄义山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the infection status and variation tendency of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) ,Neisseria gonorrhoe-ae(NG) and ureaplasma urealyticum(UU) in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province during 2005 -2012 to provide the laboratory basis for their diagnosis and treatment Methods The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the CT DNA ,NG DNA and UU DNA in 1 386 samples from female genital tract and the detection results were performed the statistical analysis .Results The total positive rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens was 62 .8% (871/1 386) .Among the simple in-fection ,UU had the highest positive rate(48 .0% ,665/1 386);the positive rates of CT and NG were only 2 .2% .In the mixed infec-tion ,the positive rate of CT + UU was highest(6 .5% ,90/1 386) ,while which of UU + NG ,CT + NG and CT+ NG+ UU was 2 .5% (35/1 386) ,0 .4% (5/1 386) and 1 .1% (15/1 386) respectively .In different age groups ,the positive rate in the age 20 years old groups were all more than 60% .The positive rate of the CT ,NG and UU pathogens in females was in continuous high level during 2005 -2012 ,and which totally showed an increasing tendency . Conclusion CT and UU are the main pathogens in female genital tract infection in this region ,and the positive rate of genital tract infection in females aged more than 20 years is higher ,the infection rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens demonstrates the increasing trend year by year ,so more attention should be paid to the detection of CT and UU in this group for guiding the clinicians to con-duct the diagnosis and treatment .%目的:分析川东北地区2005~2012年女性生殖道沙眼衣原体(CT)、淋球菌(NG)和解脲脲原体(UU)感染状况及变化趋势,为该类患者的诊断和治疗提供实验室依据。方法应用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)技术对1386例女性生殖道标本进行CT、NG、UU病原体DNA检测,并对结果进行统计分析。结果3

  18. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  19. Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US.

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    Lorie Benning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. METHODS: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected with similar proportions of low (0-3 Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%, Prevotella (56%, Gardnerella (55%, Atopobium (42%, Sneathia (37%, Megasphaera (30%, and Parvimonas (26%, observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06. Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06 and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02, and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01 and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01, compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05 in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%, compared to HIV-infected US women (6%, HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9% and US (10% women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11, followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82, L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80, L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37 and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10. DISCUSSION: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed

  20. Infantile masturbation in an African female: is this a justification for female genital cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaigbe, Barbara Edewele

    2008-05-01

    Masturbation is a taboo and not discussed openly in Africa. It is still worse when it occurs in an infant and will thus call for a visit to the traditional healers for 'spiritual intervention' and prompt female genital cutting/mutilation to reduce the child's libido and risk of sexual promiscuity as she gets older. Because of its peculiar presentation in children without manual genital stimulation, it is often misdiagnosed. A Medline search showed sparse information on infantile masturbation and none from Africa. A 15-month-old female was brought into a clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a history of unusual rocking with adduction of the thighs noticed since 3 months of age. At 10 months of age, the child would lean forward and rock continuously on a hard surface such as a chair or an adult's lap. Rocking was accompanied with lip smacking, eye rolling, shaking, "watching of television in the air", spasm and feeling of fatigue and then resumption of the motions unless she was distracted. The child had been spanked occasionally by both parents with no noticeable change in behavior. Older female relatives had suggested female genital cutting or circumcision, but her father resisted vehemently. Infantile masturbation was viewed by the pediatrician and a 10-minute video recording was taken to confirm the diagnosis. The mother was reassured, counseled about behavioral and environmental modification. There was a marked improvement when the baby was seen 6 weeks later. Infantile masturbation rarely diagnosed in our region is probably due to a low index of suspicion and because mothers are afraid of stigma. We suggest that infantile masturbation should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of strange movement mimicking epilepsy in infants, and when a diagnosis is made parents should be counseled against female genital cutting. A video recording is encouraged fora correct diagnosis.

  1. [Reactive and areactive actinomycosis infection of the female genitals and differentiation of pseudoactinomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L C; Bilek, K

    1995-01-01

    Actinomycotic infections of the female genital tract are rare. In relation of clinical symptoms and therapeutical implications, reactive and non-reactive infections can be distinguished. During a period of seven years we observed five reactive infections. All these cases with tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were seen in women using intrauterine devices (IUD) for 9.8 years on average. 9.1% of all TOA in this period were caused by actinomyces. Ten cases showed a non-reactive infection (colonisation). The frequency was 1.9%. In three cases pseudosulfurgranules (pseudoactinomycotic granules) were identified histologically by PAS-, Grocott-and Kossa-staining). One case showed a bacterial infection of a mucinous cystadenofibroma of the ovary with colonization of microorganisms similar to cases of botryomycosis in lung and other organs. Reactive infections require antibiotic therapy. Reimplantation of IUD should be done after 4 to 8 weeks, even in areactive infections. In specimens with pseudosulfurgranules no therapy is necessary.

  2. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.

  3. The ongoing violence against women: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2016-04-18

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.

  4. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Cui-Ling Liang; Jun-Qing Wu; Chen Xu; Shi-Xiao Qin; Er-Sheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality. Methods:From 2001 to 2003, 346 eligible patients aged 20-45 years were invited from two hospitals in Shanghai, China, to participate in an investigation which included questionnaires about general and reproductive health, an external genital tract examination, UU culture and semen analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine whether UU had a significant effect on semen quality after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Findings suggested that UU infection was associated with higher semen viscosity and lower semen pH value. Sperm concentration was lower in UU positive subjects than that in UU negative subjects (54.04 × 106/mL vs.70.58 × 106/mL). However, Uudid not significantly affect other semen quality indexes. Conclusion: UU infection of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality.

  5. The Molecular Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Genital Tract Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2011-01-01

    Genital tract pathogens resistant to antibiotics are now commonly encountered in many parts of the world. The emergence of such strains may clearly be accounted for, at least in part, by the selection of mutant strains which would have a selective advantage in the face of widespread antibiotic usage. Molecular and genetic analysis of antibioticresistant organisms, however, indicates that such an explanation is an over simplification. In many instances genes coding for antibiotic resistance ap...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with...

  7. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti F; Maggi M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility affects ∼7% of all men. Despite much progress, mainly in genetics, its etiology remains obscure in ∼50% of cases. To fill this gap, imaging of the male genital tract (MGT) has progressively expanded, providing useful information in the assessment of MGT abnormalities. METHODS: A critical, systematic review of the available literature was performed using Medline, with no restrictions regarding date of publication (i.e. from inception date until March 2014), a...

  8. Persistent Genital Hyperinnervation Following Progesterone Administration to Adolescent Female Rats1

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect a...

  9. Psychological and counselling interventions for female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin

    2017-02-01

    Women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) are more likely to experience psychological problems than women without FGM. As well as psychological support, this population may need additional care when seeking surgical interventions to correct complications of FGM. Recent WHO guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for women and girls experiencing anxiety disorders, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. The guidelines also suggest that preoperative counselling for deinfibulation, and psychological support alongside surgical interventions, can help women manage the physiological and psychological changes following surgery. This synthesis summarizes evidence on women's values and preferences, and the context and conditions that may be required to provide psychological and counselling interventions. Understanding women's views, their own ways of coping, as well social and cultural factors that influence women's mental well-being, may help identify the types of interventions this population needs at different times and stages of their lives. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  10. An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.

  11. Female genital mutilation: new laws, programs try to end practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-10-01

    A new US law criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM) and requires notification of this fact to immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. In addition, US representative to international financial institutions are directed to oppose issuance of foreign aid to countries that lack established educational programs to eradicate FGM. FGM involves a range of procedures characterized by the amount of tissue removed and may be carried out in infants, adolescents, or new mothers. Complications include death, debilitating illness, and increased risk during child birth. FGM is firmly entrenched in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Arab peninsula and extends to a few groups in Asia and immigrant populations in developed countries. Most women in an Egyptian study had undergone FGM and justified the practice as a way of reducing sexual desire and, thus, preserving premarital virginity. Many women also consider FGM a religious requirement, but this claim is unsubstantiated. Successful eradication campaigns in Kenya have preserved the social and coming-of-age ritual aspects of the practice while rejecting the physical mutilation, and efforts in Nigeria have focuses on health education. A New York-based group working to eradicate FGM has criticized the new US law because it requires education of affected communities without allocating the necessary funding. The group charges that the new law needs revision to remove criminal liability from family members who may object to a proposed FGM procedure but fail to report or stop it.

  12. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  13. Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Farnam, Alireza; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Biglu, Sahar; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran. A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index. The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains. Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39). Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of "desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  15. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  16. MOTHERS PERSPECTIVES OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION : AMONG THE MAASAI COMMUNITY IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Malaso, Oleleparakuo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out mothers perspectives on female genital mutilation (FGM) among the Maasai community in Kenya. The aim of the study can be used in utilizing the research result when planning education programs in preventing female genital mutilation. The research was carried out in co-operation with a local village which is situated in South-West Kenya, and West from Nairobi, the Kenyan capital city. Qualitative method was used to implement this study. Data was ...

  17. Drug sensitivity of ureaplasma unrealytium accompanying mycoplasma hominis infection in female genital tract and its therapeutic effect%女性生殖道解脲支原体合并人型支原体感染药敏分析及疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树琴; 王振国; 宋萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价联合用药与单独用药治疗女性生殖道感染的疗效.方法 将2009年10月-2010年10月我院妇科门诊就诊76例生殖道解脲支原体(Ureaplasma Urealyticum)合并人型支原体(Mycoplasma Hominis)感染患者随机分成2组.联合用药组:外阴阴道冲洗(0.9%氯化钠注射液稀释5%碘伏1:10),口服强力霉素每次4mg,1次/d,连服7d,同时干扰素栓剂置阴道深部,隔日1次,共14d.单独用药组:口服强力霉素每次4mg,1次/d,共7d.停药1周后行妇科检查,停药2周后做官颈支原体培养.结果 76例患者对强力霉素、交沙霉素、美满霉素较敏感,敏感率依次为61.9%、59.2%和50%,而对罗红霉素、螺旋霉素、克拉霉素高度耐药,耐药率依次为90.8%、88.2%和76.3%.联合用药组总有效率92.1%,单独用药组总有效率78.9%,有显著差异(P<0.001).结论 应用外用干扰素栓剂联合强力霉素比单独口服强力霉素治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体合并人型支原体感染效果好.%To evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined doxycycline and interferon suppository or doxycycline alone on female genital tract infection. Methods Seventy-six patients infected with ureaplasma unrealytium and mycoplasma hominis who visited our department from October 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into combined drug treatment group(group A) and single drug treatment group(group B). Vulvovagina of patients in group A was irrigated with 0.9% normal saline and 5% iodophor(l:10). Then, the patients were treated with doxycycline(4mg), once a day for 7 days. Interferon suppository was placed in the deep vagina, every other day for 14 days. Patients in group B were treated with oral doxycycline only(4mg), once a day for 7 days. One week after withdrawal of the drugs, the patients in two groups underwent gynecological examination. Two weeks after withdrawal of the drugs, mycoplasma from cervix was cultured. Results The sensitivity rate of the 76 patients to

  18. Female genital mutilation: Survey of paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Zurynski, Yvonne; Moloney, Susan; Raman, Shanti; Varol, Nesrin; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to determine paediatricians' experience with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Australian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional, pilot-tested national survey of paediatricians practising in Australia and contributing to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was conducted. Clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with FGM, awareness of clinical guidelines and education/training needs were recorded. Of 1311 paediatricians surveyed, 497 (38%) responded. Fifty-seven percent were aged 50 years or more, and 51.3% were males. Over half believed that FGM was performed in children in Australia and most were aware of its complications, but few asked about or examined for FGM. Fifty (10.3%) had seen at least one case of FGM in girls aged <18 years during their clinical career, including 16 (3.3%) in the past 5 years. Most were aware that FGM is illegal in Australia (93.9%), agreed all types of FGM were harmful (97.4%) and agreed that FGM violated human rights (98.2%). Most (87.6%) perceived FGM as a traditional cultural practice, although 11.6% thought it was required by religion. The majority (81.8%) knew notification of FGM to child protection authorities was mandatory. Over half (62.0%) were aware of the WHO Statement on FGM, but only 22.0% knew the WHO classification of FGM. These novel data indicate a minority of paediatricians in Australia have clinical experience with or education about FGM. Educational programs, best-practice clinical guidelines and policies are required to address knowledge gaps and help paediatricians identify, manage and prevent FGM in children.

  19. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  20. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.

  1. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice. We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.

  2. 女性生殖道人乳头状瘤病毒感染亚型分布分析%Subtypes of human papilloma virus causing female genital tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 刘志英; 王博; 张朋军

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and analyze HPV-infected populations, and study the population distribution of different subtypes of HPV infections and the status of the infections. METHODS By the means of flow-through hybridization technology, the screening of subtypes of HPV infections in 236 women from department of gynecology and obstetrics who were diagnosed with chronic cervicitis and abnormal vaginal bleeding was performed. RESULTS Of 236 patients investigated, a total of 172 cases were tested positive for HPV-DNA, the young people were the major population infected with HPV; HPV 16, HPV 52, HPV 56, and HPV 58 were the subtypes causing the highest prevalence of infections in Chinese female, accounting for 37. 0% among the common subtypes detected; and compared with other subtypes, HPV16 and HPV18 were more likely to lead to multiple-type HPV infections; the study indicated that the prevalence of HPV subtype infections was the highest among the population aged over 55 years. CONCLUSION HPV infections tend to be in younger female, the development of cervical cancer is closely related 10 HPV persistent infections and the interaction of various subtypes, and elderly women are at higher risk of cervical cancer, so it is necessary to intensify the screening of HPV-DNA.%目的 对人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染人群进行调查分析,并对不同亚型HPV感染的人群分布及合并感染状况进行分析.方法 采用导流杂交技术,对妇产科门诊确诊的236例慢性宫颈炎及阴道异常出血妇女,进行阴道拭子HPV感染分型筛查.结果 在236例检测者中,HPV-DNA检测阳性172例,感染人群呈年轻化趋势;HPV 16、52、56、58亚型是中国女性中感染率较高的HPV亚型,占研究所检测常见亚型的37.0%;与其他亚型相比,HPV16和HPV18可能更容易引发多型HPV感染;在对各年龄段患者感染亚型数目的调查分析中,发现>55岁人群中感染的HPV亚型最高.结论 HPV的感染趋于年轻化趋势,

  3. Female genital mutilation of a karyotypic male presenting as a female with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselsson D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM is commonly practiced mainly in a belt reaching from East to West Africa north of the equator. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Few studies have been appropriately designed to measure the health effects of FGM. However, the outcome of FGM on intersex individuals has never been discussed before. Case presentation The patient first presented as a female with delayed puberty. Hormonal analysis revealed a normal serum prolactin level of 215 Mu/L, a low FSH of 0.5 Mu/L, and a low LH of 1.1 Mu/L. Type IV FGM (Pharaonic circumcision had been performed during childhood. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46, XY karyotype and ultrasonography verified a soft tissue structure in the position of the prostate. Conclusion FGM pose a threat to the diagnosis and management of children with abnormal genital development in the Sudan and similar societies.

  4. No evidence for external genital morphology affecting cryptic female choice and reproductive isolation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur-Viens, Hélène; Polak, Michal; Moehring, Amanda J

    2015-07-01

    Genitalia are one of the most rapidly diverging morphological features in animals. The evolution of genital morphology is proposed to be driven by sexual selection via cryptic female choice, whereby a female selectively uptakes and uses a particular male's sperm on the basis of male genital morphology. The resulting shifts in genital morphology within a species can lead to divergence in genitalia between species, and consequently to reproductive isolation and speciation. Although this conceptual framework is supported by correlative data, there is little direct empirical evidence. Here, we used a microdissection laser to alter the morphology of the external male genitalia in Drosophila, a widely used genetic model for both genital shape and cryptic female choice. We evaluate the effect of precision alterations to lobe morphology on both interspecific and intraspecific mating, and demonstrate experimentally that the male genital lobes do not affect copulation duration or cryptic female choice, contrary to long-standing assumptions regarding the role of the lobes in this model system. Rather, we demonstrate that the lobes are essential for copulation to occur. Moreover, slight alterations to the lobes significantly reduced copulatory success only in competitive environments, identifying precopulatory sexual selection as a potential contributing force behind genital diversification.

  5. Female genital mutilation: an analysis of 522 cases in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, F O; Oboro, V O; Fadiora, S O; Orji, E O; Sule-Odu, A O; Olabode, T O

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted at three teaching hospitals in South-Western Nigeria. Paturients were examined to find out if they had had female genital mutilation. Those who did were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that all the patients had either Type I (69%) or Type II (31%) mutilation (using WHO classification). The average age at which the procedure was performed was 6.9+/-2.9 years, with 4% of women having the procedure performed in pregnancy. The majority of the procedures were performed by medically untrained personnel (89%). Up to 67% of the women reported complications following the procedure. Severe pain and bleeding were the most common (69%) of the complications reported. The most common reason given for the procedure is cultural/traditional (63%). About a fifth of the women want their female child to undergo female genital mutilation. This study highlights the need for further interventions aimed at discouraging the practice of female genital mutilation.

  6. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  7. Actinomyces israelii in the female genital tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D T

    1993-02-01

    Actinomyces israelii (a gram-positive, branching, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacterium) infects 1.6-11.6% of IUD users worldwide. Physicians must decide whether to treat A. israelii infection with antibiotics, remove the IUD, or refer the patient to the family planning clinic. Culture techniques tend to be inadequate, so many US health professionals use a microscope to identify A. israelii and often confirm the microscopy findings with direct immunofluorescent techniques. A sophisticated culture from pelvic infection or abscesses is needed. It appears that A. israelii infection is more common in women with plastic IUDs than those with copper IUDs and in women who have had an IUD for more than 4 years. Pelvic actinomycotic disease occurs infrequently, but when it does this condition the right ovary and fallopian tube are generally involved; this condition can be life threatening. It is indistinguishable from other forms of pelvic inflammatory disease. Evidence suggests that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between IUD use and pelvic actinomycosis. It is difficult to predict which IUD users harboring A. israelii will develop subsequent serious pelvic infection. Nevertheless, Pap smears can detect A. israelii infection early so physicians can prophylactically treat it before it spreads. Prophylactic treatment in IUD users may consist of changing the IUD every 4 years of long term penicillin or doxycycline treatment. Combinations of various antibiotics used to treat actinomyces infection are penicillin, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol, amoxycillin, metronidazole, and doxycycline. In the case of tubo-ovarian abscesses larger than 8 cm in diameter, however, surgical treatment is warranted.

  8. Female genital mutilation and monandry in an orb-web spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kensuke

    2016-02-01

    Monandry, in which a female has only one mating partner during the reproductive period, is established when a female spontaneously refrains from re-mating, or when a partner male interferes with the attempts of a female to mate again. In the latter case, however, females often have countermeasures against males, which may explain why polyandry is ubiquitous. Here, I demonstrate that the genital appendage, or scape, of the female orb-web spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) is injured after her first mating, possibly by her first male partner. This female genital mutilation (FGM) permanently precludes copulation, and females appear to have no countermeasures. FGM is considered to confer a strong advantage to males in sexual conflicts over the number of female matings, and it may widely occur in spiders.

  9. Origins of female genital diversity: Predation risk and lock-and-key explain rapid divergence during an adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher M; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-09-01

    The study of male genital diversity has long overshadowed evolutionary inquiry of female genitalia, despite its nontrivial diversity. Here, we identify four nonmutually exclusive mechanisms that could lead to genital divergence in females, and potentially generate patterns of correlated male-female genital evolution: (1) ecological variation alters the context of sexual selection ("ecology hypothesis"), (2) sexually antagonistic selection ("sexual-conflict hypothesis"), (3) female preferences for male genitalia mediated by female genital traits ("female-choice hypothesis"), and (4) selection against inter-population mating ("lock-and-key hypothesis"). We performed an empirical investigation of all four hypotheses using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish inhabiting blue holes that vary in predation risk. We found unequivocal support for the ecology hypothesis, with females exhibiting a smaller genital opening in blue holes containing piscivorous fish. This is consistent with stronger postmating female choice/conflict when predators are present, but greater premating female choice in their absence. Our results additionally supported the lock-and-key hypothesis, uncovering a pattern of reproductive character displacement for genital shape. We found no support for the sexual conflict or female choice hypotheses. Our results demonstrate a strong role for ecology in generating female genital diversity, and suggest that lock-and-key may provide a viable cause of female genital diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

  11. New publication on female genital mutilation. Interviews with Nahid Toubia and Anika Rahman, co-authors of Female Genital Mutilation: a Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, S

    2000-09-01

    Female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FC/FGM) is the collective name given to several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals. The WHO has grouped them in four categories: type 1: Clitoridectomy; type 2: Excision; type 3: Infibulation; and type 4: Unclassified. Reports indicate that an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone FC/FGM and that it is practiced in 28 countries in the sub-Saharan and northeastern regions of Africa. As part of the growing movement to stop this human rights violation, numerous UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) and RAINBO work together to monitor government responses. Presented in a questionnaire form, two authors Anika Rahman, CRLP's International Program Director, and Nahid Toubia, Director of RAINBO, discuss their recent book collaboration, "Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide". The issues covered in the interview include the purpose of the book, reasons why FC/FGM is considered a human rights violation rather than a threat to women's health, role of international agencies in the eradication of the practice, and the effects of formal laws and policies in eliminating FC/FGM.

