Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun
To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.
Lin, Y-P; Yen, L-L; Pan, L-Y; Chang, P-J; Cheng, T-J
To explore the emerging tobacco epidemic in female workers in the growing micro-electronics industry of Taiwan. Workers were surveyed regarding their smoking status, sociodemographics and work characteristics. In total, 1950 female employees in two large micro-electronics companies in Taiwan completed the survey. Approximately 9.3% of the female employees were occasional or daily smokers at the time of the survey. The prevalence of smoking was higher in those aged 16-19 years (20.9%), those not married (12.9%), those with a high school education or less (11.7%), those employed by Company A (11.7%), shift workers (14.3%), and those who had been in their present employment for 1 year or less (13.6%). Results of multivariate adjusted logistic regression indicated that younger age, lower level of education, shorter periods of employment with the company and shift working were the important factors in determining cigarette smoking among the study participants. The odds ratio of being a daily smoker was similar to that of being a current smoker. Marital status was the only significant variable when comparing former smokers with current smokers. Smoking prevalence in female workers in the two micro-electronics companies studied was much higher than previous reports have suggested about female smoking prevalence in Taiwan and China. We suggest that smoking is no longer a 'male problem' in Taiwan. Future smoking cessation and prevention programmes should target young working women as well as men.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1994, a hazardous waste site, polluted by the dumping of solvents from a former electronics factory, was discovered in Taoyuan, Taiwan. This subsequently emerged as a serious case of contamination through chlorinated hydrocarbons with suspected occupational cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if there was any increased risk of breast cancer among female workers in a 23-year follow-up period. Methods A total of 63,982 female workers were retrospectively recruited from the database of the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI covering the period 1973–1997; the data were then linked with data, up to 2001, from the National Cancer Registry at the Taiwanese Department of Health, from which standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for different types of cancer were calculated as compared to the general population. Results There were a total of 286 cases of breast cancer, and after adjustment for calendar year and age, the SIR was close to 1. When stratified by the year 1974 (the year in which the regulations on solvent use were promulgated, the SIR of the cohort of workers who were first employed prior to 1974 increased to 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.70. No such trend was discernible for workers employed after 1974. When 10 years of employment was considered, there was a further increase in the SIR for breast cancer, to 1.62. Those workers with breast cancer who were first employed prior to 1974 were employed at a younger age and for a longer period. Previous qualitative studies of interviews with the workers, corroborated by inspection records, showed a short-term high exposure to chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, particularly trichloroethylene before 1974. There were no similar findings on other types of cancer. Conclusion Female workers with exposure to trichloroethylene and/or mixture of solvents, first employed prior to 1974, may have an excess risk of breast cancer.
Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Chen, Yi No; Mchoongo, Mwaka; Kimaru, Linda; Hammond, Yuna Tiffany; Sharkey, Tyronza; Malama, Kalonde; Fulton, T Roice; Tran, Alex; Halumamba, Hanzunga; Anderson, Sarah; Kishore, Nishant; Sarwar, Shawn; Finnegan, Trisha; Mark, David; Allen, Susan A
Patient identification within and between health services is an operational challenge in many resource-limited settings. When following HIV risk groups for service provision and in the context of vaccine trials, patient misidentification can harm patient care and bias trial outcomes. Electronic fingerprinting has been proposed to identify patients over time and link patient data between health services. The objective of this study was to determine 1) the feasibility of implementing an electronic-fingerprint linked data capture system in Zambia and 2) the acceptability of this system among a key HIV risk group: female sex workers (FSWs). Working with Biometrac, a US-based company providing biometric-linked healthcare platforms, an electronic fingerprint-linked data capture system was developed for use by field recruiters among Zambian FSWs. We evaluated the technical feasibility of the system for use in the field in Zambia and conducted a pilot study to determine the acceptability of the system, as well as barriers to uptake, among FSWs. We found that implementation of an electronic fingerprint-linked patient tracking and data collection system was feasible in this relatively resource-limited setting (false fingerprint matching rate of 1/1000 and false rejection rate of lodges) could be addressed by recruiting women during less busy hours, in their own homes, in the presence of "Queen Mothers" (FSW organizers), or in the presence of a FSW that has already been fingerprinted. Our findings have major implications for key population research and improved health services provision. However, more work needs to be done to increase the acceptability of the electronic fingerprint-linked data capture system during field recruitment. This study indicated several potential avenues that will be explored to increase acceptability.
People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...
Wei, T T; Mei, L Y
Electronics industry is a typical labor-intensive industry in China. There are a lot of female workers and various occupational hazard factors in the workplace. This article reviewed the characteristics of employment of women in electronics industry, occupational hazards of exposure, protective measures, occupational disease situation, influence of reproductive health and mental health, and occupational health management. Electronics female emplyees have the priority in reproductive health and mental health. Besides, this group has poor protective measures, occupational health management and policy should be taken to enhance the level of women health in electronics industry.
Two main types of task are performed by the female workers in the brick fields in the unorganized sectors viz, brick moulding and brick carrying. Modified Nordic Questionnaire and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) scale was applied on these workers to identify the MSDs and the zones of discomfort in different body parts.
Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises
The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…
B L Chawada
Full Text Available Background: With the rapid increase in construction sector, the number of female construction workers is increased. The problems of women worker is still not addressed adequately by health sector. Aims and objective: The present study is aimed to explore problems of female workers at construction sites in working environment and to document issues like gender bias, living conditions, vulnerability and slackness of health among female working in construction field. Methodology: This was a Cross sectional study conducted in May 2011in which all females working at the randomly selected construction site were enrolled. The pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was prepared to study the participant’s response. In-depth interview technique was also used to strengthen the findings. Results: Total of 118 female construction workers participated in the study with mean age found to be 22 years with SD of 6 years. Mean daily wages of female was 120 Rs while for male it was 245 Rs which is double than what female getting. Major health complaints were fatigue/weakness (61 %, backache (30 %, cough (17.5 %, fever (17 %, skin itching (10.5 % and diarrhoea (7 %. They were not even using the government medical facility due to lack of awareness and knowledge about this. No safety measures provided to female as compare to male except at 2 sites where female were provided ‘gloves’. Some (6% of the working females has abuse of chewing tobacco daily or smoking ‘bidi’. The living condition was merely enough to provide any privacy for female. Conclusion: As migratory and floating population, female working in construction field needs attention. Lack of social security and family support make them a vulnerable group for addiction and violence. Alternate way for providing healthcare for these women should be sort out early.
An influx of young women into industrial occupations has resulted in a reexamination of policy regarding fetal protection. Each of the Environmental Protection Agency's four alternatives, as listed in Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposures, is examined and given a critique: voluntary limitation of radiation exposure to the unborn, voluntary sterilization by women, exclusion of child-bearing-age women from occupational tasks resulting in possible fetal exposure, and limiting the mandatory exposure limit for all workers. The author lists employers and women employees responsibilities in considering occupations with radiation risks. 1 reference
Silverman, Jay G
A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis.