  12. Evaluation of Body Image and Sexual Satisfaction in Women Undergoing Female Genital Plastic/Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

  13. Research gaps in the care of women with female genital mutilation: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, J; Rodriguez, M I; Say, L

    2015-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitals for non-therapeutic reasons. They can have negative psychosexual and health consequences that need specific care. In this paper, we review some key knowledge gaps in the clinical care of women with FGM, focusing on obstetric outcomes, surgical interventions (defibulation and clitoral reconstruction), and the skills and training of healthcare professionals involved in the prevention and management of FGM. We identify research priorities to improve the evidence necessary to establish guidelines for the best multidisciplinary care, communication, and prevention, and to improve health-promotion measures for women with FGM.

  14. Towards a solution concerning female genital mutilation? An approach from within according to Islamic legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kutscher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Female circumcision is a tradition that is widespread and not restricted to predominantly Muslim countries. It is prevalent among all religious groups in many parts of Africa and Western Asia, whether they are Coptic Christians, Ethiopian Jews, or Arab Muslims. Female genital cutting or—more to the point—female genital mutilation (FGM, generally referred to as circumcision, occurs in at least five different forms. Circumcision is essentially a powerful bodily sign of the human—male and female—covenant with God. In the Quran it is reaffirmed in sura al-Nahl and quoted as example in the fatwas endorsing circumcision. It seems to be true that men are hardly involved in the actual decision in favour of female genital cutting. A man should not interfere in the decision of women to be circumcised. It is practiced and transmitted among women and midwives. Only sometimes is a (male or female physician involved. On the basis of Islamic normativity, mirrored in fatwas, this paper aims to examine a very ambivalent approach concerning female genital mutilation.

  15. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  16. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  17. Trenbolone acetate induced changes in the genital tract of male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bote, C; Sancho, G; Martínez, M; Ventanas, J; Gázquez, A; Roncero, V

    1994-03-01

    Eleven entire and twelve castrated male pigs were implanted with trenbolone acetate and the effects of the treatment on genital tract macro- and microscopical modifications were evaluated and compared to non-implanted animals. In entire male pigs a reduction of testicular weight and size was observed as a consequence of the treatment (< 0.001), but no important modifications were found in bulbourethral gland and seminal vesicles macroscopically. Castrated non-implanted males had bulbourethral gland atrophy (P < 0.01), while castrated implanted ones showed similar development to entire males. As for vesicular glands there were no significant differences among the four groups under study. Histological study of prostate has demonstrated structural modifications. As a consequence of the treatment glandular lumen was increased (P < 0.05), and most parenchyma was occupied by polymorphous cysts.

  18. Amebae resembling Entamoeba gingivalis in the genital tracts of IUD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMoraes-Ruehsen, M; McNeill, R E; Frost, J K; Gupta, P K; Diamond, L S; Honigberg, B M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 2,252 vaginopancervical (Fast) smears were studied as a continuation of an ongoing program to further investigate the occurrence of amebae in the genital tracts of women using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Of the 947 IUD users, 1% harbored trophic amebae. No amebae, however, were found in any of the 1,164 smears from non-IUD wearers. In all instances the amebae were associated with Actinomyces. Both organisms disappeared promptly after removal of the IUD. In preparations stained according to the Papanicolaou, iron-hematoxylin and Gomori-Wheatley trichrome methods, the amebae could be diagnosed as belonging to the genus Entamoeba. These trophozoites failed to stain with fluorescein-labeled anti-Entamoeba-histolytica serum. Although on the basis of the presently available evidence these trophozoites cannot be assigned with certainty to any known species, they appear to share many morphologic characteristics with Entamoeba gingivalis.

  19. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Asquith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/- mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.. Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial

  20. Frequency of Haemophilus spp. in urinary and and genital tract samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Marijan,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae isolated from the urinary and genital tracts. Methods Identification of strains bacteria Haemophilus spp. was carried out by using API NH identifi-cation system, and antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results A total number of 50 (0,03% H. influenzae and 14 (0,01% H. parainfluenzae (out of 180, 415 samples were isolated from genitourinary tract. From urine samples of the girls under 15 years of age these bacteria were isolated in 13 (0,88% and two (0,13% cases, respectively, and only in one case(0,11% of the UTI in boys (H. influenzae. In persons of fertile age, it was only H. influenzae bacteria that was found in urine samples of the five women (0,04% and in three men (0,22%. As a cause of vulvovaginitis, H. influenzae was isolated in four (5,63%, and H. parainfluenzae in two (2,82% girls. In persons of fertile age, H. influenzae was isolated from 10 (0,49% smears of the cervix, and in nine (1,74% male samples. H. parainfluenzae was isolated from seven (1,36% male samples. (p<0.01. Susceptibility testing of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae revealed that both pathogens were signifi- cantly resistant to cotrimoxasol only (26.0% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion In the etiology of genitourinary infections of girls during childhood, genital infections of women in fertile age (especially in pregnant women, and men with cases of epididimytis and/or orchitis,it is important to think about this rare and demanding bacteria in terms of cultivation.

  1. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habu A. Kalshingi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50% were identified as M. arginini with 99% – 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% – 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species.

  2. Genital structures in the entelegyne widow spider Latrodectus revivensis (Arachnida; Araneae; Theridiidae) indicate a low ability for cryptic female choice by sperm manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendonck, Bettina; Greven, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The female genital structures of the entelegyne spider Latrodectus revivensis are described using semithin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Apart from the tactile hairs overhanging the opening of the atrium, the contact zones of the female epigynum are devoid of any sensilla, indicating that the female does not discriminate in favor or against males due to their genital size or stimulation through copulatory courtship. The dumb-bell shape and the spatial separation of the entrance and the exit of the paired spermathecae suggest that they are functionally of the conduit type. Not described for other entelegyne spiders so far, the small fertilization ducts originating from the spermathecae of each side lead to a common fertilization duct that connects the spermathecae to the uterus externus. During oviposition, it is most likely that spermatozoa are indiscriminately sucked out of the spermathecal lumina by the low pressure produced by the contraction of the muscle extending from the epigynal plate to the common fertilization duct. As no greater amounts of secretion are produced by the female during oviposition, and no activated sperm are present within the female genital tract, the secretion produced by the spermathecal epithelium does not serve in displacement or (selective) activation of spermatozoa. These findings suggest that female L. revivensis are not able to exert cryptic female choice by selectively choosing spermatozoa of certain males.

  3. [Female genital mutilation meets Swedish health care. Female genital mutilation is one of many forms of discrimination of women in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C

    2001-05-16

    About 27,000 women from countries in which female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice are presently living in Sweden. This means that FGM is a phenomenon that directly affects the Swedish health care system. Knowledge and understanding of the background, meaning and consequences of FGM are a prerequisite for effective prevention, proper clinical handling and supportive reception of the women. To avoid a stigmatizing reception it is also important to understand the situation of genitally mutilated women, and to become aware of the identity crisis many of them experience when they come to Sweden and lose their identity as "normal" women. It is essential to remember that female genital mutilation is one of many forms of discrimination affecting girls and women around the world. This discrimination knows no national or cultural borders and varies in expression and extent. In order to offer optimal care and reception of women who have been socialized into a gender role that is often seen as completely different from the gender role that Swedish society is said to embrace, it is of the utmost importance to first take a critical look beneath the veil of alleged gender equality of Swedish women.

  4. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  5. Clinical findings in female genital schistosomiasis in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutscher, P; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Raharisolo, C; Ramarokoto, C E; Rasendramino, M; Raobelison, A; Vennervald, B; Esterre, P; Feldmeier, H

    1998-04-01

    To assess the morbidity of S. haematobium infection in women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the western part of Madagascar, the village of Betalatala with a prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in women of 75.6% (95% confidence limit 69.3 to 81.9%) was compared with a neighbouring village with similar socio-economic characteristics and a prevalence of 5.0% (95% confidence limit 0 to 11.75%). The women were questioned in Malagasy about obstetrical history and urogynecological symptoms. They were examined gynaecologically, parasitologically and by ultrasonography. Important STDs were excluded by appropriate diagnostics. In Betalatala significantly more women reported a history of spontaneous abortion (P vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Treponema pallidum were found in similar frequencies in both villages. In 9.8% of the women in Betalatala abnormalities of the upper reproductive tract were revealed by ultrasonography versus none in the women from the control village (P < 0.05). Echographic abnormalities of the urinary tract were present in 24% and 3% of the women in the study village and in the control village, respectively (P < 0.0001). These findings were accompanied by an elevated frequency of haematuria (55% versus 20%) and proteinuria (70.4% versus 25%) in the study population (P < 0.0001). Our study indicates that S. haematobium infection in women may not only cause symptoms in the urinary tract, but also frequently in the lower and upper reproductive tract.

  6. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase

  7. A study of female genital swabs in primary health care centres in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nwadioha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect some common microbial agents of female genital discharges in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Primary Health Care Centres, Jos, and analysed for microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Jos University Teaching Hospital, December 2006 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: Microbial agents were detected in 70% (700 of a total 1 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (420 out of the 1000 samples, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, an agent of bacterial vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusions: It is concluded that abnormal vaginal discharge is most prevalent in the young sexually active age group with Candida species as the commonest agent. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infective female genital discharge in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  8. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase

  9. Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change. Minority Rights Group International Report. [Revised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkenoo, Efua; Elworthy, Scilla

    In Africa today, women's voices are being raised against female genital mutilation. Inspired by the United Nations Decade for Women, this report seeks to present information in a logical, coherent manner to stimulate support for eradication of the practice. It describes steps African governments, Western states, and international agencies can take…

  10. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  11. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez; Laura Cubells-Sánchez; Lorena Martínez-Leborans; José Luis Sánchez-Carazo; Víctor Alegre de Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal ...

  12. [The voice of women subjected to female genital mutilation in the Region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Pastor Bravo, María del Mar; Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael

    2014-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of a group of women who underwent female genital mutilation on the impact of this practice on their sexual and reproductive health. We performed a phenomenological qualitative study in a sample of 9 sub-Saharan Africa women, whose mean age was 30 years old and who had lived in Spain for 1 to 14 years. These women underwent genital mutilation in their countries of origin. Data was collected using a socio-demographic survey and an in-depth, structured personal interview. Subsequently, we performed a thematic discourse analysis. The discourses were grouped into four categories related to participants' perceptions of female genital mutilation. These categories were intimate relationships, pregnancy, childbirth, and social impact. The practice of female genital mutilation is maintained due to social and family pressure, transmitted from generation to generation and silenced by women themselves. This practice affects their sexual and reproductive health, as demonstrated by anorgasmia and dyspareunia. The women were satisfied with the healthcare received during pregnancy and childbirth. Nevertheless, most of them were not satisfied with family planning. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Genital examination training: assessing the effectiveness of an integrated female and male teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Lynn; Pullon, Susan; Garrett, Sue; Hoare, Kath

    2016-11-22

    Learning to undertake intimate female and male examinations is an important part of medical student training but opportunities to participate in practical, supervised learning in a safe environment can be limited. A collaborative, integrated training programme to provide such learning was developed by two university teaching departments and a specialist sexual health service, utilising teaching associates trained for intimate examinations in a simulated clinical educational setting. The objective of this research was to determine changes in senior medical students' self- reported experience and confidence in performing male and female genital examinations, before and after participating in a new clinical teaching programme. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design, using pre and post programme questionnaires and focus groups, was used to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The students reported greatly improved skill, confidence and comfort levels for both male and female genital examination following the teaching programme. Skill, confidence and comfort regarding male examinations were rated particularly low on the pre-teaching programme self- assessment, but post-programme was rated at similar levels to the female examination. This integrated female-male teaching programme (utilising trained teaching associates as simulated patients in a supervised clinical teaching environment) was successful in increasing senior medical students' skills and levels of confidence in performing genital examinations. There were differences between female and male medical students in their learning. Suggestions for improvement included providing more detailed instruction to some clinical supervisors about their facilitation role in the session.

  14. Anatomy and arterial vascularization of female genital system of margay (Leopardus weidii

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    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The margay (Leopardus wiedii belongs to Carnivora order and present’s nocturnal habits. There are few studies using this specie, whereas it is between feline species vulnerable to extinction. Thus, we propose a descriptive study about female genital system and behavior of the arteries responsible for the blood supply to these organs in margay. It used one exemplary victim of poaching that to death. The animal was stored in freezer. Subsequent to defrost at room temperature, it proceeded with the solution injection Leoprene Latex ‘650’ colored in red for better identification of vessels before the adjacent strutures. The specimen was fixed using an aqueous 10% formaldehyde with subsequent immersion in the same fixative solution. The genital system were dissected and the organs and arterial branches were identified and photodocumented. The female genital system of margay consists of a pair of ovaries, uterus with a pair of uterine horns, vagina and vulva. The arterial distribution of female system have a common vessel to iliac artery which branches and leads to internal pudendal artery sends a branch along the pudendal nerve pathway, urogenital artery. This, we performed divided into two branches, cranial and caudal. The cranial branch irrigates laterally cervix and uterine horns and caudal branch, vagina and vulva. The ovarian arteries, peers, originate from abdominal aorta only vascularization the ovaries. The female genital system and vascularization of the genitals organs of margay resembles of domestic carnivores including cats and some wild felines like the ocelot and find differences with the same description held in other domestic and wild species.

  15. Female genital cutting/mutilation in Africa deserves special concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ismail Khalaf Editor-in Chief

    Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Oman and Yemen. Moreover, it is also ... The practice of female circumcision is rooted in gender inequality, cultural identity, and ... Tradition, culture and social norms are passed from generation to generation, usually from ...

  16. The problem of vaginismus with congenital malformation of the genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent or recurrent difficulties of the woman to allow vaginal entry of a penis, a finger, and/or any object, despite the woman’s expressed wish to do so” is vaginismus. Early traumatic sexual experiences (e.g. sexual abuse, religious orthodoxy, low self-esteem and body image, negative attitudes about sexuality, lack of knowledge about sex and fear responses are some of the traditional etiological correlates of vaginismus. Vaginismus is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. An interview is crucial in differentiating the causes of this disease and it should involve the following key questions: -whether the contraction of the vaginal muscles was recorded from the first sexual contact and still remains a need for sexual satisfaction is achieved without relations vaginal or -symptom occurs for some time and what circumstances it bound or -contraction of the muscles is independent of the will, reflex and is at the very idea of sexual intercourse, and -that the contraction of the vaginal muscles occurs when you try to enter the member into the vagina which is very painful. The physical, gynecological and sexuological examinations exclude local causes of the disease. The mainstay of treatment in the majority of cases is psychosexual support. The cause of organic vaginismus is congenital malformation of the genital tract. It results from abnormal development of genital paramesonephric (Müllerian ducts and the urogenital sinus, which are structures involved in the process of oviduct, uterus, and vagina organogenesis. This has strong implications in the practices of gynecology and sexuology in general, not only in adolescent gynecology and sexuology. Vaginismus with congenital malformation is animportant problem in these fields.

  17. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Hadid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients’ symptoms.

  18. Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ilhan Kizilhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study investigated the mental health status of young girls after genital mutilation in Northern Iraq. Although experts assume that circumcised girls are more prone to psychiatric illnesses than non-circumcised girls, little research has been conducted to confirm this claim. For the purpose of this study, it was assumed that female genital mutilation is connected with a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD. Methods: The psychological impact of female genital mutilation was assessed in Northern Iraq with 79 circumcised Kurdish girls who were between 8 and 14 years of age. Thirty uncircumcised girls from the above area and thirty-one uncircumcised girls from other areas of Iraq served as comparison subjects. A psychological interview and further questionnaires were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses. Results: The circumcised girls showed a significantly higher prevalence of PTSD (44.3%, depression disorder (33.6%, anxiety disorder (45.6% and somatic disturbance (36.7% than the uncircumcised girls. We could not find any significant differences between the two control groups. Conclusions: Within the circumcised group, a mental health problem can be diagnosed that may constitute the first evidence for the severe psychological consequences of juvenile girls´ genital mutilation.

  19. Rapidly evolving marmoset MSMB genes are differently expressed in the male genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceder Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal

  20. Female genital mutilation: a case for asylum in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadela Novak-Irons

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With some 71% of female EU asylum applicants from FGM-practising countries estimated to be survivors of this harmful traditional practice, it is time to accept that this subject demands greater scrutiny and a more dedicated response.

  1. A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Eun; Oh, Dong Sun; Jung, Hi Eun

    2017-01-01

    The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses—particularly type 2 immunity—are induced has rarely been studied in the genital mucosa. Here, we demonstrate the induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity in the genital mucosa in response to a model allergen, the protease papain. Intravaginal papain immunization induced type 2 immunity in a manner that was dependent on protease activity and the estrous phase of the mice. In addition, IL-33 was released from the vaginal epithelia after intravaginal papain immunization, leading to the activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Moreover, the IL-33–MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) signaling pathway was critical for the induction of type 2 immunity. We also found that Th2 differentiation in response to intravaginal papain treatment requires a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset that is controlled by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). These findings suggest that type 2 immunity is induced by a unique mechanism in the genital tract, which is an important, but often overlooked, barrier surface. PMID:28137851

  2. Human Herpes Virus Type 2 (HSV2), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Male Genital Tract and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtot Anne Marie; Pallier Coralie; Testart Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of infection of the human male genital tract by human herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well established and their sexual transmission has been the object of many studies. Moreover, medically assisted procreation, which helps in numerous fertility problems, raises the question of new viral risks linked to the application of these new technologies. In this review, we shall consider current knowledge in terms of the presence of HSV2 and HCMV in the different parts of the genital tract of immunocompetent or immunodepressed men. We shall also consider the possibility of viral transmission by the sexual act or by the various techniques used in medically assisted procreation. We shall describe studies in human beings and in animals.

  3. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. New York governor signs ban on female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-03

    On September 29, 1997, mixed-record Governor George Pataki (R) signed a bill that bans female genial mutilation (FGM) from being performed on minor females and establishes a campaign to educate the communities that traditionally use FGM about the "health risks and emotional trauma inflicted by such practices." The measure, AB 3379, which is scheduled to take effect 45 days after the signing date, passed the Assembly on July 2 by 145-0 and was approved in the Senate by 55-0. AB 3379 would only allow such a procedure to be used by a licensed medical practitioner if it is "necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed" or it is performed "for medical purposes" associated with labor or childbirth. Individuals accused of performing FGM would be charged with a class E felony, which is punishable by up to 1 year in prison.

  5. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan Costello School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. Keywords: female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, female circumcision, child protection, risk management 

  6. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kulchavenya; S. Dubrovina

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tubercu...

  7. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.

  8. PAX8 and PAX2 immunostaining facilitates the diagnosis of primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhou, Ming; Lagana, Stephen M; Harik, Lara; Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Falcone, Lorenzo; Hibshoosh, Hanina; O'Toole, Kathleen

    2011-10-01

    PAX8 and PAX2 are cell-lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for the development of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and have recently emerged as specific diagnostic markers for tumors of renal or Müllerian origin. Little is known about their expression in the Wolffian duct-derived human male genital tract. We report our findings of PAX8 and PAX2 expression in the epithelium of the normal male genital tract and in epithelial tumors derived therefrom using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that PAX8 and PAX2 were expressed in the epithelium of the male genital tract from the rete testis to the ejaculatory duct. Rare glands in the prostatic central zone, a tissue of purported Wolffian duct origin, were focally positive for PAX2, but no PAX8 was detected in this area, a finding that may warrant further study. We found diffuse expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in 1 case each of serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, carcinoma of the rete testis, Wolffian adnexal tumor of the seminal vesicle, and endometrioid carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Neither PAX8 nor PAX2 was detected in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the normal testis, nor in Leydig cell tumors (n=6), Sertoli cell tumors (n=2), or 48 of 49 germ cell tumors. One pediatric yolk sac tumor showed focal and weak staining for PAX8. Tumors of mesothelial origin, that is, adenomatoid tumors (n=3) and peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas (n=37) in men, were negative for PAX2 and PAX8. Neither PAX2 nor PAX8 was present in other areas of the prostate. Expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in these primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract is due to their histogenetic relationship with Wolffian or Müllerian ducts. PAX8 and PAX2 IHC may facilitate the diagnosis of these tumors and should be included in the differential diagnostic IHC panel.

  9. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Corresponding ... and general population. Materials and methods: The study was conducted ... Key words: Female sex workers, reproductive tract infections, pathogens, distribution ... problem, especially in developing countries. FSWs constitute the ...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  11. Sensitivites in vitro to antimicrobial drugs of bovine mycoplasmas isolated from respiratory and genital tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K; Minato, H

    1978-01-01

    A total of 155 Mycoplasma strains were examined for sensitivity to nine antibiotics and four nitrofurans by the agar dilution method. They consisted of 69 strains of Mycoplasma bovirhinis, 33 strains of M. bovigenitalium, 49 strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii and four strains of A. modicum isolated from the nasal secretions, tracheas and lungs of calves manifesting respiratory symptoms and from bovine genital tracts collected at a slaughterhouse. As a result, furamizole and mitomycin C showed the strongest growth-inhibiting effect on all the strains. They were followed in this effect by kitasamycin tartrate, spiramycin adipate, tylosin tartrate, tetracycline-HCl and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, these five drugs were followed in the effect by furazolidone, nitrofurantoin and sodium nifurstyrenate. Fradiomycin sulfate and kanamycin sulfate showed only little effect on all the strains. Erythromycin lactobionate showed a strong growth-inhibiting effect on the Acholeplasma strains, but not on the Mycoplasma strains. There were some cross resistant strains of the Acholeplasma species to the effects of the macrolides.