Yu, C Y; Yu, W L; Xu, M; Xing, Z L
Objective: To investigate the distribution of shift work of female workers in different industries and the relationship between shift work and reproductive health, then provide reference for the female workers' labor protection. Methods: From June to September 2016, cluster sampling questionnaire survey was performed among female workers from 11 industries including electronics, medicine and health, pharmacy. To investigate the general information, shift - work information, reproductive health and childbearing history of these female workers. Results: A total of 63 711 usable questionnaires were collected, resulting in a response rate of 96.94%.A total of 13 546 workers worked in shifts, accounting for 21.26%, the highest proportion was in the medical industry 30.61%, metallurgy 30.81%, petrochemical engineerin 26.78% respectively. Compared with the workers who did not work in shifts, those who worked in shifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection in married workers, the rate of infertility (χ(2)=19.108、10.673、21.510, P <0.05) ; Compared with the workers who did not work in nightshifts, those who worked in nightshifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection among married workers and rate of infertility (χ(2)=140.043、71.901、29.024, P <0.01) . Conclusion: The highest rate of shift work was in the medical industry, metallurgy, petrochemical engineering industry. Workers who worked in shifts have serious reproductive health issues, the occurrence of abnormal menstruation, reproductive system infection and infertility may associated with shift work.
Salazar, Alide; Paravic, Tatiana
During climacteric, the presence of disabling symptoms and the higher incidence of chronic diseases, may impair the job performance of women. To relate job performance levels with the climacteric period and associated factors in working women aged from 42 to 55 years old. In a cross-sectional and correlative design, 64 secretaries at two public organizations at the Eighth Region of Chile, were assessed using the following instruments: Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (University of Toronto), adapted for Chile by PROSAM, Climacteric Self-care Questionnaire, Perceived Social Support Scale and Biodemographics Variables Questionnaire. A Perception of the Job Performance Scale was applied to the persons that superintended these woman. The Department Heads or persons supervising these women, determined that most workers did their work well. The best evaluations were given by older bosses. Most women under study showed a moderate alteration of the Menopause Quality of Life. A deficit of self-care during the climacteric period was detected in 92.2%. The perceived social support from friends correlated with job performance. Menopause quality of life in its different domains had no correlation with job performance variable. No association between changes during the climacteric period and job performance was observed among women participating in this study.
This study examined the role of age, marital status and job-type on quality of Life amonge female workers in Edo State (N =188). Results from t-test revealed that female teachers reported better quality of life than female police officer, married female workers reported better quality of life than single female workers, while ...
Olsén, Peter; Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard
Abstract An action research project, 'Industry and Happiness', with female workers from the danish fishing industry is presented and discussed. Future creating workshops and socalled research workshops were central. The aim was to develop ideas and concrete perspectives for a democratization...... in (danish) industrial work. The unusual experiences include problems as well as innovation. Reflections are made on the central concept of 'social imagination'...
Vaginal douche products have been associated with cervical cancer. We examined female sex workers (FSWs) in Nigeria who douche with lemon or lime juice and compared the findings with that of nonusers. We obtained Pap smears and performed colposcopy of the vulva, vagina and cervix. A total of 374 FSWs ...
Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee
In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus
Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus
Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls
To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.
Full Text Available Female workers represent a fundamental component of the workforce to the extent that it is true that the Industrial Revolution owes them a huge debt. However, despite the unfair exploitation of many women in factories in which conditions resembled manslaughter, they have been often neglected and reduced to liminal characters by Victorian novelists. An interesting exception in the early Victorian period is represented by the writer Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, whose fiction works as a medium of social criticism. Her semi-fictional The Wrongs of Woman is a reform novel which sheds a controversial light on female working conditions. On the one hand she indeed deplores the inhuman treatment of female labourers, but on the other hand she also argues that female employment provokes a consequent increase in male unemployment! My paper aims to investigate the role of Tonna’s text and her attempt to alleviate working-class suffering.
Relación entre salud y renuncia al empleo en trabajadoras de la industria maquiladora electrónica de Tijuana The relationship between health and quitting work among electronic industry female workers in Tijuana
electronic parts factories in Tijuana, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cohort study of 725 women employed either at a Japanese or an American electronic parts factory in Tijuana was performed between January 1992 and March 1994. The sample was stratified in two time intervals 30 or >30 days of work. Follow up was continued until quitting or end of the observation period, by recollecting data regarding health, social and occupational variables from different logs and reports provided by the employer. Reasons for quitting and accuracy of data obtained from logs and reports were evaluated through a follow up interview applied to 46% (n=148 of the women who had quit, and were located approximately 12 months after ceasing to work (SD= 6.7. RESULTS. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 67% during the first year and 81% during the second. Newcomers to the work force, a day shift and the company is nationality were predic ors the of quitting within 30 days. Smoking, surgical antecedents and paid leave due to illness were predictors for quitting after 30 days. In contrast, quitting rate after 30 days was lower in women with a history of chronic disease. CONCLUSIONS. Quitting work is high and selective among workers female electronic factories. While occupational factors are associated with workers quitting early, health factors are stronger predictors for quitting after 30 days.
This paper examines 3 major health-related issues: 1) existing health problems and illnesses resulting from physical environmental conditions at workplaces; 2) female workers' perception on illness and health protection; and 3) the relationship between illness and risk factors. The study area is textile factories in Bangkok and its peripheries. Data are drawn from the 1987 Survey of Occupational Health and Textile Industrial Development in Thailand: Effect on Health and Socioeconomics of Female Migrant Workers. This study shows that about 20% of female workers have ill-health problems and illness after a period of working mainly due to high levels of dust and noise, and inadequate light. These conditions are hazardous to the respiratory system (resulting in cough and chest tightness), the hearing system (pains as well as impaired and hearing loss), eye systems (irritation, reduced visual capacity) and skin allergy. Such illnesses are intensified in the long- run. The analysis of variances reveals that education, section of work, perception (particularly mask and ear plug) significantly affect these illnesses. This study concludes that health education and occupational health should be provided in factories with emphasis on health prevention and promotion.
Pyett, P M; Warr, D J
In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.
Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Shirane, Kiyoyumi; Otomo, Hajime; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Oyama, Ichiro
In 1999, the Japanese Law on Equal Employment Opportunity and Conditions was amended and the previous prohibition of the assignment of female workers to night work was abolished. Subsequently, the number of female shift workers has been increasing in Japan, necessitating greater attention to the health care of this population. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the relationship between anxiety expressed about starting three-shift work and background characteristics among female workers who were being assigned to three-shift work for the first time. The subjects were 38 middle-aged female workers (age range: 44 to 59 years) who were working at a chemical plant. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire before starting three-shift work. Levels of anxiety about starting three-shift work were assessed by the question 'Do you feel anxious about starting three-shift work?' The available responses were: 'Very agree', 'Considerably agree', 'Rather agree', 'Slightly agree' and 'Not agree at all', and 63% of the subjects gave one of the first two answers, which were defined as indicating anxiety. We also acquired information regarding lifestyle and occupation for each subject, including the following factors: frequency of breakfast consumption, subjective sleep insufficiency, previous experience of similar work before beginning shift work, previous experience of two-shift work, and responsibility for household duties. In the study, we found a marginally statistically significant trend association between frequent breakfast consumption and anxiety about starting three-shift work (P(trend) = 0.09). Anxiety was also high among subjects with sleep disorders, especially those suffering from subjective sleep insufficiency (P = 0.08). Due to the small study population, these results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by future studies.
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin
HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Drebit, Sharla; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine
Differential risks of occupational injuries by gender have been examined across various industries. With the number of employees in healthcare rising and an overwhelming proportion of this workforce being female, it is important to address this issue in this growing sector. To determine whether compensated work-related injuries among females are higher than their male colleagues in the British Columbia healthcare sector. Incidents of occupational injury resulting in compensated days lost from work over a 1-year period for all healthcare workers were extracted from a standardized operational database and the numbers of productive hours were obtained from payroll data. Injuries were grouped into all injuries and musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modelling. A total of 42 332 employees were included in the study of whom 11% were male and 89% female. When adjusted for age, occupation, sub-sector, employment category, health region and facility, female workers had significantly higher risk of all injuries [rate ratio (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.24-2.01)] and MSIs [1.43 (1.11-1.85)] compared to their male colleagues. Occupational health and safety initiatives should be gender sensitive and developed accordingly.
Kondo, Y; Sato, Y; Takashima, H; Siki, T; Inui, S; Arachi, H; Yamashita, N; Hosokawa, M
Concomitant with frequent occurrence of disorders of the neck, arm, hand and low back among assembly-line female workers in confectionery work, there is an increased number of patients with occupational cervicobrachial disorders and/or low back pain. In suspicion of the close correlation between the working conditions and development of these local disorders, a field study was undertaken. The following are the results obtained. More than 90% of these assembly-line female workers consisted of inexperienced part-time employees, mostly of middle to old age. They were engaged in decorating conveyor-carried cakes with cream and chocolate. The work necessitated repetitive movements of the upper limbs and concentration of visuosensory and nervous attention in a half-sitting slouching posture. This was considered to exert excess load on the local muscles and nervous and sensory systems. The causes that intensified the local symptoms as pointed out by the workers consisted of (1) repetitive use of the arms and hands, (2) static posture during the work and (3) sustained standing position. Complaints of low back pain were conspicuous from the unsuitable height of a conveyor-belt. Thirty five percent of the female workers needed medical treatment for cervicobrachial and/or low back pain. The forced adaptation to the belt height, sustained unnatural working posture and the imposition of forced movements seemed to be the main factors in the onset of cervicobrachial and/or low back pain in interrelation with working hours. On the basis of these results, the work load on a machine-paced assembly-line was analyzed and the necessity of improvement of working conditions was discussed.
This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.
Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San.
The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment
Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei
Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.
Ahmad, R.; Rauf, R.
Objective: To see the agricultural sprays hazards in female workers at Multan. Main outcomes measure: Age, work experience, physical health, marital status, fertility, menstrual status, number of offspring, number of abortion, blood choline esterase level, reproductive hormonal assay. Results: The overall age of the 38 participants included in the study was in the range of 12-50 years. Most of the participants enjoyed good physical health. The overall toxicity determined through the reproductive hormonal assay was 18.42%; with 22.22% in the married group and 9.09% in the unmarried group. Eleven participants were in follicular phase of menstrual cycle, two were in luteal state, five were in mid cycle, six were pregnant, six participants had menopause, one had lactational amenorrhea while seven were poisoning cases with no infertility case. The blood plasma level of AChE of 7.8% participants were on safe side, 42.86% were in alarming situation while 52.63% participants were in dangerous condition. Conclusion: Agricultural pesticides are the endocrine disrupting chemicals which poses a health threat, particularly to the sensitive gender, frequent farm workers and onward into their children. (author)
Baillargeon, Jacques Guy
Though well-documented among numerous cohorts of male workers, little is known about how the healthy worker effect (HWE) and the internal HWE is expressed among cohorts of female workers. This investigation examines characteristics of the HWE and the internal HWE in a cohort of 12,668 female nuclear workers. The HWE, which was estimated by assessing SMRs for all causes of death combined, was found to be modified by race, occupational class and length of follow-up. Smaller variations in the HWE were observed for age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, monitored status, and interruption of monitoring. Examination of SMRs for all cancers combined revealed that the HWE was modified by race, occupational class, monitored status, interruption of monitoring, and length of follow-up. Smaller variations were observed for age at hire and length of employment. Investigators often try to circumvent the HWE by employing internal comparisons; that is, by directly comparing the mortality of subgroups within a defined occupational cohort with one another. However, internal comparisons are not necessarily free from certain biases related to the HWE. If employees are selected on the basis of health into subgroups which serve as the basis for internal comparisons, then a form of internal comparison bias, called the internal healthy worker effect (Stewart et al, 1991; Wilkinson, 1992) may occur. In this investigation, the expression of the internal HWE was examined by estimating the extent to which survival time was modified by the variables under study. Using the Cox PH model, time to death from all causes was found to be modified by occupational class and length of employment but not by race, age at hire, monitored status, or interruption of monitoring. Time to death from all cancers was found to be modified by race and interruption of monitoring but not by age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, or monitored status. These results are important because
Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E
There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.
Kim, Heechan; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Rhie, Jeongbae; Lim, Sinye; Kang, Yun-Dan; Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Hyungryul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Roh, Sangchul
This study investigated the relationship between job type and the risk for spontaneous abortion to assess the reproductive toxicity of female workers in the semiconductor industry. A questionnaire survey was administered to current female workers of two semiconductor manufacturing plants in Korea. We included female workers who became pregnant at least 6 months after the start of their employment with the company. The pregnancy outcomes of 2,242 female workers who experienced 4,037 pregnancies were investigated. Personnel records were used to assign the subjects to one of three groups: fabrication process workers, packaging process workers, and clerical workers. To adjust for within-person correlations between pregnancies, a generalized estimating equation was used. The logistic regression analysis was limited to the first pregnancy after joining the company to satisfy the assumption of independence among pregnancies. Moreover, we stratified the analysis by time period (pregnancy in the years prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) to reflect differences in occupational exposure based on semiconductor production periods. The risk for spontaneous abortion in female semiconductor workers was not significantly higher for fabrication and packaging process workers than for clerical workers. However, when we stratified by time period, the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was significantly higher for packaging process workers who became pregnant prior to 2008 when compared with clerical workers (odds ratio: 2.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.81). When examining the pregnancies of female semiconductor workers that occurred prior to 2008, packaging process workers showed a significantly higher risk for spontaneous abortions than did clerical workers. The two semiconductor production periods in our study (prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) had different automated processes, chemical exposure levels, and working environments. Thus, the conditions prior to 2008 may have increased the
Pardasani, P B; Joshi, V D; Awari, J M; Kher, R K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Protection Services Div.
Basis for control of occupational exposures of women are same as that of men except for pregnant women. Analysis of annual and cumulative occupational doses of female radiation workers as a group has been done. The average annual dose data in the four broad categories and age wise dose distribution is presented. The average working period for female radiation workers is about 3 to 5 years which is same as that of all the radiation workers on our records. The average cumulative dose for female workers is about 3 mSv. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs.
Pardasani, P.B.; Joshi, V.D.; Awari, J.M.; Kher, R.K.
Basis for control of occupational exposures of women are same as that of men except for pregnant women. Analysis of annual and cumulative occupational doses of female radiation workers as a group has been done. The average annual dose data in the four broad categories and age wise dose distribution is presented. The average working period for female radiation workers is about 3 to 5 years which is same as that of all the radiation workers on our records. The average cumulative dose for female workers is about 3 mSv. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs
Ligia Lopes Devóglio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Results: We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8% had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3% resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1% were smokers, 5 (6.0% were former smokers, 74 (89.2% regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8% used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4% were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%. The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271 and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001, although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651 Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted.
Taranenko, L A
The article covers data on analyzing occupational risk of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in female workers exosed to methanol and formaldehyde. Findings are that increased contents of the studied chemicals in the air of workplace cause more probable dyslipidemia, insuline resistence in peri-menopausal female workers, these disorders have reliable correlation with occupation.
Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim
Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.
Objective: To establish the categories of female sex workers in Dar es Salaam. Methods: We conducted in depth-interviews with 32 female sex workers (FSWs) in five geographic areas of Dar-es-Salaam known to be the primary residential and working places, three local government leaders in three of the five areas known ...
Iusupova, N Z; Shamsiiarov, N N; Dautov, F F
The article presents results of study concerning work conditions of female workers engaged into stock-raising enterprises of Tatarstan Republic. Findings are that major occupational hazards in the female workers are unfavorable microclimate, chemical hazards contaminating ambient air of workplace and high noise level.
Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.
Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and
Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario
Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.
Shaily B Surti
Full Text Available Background: Outbreak of syphilis, i.e., 16 cases of rapid plasma reagin (RPR reactive cases of syphilis was reported in Community Based Organization (CBO Sahyog of Surat, India, from April to August 2014. The aim of the study was to find risk factors and take immediate actions to prevent spread. Materials and Methods: Outbreak investigation of 16 Female Sex Workers of CBO Sahyog in Surat who were found Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA positive from April to August 2014; was carried out. Clinico-epidemiological and laboratory-based evidence for different sexually transmitted infections (STIs conducted at Government Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Surat. Root cause analysis (RCA of index case was carried out. Results: Desk review for the past 3 years data of STI revealed total STI cases as 88 (2011, 95 (2012, and 130 (2013, of which 4, 2, and 2 found RPR reactive, respectively. Data from April to August 2014 revealed 16 RPR reactive cases and confirmed by TPHA. On examination, one had ulcerative cervical lesion, rest did not have any symptoms of syphilis. Eleven had vaginal/cervical discharge, 11 had lower abdominal pain. A total of 11 had unprotected sex, 7 encountered condom tear in the past 6 months, and 5 reported sexual violence. Seven had sexual activity under influence of alcohol. Laboratory investigation revealed two as HIV-positive. RPR reactivity reported highest (9 out of 16 from same area of hotspot. RCA of probable index case revealed factors responsible as violence and nonuse of condoms. Conclusions: Outbreak investigation revealed one probable index case. All 16 treated with injection Penidure. Violence or condom tear is responsible for the spread. Crisis management team should be strengthened.
Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie
Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. © The Author(s) 2015.
samples were selected purposively who met inclusion criteria among female workers who work in the position of standing work. Data were collected by interview, physical examination and observation of the position of standing work. To determine the dominant factors for varicose veins, data processing was using relative risk approach. Results: A number 111 out of 152 employees worked in a lot of work standing position participated the study, and who had varicose veins and leg or foot as was 52.3% (53 people. The majority of respondents aged 18-35 years, had total work period of 3-17 years, and worked in a lot of work standing position. Those who had a family history of varicose veins were 13.5%, taking oral contraceptive were 11.71%, has a habit of exercise (18.0%, and high heels (11.7%. Age, use of oral contraceptives, use of high heels, exercise habits, work standing position, place of work, and working period did not associate with varicose veins. Employees who had than did not have family history of varicose veins had 69% higher risk of suffering from varicose veins [relative risk (RR = 1.69, P = 0.121].Conclusion: Employees who had family history of varicose veins had higher risk suffering varicose veins. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:47-50Keywords: varicose veins, position of standing work
Full Text Available Readymade Garment (RMG Sector in Bangladesh has been playing a vital role in creating employment opportunity for the rural marginal people for the last two decades. At present 5,100 garment factories are operating in this country and 3.6 million workers are working there in which more than 80 percent of them are female. From the beginning it is largely apparent that the health status of the female garment workers is not well enough to do their work properly. Keeping this in mind, the study was conducted to find out the health status of the female workers. In this study, 200 female workers of Bangladesh were interviewed to identify the major diseases they experienced. The study reveals that the majority of the female workers in the garment sector suffer from the diseases like problems in bones, abortion complexity, dermatitis, back pain, eye stain, pruritus, malnutrition, respiratory problems, hepatitis (Jandice, gastric pain, fatigue, fever, abdomen pain, common cold, and helminthiasis. The policy makers and other concern bodies should take necessary measures to ensure good health of the garment workers. It will help female workers to be more productive and their contribution to the country will be enhanced.
Mahajan, J.M.; Massand, O.P.; Venkataraman, G.
Radiation Protection Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre conducts country wide personnel monitoring service for 40,000 radiation workers, of which about 22,000 radiation workers are from industrial, medical and research institutions. The number of female radiation workers constitute about 5% of the total radiation workers monitored. Basis for control of occupational exposures of women are same as that for men except for pregnant women (foetus). Equivalent dose above 10 mSv in a service period is investigated as to the causes of exposure whether the exposure was really received by the worker (genuine) or only the monitoring badge received the exposure due to other reasons (non-genuine) and necessary remedial actions are taken. Analysis of overexposure cases in female radiation workers as a group has been done for the period of four years (1990-1993) and the conclusions are presented. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs
Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K
The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....
: We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.
Kou, Z X; Wang, S L; Chen, Z L; He, Y H; Yu, W L; Mei, L Y; Zhang, H D
Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in petrochemical industry, and to provide a reference for improving reproductive health status and developing preventive and control measures for female workers in petrochemical industry. Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was performed from January to October, 2016. The Questionnaire on Women's Reproductive Health was used to investigate the reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. Results: Among the 7485 female workers, 1 268 (40.9%) had abnormal menstrual period, 1 437 (46.4%) had abnormal menstrual volume, 177 (28.5%) had hyperplasia of mammary glands, and 1 807 (24.6%) had gynecological inflammation. The reproductive system diseases in female workers in petrochemical industry were associated with the factors including age, marital status, education level, unhealthy living habits, abortion, overtime work, work shift, workload, video operation, occupational exposure, positive events, and negative events, and among these factors, negative events (odds ratio[ OR ]= 1.856) , unhealthy living habits ( OR =1.542) , and positive events ( OR =1.516) had greater impact on reproductive system diseases. Conclusion: Many chemical substances in the occupational environment of petrochemical industry can cause damage to the reproductive system, which not only affects the health of the female workers, but also poses potential threats to the health of their offspring. Occupational exposure, unhealthy living habits, overtime work, and work shift have great influence on reproductive system diseases in female workers.
Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta
Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk
New developments during the past two decades emphasise the importance of early intervention ... helplessness five times more often than those who ... other professionals and experts, the electronic media ..... New York: John ... The survey kit.
Sender, J.; Oya, C.
Compared to other rural women, a high proportion of female wageworkers in rural Mozambique are divorced, separated or widowed. The paper explores the factors underlying this difference and establishes a significant relationship between labour market participation and female divorce or widowhood. The
Devóglio, Ligia Lopes; Corrente, José Eduardo; Borgato, Maria Helena; Godoy, Ilda de
To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs). This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8%) had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3%) resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1%) were smokers, 5 (6.0%) were former smokers, 74 (89.2%) regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8%) used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4%) were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%). The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271) and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001), although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651). The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted. Avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo e variáveis associadas em mulheres profissionais do sexo (MPS). Estudo de corte transversal quantitativo com MPS na cidade de Botucatu (SP), as quais completaram um questionário sociodemográfico, incluindo informações sobre tabagismo, estágio motivacional para cessação do tabagismo e grau de dependência da nicotina, assim como a
Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers' health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient.
Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q
Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.
Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana
This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.
Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W
To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto
Infection with Entamoeba histolytica ( E. histolytica ) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.
Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott
To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Islam, M Mofizul; Conigrave, Katherine M; Miah, Md Shahjahan; Kalam, Kazi Abul
Female migrant workers face a growing scale of unsafe migration, which increases their risk of HIV. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are migrating from Bangladesh to other countries as contractual workers. The aim of the study is to establish a baseline for the socio-demographic status of female migrant workers and the extent of their HIV/AIDS awareness along with the factors that determine it, and to discuss the need for effective HIV awareness programmes. During June-July 2008 data were collected by a questionnaire from 123 participants by approaching a cross section of women at the airport who were ready to fly to take up an overseas job. A total of 87% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Participants who had completed an education level of year ≥8 were more likely to have been informed about HIV than others. The average score in correct identification of modes of HIV infection was 1.6 (out of 4) and for preventive measures 1.8 (out of 5). Television and health workers were the major sources of HIV related knowledge. HIV-knowledge among the potential female migrant workers seems to be poor. As growing numbers of female workers are moving overseas for work, government and other concerned agencies must take a pro-active role to raise their awareness of HIV/AIDS infection and of effective preventive measures.
Bailey, Althea E; Figueroa, John Peter
This paper explores barriers to consistent condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica in a qualitative study using grounded theory. Multiple perspectives were sought through 44 in-depth interviews conducted with female sex workers, clients, the partners of sex workers and facilitators of sex work. Poverty and lack of education or skills, severely limited support systems as well as childhood abuse served to push the majority of participants into sex work and created vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. Despite these constraints, women found ways to exercise agency, ensure condom use, adopt protective measures and gain economic advantage in various aspects of the Jamaican sex trade. Perceived relationship intimacy between sex workers and their clients and/or their main partners emerged as the main factor contributing to reduced risk perception and inconsistent condom use. Relationship intimacy, with associated trust and affirmation of self, is the most important factor influencing sexual decision-making with respect to lapse in condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica. Study findings provide important insights that can enhance individual psychosocial, interpersonal and community-based interventions as well as inform environmental, structural and policy interventions to reduce risk and vulnerability among female sex workers.
Full Text Available Objective: To find out the determinant factors which are associated with the serum vitamin D status in the female garment workers. Methods: This study was a cross sectional design with a total of 154 childbearing female garment workers aging from 18 to 40 who worked at garment factory in Sukabumi, Indonesia and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Serum 25(OHD was determined using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing serum vitamin D status. Results: The results of this study showed that on average serum 25(OHD of the workers was 31.6 nmol/L and only 5.2% of them had a sufficient status of vitamin D. There were no different proportion among body mass index, supplement consumption, energy, protein, calcium, and vitamin D adequacy level with the serum vitamin D status of the workers. The workers who wore veils had a higher proportion to have a deficient serum vitamin D compared to workers who did not use veils (P = 0.000. The women who wore veils had a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than the women who did not wear any veil. Conclusions: A need of vitamin D can be obtained from sunlight. Therefore it is suggested that the garment provide an opportunity for the garment workers to do exercise in the morning so that the workers can get sunlight prior to working.
INOUE, Mariko; NISHIKITANI, Mariko; TSURUGANO, Shinobu
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers’ health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient. PMID:27818453
Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi
The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.
Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon
Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20-40 years enrolled in the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace.
A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship.
Gurav, Kaveri; Bradley, Janet; Chandrashekhar Gowda, G; Alary, Michel
A qualitative study was conducted to obtain a detailed understanding of two key determinants of condom breakage - 'rough sex' and poor condom fit - identified in a recent telephone survey of female sex workers, in Bangalore, India. Transcripts from six focus-group discussions involving 35 female sex workers who reported condom breakage during the telephone survey were analysed. Rough sex in different forms, from over-exuberance to violence, was often described by sex workers as a result of clients' inebriation and use of sexual stimulants, which, they report, cause tumescence, excessive thrusting and sex that lasts longer than usual, thereby increasing the risk of condom breakage. Condom breakage in this setting is the result of a complex set of social situations involving client behaviours and power dynamics that has the potential to put the health and personal lives of sex workers at risk. These findings and their implications for programme development are discussed.
Mozhgan Javadnoori; Sanaz Zangeneh; Mitra Tadayon; Mohamadreza Akhoond
Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual heal...
Sylvia Diana Purba
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the quality of life of female factory workers that is hypothesized as affected by work-family conflict and job satisfaction and moderated by perceived organizational support and labor union support. The respondents of the research are female factory workers who are already married and have children, in which 158 respondents are from Jabodetabek and 66 are from Batam. The result shows that work-family conflict significantly decreases quality of life, and perceived organizational support also has a significant positive moderating effect toward quality of life. The quality of life is affected by job satisfaction and work-family conflict but not moderated by labor union support. This research describes that although the work-family conflict of female factory workers has no influence on job satisfaction but it reduces the quality of life directly with the result that job satisfaction is not an intervening variable.
Nohara, M; Kagawa, J
In this paper we describe female workers' health care, the women's and maternal protection system within the Japanese legal system, the current status of female workers in Japan, and problems regarding methods of advancing health care and the women's or maternal protection system. Motherhood is respected in the workplace in Japan, and in order to provide an environment in which women can work and still bear and rear children with a sense of security, laws concerning maternal protection of female workers, and revisions in terms of the system have been made, and a new system has been in effect since the fiscal year of 1998. Nevertheless, gender discrimination against women and the disparagement of women, rooted in gender role stereotypes concerning the division of labor, remain firmly planted in the social environment and in long-established custom.
Nuken, Amenla; Kermode, Michelle; Saggurti, Niranjan; Armstrong, Greg; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar
This study examines the relationship between alcohol use, HIV status, and condom use among female sex workers in Nagaland, India. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2009, using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Out of 417 female sex workers, one-fifth used alcohol daily and one-tenth were HIV-positive. HIV-positive female sex workers were more likely than HIV-negative female sex workers to consume alcohol daily (30.2% vs. 18.0%). HIV-positive daily alcohol users reported lower condom use at last sex with regular clients compared to HIV-positive non-daily alcohol users (46.2% vs. 79.3%), a relationship not evident among HIV-negative female sex workers. There is a need to promote awareness of synergies between alcohol use and HIV, and to screen for problematic alcohol use among female sex workers in order to reduce the spread of HIV.
Matisane, L.; Carpenter, L.; Venables, K.
Medical radiation workers belong to one of the oldest occupational groups exposed to external radiation. Since the various radiological protection recommendations have been introduced, now ths process has resulted in low-dose exposure, regular monitoring of exposure and establishment of national dose registration bodies. In order to provide additional information to studies on cancer incidence among medical radiation workers (specially female workers) and in order to assess all cancer incidence in female medical radiation workers in Latvia, a retrospective cohort study based on the National Dose Register was set up in Latvia. The study cohort consisted of all workers employed in health care, occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for more than one year in any of the public health care establishments in Latvia, except military ones, between 1 January 1972 and 1 January 2002 and who were registered in the National Dose Register of Latvia. The cohort consisted of 1416 female medical radiation workers either in hospitals or outpatient departments, or both. The cohort included diagnostic and therapeutic radiologists with predominantly medical qualification, it also included radiotechnologits, nurses, junior nurses, but it did not include academic, physicists and dentists. In all cases the calculated SIR was over than expected or close to expected. Several major differences in study design makes ir difficult to compare the results of this study with the results of the studies carried out in other countries
Jenna T. Nakagawa
Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.
Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C
It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Noble, Meredith; Salo, Kathryn; Tregear, Stephen J
Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States. We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3 % (95 % CI 13.5-21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32 %) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I(2) = 0.89, Q = 123; p HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high.
Wang, Jue; Jia, Manhong; Luo, Hongbing; Li, Youfang; Song, Lijun; Mei, Jingyuan; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Ran; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Renzhong; Pan, Songfeng; Li, Zhiqing; Lu, Lin
To analyze the characteristics of risky behaviors among different age groups of HIV positive female sex workers, and to explore the strengthening of their management. From January to June 2014, 22 814 female sex workers were investigated and tested HIV in 117 sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan Province, and 181 were confirmed to be HIV antibody positive, who accepted questionnaire surveys. According to the age, the participants were divided into the HIV/AIDS and related risk behaviors characteristics of the two groups were obtained via questionnaire surveys among 181 HIV positive female sex workers, and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted from among 12 HIV positive sex workers. HIV antibody positive rate was 0.8% (181), the age of the 181 subjects were (35.83 ± 9.17) years old, 76 cases (42.0%) were HIV, the proportion of AIDS awareness was 95.6% (173); the proportion of drug use among ≥ 35 years old age group was 51.4% (54), which was higher than that in HIV counseling and testing in the past year. The proportion of continuing to engage in sexual services over 5 years after HIV infection was 48.5% (51/105) and the proportion of receiving antiretroviral treatment was 69.5% (73/105) in ≥ 35 years old age group, which were higher than those in the HIV positive female sex workers found that regular clients, not consistent use of condoms were the main cause of no condom use. Economic and livelihood factors are important reasons for continuing to engage in sexual services among HIV positive sex workers. HIV positive sex workers still have high risk behaviors including continuing to engage in commercial sexual service and no condom use after knowing their HIV infection status, and the proportion of using drugs in the ≥ 35 years old group was higher than that in < 35 years old group.
Johnston, Venerina; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Jull, Gwendolen; Souvlis, Tina
This study investigated the relative contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological features associated with neck pain in female office workers towards developing appropriate intervention programs. Workers without disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) score workers with neck pain and disability (NDI > or = 9/100, n=52) and 22 controls (women who did not work and without neck pain) participated in this study. Two logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between various measures in (1) workers with and without disability, and (2) workers without disability and controls. Measures included those found to be significantly associated with higher NDI in our previous studies: psychosocial domains; individual factors; task demands; quantitative sensory measures and measures of motor function. In the final model, higher score on negative affectivity scale (OR=4.47), greater activity in the neck flexors during cranio-cervical flexion (OR=1.44), cold hyperalgesia (OR=1.27) and longer duration of symptoms (OR=1.19) remained significantly associated with neck pain in workers. Workers without disability and controls could only be differentiated by greater muscle activity in the cervical flexors and extensors during a typing task. No psychosocial domains remained in either regression model. These results suggest that impairments in the sensory and motor system should be considered in any assessment of the office worker with neck pain and may have stronger influences on the presenting symptoms than workplace and psychosocial features.
Keith H. Carter
Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine
Platt, Lucy; Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Reynolds, Lucy; Wilson, David
Objectives We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs. Design A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Studies reviewed Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs. Results HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment. Conclusions Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better systematically delineate how microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors combine to increase or reduce HIV/STI risk. PMID:23883879
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among brick field workers and to explore attributed causes of LBP, investigate the relationship between LBP and psychophysical and psychosocial factors and measure the impact of LBP. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire along with Body Part Discomfort scale were administered to brick field workers (N = 148). Working posture of the participants was assessed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method. The study showed that 70 % of the female workers reported LBP due to awkward working posture for prolonged period of time. This was mainly reported by brick moulders. 45 % reported LBP due to manual material handling (MMH) and 40 % due to awkward lifting of heavy objects (brick). The study shows that the LBP is more prevalent (OR 1.59 and 95 % CI 0.411-6.207). 78 % of the female workers want the job rotation to relieve from their job monotony. LBP occurred among female workers due to awkward posture, repetitive work and MMH. This study also stated that psychosocial cause of LBP is inadequacy income, monotony work, job dissatisfaction. Working posture analysis REBA suggests that all the working postures are high-risk level.
Eskenazi, B; Guendelman, S; Elkin, E P; Jasis, M
Maquiladoras are plants on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border which are used largely by U.S. manufacturers to assemble premanufactured parts. We examined reproductive outcomes of women employed in electronics (N = 120) and garment (N = 121) maquiladora work compared to women employed in the service sector (N = 119) in Tijuana, Mexico. Women recruited by community health workers were interviewed about their reproductive history, sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and characteristics of their current job. Length of regular menstrual cycle in the past year as well as time of conception and rates of fetal loss in the most recent pregnancy were similar across occupational groups. However, infants of garment maquiladora workers were 653 g lighter (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1,041 g, -265 g) and infants of electronic maquiladora workers were 337 g lighter (95% CI: -682 g, 9 g) than infants of service workers after adjusting for potential confounders. The cause of these differences remains unclear.
Marra, E.; Dam, L. van; Kroone, N.; Alberts, C.J.; Craanen, M.; Zimet, G.D.; Heijmam, T.; Hogewoning, A.A.; Sonder, G.J.B.; Vries, H.J.C. de; Alberts, C.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.
Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced diseases but are currently not targeted by the HPV vaccination program in the Netherlands. We explored determinants of their intention to get vaccinated against HPV in case vaccination would be offered to
Kahn, Sharon E.; And Others
Examined marital and parental status in relation to perceptions of quality of work and family roles (psychological well-being, job satisfaction, work involvement, non-occupational environment, and role demands) in female clerical workers (N=148). Found income differentiated married and unmarried women and presence of school-age children related to…
Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei
We proposed to integrate cognitive and social factors in the study of unprotected commercial sex. Data from 159 female entertainment workers from 15 establishments in Shanghai who reported commercial sex in the month prior to interview were used to test the approach. Two-sample t tests and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine…
Basuki, E.; Wolffers, I.; Devillé, W.; Erlaini, N.; Luhpuri, D.; Hargono, R.; Maskuri, N.; Suesen, N.; Beelen, N. van
The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by
Andersen, Lars L; Nielsen, Pernille K; Søgaard, Karen
The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated...
Tokar, Anna; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Blanchard, James; Roura, Maria
HIV testing uptake continues to be low among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). We synthesizes evidence on barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among FSW as well as frequencies of testing, willingness to test, and return rates to collect results. We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE,
Fontana, L; Falconi, G; Di Martino, T; Iavicoli, I
The International Continence Society defines urinary incontinence (UI) as "a condition in which involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrable". There are three different jorms of UI. stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed incontinence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UI in a group of female workers in the hotel sector. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence short form (ICIQ-UI Short Form) was administered to all female workers and data were collected about age, body mass index, number of vaginal and Caesarean delivery. Results showed a prevalence of UI widely bigger in the plans waitress than in video display terminal workers and suggest the hypothesis that manual handling of loads representing a possible occupational risk for UI.
Nosske, C.; Karcher, K.