  12. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  13. Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adewole, I F

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-five (55) Mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans were biochemically characterized using various biochemical tests and also serologically identified by growth inhibition technique using 5 mycoplasma antisera namely M. hominis PG2 1: M. genitalium G37: M. penetrans GTU54 and 2 strains of M. fermentans PG18 (HRC 6-62-S-170 and MB713-501-069). Biochemically, 43 (78.2%) strains were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, 8 (14.5%) strains as M. fermentans and 4 (7.3%) as M. penetrans. The M. hominis strains hydrolyzed only arginine while the M. fermentans and M. penetrans strains in addition to arginine hydrolysis also broke down glucose fermentatively and oxidatively. The M. fermentans strains showed varying reactions to phosphatase activity and to the reduction of tetrazolium chloride. Serologically, 4 (7.3%) mycoplasma strains were confirmed as M. penetrans GTU54 and of the 8 M. fermentans strains, 4 (7.3%) were identified as M. fermentans PG18 serotype HRC 6-62-S-170 and the other 4 (7.3%) as M. fermentans PG18 serotype MB 713-501-069. Only 13 (30.2%) of the 43 M. hominis strains were identified as M. hominis serotype PG2 1. None was identified as M. genitalium. The heterogeneity of the mycoplasma strains especially M. hominis was observed in this study and the need for the use of multiple antisera in growth inhibition test is hereby supported.

  14. Current situation: lower genital tract pathology and colposcopy training in spanish gynecology and obstetrics residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mias, Núria-Laia; Cortés, Javier; Xercavins, Jordi; Lailla, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention in lower genital tract pathology (LGTP) on the knowledge and skills acquired by the Spanish specialist residents. This didactic change was carried out under the auspices of the Asociación Española de Patología Cervical y Colposcopia and the Sociedad Española Ginecología y Obstetricia and its Resident Section. This is an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. The survey was composed of 15 questions voluntarily answered by Spanish gynecology and obstetrics trainees. Compared with a previous survey, a substantial increase in the proportion of Spanish teaching hospitals with an LGTP unit (9/42 vs 47/59) has been detected while doubling the percentage of residents who acknowledge medium to high knowledge on this pathology. The same cannot be said about the handling capacity of vulvodynia registering a great improvement. Spanish scientific societies, concerned in the quality of LGTP training gained by their residents, have focused on the necessity of LGTP units. Our study confirms the usefulness of this performance in the new continued LGTP education.

  15. A case study of female genital self-mutilation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasucki, C; Kemp, R; David, A

    1995-06-01

    A case of deliberate genital self-mutilation in a woman with familial schizophrenia is presented. Such behaviour, though well recognized in females with severe personality disorders, is extremely rare in female psychotics. The genital mutilation may be partially understood as a consequence of delusionally motivated action against a background of low self-esteem, premorbid body-image preoccupation, forced early sexual activity and hence profound ambivalence towards adult sexuality. Dealing with this constructively was hampered by a cognitive style characterized by impaired reasoning and reality testing. Tests of reasoning, judgement and reality testing showed deficits, and computed tomography revealed dilatation of the left frontal ventricular system. Both neuropsychological and psychodynamic factors appeared to be of relevance in this case.

  16. A rare cause of infertility: A late complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjaoui Mohamed Aimen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice in many African and Asian societies based usually on religious beliefs. This practice made by a non medical and traditional practitioner with non sterile instruments is a source of many complications such as infection, acute and chronic pain, life-threatening hemorrhage, sexual dysfunction, and rarely epidermal inclusion cysts. We report a case of a large epidermal inclusion cyst in a 36-year-old patient, 30 years after a female genital mutilation (FGM. The patient complains of a two-year-secondary infertility with a self-imaging alteration and a sexual dysfunction. The managment of this complication was based on surgery with a psychological support and sexual therapies.

  17. FGMReview: design of a knowledge management tool on female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Turetsky, Risa

    2015-11-01

    Web-based literature search engines may not be user-friendly for some readers searching for information on female genital mutilation. This is a traditional practice that has no health benefits, and about 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone it. In 2012, the website FGMReview was created with the aim to offer a user-friendly, accessible, scalable, and innovative knowledge management tool specialized in female genital mutilation. The design of this website was guided by a conceptual model based on the use of benchmarking techniques and requirements engineering, an area of knowledge from the computer informatics field, influenced by the Transcultural Nursing model. The purpose of this article is to describe this conceptual model. Nurses and other health care providers can use this conceptual model to guide their methodological approach to design and launch other eHealth projects.

  18. Female genital mutilation and cutting: An anatomical review and alternative rites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden. FGM/C procedures are classified into four types. Infibulation is the narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning of the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris. Deinfibulation is necessary to improve health and well-being and to allow intercourse or facilitate childbirth. Clitoral reconstruction is feasible for genitally mutilated patients. Female genital cosmetic surgery should be classed as FGM/C type IV. Both immediate and long-term complications are associated with FGM/C. It remains primarily a cultural rather than a religious practice. Different interventions have been used to persuade communities to abandon it. Alternative rites of passage are seen as an important strategy for eliminating this harmful practice. Such alternative rituals avoid genital cutting and involve educating girls about family life and women's roles, exchange of gifts, celebration, and a public declaration for community recognition. FGM/C is a violation of human rights and must be abandoned. Clin. Anat. 30:81-88, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sharma's Python Sign: A New Tubal Sign in Female Genital Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB.

  20. Sharma′s python sign: A New tubal sign in female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Bhagwan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 – 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Methods Scopus database was used to retr...

  2. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; White, H. J.; Hough, A. J.; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control...

  3. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Koustuv Dalal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis ...

  4. Women's empowerment and the intention to continue the practice of female genital cutting in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    The study aimed to (dis)prove the association of the level of women's empowerment with their future intention to perpetuate female genital cutting for their daughters. In a national representative community-based sample of 14,393 currently-married women in Egypt, the level of empowerment, intention to continue the practice, and other socio- demographic variables were collected in the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. Secondary in-depth analysis was conducted on data downloaded from MEASURE Demographic Health Surveys (MEASURE DHS) website. About 14% of the women intended to discontinue the practice. Twenty-six percent of the women were empowered in all household decisions. Levels of women's empowerment adjusted for age, residence, education, interaction between empowerment and education, work status, and female genital cutting status of currently-married women were entered in six logistic regression models in a sequential way. In the last model, those of high levels of empowerment and education were 8.06 times more likely not intending to perpetuate female genital cutting for their daughters than low- empowered low-educated women.

  5. Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

  6. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Southeast Nigeria: Study of Patients Attending Antenatal Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenyeaku, CC; Okeke, TC; Chigbu, CO; Ikeako, LC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with many women being victims of this harmful practice and its complications. The practice is rife in Southeast Nigeria and efforts have been made to discourage it. Objective: To determine women's views on aspects of female genital mutilation and the prevalence among the study population. Method: Women attending the antenatal clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Southe...

  7. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulvar epidermal inclusion cyst as a long-term complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM. We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  9. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  10. Australian midwives' perspectives on managing obstetric care of women living with female genital circumcision/mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2016-10-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision is a global health issue with increasing international migration of affected women and girls to countries unfamiliar with the practice. Western health care providers are unfamiliar with FGM, and managing obstetric care presents challenges to midwives who are in the forefront of care provision for the women. The participants in this Heideggerian qualitative interpretive study elucidated the strategies they used in overcoming the particular physical, emotional, and gynecological health issues with which mutilated women present. Ongoing emphases on women-centered, culturally competent maternity care are germane to optimal maternity care of circumcised women.

  11. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Raheela; Siddiqui, Khurram Mutahir

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widejly misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI.

  12. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection. How...... statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS........ However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images....... In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P

  13. Phosphoethanolamine decoration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipid A plays a dual immunostimulatory and protective role during experimental genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Yedery, Roshan D; Begum, Afrin A; Carlson, Russell W; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2014-06-01

    The induction of an intense inflammatory response by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the persistence of this pathogen in the presence of innate effectors is a fascinating aspect of gonorrhea. Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A increases gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and recently we reported that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 has a survival advantage relative to a PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infection models. Here we tested the immunostimulatory role of this lipid A modification. Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. Moreover, vaginal proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were not elevated in female mice infected with the isogenic lptA mutant, in contrast to mice infected with the wild-type and complemented lptA mutant bacteria. We also demonstrated that lptA mutant bacteria were more susceptible to human and murine cathelicidins due to increased binding by these peptides and that the differential induction of NF-κB by wild-type and unmodified lipid A was more pronounced in the presence of CAMPs. This work demonstrates that PEA decoration of lipid A plays both protective and immunostimulatory roles and that host-derived CAMPs may further reduce the capacity of PEA-deficient lipid A to interact with TLR4 during infection.

  14. Recurrence and risk of progression to lower genital tract malignancy in women with high grade VAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodeib, Melissa; Cohen, Joshua G; Mehta, Sukrant; Rimel, B J; Walsh, Christine S; Li, Andrew J; Karlan, Beth Y; Cass, Ilana

    2016-06-01

    High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) II-III has a variable clinical course. Due to the rarity of VAIN, existing data on the efficacy of treatment, risk of recurrence and progression to carcinoma is limited. Our objective was to evaluate predictors of recurrent disease and describe the risk of progression to carcinoma. Under an IRB-approved protocol 42 patients with biopsy-proven VAIN II-III from 1995 to 2015 were retrospectively identified. Demographics, treatment, and clinical course were abstracted from medical records. Patients were followed with semi-annual colposcopy and biopsies at physician discretion. Standard statistical analyses were applied. Median patient age was 58years old (range 20-81). Median follow-up time was 45months (range 9-195). Management included excision (31%), laser ablation (33%), topical agents (19%), and observation (10%), with the following rates of recurrence: 38%, 43%, 75%, and 50% (p=0.26). 20 patients (48%) had recurrent or persistent disease during treatment follow-up. No specific primary treatment was significantly more effective in preventing recurrence. Recurrence of VAIN II-III occurred at a median of 17.4months (7-78months) from time of initial diagnosis. Five (12%) patients developed invasive cancer of the lower genital tract. Median time to cancer diagnosis was 64months (30 to 101months). Patients with VAIN II-III are at high risk of recurrence and progression, suggesting the need for ongoing evaluation with cytology and comprehensive colposcopy by a skilled specialist. There were no clear risk factors or histopathologic criteria which predicted recurrence or progression to cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sensationalising the female pudenda: an examination of public communication of aesthetic genital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E

    2012-12-26

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms.

  16. Complex genital structures indicate cryptic female choice in a haplogyne spider (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae, Gamasomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Female genital structures with their allied muscles of the haplogyne spider Opopaea fosuma are described. A functional explanation of this system is given, which indicates that cryptic female choice may occur in these spiders: the anterior wall of their spermatheca is strongly sclerotized and possesses a cone-shaped hole in its upper part. A transverse sclerite that serves as muscle attachment bears a nail-like structure and lies in a chitinized area of the anterior wall of the uterus externus. Muscle contraction presses this nail into the hole of the spermatheca. In this way, the uterus externus gets both locked and fixed. Furthermore, as this occurs the copulatory orifice is enlarged and the resulting suction probably leads to previously deposited sperm being drawn from the spermatheca and dumped. This is a common mechanism used by females to influence a male's chances of fathering their offspring in a process known as cryptic female choice.

  17. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology

  18. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

  19. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra.

  20. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.

  1. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  2. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-03

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT(+) group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT(+) group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, PT cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT(+) group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition.

  3. A study of female genital swabs in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Nwadioha; Julie O Egesie; Henry Emejuo; Elizabeth Iheanacho

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge and improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods:A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from obstetrics and gynecology units of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and an analysed of microscopy, culture and sensitivity in the medical microbiology and parasitology laboratory of this hospital were conducted from December 2007 to December 2008. Data on epidemiologic indices were collected from the patients, using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results:Eight hundred and forty Candida species were detected, constituting 60%(n=840) of 1 400 female genital discharge samples of microbial etiology in a total of 2 000 female genital samples received. The distribution of vaginal candidiasis was the highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years with 43%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Pregnant women that presented with vaginal candidiasis constituted 40%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Other risk groups included the immuno-suppression with 24%(n=202), group on hormonal therapy with 15%(n=126) and broad spectrum antibiotics users with 16%(n=134). Conclusions:The results show that Candida is the most common cause of vaginitis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis followed by C. albicans in the young adults aged 21 to 30 years, pregnant mothers, immuno-suppression, contraceptive and broad spectrum antibiotic users. Proper management of vaginal candidiasis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis is recommended especially among the risk groups in order to avoid complications and reduce HIV transmission.

  4. Management of painful clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-02-08

    Traumatic neuromas are the result of regenerative disorganized proliferation of the proximal portion of lesioned nerves. They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C involves partial or total removal of the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It can involve cutting of the clitoris and can cause psychological, sexual, and physical complications. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms and management of women presenting with a clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). We identified women who attended our specialized clinic for women with FGM/C who were diagnosed with a traumatic neuroma of the clitoris between April 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. We reviewed their medical files and collected socio-demographic, clinical, surgical, and histopathological information. Seven women were diagnosed with clitoral neuroma. Six attended our clinic to undergo clitoral reconstruction, and three of these suffered from clitoral pain. The peri-clitoral fibrosis was removed during clitoral reconstruction, which revealed neuroma of the clitoris in all six subjects. Pain was ameliorated after surgery. The seventh woman presented with a visible and palpable painful clitoral mass diagnosed as a neuroma. Excision of the mass ameliorated the pain. Sexual function improved in five women. One was not sexually active, and one had not yet resumed sex. Post-traumatic clitoral neuroma can be a consequence of FGM/C. It can cause clitoral pain or be asymptomatic. In the case of pain symptoms, effective treatment is neuroma surgical excision, which can be performed during clitoral reconstruction. Surgery should be considered as part of multidisciplinary care. The efficacy of neuroma excision alone or during clitoral reconstruction to treat clitoral pain should be further assessed among symptomatic

  5. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.

  6. Epidermal inclusion cyst of the clitoris 30 years after female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Albert; Omurtag, Kenan; Roberts, Carla

    2010-08-01

    To present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female circumcision, the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. Case report and literature review. University hospital. A 37-year-old female from Guinea with a large clitoral mass of 6 months' duration. Complete history and physical exam of the patient and subsequent surgical resection of the cyst. Diagnosis, surgical management, and postoperative sexual function and emotional well-being. Resolution of swelling and discomfort, satisfactory postoperative sexual function and emotional well-being. There should be awareness of one of the relatively common delayed complications of female genital circumcision and familiarity with its surgical management. Overall, surgical management appears to be effective, and there is no documented risk of recurrence.

  7. Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin

    2009-03-01

    This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.

  8. Criminal enforcement in the area of female genital mutilation in France, England and the Netherlands: a comparative law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Renée; Wahedi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The criminal justice system in Western countries is ever more frequently facing the question of how to deal with immigrants’ cultural practices, such as honour killings, blood revenges and female circumcision, better known as ‘Female Genital Mutilation’, that are considered to be in violation of hum

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the genital tract determined by hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Carestiato

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted virus worldwide. It is known to be the etiological agent of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Recently developed, the second generation of the hybrid capture test (HCA II is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, hybridization assay, designed to detect 18 HPV types divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 7,314 patients (5,833 women and 1,481 men for HPV infection by HCA II. Among them, 3,008 (41.1% presented HPV infection: 430 (14.2% had HPV DNA of low risk for cancer, 1,631 (54.2% had high risk HPV types and 947 (31.5% had both types. The prevalence in females was 44.9%. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the group for which cytological results were available was slightly higher: 55.3% (1007/1824. Significant differences were detected in the frequency of HPV infection of the cervix between normal cases and those with high-grade squamous-intraepithelial lesions (HSIL(P<0.0001. Among males, the prevalence was 26.2%, composed of 9.1% in Group A, 9.7% in Group B and 7.4% with multiple infections. We observed that male prevalence was lower and that low-risk types were more frequent than in females. HPV viral load was significantly greater in SILs than in normal or inflammatory cases (P<0.0001, suggesting an association between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of high costs, the HCA II test cannot be recommended for routine mass screening for cervical infection in poor countries. Nevertheless, it was found to be a useful tool, when combined with cytology, discovering high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues and revealing silent infections that may be responsible for the maintenance of HPV in the general population. These findings point to the need for close and careful management of patients, thereby reducing overtreatment

  10. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery.

  11. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-04-01

    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  12. Perception of primary health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation: from healthcare to intercultural competence

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    Fàbregas Ma Jose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM, a deeply-rooted tradition in 28 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, carries important negative consequences for the health and quality of life of women and children. Migratory movements have brought this harmful traditional practice to our medical offices, with the subsequent conflicts related to how to approach this healthcare problem, involving not only a purely healthcare-related event but also questions of an ethical, cultural identity and human rights nature. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions, degree of knowledge, attitudes and practices of the primary healthcare professionals in relation to FGM. A transversal, descriptive study was performed with a self-administered questionnaire to family physicians, paediatricians, nurses, midwives and gynaecologists. Trends towards changes in the two periods studied (2001 and 2004 were analysed. Results A total of 225 (80% professionals answered the questionnaire in 2001 and 184 (62% in 2004. Sixteen percent declared detection of some case in 2004, rising three-fold from the number reported in 2001. Eighteen percent stated that they had no interest in FGM. Less than 40% correctly identified the typology, while less than 30% knew the countries in which the practice is carried out and 82% normally attended patients from these countries. Conclusion Female genital mutilations are present in primary healthcare medical offices with paediatricians and gynaecologists having the closest contact with the problem. Preventive measures should be designed as should sensitization to promote stands against these practices.

  13. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking.

  14. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

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    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  15. Sclerosing variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Masao; Saitou, Toshiaki; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2011-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComas), other than angiomyolipoma, clear cell 'sugar' tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in the soft tissue and visceral organs. We report herein two cases of sclerosing PEComa; a distinctive variant of PEComa, which is characterized by extensive stromal hyalinization, occurring in the uterus and broad ligament. The patients were 34- and 51-year-old females with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the tumors had white to gray cut surfaces and were microscopically composed of predominantly spindle- to polygon-shaped cells with clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei focally arranged in a perivascular pattern, accompanied by marked stromal hyalinization. These tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45 and α-smooth muscle actin. Although this variant of PEComa is very rare, this entity should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm of the female genital organs.

  16. Anti-gp120 minibody gene transfer to female genital epithelial cells protects against HIV-1 virus challenge in vitro.

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    Ussama M Abdel-Motal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cervico-vaginal epithelial cells of the female lower genital tract provide the initial defense system against HIV-1 infection, the protection is sometimes incomplete. Thus, enhancing anti-HIV-1 humoral immunity at the mucosal cell surface by local expression of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAb that block HIV-1 entry would provide an important new intervention that could slow the spread of HIV/AIDS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study tested the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV-BnAb gene transfer to cervico-vaginal epithelial cells will lead to protection against HIV-1. Accordingly, a recombinant AAV vector that encodes human b12 anti-HIV gp120 BnAb as a single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFvFc, or "minibody" was constructed. The secreted b12 minibody was shown to be biologically functional in binding to virus envelope protein, neutralizing HIV-1 and importantly, blocking transfer and infectivity of HIV-1(bal in an organotypic human vaginal epithelial cell (VEC model. Furthermore, cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells were found to be efficiently transduced by the optimal AAV serotype mediated expression of GFP. CONCLUSION: This study provides the foundation for a novel microbicide strategy to protect against sexual transmission of HIV-1 by AAV transfer of broadly neutralizing antibody genes to cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells that could replenish b12 BnAb secreting cells through multiple menstrual cycles.

  17. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M.I. de; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; Dorsten, L. van; Azzawi, R.; Zuilekom, H.I. van; Peters, P.P.; Opzeeland, F.J. van; Dijk, L. van; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verweij, P.J.; Duijnhoven, W.G. van; Bosch, J.F. van den; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  18. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  19. [Female victims of sexual abuse: coercive methods and non-genital injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Jair Naves dos; Martin, Carmen Cinira Santos; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the coercive methods used by sex offenders and the occurrence of non-genital injuries in female children, adolescent, and adult victims of sexual abuse reported to the Women's Police Precinct and examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2000. Age distribution followed the criteria established by Brazil's Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on issues pertaining to minors). Physical violence was the most frequently used form of coercion against adults (44.1%) and adolescents (25.0%), followed by serious threat in 36.5% and 17.0% of the cases, respectively. Presumed violence by innocentia consilii occurred in 94.1% of the children and 42.8% of the adolescents. Minor non-genital injuries were found in 7.8% of the cases, involving children (3.0%), adolescents (7.2%), and adults (14.4%), with no weapons involved in 75.0% of these cases. A decrease in the number of cases with injuries was observed in relation to knives (14.3%) and handguns (10.7%) used against adult and adolescent victims.

  20. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-11-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  1. Conocimiento del personal de salud sobre la mutilación genital femenina Knowledge of health personnel about female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanny Cambronero-Aguilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: La mutilación genital femenina genera consecuencias psicológicas, sexuales, sociales y médicas a corto y largo plazo, es una práctica común en países no occidentales; sin embargo, a medida que las poblaciones se dispersan se está convirtiendo en un problema a tratar dondequiera que los grupos practicantes se establezcan. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el grado de conocimiento de médicos y enfermeras obstétricas sobre mutilación genital femenina, sus consecuencias y manejo clínico. Materiales y método: Se realizó un cuestionario compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, el cual se aplicó a 70 médicos y 30 enfermeras, entre octubre y noviembre de 2006, en cuatro hospitales nacionales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, específicamente: San Juan de Dios, México, de la Mujer, y Calderón Guardia. Resultados: El 81% respondió que conocía acerca de la mutilación genital femenina, sin embargo 63% ignoraba que la mutilación genital femenina puede producir complicaciones obstétricas y 97% dijo desconocer el método de deinfibulación. El 60% de los médicos manifestó no estar preparado para manejar un caso de mutilación genital femenina. Discusión: Se refleja falta de conocimiento sobre este tema, explicado porque no es un diagnóstico común en la práctica médica en Costa Rica. No obstante, el hecho de que estas poblaciones estén migrando a nuevos territorios y que sí se haya documentado este diagnóstico en el país, justifica la necesidad de mayor información al personal de salud, sobre todo en el posible manejo que se le daría a una de estas pacientes. En este sentido es relevante el papel de la educación médica continua.Background and aim: Nowadays, the short and long-term consequences in psychological, sexual, social and medical areas of female genital mutilation are known. It is a common practice in non occidental countries. However because of globalization and

  2. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pashaei

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09 who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

  3. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

  4. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers’ Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers’ neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one’s daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. PMID:27031613

  5. Internalizing Knowledge and Changing Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting/Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger-Lise Lien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood.

  6. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries.

  7. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

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    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  8. Gender differences in support for the discontinuation of female genital cutting in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Marguerite L

    2014-06-01

    Despite decades of policies, interventions and legislation, many girls and women are being subjected to female genital cutting (FGC) across the African continent. Because FGC has profound implications for women's wellbeing and reproductive health rights, an examination of behavioural changes toward the practice is imperative to reinforce strategies directed at eradicating it. Using a nationally representative survey, this study examines support for discontinuation of FGC and its associated predictors among both women and men in Sierra Leone. Findings reveal gender differences in attitudes toward the elimination of the practice across most of the socioeconomic predictors. Interestingly, beliefs about and perceived benefits of FGC emerge as important determinants of the support for the elimination of FGC, both genders considered. The findings highlight the importance of achieving gender equality and women's empowerment, and the necessity for a more contextualised approach to FGC eradication.

  9. Modulation of inflammation in the female reproductive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Shalini Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Physiological inflammation occurs in the female reproductive tract, but pathological inflammation is implicated in reproductive pathologies such as preterm labour and endometrial cancer. Preterm labour (PTL, before 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of preterm birth, neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidities. Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer, and its pathogenesis is characterised by chronic inflammation. The overall aims of this thesis were ...

  10. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  11. Female genital mutilation and intimate partner violence in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2014-01-22

    Serious forms of violence against women include Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The aim of this study was to determine if FGM is associated with IPV, using data obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2012 in Ivory Coast. Participants for this study were drawn from the 2011-12 Ivory Coast Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative sample of 10060 women aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis of this paper is restricted to the sample of women who responded to the FGM and domestic violence modules (N = 5005). The lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 24.8%, sexual violence, 5.7%, and emotional violence, 19.0%, and the prevalence of any lifetime IPV was 32.1%. In all, 40.6% reported female genital cutting or mutilation (FGM). Women reporting FGM were two times as likely to experience sexual IPV (AOR: 1.96, CI: 1.29-2.98), while other subtypes of IPV were higher in women reporting FGM but they were not significant. Of the socio-demographic covariates, urban residence and having a primary education were associated with most subtypes of IPV, while being a Muslim seemed protective from any type, sexual and emotional IPV. Having seen the father beating the mother was positively associated with most IPV subtypes, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the previous 12 months was associated with physical and sexual IPV. Significant rates of FGM and IPV were found among this sample of Ivorian women calling for the need for multiple strategies to reduce FGM and IPV.

  12. Female genital interventions: Between the plastic surgeon’s scalpel and the ritual knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Barbera, MariaCaterina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available While enormous and growing sums of money are spent each year in genital cosmetic surgeries, ritual female genital interventions increasingly meet strong political and social opposition. Which interpretative models have been adopted to define some interventions as “cosmetic” and the others as “criminal”? Is there a colonialist attitude implicit in banning ritual female genital interventions? This appear to be the case after a joint examination of the health risks associated with the breast implant, the symbolic meanings of the ritual interventions, the strategic reinvention of traditional practices, and the use of the binomy health/pathology as a “controlling process”. This paper challenges the assumption that who is exposed to the plastic surgeon’s scalpel enjoys freedom and autonomy in an oppression-free society, while who is subjected to the ritual knife is a passive victim of traditional patriarchal societies.

    Mientras se gastan cifras enormes y cada año crecientes en intervenciones quirúrgicas que modifican los órganos sexuales, las intervenciones rituales sobre los genitales femeninos encuentran una oposición política y social cada vez más fuerte. ¿Cuáles son los modelos interpretativos adoptados para definir como estéticas a unas y criminales a las otras? ¿Existe una actitud colonialista implícita en la condena de las intervenciones rituales sobre los genitales femeninos? Este parece ser el caso cuando se examinan conjuntamente los daños para la salud derivados del implante mamario, los significados simbólicos de las intervenciones rituales, la reinvención estratégica de las prácticas tradicionales y el uso del binomio salud/patología como “proceso de control”. Este artículo propone cuestionar la idea de que quien se somete al bisturí del cirujano plástico disfruta de libertad y autonomía en una sociedad libre de opresión, mientras que quien se expone al cuchillo ritual es víctima pasiva de

  13. Self-assessment of genital anatomy and sexual function within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Guy; Callens, Nina; De Sutter, Petra; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Cools, Martine; Hoebeke, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Data on self-perceived genital anatomy and sensitivity should be part of the long-term follow-up of genitoplasty procedures. However, no normative data, based on a large sample, exist to date. Validation of the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Female version (SAGAS-F) questionnaire within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population. Seven hundred forty-nine women with no history of genital surgery (aged 18-69 years, median 25 years) completed an Internet-based survey of whom 21 women underwent a gynecological examination as to correlate self-reported genital sensitivity assessed in an experimental setting. The SAGAS-F enables women to rate the sexual pleasure, discomfort, intensity of orgasm, and effort required for achieving orgasm in specified areas around the clitoris and within the vagina, as well as genital appearance. The latter was similarly evaluated by an experienced gynecologist, and women were asked to functionally rate the anatomical areas pointed out with a vaginal swab. Sexual pleasure and orgasm were strongest, and effort to attain orgasm and discomfort was lowest when stimulating the clitoris and sides of the clitoris (P clitoris. Functional scores on the SAGAS-F and during gynecological examination corresponded highly on most anatomical areas (P clitoris itself appeared to be the most sensitive, consistent with maximum nerve density in this area. Surgery to the clitoris could disrupt neurological pathways and compromise erotic sensation and pleasure. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

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    Gebremichael MW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it

  15. The lower prevalence of female genital mutilation in the Netherlands: a nationwide study in Dutch midwifery practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfker, D.G.; Reis, R.; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Meijer-van Asperen, S.; Read, L.; Sanjuan, M.; Herschderfer, K.; Buitendijk, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in women giving birth in 2008 in the Netherlands. Method A retrospective questionnaire study was conducted. The study covered all 513 midwifery practices in the Netherlands. The data were analysed with SPSS 17.0. Results The r

  16. The Dutch approach to female genital mutilation in view of the ECHR The time for change has come

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Renée

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide female genital mutilation (FGM) is acknowledged as a serious violation of human rights which needs to be actively combated. However, in Europe France has been the only state to have prosecuted cases of FGM: until 2007 37 cases were tried. As for the Netherlands, (assumingly) FGM is practis

  17. Venous angioarchitecture of the bovine female genital organ Angioarquitetura venosa do órgão genital da fêmea bovina

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    M.M. Gioso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The venous angioarchitecture of the non-pregnant female genital organs from five cattle obtained from a slaughterhouse was studied for possible anastomoses of the vulva and vagina vasa and the uterus-ovary vein, with the aid of the X-ray technique. In the laboratory, a branch of the caudal vaginal vein was injected with radiographic contrast. Vaginal vein formed and anastomotic network in the ventral surface of the uterus between the right and left sides. The genitals present anastomoses of the vulvar and vaginal veins with vasa of cervix, body and uterine horns and suggest that a portion of luteolytic agents injected through intravulvosubmucosal route can be transported directly to the ovary through a local route before reaching the systemic circulation.Investigou-se a angioarquitetura venosa da genitália de fêmeas bovinas não prenhes, para avaliar a presença de possíveis anastomoses dos vasos provenientes da região da vulva e da vagina com a veia útero-ovariana, usando-se cinco peças obtidas em abatedouros. No laboratório, um ramo da veia vaginal caudal, infundido com contraste radiográfico intravascular, foi submetido à radiografia. Observou-se que a veia vaginal forma intensa rede de anastomoses na superfície ventral do útero, entre os antímeros direito e esquerdo. As genitálias apresentaram anastomoses dos vasos vulvares e vaginais com vasos da cérvice, corpo e cornos uterinos, sugerindo que parte de um agente luteolítico administrado via intravulvosubmucosa pode ser transportado diretamente aos ovários por uma rota local, sem atingir a circulação sistêmica.

  18. Ultrastructural effect of sildenafil citrate on corpus cavernosum and other genital organs in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kilinc; M.I.Guenduez; B.H.Guemues; S.Vatansever; F.Kaymaz

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To determine the ultrastructural effects of sildenafil on the female genital organs.Methods:Twenty female cycling Wistar albino rats weighing 250±20 g were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each.Rats of one group were gavaged with 0.5mg·kg-1·d-1 of sildenafil 3 days in a week for 4 weeks and the other served as the controls.After cessation of treatment animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under methoxyflurane anaesthesia.The clitoris,vagina,uterus and bartholin glands were taken at the estrous and were fixed with 10% formalin solution for light microscopy and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and osmic acid for electron microscopy.Results:Under the light microscope,the fibrocollageous tissue was found increased,the capillaries enlarged and the connecting tissue elements increased in the corpus cavernosum in the treated group.On electron microscopy,increased connective tissue,fibroblasts with notched nucleus,shorten immature collagen fibers without striation were seen.Abundant foldings and penetration with collagen bundles were observed in the basal membrane.Large connection complexes,especially gap junctions among the wide capillary endothelial cells were observed.Conclusion:There are evident histological changes due to sildenafil citrate in female rat corpus cavernosum.The clitoris and bartholin glands were the most effected organs.While the histopathological changes of clitoral tissue could be expected,and increase in the mass of bartholin gland was surprised.

  19. [Natural Outcome of Genital Tract High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Factors among 760 Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Di; Ma, Qian; Li, Na; Cui, Xu-qin; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the natural outcome of genital tract high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and associated factors among women in Xi'an region. Totally 760 women with primary genital tract HR-HPV infection were enrolled and followed up by HPV-DNA genotyping technology. The cervical cytological techniques and/or colposcopy were used when necessary. Among these subjects,the natural clearance rate of HR-HPV infection was 71.58%,with the median time of 8.10 months. The rate of HPV persistent infection was 22.63%, with the median time of 17.23 months. The rate of progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/cervical cancer (CC) was 5.79%, with the median time of 29.34 months. The natural clearance rate (P=0.000), persistent infection rate (P=0.000) and progression rate (P=0.040) in women older than 50 years were statistically difference from other age groups. The persistent infection rate in multiple infections group was significantly lower than that in single infection group (P=0.010), with the median time statistically longer than that in single infection group (P=0.018). The most easily progressive genotypes were HPV-16,HPV-33, HPV-58,HPV-18,HPV-52, and HPV-68, among which HPV-16 was the most common genotype in CIN 3/CC cases, accounting for 85.00%. Most of HR-HPV infections are naturally cleared within 2 years, and only a few cases progresses to CIN/CC. Women older than 50 years have a lower natural clearance rate and higher persistent and progressive rates. Multiple infections can affect the persistent infection. HPV-16 is the most common carcinogenic genotype in Xi'an region.

  20. Highly-Exposed HIV-1 seronegative Female Commercial Sex Workers sustain in their genital mucosa increased frequencies of tolerogenic myeloid and regulatory T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, V.; Fourcade, L.; Labbé, A.-C.; Alary, M.; Guédou, F.; Poudrier, J.; Roger, M.

    2017-01-01

    We and others have shown that HIV-1 highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) female commercial sex workers (CSWs) maintain low genital inflammatory conditions to prevent HIV infection. HIV-1 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLR)-7/8 to induce interferon (IFN)-α, an important antiviral and immunomodulatory cytokine, which act together with interleukin (IL)-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-4 to initiate a “tolerogenic/regulatory” anti-inflammatory loop. In view of further unravelling elements associated with natural immunity to HIV-1, we have characterised TLR-7, IFN-α, IL-10, HLA-G and ILT-4 expression profiles in the genital tract of female CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs from Benin. Endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells from HESN CSWs expressed higher levels of IFN-α, TLR-7, IL-10 and HLA-G than those from both HIV-1-infected CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs. Further characterization of the endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells in HESN CSWs revealed a population of “tolerogenic” CD103+ CD14+ CD11c+ myeloid cells expressing high levels of IFN-α and IL-10. Concomitantly, HESN CSWs had higher frequencies of endocervical regulatory CD4+ T-cells when compared to those from the two other groups of women. These novel findings provide strong evidence to support the implication of tolerogenic myeloid cells expressing high levels of antiviral molecules in shaping the genital mucosal immune response to prevent HIV infection. PMID:28262752

  1. Genetic variation in a female genital trait evolved by sexual coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Ambriz, Georgina; Mota, Diana; Cordero, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component of signa shape in the BG population, and in body weight, signa length and in one uniform component of signa shape in the FC population. Extranuclear maternal contributions could permit the evolution of female adaptations even if these reduce male fitness. We found additive genetic variation in signa length and width only in one population (BG); heritability estimates were high: 0.96 and 0.8, respectively. The existence of additive genetic variation in signa size could be, at least in part, a result of relaxed sexually antagonistic selection pressures due to the low level of polyandry exhibited by this species. Our results imply that there is currently potential for further sexual coevolution in this trait.

  2. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  3. Attitude toward female genital mutilation among Somali and Harari people, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Abathun AD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asresash Demissie Abathun,1 Johanne Sundby,2 Abdi A Gele3 1Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Health and Society, 2Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, 3Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM is a worldwide problem, and it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. This practice results in short- and long-term health consequences on women’s health. Like many other developing countries, FGM is widely practiced in Ethiopia, especially among Somali and Harari ethnic groups. Despite intensive campaigns against FGM in Ethiopia, since 2011, it has been practiced in the aforementioned communities. There is no recent information as to whether these campaigns have an impact on the attitude and practice of the community regarding FGM. This qualitative research was aimed at exploring the attitudes of Somali and Harari people between 18 and 65 years toward FGM.Methods: A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 (32 in each region participants. Data were collected from October to December 2015 in Somali and Harari Regions.Results: The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Marriageability was the major reason for practicing FGM in Somali region, whereas making girls calm, sexually inactive, and faithful for their husbands were mentioned in Harari region. Although young men in both the regions prefer to marry uncircumcised girls, the study showed that there are some differences in the attitude toward the FGM practice between the people in the two regions.Conclusion: The findings

  4. Health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting in the Gambia, evidence into action

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    Hechavarría Suiberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is a harmful traditional practice with severe health complications, deeply rooted in many Sub-Saharan African countries. In The Gambia, the prevalence of FGM/C is 78.3% in women aged between 15 and 49 years. The objective of this study is to perform a first evaluation of the magnitude of the health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia. Methods Data were collected on types of FGM/C and health consequences of each type of FGM/C from 871 female patients who consulted for any problem requiring a medical gynaecologic examination and who had undergone FGM/C in The Gambia. Results The prevalence of patients with different types of FGM/C were: type I, 66.2%; type II, 26.3%; and type III, 7.5%. Complications due to FGM/C were found in 299 of the 871 patients (34.3%. Even type I, the form of FGM/C of least anatomical extent, presented complications in 1 of 5 girls and women examined. Conclusion This study shows that FGM/C is still practiced in all the six regions of The Gambia, the most common form being type I, followed by type II. All forms of FGM/C, including type I, produce significantly high percentages of complications, especially infections.

  5. Prevalence and incidence of external genital warts in a sample of Italian general female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Vittori, Giorgio; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Timelli, Laura; Corsini, Dario; Fattorini, Giovanni; Mariani, Luciano

    2017-02-06

    The Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate: 1) the prevalence and the incidence of external genital warts (eGW) in a sample of women attending community outpatient clinics and 2) the total number of eGW cases in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. A prospective study was performed for a 12-month period between 2009 and 2010, among a sample of women attending community gynecological outpatient clinics located throughout Italy. Demographic data, for every woman aged 15-64 years, were collected. For women diagnosed with eGW, behavioral and clinical data were recorded. Prevalence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists; incidence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with a new diagnosis of eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists. Standardized prevalence by age was used to estimate the number of eGW cases occurring in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. In 2009-2010, 44 community gynecologists were included in the network. In one-year period, 16,410 women visited any of the participating gynecologists; 63 women were diagnosed with eGW, corresponding to a prevalence of 3.8 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.9-4.9). The incidence of eGW was 3.0 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.2-3.9). Women aged 15-24 years showed both the highest prevalence and incidence. Prevalence and incidence significantly decreased by increasing age group (p stress the effectiveness of community clinical networks in investigating STI epidemiology among women from the general population, confirm the relevance of HPV vaccination programs among adolescents, and underscore the need of promoting safe sex, implementing early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genital warts.

  6. Characteristics of HIV target CD4 T cells collected using different sampling methods from the genital tract of HIV seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S; Sabula, Michael J; Mehta, C Christina; Haddad, Lisa B; Brown, Nakita L; Amara, Rama R; Ofotokun, Igho; Sheth, Anandi N

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune profile of CD4 T cells, the primary targets for HIV, in the female genital tract (FGT) is critical for evaluating and developing effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies in women. However, longitudinal investigation of HIV susceptibility markers expressed by FGT CD4 T cells has been hindered by low cellular yield and risk of sampling-associated trauma. We investigated three minimally invasive FGT sampling methods to characterize and compare CD4 T cell yield and phenotype with the goal of establishing feasible sampling strategies for immune profiling of mucosal CD4 T cells. FGT samples were collected bimonthly from 12 healthy HIV negative women of reproductive age in the following order: 1) Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), 2) two sequential endocervical flocked swabs (FS), and 3) two sequential endocervical cytobrushes (CB1, CB2). Cells were isolated and phentoyped via flow cytometry. CD4 T cell recovery was highest from each individual CB compared to either CVL or FS (p sampling method, expressed CCR5 relative to peripheral blood (p samples. Using three different mucosal sampling methods collected longitudinally we demonstrate that CD4 T cells within the FGT express CCR5 and α4β7 and are highly activated, attributes which could act in concert to facilitate HIV acquisition. FS and CB sampling methods can allow for investigation of strategies to reduce HIV target cells in the FGT and could inform the design and interpretation microbicide and vaccine studies in women.

  7. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); however, TNF-α is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-α in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-α that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon-γ. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-α and IL-13 in scar formation.

  9. Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are ubiquitous and persistent compounds that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine homoeostasis. The female reproductive tract is exquisitely sensitive to the action of sex steroids, and oestrogens play a key role in normal reproductive function. Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are the fourth most common cancer in women, with endometrial cancer accounting for most cases. Established risk factors for development of endometrial cancer include high BMI and exposure to oestrogens or synthetic compounds such as tamoxifen. Studies on cell and animal models have provided evidence that many EDC can bind oestrogen receptors and highlighted early life exposure as a window of risk for adverse lifelong effects on the reproductive system. The most robust evidence for a link between early life exposure to EDC and adverse reproductive health has come from studies on women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Demonstration that EDC can alter expression of members of the HOX gene cluster highlights one pathway that might be vulnerable to their actions. In summary, evidence for a direct link between EDC exposure and cancers of the reproductive system is currently incomplete. It will be challenging to attribute causality to any single EDC when exposure and development of malignancy may be separated by many years and influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet (a source of phytoestrogens) and adiposity. This review considers some of the evidence collected to date.

  10. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

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    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  11. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

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    Bjarne Jansson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine women’s attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women’s attitudes towards FGM. RESULTS: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favour its discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favouring FGM practice – through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs – may play an important role in modifying women’s attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy.

  12. FEMALE GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS AS A CAUSE OF PRIMARY AMENORRHEA IN A YOUNG UNMARRIED WOMAN.

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    Zende Prashant

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Primary Amenorrhea is defined as 1No periods by ag e 14 in the absence of growth or development of secondary sexual character.2No peri ods by age 16 regardless of the presence of normal growth & development with the appearance of secondary sexual characters. Incidence of Extrapulmonary TB(EPTBis increasing i n young women throughout the world. We report a case of young woman apparently having n o sings & symptoms of Tuberculosis. CASE REPORT :-18 years young female patient was referred to us as a case of Primary Amenorrhea.She had Normal secondary sexual characte rs & normal Breast Development(Tanner staging of Breast-IV.She had negative Progesterone Challenge Test (PCT.Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test was negative. Diagnosis of End Organ Problem was done. Diagnosis of Genital Tuberculosis was confirmed by Hysterolaparoscopy. S he was given AKT for six months. Now she has positive Progestogen Challenge Test. DISCUSSION : Hysterolaparoscopy is important investigation in a case of Primary Amenorrhea with negative Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test. Counseling is necessary in unmarried young wo man for Minimally Invasive procedure like Hysterolaparoscopy. Short Chemotherapy has found to useful for FGTB.

  13. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: The Secret World of Women as Seen by Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kaplan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts aimed at the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C in the communities where it is deeply rooted have extensively considered and addressed women’s perceptions on the issue, leaving those of men barely acknowledged. Although the practice is generally confined to the secret world of women, it does not mean that men cannot be influential. Indeed, men can play an important role in prevention. In order to address this gap, and having as background an extensive ethnographic field work, a transversal descriptive study was designed to explore Gambian men’s knowledge and attitudes towards FGM/C, as well as related practices in their family/household. Results show ethnic identity, more than religion, as the decisive shaping factor on how men conceive and value FGM/C. The greater support towards the practice is found among traditionally practicing groups. A substantial proportion of men intend to have it performed on their daughters, although reporting a low involvement in the decision making process, with very few taking alone the final decision. Only a minority is aware of FGM/C health consequences, but those who understand its negative impact on the health and well-being of girls and women are quite willing to play a role in its prevention.