ICRP Publication 88 recommends doses to embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother for various intake scenarios. Mainly by answering the question 'Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?' it has been assessed if the intake scenarios given in ICRP Publication 88 are adequate for radiation protection purposes. This is generally the case, but the consideration of an additional chronic intake scenario for early pregnancy would be helpful. It is demonstrated that following chronic intake by inhalation, for most radionuclides radiation protection for (female) workers is also adequate for protection of the unborn child, considered as a member of the public. However, there are a number of radionuclides for which possible intakes in routine operations should be more restricted (up to 1% of the annual limits on intake for workers in the case of nickel isotopes) to ensure radiation protection for the unborn child. (author)
Altaf, A.; Aga, A.; McKinizie, M.H.; Abbas, Q.; Jafri, S.B.
Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)
La Torre, Giuseppe; Guastamacchia, Sergio; Barbagallo, Alfio; Mannocci, Alice
Smoking prevalence among health care workers is higher in comparison with general population and the prevalence of women who smoke is higher than among men. In the prevention strategies the multimedia campaign may be a positive impact on the fight against tobacco. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the last Italian campaign against smoking (Il fumo fammale) in the health care women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Latium and Sicily (Italy) in 2015, through an interview on memories and impressions about the spots and after a new vision of the spot and eventually other comments. 357 individuals entered the study, 204 female health care workers and 153 from the general population. The female health care workers were more skeptical than the general population. The impressions aroused in the healthcare workers versus the general population were: sadness (OR=2.96;IC95%:1.17-7.49), indifference (OR=5.57;IC95%:2.43-12.77); while a cue to reflect was more considered from general population than health care workers (OR=0.13;IC95%:0.07-0.23). The female professionals health referred the main characteristics of the spot as no original, no impactful, no persuasive and boring too. In conclusion the multimedia campaign to fight against the smoking should be useful, but the psico-behavioural factors have applied and considered when it is implemented; to reduce the tobacco consumption in the healthcare workers can make them an example for the people of healthy life styles and they are a start up of prevention mechanism too. Furthermore it is important to consider the healthcare professional's opinions for future healthy communications and multimedia campaign on tobacco harm. Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.
Rosilane de Lima Brito Magalhães
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the use of hepatitis B vaccine and risk practices among female sex workers. Methods: cross-sectional research using the Respondent Driven Sampling methodology. One-hundred and fifty-three sex workers were studied.Results: risk practices were related to the early onset of sexual activity, multiple partners with up to 17 clients per week 34 (22.2%, lack of use of condom 9 (5.9%, 124 (81.0% shared sharps and 53 (34.6% reported no vaccine against hepatitis B. Conclusion: sex workers found themselves exposed to various risk situations to the hepatitis B virus, due to the lack of immunization schedule, sexual precocity, multiple sex partners lack of use of condom, habit of sharing sharp objects. It is urgent to invest in health promotion with guidance on the importance of the vaccine, the adoption of protective measures and increased access of sex workers to health facilities.
Cange, Charles W; LeBreton, Matthew; Saylors, Karen; Billong, Serge; Tamoufe, Ubald; Fokam, Pamella; Baral, Stefan
Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats. Many reported staying in sex work to provide for their children through education and other circumstances to allow them to lead a better life. Sex worker mothers reported not using condoms when clients offered higher pay, or with intimate partners, even when they understood the risk of HIV transmission to themselves. Concern for their children's quality of life took precedence over HIV-related risks, even when sex workers were the children's primary carers. A sex worker empowerment programme with a focus on family-oriented services could offer an effective and novel approach to increasing coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care in Cameroon.
van der Ham, A.J.; Ujano-Batangan, M.T.; Ignacio, R.; Wolffers, I.N.
Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in
Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis
Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every
Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis
Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the
Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Gahiro, Elysée; Uwineza, Mireille; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Nash, Denis; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.
To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing
Braunstein, S.L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M.M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Nash, D.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.
Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included
Virginia A Fonner
Full Text Available Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317. Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90 and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03 and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51, and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91. Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.
Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125
Johnston, V; Jull, G; Souvlis, T; Jimmieson, N L
Cross-sectional study. To explore aspects of cervical musculoskeletal function in female office workers with neck pain. Evidence of physical characteristics that differentiate computer workers with and without neck pain is sparse. Patients with chronic neck pain demonstrate reduced motion and altered patterns of muscle control in the cervical flexor and upper trapezius (UT) muscles during specific tasks. Understanding cervical musculoskeletal function in office workers will better direct intervention and prevention strategies. Measures included neck range of motion; superficial neck flexor muscle activity during a clinical test, the craniocervical flexion test; and a motor task, a unilateral muscle coordination task, to assess the activity of both the anterior and posterior neck muscles. Office workers with and without neck pain were formed into 3 groups based on their scores on the Neck Disability Index. Nonworking women without neck pain formed the control group. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene (AS), cervical extensor (CE) and UT muscles. Workers with neck pain had reduced rotation range and increased activity of the superficial cervical flexors during the craniocervical flexion test. During the coordination task, workers with pain demonstrated greater activity in the CE muscles bilaterally. On completion of the task, the UT and dominant CE and AS muscles demonstrated an inability to relax in workers with pain. In general, there was a linear relationship between the workers' self-reported levels of pain and disability and the movement and muscle changes. These results are consistent with those found in other cervical musculoskeletal disorders and may represent an altered muscle recruitment strategy to stabilize the head and neck. An exercise program including motor reeducation may assist in the management of neck pain in office workers.
Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.
Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol
Full Text Available We examined HIV frequency and probable risk factors among female sex workers in the port city of Imbituba, Southern Brazil. From December 2003 through February 2004, 90 female sex workers were interviewed in order to investigate demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables related to HIV infection. A blood sample of each woman was also collected to test for HIV antibodies. Six (6.7% of the sex workers were HIV-positive; the significantly-correlated risk factors were the daily number of clients (p = 0.008, the use of inhaled illicit drugs by the sex workers (P = 0.053 and by their clients (p = 0.005, and the lack of condom use in sexual relations (p = 0.015. The HIV infection rate in these sex workers was higher than that in the general population and similar to that found in other studies made with Brazilian populations presenting the same characteristics. This highlights the need for preventative measures, especially in this port area, in order to reduce transmission and to deter the introduction and dissemination of HIV.
Full Text Available The majority of female batik workers uses non-ergonomic chairs (dingklik that pose risks of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to design an ergonomic chair and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing musculoskeletal disorders among the workers. This is a quasi-experimental study (using one group pre and post-test design on 50 female batik workers selected by quota sampling. Musculoskeletal disorders were measured among the samples before and after the use of the designed ergonomic chair which they were asked to use for two months. T-test, ANCOVA, Wilcoxon test, McNemar test and Chi Square test were used for the analysis. The study found statistical significant differences of risk factor against musculoskeletal disorders among the workers before and after their use of the designed ergonomic chair (p=0.000; and of musculoskeletal disorders before and after using the ergonomic chair (p= 0,035. Body Mass Index (BMI was identified as a confounding factor, and statistical significant difference of musculoskeletal disorders were also found among the workers with 25 BMI even before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033 and p=0.015 respectively. By ANCOVA statistical test, after controlling BMI, another statistical difference of musculoskeletal disorders was also identified before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033. It is concluded that the designed ergonomic chair is effective to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.
Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun
The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.
Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha
We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.