  14. Female genital mutilation of minors in Italy: is a harmless and symbolic alternative justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Di Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In 2004, Omar Abdulcadir - a gynecologist of the Centre for the prevention and therapy of female genital mutilation (FMG at the Careggi Hospital (Florence - proposed a “harmless and symbolic” alternative to FMG, which consists in the puncture of the clitoris under local anesthesia, in order to allow the outflow of some drops of blood (1.

    The intention behind the symbolic alternative is to avoid more severe forms of FGM while respecting cultural heritage. The proposal of this alternative procedure, which was sustained by the leaders of 10 local African immigrant communities, has encountered ample criticism (1.

    However, the question is: is the puncture of the clitoris prohibited by the Italian Law n. 7/2006? If it is not, could it be considered a method of reducing health risks caused by the more invasive forms of FGM (2? Or could it culturally legitimize FGM, causing a greater difficulty in the attempts to prevent and eradicate FGM in Italy?

  15. Improving estimates of the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among migrants in Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Elisa Ortensi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.

  16. Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.

  17. U.S. grants political asylum to woman who fled female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-28

    Fauziya Kasinga fled to the US from Togo in 1994 at the age of 17 years after an aunt forced her to marry a 45-year-old man with three wives. From the time of her arrival to the US in December 1994 to April 24, 1996, Kasinga was detained at two correctional facilities awaiting a decision by the US Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) on her request for political asylum. That asylum was granted in a 11-1 decision issued on June 13 on the grounds of Kasinga's fear of being forced to undergo female genital mutilation (FGM) if sent back to Togo. This is the first time that the BIA has ruled that FGM can be grounds for asylum. 50% of women in Togo are estimated to have undergone FGM. The BIA decided that the young woman met the criteria for receiving refuge because she is a member of a particular social group, the unmutilated women of the Tchamba-Kunsuntu tribe who face but oppose FGM, which has a well-founded fear of persecution which is country wide. Moreover, Kasinga's husband has influence with the police in Togo, a rather small country. This decision not only sets precedent with regard to FGM, but also is the first gender-based asylum claim to be considered since the Immigration and Naturalization Service revised its guidelines in May 1995 to cover such persecution.

  18. The Obstetric Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigmor C. Berg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C have been performed for millennia and continue to be prevalent in parts of Africa. Although the health consequences following FGM/C have been broadly investigated, divergent study results have called into question whether FGM/C is associated with obstetric consequences. To clarify the present state of empirical research, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and quantitative meta-analyses of the obstetric consequences of FGM/C. We included 44 primary studies, of which 28 were comparative, involving almost 3 million participants. The methodological study quality was generally low, but several studies reported the same outcome and were sufficiently similar to warrant pooling of effect sizes in meta-analyses. The meta-analyses results showed that prolonged labor, obstetric lacerations, instrumental delivery, obstetric hemorrhage, and difficult delivery are markedly associated with FGM/C, indicating that FGM/C is a factor in their occurrence and significantly increases the risk of delivery complications. There was no significant difference in risk with respect to cesarean section and episiotomy. These results can make up the background documentation for health promotion and health care decisions that inform work to reduce the prevalence of FGM/C and improve the quality of services related to the consequences of FGM/C.

  19. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  20. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women's attitudes towards FGM. Results: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation. Conclusions: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice - through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs - may play an important role in modifying women's attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. PMID:21483197

  1. Female Genital Cutting: shattering the debate yet still violating human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Jacquemin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Summary: The international fight against the various forms of female circumcision, or the mutilation of the genitals of women and children, has many different aspects. Although no religious text from any religion suggests the practice, still in many countries the torture of young girls and women continue. Even though there is an assumption that the phenomenon is exclusive to the developing world, many practices in the West, such as vaginal and vulvar surgeries, as well as changes to the face and body of women can be included in the same tendency to portray women as impure, incomplete, and in need of improvement so that she can be accepted by prospective husbands.

  2. Visceral and postural reflexes evoked by genital stimulation in urethane-anesthetized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, M; Chirino, R; Beyer, C; Komisaruk, B R; Pacheco, P

    1992-03-20

    The present study describes several muscular reflexes produced by genital stimulation, the nerves that subserve them, and the visceral and postural effects induced by these reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the iliococcygeus (ic) and pubococcygeus (pc) (striated) muscles produced movement of the vaginal orifice and wall, membranous urethra, tail and pelvis. Electrical stimulation of the psoas major (pm) or iliacus (i) (striated) muscles produced movements of the lumbar vertebrae and extension of the ipsilateral hindlimb. Sensory mechanostimulation elicited responses of these muscles as follows: stimulation of the perineal skin, clitoral sheath or distal vagina produced reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Stimulation of the cervix produced reflex contraction of the pm and i muscles and also blocked the above reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Both the cervical stimulation-induced blockage of the ic and pc reflex response, and the cervical stimulation-induced activation of pm and i muscles was prevented by bilateral transection of the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve. Based on the above observations, it is proposed that stimulation of the vaginal surface of the cervix resulting from penile intromission and/or seminal plug deposition during mating behavior in the rat may reflexively active pm and i, thereby contributing to the hindleg postural rigidity and lordotic dorsiflexion that are characteristic of the normal mating posture in female rats.

  3. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C.

  4. Leptospira interrogans in the genital tract of sheep. Research on ewes and rams experimentally infected with serovar hardjo (hardjobovis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R; Cerri, D; Renzoni, G; Andreani, E; Mani, P; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Nuvoloni, R

    1996-07-01

    To verify if Leptospira hardjo can colonize the male and female genital organs of sheep, 9 animals (6 non pregnant ewes and 3 mature rams) were infected with a strain of L. hardjobovis recently recovered from the kidneys of a seropositive ewe. Postinfection controls (bacteriologic, serologic, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy) failed to disclose the presence of leptospires in the uterus and oviducts, testicles, epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral glands of animals used for the experiment and slaughtered from 37 to 242 postinfection days. All animals showed a renal localization of L. hardjobovis lasting for the entire period of the study (over 8 months). These results emphasize the important role of sheep as maintenance hosts of the serovar.

  5. The increasing number of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England: analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S I M F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the number and trend of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England. An online search of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data was carried out. Data were available for the 4-year period from 2002-03 until 2005-06. The total number of surgical procedures carried out for female genital fistula steadily increased by 28.7% from 616 in 2002-03 to 793 in 2005-06. The number of surgical procedures performed for rectovaginal fistula exceeded the total number of surgical procedures carried out for vesicovaginal and urethrovaginal fistula in each year of the study period. This pattern needs to be monitored and investigated further.

  6. Intention toward the continuation of female genital mutilation in Bale Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bogale,1 Desalegn Markos,2 Muhammedawel Kaso1 1Department of Public Health, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It is associated with health complications and human rights violations. Research on intention for the continuation of FGM and the social determinants underpinning this practice are scarce. Therefore, this study intended to assess the intention of women toward the continuation of FGM among Bale Zone reproductive-age women.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study design supplemented by qualitative methods was conducted in 2014. A total of 634 reproductive-age women were involved in the quantitative part of the study. The respondents were drawn from five randomly selected districts of Bale Zone. The total sample was allocated proportionally to each district based on the number of reproductive-age women it has. Purposive sampling method was used for qualitative study. Then, data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows version 16.0. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to examine the existence of a relationship between intentions for the continuation of FGM and selected determinant factors.Results: This study revealed that 26.7% of the respondents had intention for the continuation of FGM. Religion, safeguarding virginity, tradition, and social values were the major reasons for the perpetuation of this practice. Circumcised respondents and those who were not able to read and write were ~3 (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = [1.33, 6.20] and 7.58 (adjusted odds ratio = 7.58, 95% confidence interval = [3.47, 16.54] times more likely intending the continuation of FGM than uncircumcised and those who

  7. Mothers' factors associated with female genital mutilation in daughters in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P

    2017-03-01

    An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.

  8. Attitude toward female genital mutilation among Somali and Harari people, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abathun, Asresash Demissie; Sundby, Johanne; Gele, Abdi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a worldwide problem, and it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. This practice results in short- and long-term health consequences on women’s health. Like many other developing countries, FGM is widely practiced in Ethiopia, especially among Somali and Harari ethnic groups. Despite intensive campaigns against FGM in Ethiopia, since 2011, it has been practiced in the aforementioned communities. There is no recent information as to whether these campaigns have an impact on the attitude and practice of the community regarding FGM. This qualitative research was aimed at exploring the attitudes of Somali and Harari people between 18 and 65 years toward FGM. Methods A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 (32 in each region) participants. Data were collected from October to December 2015 in Somali and Harari Regions. Results The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Marriageability was the major reason for practicing FGM in Somali region, whereas making girls calm, sexually inactive, and faithful for their husbands were mentioned in Harari region. Although young men in both the regions prefer to marry uncircumcised girls, the study showed that there are some differences in the attitude toward the FGM practice between the people in the two regions. Conclusion The findings show that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions, which calls for behavioral change communication using women-centered approach and culturally appropriate strategies. As young people in both the regions had the intention to marry uncircumcised girls, there has to be a strong advocacy and multisectoral

  9. Female genital mutilation: a systematic review of research on its economic and social impacts across four decades

    OpenAIRE

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Macias, Aurélie; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Félicien, Tshimungu Kandolo; Verloo,Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K. Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background:\\ud Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that t...

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among doctors and nurses in Bayelsa state, Niger-Delta of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeyemi A.S; Ibrahim I.A; Ekine A.A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197) s...

  11. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) and testosterone on the female genital system in the mesogastropod Littorina littorea (Prosobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, U.; Fioroni, P.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments were performed with the mesogastropod Littorina littorea on Helgoland, in Roscoff, and in the laboratory in order to evaluate the reaction of the female genital system to TBT, an environmental toxicant. The snails were either injected with 50 or 100 ng tributyltin (TBT) soluted in ethanol or exposed to artificial sea water treated with 5, 50, 100, and 200 ng TBT/l, and 33 ng testosterone/l. The duration of the experiments was either four or eight weeks. None of the analysed female L. littorea showed signs of imposex. Compared to results for the control groups, the size of the female glandular complex was significantly reduced if the pre-experimental toxication was already high, as is the case in snails collected around Helgoland. TBT-related gland complex reduction occurs also in female L. littorea from other sampling sites. In addition, injection of ethanol also causes a decrease in gland size. The experimental results demonstrate that the distal female genital system responds with significantly lower sensitivity to TBT than that of other prosobranchs. This behaviour is ascribed to the lack of an androgen receptor at the ovipositor. The results further strengthen the case of the extreme rarity of imposex described for female L. littorea in natural habitats. However, strong TBT-toxication may affect L. littorea populations significantly because of increasing masculinization of the females, which reduces reproduction ability.

  12. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...... bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  13. The prevalence and genotype of human papillomavirus on cervical samples from an Irish female population with external genital warts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cremin, Suzanne M

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cervical genotype profile of females who presented to an STI Clinic with external genital warts (EGW); and to determine the potential vaccine coverage prior to the uptake of the HPV vaccines. Sixty-one cervical scrapings were taken from females aged 18-35 y who had external genital warts or a history of external genital warts. The resulting 50 samples that were positive for HPV-DNA were subjected to genotype identification. Forty-six of these samples had detectable genotypes by LIPA analysis and most (78%, 36\\/46) had multiple low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) genotypes on the cervix. Twenty-five of these samples (54%) had more than 1 HR genotype. Of the 36 patients who had any HR genotypes, 18 (50%) were identified to have the most oncogenic HPV genotypes, namely 16 and 18. Three of these samples had both 16 and 18 on the cervix. The presence of multiple HR genotypes on the majority of cervical samples from a self-referred population of females with EGW is presented. This study is of importance since persistent HR-HPV is the necessary risk factor in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardisil, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine would have been useful in the prevention of 28% (13\\/46) of these infections.

  14. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  15. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    Figure 6) (62, 152, 169). In 1990, David Taylor-Robinson described long-term gonococcal colonization following treatment of germ-free mice with 17β...oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection. J Immunol 171:6187-97. 68. David , L. M., A. A. Wade, D. Natin, and K. W. Radcliffe. 1997...Dis 178:742-51. 123. Heine, H., S. Muller-Loennies, L. Brade , B. Lindner, and H. Brade . 2003. Endotoxic activity and chemical structure of

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Fichorova, Raina N; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0-3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5(+) immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0-3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition.

  17. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dawood, Hassan Y.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D.; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0–3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5+ immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0–3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:26204200

  18. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from North-eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, P; Jori, F; López-Béjar, M

    2004-04-01

    The present study examines anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs and its relationships with the reproductive state of 24 wild adult collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) females. The tunica mucosa of the uterine tube presents a pseudostratified, intermittently ciliated columnar epithelium. The epithelial secretory cells of pregnant females and females in the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle became taller than the ciliated cells and showed abundant apical secretory blebs, whereas secretory cells of females in the follicular phase showed abundant mucous secretory activity (periodic acid-Schiff positive cells). The uterus is composed of two narrow and convoluted uterine horns, separated by the velum uteri, a small uterine body and a long and muscular cervix. The endometrial lining of both uterine horns and body is a monostratified, columnar ciliated epithelium. Pregnant females and females in luteal phase showed a more developed hyperplasia of the endometrial simple tubular glands than females in the follicular phase. The cervix presents interdigitated rows of mucosal prominences that project into the lumen, structures similar to pulvini cervicali, occluding the cervical canal. In pregnant females, the endocervical canal was filled by a viscous cervical secretion. Females in follicular phase presented a thicker vaginal epithelium than pregnant females and females in luteal phase. The present study suggests that the collared peccary female showed different histological features of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina in accordance with the reproductive state of the females.

  19. Female reproductive tract pain: targets, challenges, and outcomes

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    Phillip eJobling

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.

  20. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

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    Chul-Hong Lim

    Full Text Available The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  1. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  2. Female genital cutting starts to decline among women in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlenbeck, S; Mekonnen, W; Melkamu, Y

    2010-06-01

    The study explored factors influencing attitudes towards the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) among women in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Representative data from 2221 women aged 15-49 years from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey in 2005 were evaluated. Overall, 88.4% of women had undergone FGC. Prevalence significantly decreased with birth date, ranging from 95.1% in women aged 45-49 years to 75.8% in those aged 15-19 years. Overall, 63.7% of women favoured the discontinuation of FGC, while 29.7% favoured its continuation. Education was strongly correlated with a stance against the practice: while only 54.6% of illiterate women were against it, this figure was 95.5% among women who had completed secondary school. While the reported prevalence was similar among Christian (87.8%) and Islamic women (89.1%), 56.3% of Islamic women favoured discontinuation compared with 70.5% of Christian women. The higher that women scored on empowerment indices, the more they opposed the practice. In logistic regression models, educational level (P=0.001), personal FGC experience (P=0.001), religious affiliation (P=0.02) and self-empowerment were factors (P=0.01 and P=0.004) significantly associated with favouring discontinuation. Future efforts encouraging an end to FGC must include the illiterate population in the Oromia region and focus on improving the status of women. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical indications for cesarean delivery among women living with female genital mutilation.

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    Rodriguez, Maria I; Say, Lale; Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-10-01

    To compare primary indications for cesarean delivery among patients with different female genital mutilation (FGM) status. The present secondary analysis included data from women who underwent trial of labor resulting in cesarean delivery at 28 obstetric centers in six African countries between November 1, 2001, and March 31, 2003. Associations between cesarean delivery indications and FGM status were assessed using descriptive statistics and multivariable multinomial logistic regression. Data from 1659 women (480 patients with no type of FGM and 1179 patients with FGM [any type]) were included; cesarean delivery indications were collapsed into five categories (fetal indications, maternal factors, stage 1 arrest, stage 2 arrest, and other). The incidence of a clear medical indication for cesarean delivery did not differ between the groups (P=0.320). Among patients without a clear indication for cesarean delivery, women with FGM were more likely to have undergone cesarean delivery for maternal factors (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] 3.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-11.71), stage 1 arrest (aRRR 7.74, 95% CI 1.33-45.07), stage 2 arrest (aRRR 6.63, 95% CI 3.74-11.73), or other factors (aRRR 2.41, 95% CI 1.04-5.60) rather than fetal factors compared with women who had no type of FGM. Among women with unclear medical indications, FGM was associated with cesarean delivery being performed for maternal factors or arrest disorders. © 2017 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and PRs were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In some tissues, ER alpha expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone-mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER alpha and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

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    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  6. Labial fusion causing urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection in a postmenopausal female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirim, Ayhan; Hasirci, Eray

    2011-01-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted with recurrent urinary tract infection and a history of incontinence. General physical examination was normal. Complete labial fusion was noticed on genital examination. Surgical intervention was performed. This therapy alleviated incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  7. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

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    Abolfotouh SM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sherif M Abolfotouh,1,2 Ahmed Z Ebrahim,1,3 Mostafa A Abolfotouh4 On Behalf of IFMSA-Egypt 1IFMSA-Egypt, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 3Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25% than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001, and in those residing in Upper (southern Egypt (20.6% than in Lower (northern Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003. The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8% were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical

  8. Female genital mutilation – why does it still exist in Africa?

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    Annika Schmöker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM includes all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. FGM is practised in many parts of the world – including 28 African countries, some countries in the Middle East and Asia, and some population groups in Central and South America. Its prevalence rates range from 0.6% up to 97.9%, and it has been classified as a violation of human and children’s rights. Consequently, several countries have passed laws against the practice and many international programmes have been implemented to abandon it. Yet, FGM still prevails in many countries. This literature review aimed at identifying the underlying reasons for the perpetuation of FGM, ascertaining forces that foster its promotion and persistence and who is responsible for pushing its continuation. The main goal was to try to understand the underlying causes that make FGM resistant against initiatives and campaigns targeting its elimination. A literature search was carried out using several databases. All sources that approached the topic of FGM were incorporated including literature reviews, systematic reviews, qualitative and quantitative as well as mixed-method studies that described attitudes towards FGM and factors associated with its practice. Different factors that were interlinked could be identified at the individual, interpersonal, organisational/institutional as well as the community/societal level as the underlying causes of the perpetuation for FGM. These factors varied within and between different settings, and include individual characteristics such as parents’ level of education, place of residence, personal beliefs (aesthetics, health benefits, hygiene about FGM as well as the medicalisation of FGM and the involvement of health care professionals at the institutional level. Cultural factors like gender inequality, social norms and pressure also played an important role. Surprisingly

  9. Genital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Infertile Men and Its Effect on Semen Quality

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    M Golshani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Male urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomatic bacteriospermia has been paid attention as a major cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to microbiological investigation of semen sample of infertile men attending to infertility clinic and evaluation of the effects of bacteriospermia on semen quality. Eighty eight infertile men were evaluated by standard bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among total cases, 35.22% (31 cases showed at least one pathogen: 10.22% E.coli, 9.09% Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (Saprophyticcus, 6.81% Group B Streptococci, 5.88% Entrococci, 5.68% Candida sp., 2.27% Gonococci, 2.27% Staphylococcus aureus, 1.13% Klebsiella sp. and 1.13% Providencia sp. There was a significant relation between the bacteriospermia and the rate of no motile and morphologically abnormal sperms (P0.05. It seems that leukocytospermia is a poor marker to predict bacteriospermia.

  10. B cells enhance antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming and prevent bacteria dissemination following Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    B cells can contribute to acquired immunity against intracellular bacteria, but do not usually participate in primary clearance. Here, we examined the endogenous CD4 T cell response to genital infection with Chlamydia muridarum using MHC class-II tetramers. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expanded rapidly and persisted as a stable memory pool for several months after infection. While most lymph node Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expressed T-bet, a small percentage co-expressed Foxp3, and RORγt-expressing T cells were enriched within the reproductive tract. Local Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell priming was markedly reduced in mice lacking B cells, and bacteria were able to disseminate to the peritoneal cavity, initiating a cellular infiltrate and ascites. However, bacterial dissemination also coincided with elevated systemic Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell responses and resolution of primary infection. Together, these data reveal heterogeneity in pathogen-specific CD4 T cell responses within the genital tract and an unexpected requirement for B cells in regulating local T cell activation and bacterial dissemination during genital infection.

  11. Healthcare costs of urinary tract infections and genital mycotic infections among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiated on canagliflozin: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Tony B; Montejano, Leslie; Juneau, Paul; Bolge, Susan C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the economic impact of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and genital mycotic infections (GMIs) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiated on canagliflozin. Administrative claims data from April 2013 through June 2014 MarketScan(®) databases were extracted. Adults with ≥1 claim for canagliflozin, T2DM diagnosis, and ≥90 days enrollment before and after canagliflozin initiation were propensity score matched to controls with T2DM initiated on other anti-hyperglycemic agents (AHAs). UTI and GMI healthcare costs were evaluated 90-days post-index and reported as cohort means. Rates of UTI claims 90 days post-index were similar in patients receiving canagliflozin for T2DM (n = 31,257) and matched controls (2.7% vs 2.8%, p = .677). More canagliflozin than control patients had GMI claims (1.2% vs 0.6%, p canagliflozin patients vs matched controls ($27.61 vs $37.33, p = .150). GMI treatment costs were higher for the canagliflozin cohort ($3.68 vs $2.44, p = .041). Combined costs to treat either UTI and/or GMI averaged $31.29 per patient for the canagliflozin cohort v $39.77 for controls (p = .211). Rates and costs of UTIs and GMIs were higher for females than males, but the canagliflozin vs control trends observed for the overall sample were similar for both sexes. There were no significant cost differences between the canagliflozin and control cohorts among patients aged 18-64. Among patients aged 65 and above, GMI treatment costs were not significantly different, but costs to treat UTIs and either UTI and/or GMI were significantly lower for canagliflozin patients vs controls. In a real-world setting, the costs to payers of treating UTIs and GMIs are generally similar for patients with T2DM initiated on canagliflozin vs other AHAs.

  12. Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications

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    Chung Donna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years. Methods We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS. The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households of women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM. Main outcome measures i whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii whether she had one or more daughters with FGM. Results Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267 of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2% had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5% said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p Conclusions and Policy implications Factors associated with FGM are varied

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of female genital mutilation among midwives in Eastern Sudan

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    Ali Abdel Aziem A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM or cutting caries legal and bioethical debates and it is practiced in many developing countries. Methods Random selection of 154 midwives was used for the study during June 2012 and through July 2012 aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of the midwives towards FGM in Eastern Sudan. Results A total of 157 midwives enrolled in this study. They had been practicing for 3 – 44 years (mean SD 19.2 ± 10.3. More than two third of them experienced practicing FGM sometime in their life (127/157, 80.9%. There was low level of awareness of types of FGM practice since only 7% (11/157 identified the four types correctly. 53.5% (84/157 identified type 1 correctly while 18.5% (29/157, 17.8% (28/157 and 15.9% (25/157 identified type 2, 3 and 4 as correct respectively. While 30 (19.1% of the midwives claimed that all types of FGM are harmful, 76.4% (120/157 were of the opinion that some forms are not harmful and 7 (4.5% reported that all types of FGM are not harmful. Likewise while 74.5% (117/157 of the interviewed midwives mentioned that the FGM is a legal practice only 25.5% (40/117 were of the opinion that FGM is illegal practice. The vast majority of the respondents (64.3%, 101/157 have an opinion that FGM decreases the sexual pleasure. More than half (53.5%, 84/157 of the participants affirmed that FGM does not increase the risk of HIV transmission. High proportion of the respondents (71.3%, 112/157 did not know whether or not infertility could complicate FGM. Conclusions Thus a substantial effort should be made to discourage the continuation of FGM practice among midwives in Sudan. This might be achieved by improving knowledge and awareness among the midwives and the community

  14. Female Genital Mutilation: perceptions of healthcare professionals and the perspective of the migrant families

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    Kaplan-Marcusán Adriana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is a traditional practice which is harmful to health and is profoundly rooted in many Sub-Saharan African countries. It is estimated that between 100 and 140 million women around the world have been victims of some form of FGM and that each year 3 million girls are at risk of being submitted to these practices. As a consequence of the migratory phenomena, the problems associated with FGM have extended to the Western countries receiving the immigrants. The practice of FGM has repercussions on the physical, psychic, sexual and reproductive health of women, severely deteriorating their current and future quality of life. Primary healthcare professionals are in a privileged position to detect and prevent these situations of risk which will be increasingly more present in Spain. Methods/Design The objective of the study is to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the primary healthcare professionals, working in 25 health care centres in Barcelona and Girona regions, regarding FGM, as well as to investigate the perception of this subject among the migrant communities from countries with strong roots in these practices. A transversal descriptive study will be performed with a questionnaire to primary healthcare professionals and migrant healthcare users. Using a questionnaire specifically designed for this study, we will evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the healthcare professionals to approach this problem. In a sub-study, performed with a similar methodology but with the participation of cultural mediators, the perceptions of the migrant families in relation to their position and expectancies in view of the result of preventive interventions will be determined. Variables related to the socio-demographic aspects, knowledge of FGM (types, cultural origin, geographic distribution and ethnicity, evaluation of attitudes and beliefs towards FGM and previous contact or experience

  15. Effect of antitubercular treatment on ovarian function in female genital tuberculosis with infertility

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    Jai Bhagwan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of antitubercular therapy (ATT on an ovarian function such as ovarian reserve, ovarian dimensions, and ovarian stromal blood flow. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty infertile women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB without tubo-ovarian masses diagnosed by positive acid-fast bacilli culture or epithelioid granuloma on endometrial aspirate or positive polymerase chain reaction with positive findings on laparoscopy or hysteroscopy were recruited. The ovarian function tests were performed on day 2/3 as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels. Ovarian dimensions (length, width, and depth were measured using a transvaginal ultrasound. Mean antral follicle count (AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow (peak systolic velocity [PSV], pulsatility index (PI, and resistive index [RI] were measured using a transvaginal ultrasound. All women were started on ATT for 6 months by directly observed treatment strategy. After completion of ATT, all the parameters were repeated. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in AMH (2.68 ± 0.97 ng/ml to 2.8 ± 1.03 ng/ml pre- to post-ATT, nonsignificant increase in FSH (7.16 ± 2.34 mIU/ml to 7.26 ± 2.33 mIU/ml post-ATT, significant increase in mean AFC (7.40 ± 2.12-8.14 ± 2.17, PSV in the right ovary (6.015-6.11 cm/s and left ovary (6.05-6.08 cm/s, PI in the right ovary (0.935-0.951 cm/s and left ovary (0.936-0.957 cm/s, and RI in the right ovary (0.62 ± 0.01-0.79 ± 0.02 and left ovary (0.65 ± 0.02-0.84 ± 0.01 with ATT. There was no significant change in mean ovarian dimensions (ovarian length, breadth, and width and summed ovarian volume with ATT. On laparoscopy, tubercles were seen in 27 (54% women. Caseous nodules and encysted ascites were seen in 8% cases each. CONCLUSION: ATT improves the ovarian function (AMH and AFC and ovarian blood flow in women with FGTB.

  16. Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck.

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    Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1-1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina.

  17. SIMPLE VIRILIZING CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA: Presentation in a Female Child with Genital Ambiguity undergoing Genitoplasty (A Case Report

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    A Nurhaen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: our objective was to display the presentation of simple virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH with genital ambiguity and severe virilization of the external genitalia, influencing growth, height and weight, bone maturation, quality of life and hence undergoing genitoplasty. Surgical treatment was aimed to obtain a more natural psychological and sexual development and the type of surgical repair performed was tailored based on individual patient’s anatomy findings.Case: we report a case of a 3-year old female with simple virilizing CAH, diagnosed due to genital ambiguity, severe virilization, clitoromegaly, external genital pigmentation, precocious pubic hair, previously was under treatment with glucocorticoid replacement therapy for 2years since newborn and neglected due to discontinuing the hormonal treatment for one year duration, underwent several clinical studies including chromosomal study for sex determining, pelvic ultrasonography for internal anatomical details and bone age study for skeletal maturation, givenstress dose steroids pre-operatively and followed by genital reconstructive surgery (genitoplasty. A clitorectomy and labioplasty approach were performed. At time of surgery cystoscopy was carried out prior to the surgical repair.Results: Management of virilizing CAH child with ambiguous genitalia demands multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach. The team‘s major challenge is to use thefeasible means to make the least bad choice in order to select a gender able to match the individualidentity, social identity, and behavioral identity. Surgical option should be tailored, one stage surgery,at early age and performed according to the individual anatomy findings.

  18. Female genital mutilation management in the ambulatory clinic setting: a case study and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Spencer; Kavanagh, Alex; Khavari, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients’ lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States. PMID:27333917

  19. Female genital mutilation management in the ambulatory clinic setting: a case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Spencer; Kavanagh, Alex; Khavari, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients' lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States.

  20. Efeitos da melatonina no sistema genital feminino: breve revisão Melatonin effects on the female genital system: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Maganhin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A melatonina é um hormônio produzido pela glândula pineal, cuja secreção está diretamente relacionada ao ciclo claro-escuro. É um poderoso antioxidante e tem papel fundamental na regulação do estado sono/vigília, do ritmo de vários processos fisiológicos, participando do controle do relógio biológico, inclusive nos seres humanos. Ressalta-se que há evidências da sua ação no sistema genital feminino, influenciando a função ovariana e a fertilidade. De fato, este hormônio interage com esteróides sexuais, como o estrogênio, modificando a sinalização celular e a resposta no tecido alvo. Estudos clínicos sugerem que o tratamento com a melatonina interviria com a evolução de neoplasia-dependente do estrogênio. O objetivo dessa revisão é analisar as principais ações da melatonina no sistema neuroendócrino, no ciclo sono-vigília, no sistema imunológico, no sistema cardiovascular, bem como no sistema reprodutor.Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle. It is an antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the jet-lag stage, in several physiological reactions and in control of the biologic rhythm. Human melatonin has an important influence on the female genital system. In fact, melatonin may influence production and action of steroids, modifying cellular signalization on the target tissue. There are many evidences that the melatonin therapy may be interfering with neoplasia development, mainly of the estrogen-dependent tumor. This paper aims to analyze the actions of melatonin on the neuroendocrine, immunological and cardiovascular systems, as well as on the reproductive function.

  1. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

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    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  2. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  3. Peripheral Female Genital Arousal as Assessed by Thermography Following Topical Genital Application of Alprostadil vs Placebo Arousal Gel: A Proof-of-Principle Study Without Visual Sexual Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue W. Goldstein, BA, CCRC, IF

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Topical alprostadil administered to healthy premenopausal women induced statistically significant, sustained increases in genital temperatures of the vestibule, clitoris, and vulva within 20 minutes compared with OTC lubricant.

  4. Evaluation of microporous polycaprolactone matrices for controlled delivery of antiviral microbicides to the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvadi, Naghme Hajarol; Dang, Nhung T T; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas; Coombes, Allan G A

    2013-12-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) as a model antiviral microbicide, was incorporated in controlled-release polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices designed for application as intra-vaginal ring inserts (IVRs). Microporous materials incorporating acyclovir up to a level of ~10 % w/w were produced by rapidly cooling suspensions of drug powder in PCL solution followed by solvent extraction from the hardened matrices. Around 21, 50 and 78 % of the drug content was gradually released from matrices over 30 days in simulated vaginal fluid at 37 °C, corresponding to drug loadings of 5.9, 7.0 and 9.6 % w/w. The release behaviour of matrices having the lowest drug loading followed a zero order model, whereas, the release kinetics of 7.0 and 9.6 % ACV-loaded PCL matrices could be described effectively by the Higuchi model, suggesting that Fickian diffusion is controlling drug release. Corresponding values of the diffusion co-efficient for ACV in the PCL matrices of 3.16 × 10(-9) and 1.07 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s were calculated. Plaque reduction assays provided an IC50 value of 1.09 μg/mL for acyclovir against HSV-2 and confirmed the antiviral activity of released acyclovir against HSV-2 replication in primate kidney cells (Vero) at levels ~70 % that of non-formulated acyclovir at day 30. Estimated minimum in vivo acyclovir concentrations produced by a PCL IVR (19 μg/mL) exceeded by a factor of 20 the IC50 value against HSV-2 and the reported ACV vaginal concentrations in women (0.5-1.0 μg/mL) following oral administration. These findings recommend further investigations of PCL matrices for vaginal delivery of antiviral agents in the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections such as AIDS.

  5. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ault, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfec...

  6. [HPV-associated carcinomas of the female genital tract. Molecular mechanisms of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Vinokurova, S; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2011-11-01

    Infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a common occurrence in both men and women. In contrast HPV-associated neoplasias are relatively rare and occur only in certain areas of the body. The virus has obviously developed efficient mechanisms for its persistence without inducing too much damage to the host. The formation of neoplasia seems to be more an exception. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. The transforming stage is seen as the actual carcinogenic event and can be immunohistochemically detected by the biomarker p16(INK4a).

  7. Photodynamic therapy for early malignancies in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobraico, Rocco V.

    1990-09-01

    A total of 14 patients who had failed all conventional modalities for cancer of the vulva vagina and perianal area were treated with photodynamic therapy PDT. The affinity of porphyrins to neopJ. astic tissue enables treatment to be concentrated at the tumor site. An Aurora FL Argon pumped dye laser (Cooper LaserSonics Inc. USA) was used to pump dicyanomethylene dye as an activating source for a red light at a wavelength of 630 nm. The combination of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and photoactivating red light produces a photo chemical reaction that is destructive to the cancerous lesion. The treatment time varied between 10-30 minutes. Vulvar sites ranged from 9-38 cm2. Delivered light doses were from 50-125 J/cm2 and power density from 50 to 75 mW/cm2. A complete response was obtained in 80 of the sites treated as evidenced by negative biopsies taken at 3 months post treatment. Adverse reactions to PDT included a transient cutaneous photosensitivity due to retention of the photosensitizers in the skin. This reaction usually persisted from 45-60 days. 1.

  8. [Enterobiasis of the female pelvi-genital tract: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, A; Makni, S; Khmiri, H; Gheriani, M; Rekik, S; Boudawara, T S

    2005-04-01

    Ectopic localization of oxyuriasis is rare and frequently does not cause clinical problems. It has been reported in the vagina, endometrium, fallopian tube, peritoneal surface and ovary; In these localizations it often causes pseudo-tumoral granulomas. The aim of our study was to describe etiopathogenic and clinical criteria of this rare pathology. We report one case of endometrial enterobiasis which developed in a 28-year-old women and two cases of tubo-ovarian pseudotumoral abscesses containing the ova of enterobius which appeared as a latero-uterin mass in women aged 28 and 38 years. Enterobius vermicularis may cause tubo-ovarian abscess formation with necrotizing epitheloid granulomas mimicking tumors. Antihelminth therapies are successful.

  9. ‘Peptoniphilus pacaensis’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We relate here the primary characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus pacaensis’ strain KHD5 (= CSUR P2271, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD5 was isolated from a vaginal sample of a 33-year-old woman exhibiting a bacterial vaginosis.

  10. ‘Peptoniphilus vaginalis’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

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    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We relate here the main characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus vaginalis’, strain KHD2 (= CSUR P0125 = DSM 101742, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus, cultivated from a vaginal sample of a woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  11. ‘Peptoniphilus raoultii’ sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract

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    K. Diop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the principal characteristics of ‘Peptoniphilus raoultii’ strain KHD4 (= CSUR P0110, a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD4 was isolated from the vaginal flora of a 33-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  12. Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

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    Gregory T Spear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site.

  13. UNITED NATION'S RESOLUTION ON ELIMINATION OF FEMALE GENITAL RITUAL: A LEGITIMATE RESPONSE TO A HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEM OR WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamuchi, Obiajulu

    2014-12-01

    A recent United Nations' (U.N.) Resolution, "Intensifying Global Efforts for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations," urging all countries to enact legislation outlawing female circumcision or female genital ritual (FGR) signals a disturbingly new frontier in the polemic surrounding the ancient cultural practice. Never before has the apex global institution lent its imprimatur to a project whose foundation is profoundly muddled in uncertainties and murkiness. That the Resolution received an instantaneous and near-universal acclaim as a necessary protective weapon against supposed assault on the human rights of women is not news. After all, aside from essentially validating extant legislative frameworks in several countries, the proclamation fits seamlessly with decades-long agitations of activists, scholars and media pundits of one stripe or the other. What is absurd--indeed, the real news--is continued neglect of calls for a rethinking of the criminalization fervor currently gripping the world, for a reassessment of the evidence trumpeted by abolitionists as justificatory of their unbridled interference in what practicing communities revere as a sacred cultural rite. Relying on the premise that claims regarding harmful impact of FGR, the fulcrum upon which eradication forces depend for their activism, cannot be substantiated, this paper argues that prohibitory regimes based thereon, whether at the U.N. or country level, is per se a violation of the human rights of the women purportedly sought to be protected. Human rights (including, in this case, its self-appointed "apostles"), cannot, as a popular Igbo maxim admonishes, become "outsiders who wept louder than the bereaved." This is the prism from which this paper analyzes the on-going supranational crusade to suppress FGR. It is a critique of extant FGR legal and policy regimes, an instance of which is the U.N. Resolution, as unrepresentative of legitimate advancement of human rights.

  14. The socio-cultural-symbolic nexus in the perpetuation of female genital cutting: a critical review of existing discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esho, Tammary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Cutting (FGC, also known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM and Female Circumcision (FC, continues to be a prevalent practice in many parts of the world and especially in Africa. This is somewhat perplexing given the concerted efforts aimed at eradicating this practice. This article argues that the perpetuation of FGC is due to the unintended effects of marginalization experienced by individuals and groups of women as a result of the approach of some of the anti-FGC global discourses and policies put forward to eradicate the practice. This, we argue, happens when the social structure that provides such groups and individuals with a sense of identity and belonging breaks down. Therefore, the attack on what practicing communities consider to be of crucial cultural value causes a re-focus on the practice resulting in a re-formulation and re-invention of these practices in a bid to counter the feelings of alienation. FGC is thus reframed and reconstructed as a reaction against these campaigns. This article intends to investigate the socio-cultural-symbolic nexus surrounding the practice of FGC, its meaning and implications with respect to its continued existence. It draws examples mainly from communities in Kenya that practice FGM as a rite of passage into adulthood. Herein, perhaps, lies the driving force behind the practice in this contemporary age: it carries a lot of significance with respect to transformational processes, and it is seen as crucial in the representation of the body, identity and belonging. The aim of this article is not to defend FGC’s continuation, but rather to explore the interplay between its changing socio-cultural dimensions as a counter-reaction to the eradication discourse and policies. In this way we will try to explore some of the factors that lay behind its perpetuation.

  15. The relationship between female genital cutting and sexual problems experienced in the first two months of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Elkady, Magdy M; Hilmy, Yaser A

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between female genital cutting (FGC) and sexual problems experienced by couples in the first 2 months of marriage ("honeymoon distress"). A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at centers in Assiut and Sohag, Egypt, between March 1, 2011, and March 31, 2014. Eligible couples presented with sexual problems during the first 2 months of marriage. Couples were interviewed and asked to complete a pre-designed questionnaire, and a genital examination was performed. The primary outcomes of the study were the contribution of FGC to honeymoon distress and the effect of FGC on quality of life. Overall, 430 couples enrolled in the study. FGC was present in 376 (87.4%) women. The main presenting feature of honeymoon distress was superficial dyspareunia, which affected 291 (77.4%) women with FGC versus 16 (29.6%) of 54 without FGC (hazard ratio 8.13, 95% confidence interval 4.32-15.30). Women with FGC were more likely to have a poor quality of life during the first 2 months of marriage than were those without FGC (279 [74.2%] vs 13 [24.1%]; odds ratio 9.07, 95% confidence interval 4.66-17.64). FGC was found to be a contributing factor to honeymoon distress. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodistribution of protoporphyrin IX in female genital erosive lichen planus after topical application of hexaminolevulinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Anne Lise Ording; Gjersvik, Petter; Peng, Qian; Vasovic, Vlada; Pripp, Are Hugo; Jebsen, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Warloe, Trond

    2014-06-01

    Genital erosive lichen planus (GELP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in women characterized by painful vulvar and vaginal erosions. To prepare for a clinical trial on photodynamic treatment (PDT), we applied hexyl 5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride (HAL) in clinically normal and affected mucosa in 12 women with GELP using two different doses (6.25 or 50mg/ml). Biopsies were taken after 30 min and 3h. The biodistribution of HAL, measured as photoactive protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), was studied using non-invasive superficial fluorescence measurements and microscopic fluorescence photometry. More PpIX was detected after application of 12.5mg HAL than after 100mg, with large inter-individual variations. PpIX levels after 3h were overall higher than after 30 min. PpIX fluorescence was not detected in skin distant to the genital area. In conclusion, 6.25mg/ml HAL applied for 3h seems adequate for HAL absorption and conversion to PpIX in submucosal inflammatory and epithelial cells and can be used in a PDT trial of GELP.

  17. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence......The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...

  18. Clinical role of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum presence in female lower urogenital tract: Is there a place for routine screening and treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Marovt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections represent major health problem in females all over the world if remained undiagnosed and untreated. They can have adverse influence on reproduction and health of a mother and a newborn. The development of molecular methods has permitted the detection of an array of microbes whose pathologic roles in urogenital infections need to be further studied. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma spp., being originally found in 1954 from male urogenital tract, are prokaryotic cells without a cell wall, ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm in length. Fourteen known Ureaplasma serovars have been divided in two species based on their phenotypic and genotypic features, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected and identified separately using polymerase chain reaction assays. Both are generally considered as genital tract commensals. U. urealyticum is most probably associated with male urethritis which has not been found for U. parvum. Recent studies with supposedly healthy women reported their detection rate between 18-87 % for U. parvum and 6-10 % for U. urealyticum. Even though they have been found to be associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm birth and perinatal complications more commonly then other commensals in this region the rising question regarding their pathogenic role in females remains unsolved and the guidelines regarding the diagnostic screening and treatment are inconsistent. The aim of our paper is to review the microbiological characteristics, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of newly differentiated U. parvum and U. urealyticum, and to assess evidence speaking pro and contra their clinical role in causing lower urogenital tract infection in women. Since both bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobials it is of utmost importance for clinicians to decide whether or not to search for one or both of them routinely and treat accordingly in order to prevent ascending upper genital tract infection as well as complications in

  19. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  20. The evolution of civil society and the rule of law regarding female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available International human rights law relies on state sovereignty to localize suggested policy with codification and enforcement in an attempt to reconcile universalism with particularity. However, amidst domestic governance developments from post-conflict state building and self-determination, governmental instability complicates and often overlooks priorities of international human rights for more tangible domestic infrastructure, such as basic human needs rather than seemingly suggested rights ideals. This does not diminish the significance of human rights, though, pertaining to the rights of the child in addressing gender-based violence through the elimination of female genital mutilation, for example. While state-centric localization is currently prioritized for implementing international law, the rule of law is more integrated throughout the realms of societal structure, culture, and institutions in addition to the legal realm. If the legal realm is disrupted with instability, violence, and discontinuity, how does society internalize and integrate international human rights law over time, and can it be sustainable despite instability? This research evaluates the development of the rule of law, and its effectiveness, regarding female genital mutilation (FGM as a case study in Iraqi Kurdistan from the end of the Iran-Iraq War in 1988 until 2013, the early years of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s parliament. Comprehensive rule of law evolution can be measured through comparing domestic legal developments through state-centric policy and enforcement, or lack thereof, with cultural internalization and non-governmental engagements. By studying the legal and cultural realms’ interaction with the anti-FGM discourse over Iraqi Kurdistan’s past two decades, this research will determine the role of a continuous society overlaid by intermittent legal structures in the sustainability of negotiating cultural relativity with universal human rights.

  1. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  2. Outpatients’ Perspectives on Problems and Needs Related to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Qualitative Study from Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fried

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore female outpatients’ perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care. All had undergone infibulation but did not wish the same for their daughters. In recent years they had learnt through religious leaders and media campaigns that infibulation was unapproved by Islam. A less severe FGM/C type, “Sunna,” was more accepted; however, few could define what “Sunna” meant. Condemning and ridiculing attitudes against uncircumcised women prevailed in their community. Conclusions. New ideas and concepts related to FGM/C enter the common discourse in the Somali society while traditional norms and values still prevail. Religion was shown to have a strong impact on FGM/C practices and beliefs. Interventions aiming to raise awareness of health consequences of all types of FGM/C, as well as where to seek care for complications, are needed in Somaliland. Involvement of religious leaders in anti-FGM/C programs is essential.

  3. A Rare Cause of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections, Female Urethral Diverticulum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Numan Yikilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A female urethral diverticulum is an uncommon pathologic entity. The most presentation of urethral diverticule has been described as lower urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia. The case of female is presented, who consult with a vaginal mass and dyspareunia and current literature was reviewed.

  4. HIV-DNA in the genital tract of women on long-term effective therapy is associated to residual viremia and previous AIDS-defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Prazuck

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART on HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions of HIV-1-infected women with sustained undetectable plasma RNA viral load (PVL; to explore factors predictive of residual viral shedding; and to evaluate the risk of heterosexual transmission. METHODS: Women with undetectable PVL (6 months were included in this cross-sectional study. HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were measured in blood and cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL. Women were systematically tested for genital infections. The risk of transmission to male partners during unprotected intercourse was estimated. RESULTS: Eighty-one women composed the study population: all had HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL in CVL. HIV-DNA was detectable in CVL of 29/78 patients (37%. There was a weak positive correlation between HIV-DNA levels in PBMCs and CVL (r = 0.20; p = 0.08. In multivariate analysis, two factors were associated with HIV-DNA detection in CVL: previous AIDS-defining illnesses (OR = 11; 95%CI = 2-61 and current residual viremia (20genital bacterial or fungal colonization were associated with HIV-DNA detection in CVL. Twenty-eight percent of the women had unprotected intercourse with their regular HIV-seronegative male partner, for between 8 and 158 months. None of their male partners became infected, after a total of 14 000 exposures. CONCLUSION: In our experience, HIV-RNA was undetectable in the genital tract of women with sustained control of PVL on cART. HIV-DNA shedding persisted in about one third of cases, with no substantial evidence of residual infectiousness.

  5. The armature in the genital atrium as a new taxonomic character distinguishing females of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesson, B; Madulo-Leblond, G; Killick-Kendrick, M; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, R

    1994-10-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of females of the two morphologically similar sandfly species, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. duboscqi. The species are distinguishable by the size and shape of the armature, the grouping of the spines in the armature and the length and shape of the spines. These characters have been shown to separate females of other closely related species of phlebotomine sandflies.

  6. External genital morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta): females are naturally "masculinized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Christine M; Weil, Anne

    2008-04-01

    The extravagance and diversity of external genitalia have been well characterized in male primates; however, much less is known about sex differences or variation in female form. Our study represents a departure from traditional investigations of primate reproductive anatomy because we 1) focus on external rather than internal genitalia, 2) measure both male and female structures, and 3) examine a strepsirrhine rather than an anthropoid primate. The subjects for morphological study were 21 reproductively intact, adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), including 10 females and 11 males, two of which (one per sex) subsequently died of natural causes and also served as specimens for gross anatomical dissection. Male external genitalia presented a typical masculine configuration, with a complex distal penile morphology. In contrast, females were unusual among mammals, presenting an enlarged, pendulous external clitoris, tunneled by the urethra. Females had a shorter anogenital distance and a larger urethral meatus than did males, but organ diameter and circumference showed no sex differences. Dissection confirmed these characterizations. Noteworthy in the male were the presence of a "levator penis" muscle and discontinuity in the corpus spongiosum along the penile shaft; noteworthy in the female were an elongated clitoral shaft and glans clitoridis. The female urethra, while incorporated within the clitoral body, was not surrounded by erectile tissue, as we detected no corpus spongiosum. The os clitoridis was 43% the length and 24% the height of the os penis. On the basis of these first detailed descriptions of strepsirrhine external genitalia (for either sex), we characterize those of the female ring-tailed lemur as moderately "masculinized." Our results highlight certain morphological similarities and differences between ring-tailed lemurs and the most male-like of female mammals, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and call attention to a potential hormonal

  7. Sperm survival in the female reproductive tract in the fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G; Hellriegel, B; Heyland, A; Ward, P I.

    2002-02-01

    While sperm competition risk favours males transferring many sperm to secure fertilizations, females of a variety of species actively reduce sperm numbers reaching their reproductive tract, e.g. by extrusion or killing. Potential benefits of spermicide to females include nutritional gains, influence over sperm storage and paternity, and the elimination of sperm bearing somatic mutations that would lower zygote fitness.We investigated changes in sperm viability after in vivo and in vitro exposure to the female tract in the polyandrous fly, Scathophaga stercoraria. Sperm viability was significantly lower in the females' spermathecae immediately after mating than in the experimental males' testes. Males also varied significantly in the proportion of live sperm found in storage in vivo. However, the exact mechanism of sperm degradation remains to be clarified. In vitro exposure to extracts of the female reproductive tract, including female accessory glands, failed to significantly lower sperm viability compared to controls. These results are consistent either with postcopulatory sperm mortality in vivo depending entirely on the male (with individual differences in sperm viability, motility or longevity) or with postcopulatory sperm mortality being subtly affected by female effects which were not detected by the in vitro experimental conditions. Importantly, we found no evidence in support of the hypothesis that female accessory glands contribute to sexual conflict via spermicide. Therefore, female muscular control remains to date the only ascertained mechanism of female influence on sperm storage in this species.

  8. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration.

  9. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-02-15

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  10. La ablación genital femenina en comunidades emberá chamí Female genital ablation in embera chami communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel González Henao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el tema de la ablación genital femenina, que se realiza en algunas comunidades indígenas emberá chamí. Desde una perspectiva antropológica y retomando elementos del feminismo, se analiza la relación entre esta práctica, la construcción cultural de la identidad femenina, la regulación de la sexualidad y los mandatos sociales dirigidos a las mujeres.This article approaches the topic of the genital feminine ablation. It is a practice realized by some indigenous communities embera chamí, who live in the western zone of Colombia. From an anthropologic perspective and using elements of feminism, this article analyzes the relation among ablation, the cultural construction of feminine identity, the regulation of sexuality and the social mandates directed to women.

  11. [Effect of the work process on the genital sphere in female workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshchepkov, V I; Soboleva, Z Ia; Khamitov, R L; Churakov, A N

    1989-01-01

    Medical examination of 841 female workers engaged in motocycle production and 573 females working at the plants producing electric radio equipment were carried out. The analysis of the results obtained showed that an increase in labour intensity resulted in higher rates of menopause disorders and late gestosis. The combination of the constant forced sedentary posture and light work burden caused an anomalous position of uterus and prevented a normal course of delivery.

  12. Sexual coevolution of spermatophore envelopes and female genital traits in butterflies: Evidence of male coercion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving “very thick” spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our

  13. Sexual coevolution of spermatophore envelopes and female genital traits in butterflies: Evidence of male coercion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving “very thick” spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our results support

  14. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  16. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.

  17. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  20. Identification of neural circuits involved in female genital responses in the rat: A dual virus and anterograde tracing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, L.; Murphy, A Z

    2010-01-01

    The spinal and peripheral innervation of the clitoris and vagina are fairly well understood. However, little is known regarding supraspinal control of these pelvic structures. The multisynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to map the brain neurons that innervate the clitoris and vagina. In order to delineate forebrain input onto PRV labeled cells, the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) or the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) 10 days prior to viral injections. These brain regions have been intimately linked to various aspects of female reproductive behavior. Four days after viral injections, into the vagina and clitoris PRV labeled cells were observed in the paraventricular nucleus, Barrington’s nucleus, the A5 region, and the nucleus paragigantocellularis. At 5 days post-viral administration, additional PRV labeled cells were observed within the preoptic region, VMN, PAG and lateral hypothalamus. Anterograde labeling from the MPO terminated among PRV positive cells primarily within the dorsal paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventrolateral VMN (VMNvl), caudal PAG and nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi). Anterograde labeling from the VMN terminated among PRV positive cells in the MPO and lateral/ventrolateral PAG. Anterograde labeling from the PAG terminated among PRV positive cells in the PVN, ventral hypothalamus and nPGi. Transynaptically labeled cells in the lateral hypothalamus, Barrington's nucleus and ventromedial medulla received innervation from all three sources. These studies, together, identify several CNS sites participating in the neural control of female sexual responses. They also provide the first data demonstrating a link between the MPO, VMNvl and PAG and CNS regions innervating the clitoris and vagina, providing support that these areas play a major role in female genital responses. PMID:16914428

  1. HPV及生殖道其他病原体感染与宫颈癌临床关系的研究进展%Research Progress of the Correlation between HPV and Other Genital Tract Infections and Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彩荷

    2012-01-01

    宫颈癌是妇女中常见的恶性肿瘤,生殖道的病原体感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展密切相关.高危型人乳头状瘤病毒的持续感染成为宫颈癌发生的最危险因素,合并感染的病原体在宫颈癌发病过程中起协同作用.因生殖道感染不断增多,宫颈癌及癌前病变的发生率也在不断升高.需加强对生殖道常见病原菌的检测及生殖道感染的预防,从而减少宫颈癌的发生.%Cervical cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in women. The development of cervical cancer is closely related to genital infections. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is the most dangerous factor for cervical cancer, and the other co-infections play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Due to the continuousy increasing genital tract infections,incidence rates of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesion have increased too. The detection of common genital tract pathogens and precaution of genital tract infections are needed to be enhanced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

  2. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigve Holmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS.In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest.We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001, increased vascular density (p = 0.015 and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071. Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%.The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis.

  3. Public health, cultural norms and the criminal law: an inconvenient union? A case study of female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyioha, Ireh

    2012-09-01

    Social and cultural stereotypes held about women and their health needs constitute a significant barrier to the enforcement of laws protecting women's health. While the promulgation of remedial legislation to address the problem is a positive step towards protecting women's health, these laws are promulgated in a cultural milieu that remains unwelcoming to women's rights. The clash between long-held cultural perceptions and health laws, such as those affecting women's reproductive health, engenders more problems for women's health because the laws sometimes fail to produce the desired behavioural changes. This paper attempts to debunk the uncritical assumption that legislative reforms without more are positive instruments of change in protecting women's health. In outlining this thesis, the paper examines the legal prohibition of Female Genital Cutting ('FGC') as a case study. To determine whether FGC prohibition laws are likely to be effective in achieving the public health agenda of protecting women's health, the paper analyzes FGC laws against the normative and instrumental theories of legal compliance, as well as against the socio-cultural worldviews underlying the practice. It concludes that legislative efforts to protect women's health may remain ineffective without structured efforts between health systems, governments or legal institutions and the cultural society.

  4. Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Caroppo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of immigration, female genital mutilation (FGM is an issue of increasing concern in western countries. Nevertheless operators without a specific training may ignore the health condition of women subjected to this practice and fail to provide them adequate assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the current knowledge about FGM among social and health care assistants working with asylum seeker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From October to December 2012, a questionnaire was used to interview 41 operators working in CARA (Shelter for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in central and southern Italy. RESULTS: Only 7.3% of respondents states to know well FGM, while 4.9% do not know it at all. 70.7% declare to have never met or assisted a woman with FGM, nevertheless all respondents work with asylum seeker from countries where FGM are performed. CONCLUSIONS: Migration fluxes to Italy over the past decade created a healthcare challenge: women with FGM have specific medical and psychological problems that doctors, nurses and social assistants without specific training are not usually able to manage.

  5. What Works and What Does Not: A Discussion of Popular Approaches for the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elise B. Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is reducing in almost all countries in which it is a traditional practice. There are huge variations between countries and communities though, ranging from no change at all to countries and communities where the practice has been more than halved from one generation to the next. Various interventions implemented over the last 30–40 years are believed to have been instrumental in stimulating this reduction, even though in most cases the decrease in prevalence has been slow. This raises questions about the efficacy of interventions to eliminate FGM and an urgent need to channel the limited resources available, where it can make the most difference in the abandonment of FGM. This paper is intended to contribute to the design of more effective interventions by assessing existing knowledge of what works and what does not and discusses some of the most common approaches that have been evaluated: health risk approaches, conversion of excisers, training of health professionals as change agents, alternative rituals, community-led approaches, public statements, and legal measures.

  6. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  7. Geographic variation of female genital mutilation and legal enforcement in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Komba, Paul N

    2015-04-01

    This paper draws on household data to examine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Senegal and the effectiveness of the country's anti-FGM law in dealing with actual breaches and providing protection to the victims. The 2010-2011 Senegal Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (SDHS-MICS) covers 14,228 women and their daughters. Logistic regression was used to investigate the geographic distribution of FGM across regions. For the enforceability of anti-FGM, desk research was used. Overall prevalence among women and daughters was 28.1% and 6.2%, respectively. Significant factors were sociodemographics, ethnicity, and region. This analysis shows both advantages and vulnerabilities of the anti-FGM law in relation to the issue of enforcement. It indicates that the law falls short of offering adequate protection to potential victims. FGM is a cultural and social norm imbedded predominantly in rural settings and as such, drives resistance to jettisoning FGM. Legislation has been one of the driving forces behind the eradication of the practice.

  8. Reproducibility and genital sparing with a vaginal dilator used for female anal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Tina Marie; Crane, Christopher H; Beddar, Sam; Bhosale, Priya; Mok, Henry; Delclos, Marc E; Krishnan, Sunil; Das, Prajnan

    2012-08-01

    Acute vulvitis, acute urethritis, and permanent sexual dysfunction are common among patients treated with chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Avoidance of the genitalia may reduce sexual dysfunction. A vaginal dilator may help delineate and displace the vulva and lower vagina away from the primary tumor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the positional reproducibility and vaginal sparing with the use of a vaginal dilator. Ten female patients treated with IMRT for anal cancer were included in this study. A silicone vaginal dilator measuring 29 mm in diameter and 114 mm in length was inserted into the vagina before simulation and each treatment. The reproducibility of dilator placement was investigated with antero-posterior and lateral images acquired daily. Weekly cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging was used to confirm coverage of the GTV, which was typically posterior and inferior to the dilator apex. Finally, a planning study was performed to compare the vaginal doses for these 10 patients to a comparable group of 10 female patients who were treated for anal cancer with IMRT without vaginal dilators. The absolute values of the location of the dilator apex were 7.0 ± 7.8mm in the supero-inferior direction, 7.5 ± 5.5 mm in the antero-posterior, and 3.8 ± 3.1mm in the lateral direction. Coverage of the GTV and CTV was confirmed from CBCT images. The mean dose to the vagina was lower by 5.5 Gy, on average, for the vaginal dilator patients, compared to patients treated without vaginal dilators. The vaginal dilator tended to be inserted more inferiorly during treatment than during simulation. For these ten patients, this did not compromise tumor coverage. Combined with IMRT treatment planning, use of a vaginal dilator could allow for maximum sparing of female genitalia for patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancer. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Serum and seminal markers in the diagnosis of disorders of the genital tract of the dog: a mini-review.

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    Gobello, Cristina; Castex, Gervasio; Corrada, Yanina

    2002-03-01

    Serum and seminal biologic substances that are produced either by normal or abnormal tissues of the organism and that can be used to diagnose pathological conditions are usually referred as markers. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most relevant clinical features of the main genital markers in the male dog: alkaline phosphatase (AP), carnitine and canine prostate-specific arginine esterase (CPSE). Carnitine and AP are markers for the presence of epididymal fluid in the ejaculate and their measurement in azoospermic dogs has been used as an indicator of tubular patency of the ductal network. Although AP is not present in high concentrations in the testis, this does not preclude the possibility that testicular cells might secrete some AP. If this were true, AP could also reflect, at least in some degree, germ cell function in this species. Prostate-specific arginine esterase, the major secretory product of the canine prostate, is a known marker of gland secretion in the dog. Tumor markers frequently used in human medicine, such as prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen, are is still controversial in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma of the dog. Although further research is necessary to define the exact role of CPSE, it seems to be a promising diagnostic tool in nonneoplasic canine prostatic disorders. Future studies should also address the quantitative relationship among serum and prostatic androgen levels, prostatic androgen-dependent problems and how these are affected by anti-androgen treatment. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most relevant clinical features of three main genital markers of the male dog.

  10. Estimates of first-generation women and girls with female genital mutilation in the European Union, Norway and Switzerland.

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    Van Baelen, Luk; Ortensi, Livia; Leye, Els

    2016-12-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the practice of partial or total removal of female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The procedure has no known health benefits but can cause serious immediate and long-term obstetric, gynaecological and sexual health problems. Health workers in Europe are often unaware of the consequences of FGM and lack the knowledge to treat women adequately. Our goal was to estimate the number of first-generation girls and women in the European Union, Norway and Switzerland who have undergone FGM. Before migration from FGM-practicing countries began, FGM was an unknown phenomenon in Europe. Secondary analysis of data from the 2011 EU census and extrapolation from age-specific FGM prevalence rates in the immigrants' home countries to these data were used to provide our estimates. Estimates based on census and other demographic data were compared to our results for Belgium. In 2011 over half a million first-generation women and girls in the EU, Norway and Switzerland had undergone FGM before immigration. One in two was living in the UK or France, one in two was born in East-Africa. For the first time, scientific evidence gives a reliable estimate of the number of first-generation women and girls in Europe coming from countries where FGM is practiced. The use of census data proves reliable for policy makers to guide their actions, e.g., regarding training needs for health workers who might be confronted with women who have undergone FGM, or the need for reconstructive surgery.

  11. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

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    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.

  12. Women's position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique; Gage, Anastasia J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still widespread in Egyptian society. It is strongly entrenched in local tradition and culture and has a strong link to the position of women. To eradicate the practice a major attitudinal change is a required for which an improvement in the social position of women is a prerequisite. This study examines the relationship between Egyptian women's social positions and their attitudes towards FGM, and investigates whether the spread of anti-FGM atti...

  13. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

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    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Female genital surgery, G-spot amplification techniques--state of the science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, J-T; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F

    2014-10-01

    The G-spot amplification is a process of "functional" intimate surgery consisting of a temporary physical increase of the size and sensitivity of the G-spot with a filler injected into the septum between the bladder and the vagina's anterior wall, in order to increase the frequency and importance of female orgasm during vaginal penetration. This surgical technique is based on the existence of an eponymous anatomical area described by Dr Gräfenberg in 1950, responsible upon stimulation of systematic orgasm different from the clitoral orgasm, referring to the vaginal orgasm as described by Freud in 1905. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific basis of the G-spot, whose very existence is currently a debated topic, and to discuss the role of G-spot amplification surgery.

  15. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  16. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

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    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  17. Reconsultation and Antimicrobial Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Male and Female Patients in General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Meera; Duane, Sinead; Cormican, Martin; Murphy, Andrew W.; Vellinga, Akke

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed. An antimicrobial was prescribed significantly more often to females (77%) than males (63%). Nitrofurantoin was prescribed more often for females and less often for males (58% vs. 41%), while fluoroquinolones were more often prescribed for males (11% vs. 3%). Overall, reconsultation was 1.4 times higher in females, and if the antimicrobial prescribed was not the recommended first-line (nitrofurantoin), reconsultation after empirical prescribing was significantly higher. However, the reconsultation was similar for males and females if the antimicrobial prescribed was first-line. When a urine culture was obtained, a positive culture was the most important predictor of reconsultation (Odds ratio 1.8 (95% CI 1.3–2.5)). This suggests, when prescribing empirically, that male and female UTI patients should initially be treated with first-line antimicrobials (nitrofurantoin) with different durations (50–100 mg four times daily for three days in females and seven days for males). However, the consideration of a culture test before prescribing antimicrobials may improve outcomes. PMID:27649253

  18. Female genital mutilation/cutting: changes and trends in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care professionals in The Gambia

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    Kaplan Marcusán A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Kaplan Marcusán,1–3 Laura Riba Singla,3 Mass Laye,3 Dodou M Secka,3 Mireia Utzet,4 Marie-Alix Le Charles3 1Social Knowledge Transfer/Parc de Recerca UAB – Santander, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Interdisciplinary Group for the Study and Prevention of Harmful Traditional Practices, Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Wassu Gambia Kafo, Fajara F Section, The Gambia; 4Africa and Latin America Research Group, Unit of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs in The Gambia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect and analyze data from an overall stratified sample consisting of 1,288 HCPs including health professionals and students throughout the six regions of The Gambia. Data were collected by the implementation of a self-administered written knowledge, attitudes, and practices questionnaire between 2012 and 2014.Results: The results of this study showed that 76.4% of HCPs are eager to abandon FGM/C, and 71.6% of them regard it as a harmful practice with negative consequences on life and health. HCPs reported more knowledge and favorable attitudes towards FGM/C abandonment, being better able to identify the practice, more aware of its health complications, and more concerned in their essential role as social agents of change. However, 25.4% of HCPs still embraced the continuation of the

  19. Changes in the expression of HSL and OCTN2 in the female reproductive tract of the bat, Scotophilus heathii in relation to sperm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Krishna, Amitabh

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) in different regions of the female reproductive tract of bats (Scotophilus heathii) during the period of sperm storage. Western blot analysis revealed that both HSL and OCTN2 showed elevated expression in the utero-tubal junction, the site of sperm storage, compared to the vagina, cervix and uterus. An immunohistochemical study showed localization of HSL and OCTN2 in the cytoplasm of luminal epithelial cells in the utero-tubal junction of S. heathii, which suggests a role of fatty acids metabolism at the site of sperm storage. Furthermore, this study showed the presence OCTN2 immunostaining in the tail of stored sperm, which suggests a direct role of carnitine in sperm physiology. However, the role of carnitine in sperm storage needs further investigation. It is hypothesized that the utero-tubal junction may be finely tuned with fat depletion to support sperm storage in the female genital tract of S. heathii.

  20. Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: Testing predictions of social convention theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Wander, Katherine; Hernlund, Ylva; Moreau, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of intervention efforts aimed at ending female genital cutting (FGC) have concluded that progress to date has been slow, and call for more efficient programs informed by theories on behavior change. Social convention theory, first proposed by Mackie (1996), posits that in the context of extreme resource inequality, FGC emerged as a means of securing a better marriage by signaling fidelity, and subsequently spread to become a prerequisite for marriage for all women. Change is predicted to result from coordinated abandonment in intermarrying groups so as to preserve a marriage market for uncircumcised girls. While this theory fits well with many general observations of FGC, there have been few attempts to systematically test the theory. We use data from a three year mixed-method study of behavior change that began in 2004 in Senegal and The Gambia to explicitly test predictions generated by social convention theory. Analyses of 300 in-depth interviews, 28 focus group discussions, and survey data from 1220 women show that FGC is most often only indirectly related to marriageability via concerns over preserving virginity. Instead we find strong evidence for an alternative convention, namely a peer convention. We propose that being circumcised serves as a signal to other circumcised women that a girl or woman has been trained to respect the authority of her circumcised elders and is worthy of inclusion in their social network. In this manner, FGC facilitates the accumulation of social capital by younger women and of power and prestige by elder women. Based on this new evidence and reinterpretation of social convention theory, we suggest that interventions aimed at eliminating FGC should target women’s social networks, which are intergenerational, and include both men and women. Our findings support Mackie’s assertion that expectations regarding FGC are interdependent; change must therefore be coordinated among interconnected members of social networks

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Deressa Wakgari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%, 42.4% of 288 ≤12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7–8 and 11–12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81% and birth attendants (18%. Clitoral cutting (64% and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36% were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. Participation of the parents in anti-FGM interventions is statistically associated with lower practice and intention of the procedures. Conclusion FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women. The findings indicate a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting. More men than women positively viewed anti-FGM interventions, and fewer men than women had the intention to let their daughters undergo FGM, indicating the need to involve men in anti-FGM activities.

  2. Female genital mutilation/cutting: changes and trends in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care professionals in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Marcusán, Adriana; Riba Singla, Laura; Laye, Mass; Secka, Dodou M; Utzet, Mireia; Le Charles, Marie-Alix

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs) in The Gambia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect and analyze data from an overall stratified sample consisting of 1,288 HCPs including health professionals and students throughout the six regions of The Gambia. Data were collected by the implementation of a self-administered written knowledge, attitudes, and practices questionnaire between 2012 and 2014. The results of this study showed that 76.4% of HCPs are eager to abandon FGM/C, and 71.6% of them regard it as a harmful practice with negative consequences on life and health. HCPs reported more knowledge and favorable attitudes towards FGM/C abandonment, being better able to identify the practice, more aware of its health complications, and more concerned in their essential role as social agents of change. However, 25.4% of HCPs still embraced the continuation of the practice, 24.4% expressed intention of subjecting their own daughters to it, and 10.5% declared to have performed it within their professional praxis. Findings confirm progress in knowledge and attitudes regarding FGM/C among HCPs, who are better skilled to understand and manage the consequences. Nevertheless, discrepancies between information, intention, and behavior unveil resistance in practice and proves that FGM/C medicalization is increasing. Thus, there is an urgent need to support HCPs in the integration of FGM/C preventive interventions within the public health system, to address arguments favoring medicalization, and to use data to design

  3. Decline of Supportive Attitudes among Husbands toward Female Genital Mutilation and Its Association to Those Practices in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khulaidi, Ghadah Abdulmajid; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To elucidate the attitudes of women and their husband’s towards female genital mutilation (FGM) and their associations with the continuation of FGM upon their daughters. Methods Subjects were 10,345 (in 1997) and 11,252 (in 2003) ever married women aged 15 to 49 years from the Yemen Demographic Health Surveys. Performances of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated. Attitudes of women and their husbands were assessed by their opinions on the continuation of FGM. The association between the attitudes of women and their husbands and performance of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated after adjusting for age and education of the women. Findings The percentage among the most-recently-born daughters who received FGM of women who had undergone FGM declined from 61.9% in 1997 to 56.5% in 2003 (p<0.001). The percentages of women who had undergone FGM and who supported the continuation of FGM and of husbands who also supported its continuation decreased from 78.2% and 60.1% in 1997 to 70.9% and 49.5% in 2003, respectively (both p<0.001). When the women or the husbands did not agree with FGM, it was less likely to be performed on their daughter than when the women or the husbands agreed in 1997 (odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16 and odds ratio=0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.12, respectively) and in 2003 (odds ratio=0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.16 and odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16, respectively). Conclusion Non-supportive attitudes of women and their husbands towards the continuation of FGM have become common and were associated with their decision not to perform FGM upon their daughters. PMID:24367582

  4. Decline of supportive attitudes among husbands toward female genital mutilation and its association to those practices in Yemen.

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    Ghadah Abdulmajid Al-Khulaidi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the attitudes of women and their husband's towards female genital mutilation (FGM and their associations with the continuation of FGM upon their daughters. METHODS: Subjects were 10,345 (in 1997 and 11,252 (in 2003 ever married women aged 15 to 49 years from the Yemen Demographic Health Surveys. Performances of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated. Attitudes of women and their husbands were assessed by their opinions on the continuation of FGM. The association between the attitudes of women and their husbands and performance of FGM on the most-recently-born daughters were investigated after adjusting for age and education of the women. FINDINGS: The percentage among the most-recently-born daughters who received FGM of women who had undergone FGM declined from 61.9% in 1997 to 56.5% in 2003 (p<0.001. The percentages of women who had undergone FGM and who supported the continuation of FGM and of husbands who also supported its continuation decreased from 78.2% and 60.1% in 1997 to 70.9% and 49.5% in 2003, respectively (both p<0.001. When the women or the husbands did not agree with FGM, it was less likely to be performed on their daughter than when the women or the husbands agreed in 1997 (odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16 and odds ratio=0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.12, respectively and in 2003 (odds ratio=0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.16 and odds ratio=0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.16, respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-supportive attitudes of women and their husbands towards the continuation of FGM have become common and were associated with their decision not to perform FGM upon their daughters.

  5. Phlebotomine sandflies of Kenya (Diptera: Psychodidae). IV. The armature in the genital atrium of female Larroussius as a means of identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, M

    1994-08-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of the six known Kenyan species of phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus, Larroussius, namely Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. elgonensis, P. guggisbergi, P. longipes, P. orientalis and P. pedifer. Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. longipes and P. pedifer can be recognized by the shapes of their armatures. Differences in the length and arrangement of the spines in the armature of P. elgonensis and P. longipes are diagnostic features. The distinguishing feature of P. guggisbergi is a wide variation in spine thickness. The most notable feature of P. orientalis is the angle at which the spines lie. The appearance of the base of the spermathecal duct remains the method of choice for the identification of all six but, if this feature is not well displayed in dissected females, they can be distinguished by the armature. It is suggested that descriptions of new species should include an illustration of the armature in the genital atrium.

  6. Correlation of male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts in New World sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The lengths of the male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts were measured in phlebotomine sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex and the ratios between these characters calculated. Ratios for L. intermedia s. s. from Northeast vs Southeast Brazil (Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo/Minas Gerais vs Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo and L. intermedia vs L. neivai were significantly different at P < 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 respectively when compared using ANOVA. The spermathecal ducts and genital filaments of L. intermedia were significantly longer than those of L. neivai (P < 0.01 and could be used to differentiate these species. The taxonomic and biological significance of these differences is discussed.

  7. Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to Female Genital Mutilation. Spanish National Report

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    VVAA .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Spanish Report on the evaluation of existing legislation with regard to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is the result of a research project supported by the European Commision Daphne Programme. The project Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to female genital mutilation, has been coordinated by the International Centre for Reproductive Health of Ghent University (Belgium from january 2003 to march 2004. The project included as partners the Foundation for Women’s Health, Research and Development (FORWARD, United Kingdom; Lund University (Sweden; Commission pour l'Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles, (CAMS, France, the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities of the University of Valencia (GECIM, Spain, and the above mentioned ICRH (Ghent University, Belgium . The Spanish report is an interdisciplinary research done by the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities (University of València, directed by professor Javier De Lucas, and which counts with researchers and collaborators both, from the University of Valencia and other Universities such as University of Barcelona and University Rovira i Virgili of Tarragona; in the fields of Law (Penal Law, Constitutional Law, Theory and Philosophy of Law, Sociology and Antropology. The Group of researchers includes as well lawyers and public prosecutors. Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in Spain, like other european countries, address this rite that is introduced by immigrants from countries where the practice is prevalent (as we may see in chapter 3, as a violation of women’s rights and consider that such violation cannot be justified by respect of cultural traditions or initiation ceremonies. The increasing of immigration in Spain, has been a fact in last years, and it would be an important issue in future, increasing too the number of girls at risk in our country. In Spain, since october 2003, we have anew

  8. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

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    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  9. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P boar (44 ejaculates, P sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15–17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  10. Effect of HSV-2 Suppressive Therapy on Genital Tract HIV-1 RNA Shedding among Women on HAART: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Nijhawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of suppressive HSV therapy in women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is unclear. Methods. 60 women with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection on HAART with plasma HIV-1 viral load (PVL ≤75 copies/mL were randomized to receive acyclovir (N=30 or no acyclovir (N=30. PVL, genital tract (GT HIV-1, and GT HSV were measured every 4 weeks for one year. Results. Detection of GT HIV-1 was not significantly different in the two arms (OR 1.23, P=0.67, although this pilot study was underpowered to detect this difference. When PVL was undetectable, the odds of detecting GT HIV were 0.4 times smaller in the acyclovir arm than in the control arm, though this was not statistically significant (P=0.07. The odds of detecting GT HSV DNA in women receiving acyclovir were significantly lower than in women in the control group, OR 0.38, P<0.05. Conclusions. Chronic suppressive therapy with acyclovir in HIV-1/HSV-2-positive women on HAART significantly reduces asymptomatic GT HSV shedding, though not GT HIV shedding or PVL. PVL was strongly associated with GT HIV shedding, reinforcing the importance of HAART in decreasing HIV sexual transmission.

  11. Transforming growth factor β receptor type 1 is essential for female reproductive tract integrity and function.

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    Qinglei Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1, also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1-mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1-mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus.

  12. Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor Type 1 Is Essential for Female Reproductive Tract Integrity and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; Agno, Julio E.; Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Nagashima, Takashi; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily proteins are principle regulators of numerous biological functions. Although recent studies have gained tremendous insights into this growth factor family in female reproduction, the functions of the receptors in vivo remain poorly defined. TGFβ type 1 receptor (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5, is the major type 1 receptor for TGFβ ligands. Tgfbr1 null mice die embryonically, precluding functional characterization of TGFBR1 postnatally. To study TGFBR1–mediated signaling in female reproduction, we generated a mouse model with conditional knockout (cKO) of Tgfbr1 in the female reproductive tract using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. We found that Tgfbr1 cKO females are sterile. However, unlike its role in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) signaling in vitro, TGFBR1 seems to be dispensable for GDF9 signaling in vivo. Strikingly, we discovered that the Tgfbr1 cKO females develop oviductal diverticula, which impair embryo development and transit of embryos to the uterus. Molecular analysis further demonstrated the dysregulation of several cell differentiation and migration genes (e.g., Krt12, Ace2, and MyoR) that are potentially associated with female reproductive tract development. Moreover, defective smooth muscle development was also revealed in the uteri of the Tgfbr1 cKO mice. Thus, TGFBR1 is required for female reproductive tract integrity and function, and disruption of TGFBR1–mediated signaling leads to catastrophic structural and functional consequences in the oviduct and uterus. PMID:22028666

  13. Applications of neuromodulation of the lower urinary tract in female urology

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    Firouz Daneshgari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation is becoming part of clinical armamentarium for treatment of a variety of lower urinary tract conditions in female urology. Its increased usage stems from need of patients who have exhausted all other therapeutic options for their complex and poorly understood lower urinary tract disorders. Currently neuromodulation may consist of the use of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS and injectable therapies. Herein, we will discuss the background and development of SNS, its current indications, methods of patient selection and will review the results of the recent published literature on SNS. In addition, we will discuss some of the newer developments in SNS such as Bion device and the future direction in integration of SNS in female urology.

  14. Mutilación genital femenina: Revisión y aspectos de interés médico legal Female genital mutilation: Review and aspects of medico-legal interests

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    MA. Gallego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La progresiva llegada a España de personas procedentes del África subsahariana ha evidenciado la práctica de una serie de rituales ancestrales en niñas, perjudiciales para su salud, y que se engloban dentro del concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF. En nuestro país estas prácticas están tipificadas como delito de lesiones y, por lo tanto, son susceptibles de plantear valoraciones médico legales. Es por ello que consideramos de especial importancia el conocimiento por parte de los profesionales de la medicina forense de una serie de aspectos generales sobre estas prácticas.The gradual arrival in Spain of people from sub-Saharan Africa, has highlighted the practice of a series of ancient rituals in girls, harmful to their health, and which are encompassed within the concept of Female Genital Mutilation in accordance with the WHO definition. In our country these acts are classified as a crime of injury. Therefore they are likely to raise legal medical evaluations. We consider it particularly important knowledge of these practices on the part of professionals in the forensic medicine.

  15. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many other countries consider FGC a violation of women's rights and a form of child abuse. Federal law ... many other countries consider FGC a violation of women's rights and a form of child abuse. Federal law ...

  16. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural functions of girls' and women's bodies. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure. ... the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong ...

  17. female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    engaging relevant stakeholders to curtail this harmful cultural practice. KEYWORDS: 1 .... sectional study design was utilized for this study. ... significance set at p?0.050 and 95% confidence ..... Accra: Graphic Packaging Ltd; 2005. pp. 268–78.

  18. Development of a microfluidics model for studying migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardón, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suárez, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Infertility is a significant issue, both for humans and dairy cattle. In order for fertilization to happen, sperm must migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg in the oviduct (fallopian tube). There is strong evidence that sperm interact with the female tract via both chemical and physical mechanisms. In this work, we focus on how the physical environment of the female tract influences the migration of bull sperm, which also serve as models for human sperm. In order for bull and human sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus, they must swim through the cervical canal, which is lined by microchannels. Then, sperm must swim through the uterotubal junction, which also contains microchannels, in order to reach the oviduct. In both passageways, sperm must swim against a fluid flow, which would be less in the microchannels than in the central passageways. We have developed a microfluidic model for studying the sperm migration effects of the geometry of the cervix and uterotubal junction and the fluid flow within. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  19. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  20. The Dutch approach to female genital mutilation in view of the ECHR The time for change has come

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    Renée Kool

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide female genital mutilation (FGM is acknowledged as a serious violation of human rights which needs to be actively combated. However, in Europe France has been the only state to have prosecuted cases of FGM: until 2007 37 cases were tried. As for the Netherlands, (assumingly FGM is practised on a relatively small, but regular basis. Nevertheless, no cases have been prosecuted; moreover, there have few reports of (alleged FGM to the Centre for Advising and Reporting on Child Abuse. For the past decade the Dutch Parliament has urged the Dutch government to develop a more robust policy towards FGM, including intervention by the criminal justice system. However, to date the Dutch government has opted for a policy focusing on prevention and medical/social assistance, including a preference for a (non-statutory reporting code. Recommendations to introduce mandatory reporting, in order to enable the transfer of information needed to enable the criminal justice authorities to intervene, have been turned down. In doing so the Dutch government is neglecting the positive obligations embedded within the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR, prescribing that states should offer adequate and effective protection against serious forms of ill-treatment (article 3 ECHR and/or serious violations of physical integrity (article 8 ECHR, especially to vulnerable persons. Moreover, according to the ECtHR in cases of serious violations, intervention by the criminal justice system is indicated. Thus, retaining a policy which provides no guarantees for the transfer of information needed to provide for effective and adequate protection results in a potential violation of the ECHR by the Dutch government. There is an urgent need for a change of policy. Moreover, as a result of the consistent political pressure by Parliament, the Dutch government has taken a recent interest in the way in which the French handle FGM. However, as legal and cultural

  1. Female genital mutilation: a systematic review of research on its economic and social impacts across four decades

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    Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported. Objective: This review aims to characterize over a 40-year period the scientific output on the consequences of FGM in African countries, the most affected region known for the high prevalence of FGM, and review data on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice. Design: A systematic review of literature was done, looking at the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BDSP, Web of Science, PsycINFO, FRANCIS, Sociological Abstracts, WHOLIS, RERO, and SAPHIR. The analysis was limited to articles concerning the African continent, published in English and French, from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2011. Results: One hundred ninety-eight articles were reviewed. More than half of the articles were published during the last decade of the study period. The majority of papers were published in biomedical journals (64.1%. Most studies looked at Africa as a region (33.3%. Nigeria was the single country most investigated (19.2%, followed by Egypt (10.6%. Most first authors were affiliated to non-African countries (60.6%: among them 21.2% were US-based, 4% were from African institutions, and 16.2% from Nigeria. The medical and psychological consequences (51.5% and the prevalence and ethics of the practice (34.4% were the most frequently investigated topics. The socioeconomic consequences were addressed in a minority of the papers (14.1%: they were classified into direct economic consequences (2.5%, school

  2. Female genital mutilation/cutting: changes and trends in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care professionals in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Marcusán, Adriana; Riba Singla, Laura; Laye, Mass; Secka, Dodou M; Utzet, Mireia; Le Charles, Marie-Alix

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs) in The Gambia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect and analyze data from an overall stratified sample consisting of 1,288 HCPs including health professionals and students throughout the six regions of The Gambia. Data were collected by the implementation of a self-administered written knowledge, attitudes, and practices questionnaire between 2012 and 2014. Results The results of this study showed that 76.4% of HCPs are eager to abandon FGM/C, and 71.6% of them regard it as a harmful practice with negative consequences on life and health. HCPs reported more knowledge and favorable attitudes towards FGM/C abandonment, being better able to identify the practice, more aware of its health complications, and more concerned in their essential role as social agents of change. However, 25.4% of HCPs still embraced the continuation of the practice, 24.4% expressed intention of subjecting their own daughters to it, and 10.5% declared to have performed it within their professional praxis. Conclusion Findings confirm progress in knowledge and attitudes regarding FGM/C among HCPs, who are better skilled to understand and manage the consequences. Nevertheless, discrepancies between information, intention, and behavior unveil resistance in practice and proves that FGM/C medicalization is increasing. Thus, there is an urgent need to support HCPs in the integration of FGM/C preventive interventions within the public health system, to address arguments favoring

  3. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  4. Female genital mutilation: a systematic review of research on its economic and social impacts across four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Macias, Aurélie; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Félicien, Tshimungu Kandolo; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K. Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported. Objective This review aims to characterize over a 40-year period the scientific output on the consequences of FGM in African countries, the most affected region known for the high prevalence of FGM, and review data on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice. Design A systematic review of literature was done, looking at the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BDSP, Web of Science, PsycINFO, FRANCIS, Sociological Abstracts, WHOLIS, RERO, and SAPHIR. The analysis was limited to articles concerning the African continent, published in English and French, from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2011. Results One hundred ninety-eight articles were reviewed. More than half of the articles were published during the last decade of the study period. The majority of papers were published in biomedical journals (64.1%). Most studies looked at Africa as a region (33.3%). Nigeria was the single country most investigated (19.2%), followed by Egypt (10.6%). Most first authors were affiliated to non-African countries (60.6%): among them 21.2% were US-based, 4% were from African institutions, and 16.2% from Nigeria. The medical and psychological consequences (51.5%) and the prevalence and ethics of the practice (34.4%) were the most frequently investigated topics. The socioeconomic consequences were addressed in a minority of the papers (14.1%): they were classified into direct economic consequences (2.5%), school attendance (1

  5. Injured bodies, damaged lives: experiences and narratives of Kenyan women with obstetric fistula and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanri, Lillian; Gatwiri, Glory Joy

    2017-03-14

    It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, p