Mohammad, Walaa S; Hamza, Hayat H; ElSais, Walaa M
The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neck pain among computer workers at Hail University, Saudi Arabia and to compare the cervical range of motion (ROM) of female computer workers suffering from neck pain to the cervical ROM of healthy female computer workers. One hundred and seventy-six female volunteers between 20 and 46 years of age were investigated. Fifty-six of these volunteers were staff members, 22 were administrators and 98 were students. The Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) instrument was used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. A questionnaire was used to assess participants for the presence of neck pain. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and the level of significant was set at p pain (75%) among computer workers at Hail University, particularly among students. There were significant differences in cervical lateral flexion, rotation to the right side and protraction range between the pain and pain-free groups. Our results demonstrated that cervical ROM measurements, particularly cervical lateral flexion, rotation and protraction, could be useful for predicting changes in head and neck posture after long-term computer work.
Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B
Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.
Full Text Available Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined. Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative and serum retinol-binding protein (positive concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.
Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa
Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).
Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.
Wang, Hui; Liu, Guochao; Tian, Youjia; Zhang, Fengmei; Feng, Zhihui; Chen, Qianshu; Qu, Jianying; Lim, David
To assess the health statue of chronically exposed Chinese medical radiation workers. A cross-sectional study of 530 medical radiation workers in a city of China was conducted to document the health status and the monitored annually absorbed doses. Long-term and low-dose radiation exposure can affect a number of health indicators in the individuals, which covered the cardiovascular system, hematologic system, ophthalmology, liver and kidney s functions, chromosome aberration and micronucleus. The differences in the health status between male and female individuals were associated with job types and exposed years of service. The monitored doses of individuals were lower than the limit value of the national standard. The health status in chronically exposed individuals demonstrated some gender difference associated with length of exposure and work type. This study provides some evidence to understand the health status of medical radiation workers in China and have the potentially to inform screening and clinical diagnosis. (authors)
V K Gupta
Full Text Available Health care infrastructure of our country lacks in effective, bulitin system of on the job training or continuing education for different level of workers. This adversely affects the work performance particularly of those working at peripheral level. It is, therefore, aptly mentioned in “curricula for training of staff of PHC” (1980' that ‘job assigned to the workers can be carried out effectively and efficiei tly only when they are given adequate training for the purpose, wnether as part of their basic professional training or as inservice orieotation training followed by refresher courses and on the job continuing education.’ Against this background, an action study was planned and conductedin 3 PHCs of Varanasi, with the objective, to assess the change in the Level of knowledge of health worker (females alout MCH care, through short term inservice orientation Training programme.
Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh
Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation.
Forastiere, Francesco; Goldsmith, David F; Sperati, Alessandra; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Miceli, Maria; Cavariani, Fulvio; Perucci, Carlo A
It is well known that male ceramic workers have elevated risks of chronic silicosis. The objective of this study was to assess whether female ceramic workers also have an increased risk of silicosis and whether these women have decreased lung function related to silica exposure. Ceramic workers from Civitacastellana, Italy, were enrolled in health surveillance during the 1970s. A total of 642 women were under surveillance; a respiratory monitoring program was conducted from 1974 to 1987, with follow-up through 1991 that included annual chest radiography and measurement of lung function. Radiography findings were defined as silicosis if the chest films were > or =1/0 with small, rounded opacities. Multiple linear regression models for repeated measures (generalized estimating equations) were run to evaluate associations of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) with years of exposure and radiograph opacities. Nine cases of silicosis were identified on the basis of radiographic evidence. Silicosis risk was not associated with smoking but was related to employment before 1970 and demonstrated a dose-response gradient for years of exposure. FVC and FEV(1) both showed significant (p associations with duration of exposure and with positive radiography findings. The results for female ceramic workers are consistent with those for male employees regarding exposure to fibrogenic dusts.
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos
This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). ...
Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. © The Author(s) 2014.
Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris
Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.
Xu, Y Q; Li, Y F; Jiang, Z X; Zhang, X J; Yuan, X; Zhang, N; Li, X F; Jiang, B F
To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks. Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis, fitted test and estimation. A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members, and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5). Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos), 613 were female sex workers fellows, accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%). Characteristics of small size and non-relative relationships were seen more obviously among OFSWs with non-local registration and the ratings of emotional support (4.42±2.38) was significantly lower than the tangible support (5.73 ± 1.69) (Psocial support from friends who were also female sex workers. Stronger the joint strength between egos and alters, greater the homogeneity between the two was seen. Tighter relations among the alter egos, higher degree of average social support of the egos were acquired.
Eric P F Chow
Full Text Available Commercial sex is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Understanding HIV risk behaviours in female sex workers (FSW is of great importance for prevention. This study aims to assess the magnitude and temporal changes of risk behaviours in Chinese FSW.Five electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed English and Chinese language articles published between January 2000 and December 2012 that reported risk behaviours among FSW in China, including condom use, HIV testing, and drug use. Linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to examine temporal trends in these risk factors. The study followed PRISMA guidelines for meta-analyses and was registered in the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews.A total of 583 articles (44 English, 539 Chinese investigating 594,583 Chinese FSW were included in this review. At last sex, condom use was highest with commercial partners (clients, increasing from 53.7% in 2000 to 84.9% in 2011. During this same time period, condom use increased with regular partners from 15.2% to 40.4% and with unspecified partners from 38.6% to 82.5%. Increasing trends were also found in the proportion of sampled FSW who reported testing for HIV in the past 12 months (from 3.2% in 2000 to 48.0% in 2011, while drug use behaviours decreased significantly from 10.9% to 2.6%.During the first decade of 2000, Chinese FSWs' self-reported risk behaviours have decreased significantly while HIV testing has increased. Further outreach and intervention efforts are needed to encourage condom use with regular partners, continue promotion of HIV testing, and provide resources for the most vulnerable FSW, particularly low tier FSW, who may have limited access to sexual health and prevention programs.
Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah
Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.
Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J
This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.
Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Bingham, Amie
While the stigma surrounding sex work is both well documented and easily recognised, few studies examine stigma in this context from the perspective of the sex workers themselves. In this article we report on a study using a modified grounded theory approach to analyse a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 female sex workers in Hong Kong, in order to examine the ways in which this group experiences and negotiates the stigma which arises from their employment in the sex industry. Sex workers in Hong Kong were subject to various stigmatising forces in their daily lives in their interactions with the public, the police and their families. These processes could have a negative impact on the sex workers' health, both through obvious manifestations such as physical or verbal abuse and through more subtle processes such as those which generated or perpetuated vulnerability and those which compelled the sex workers to conceal their identities and withdraw themselves from social networks. These findings are situated in the context of broader research surrounding sex work, drawing attention to the consequences of stigma on health and their interaction with health-service providers, before briefly discussing possible means of overcoming stigma-related barriers to providing adequate healthcare for this marginalised group. © 2010 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
..., Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Securitas, Bartech, Flint Janitorial... Adjustment Assistance on May 20, 2013, applicable to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety... on- site at the Flint, Michigan location of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division. The...
....] Sony Electronics, Inc.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-71,501, Sony Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, Including On- Site Leased Workers of Selectremedy, Staffmark, and Payrolling.com , San Diego, California; TA-W-71,501A, Sony Electronics, Inc...
Full Text Available Introduction. Female sex workers (FSWs are a group at increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and inconsistent condom use with clients is a known risk factor for infection in this group. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with inconsistent condom use with clients among female sex workers in Podgorica, Montenegro. Methods. We conducted an HIV bio-behavioral cross-sectional study in a sample of female sex workers recruited by snowball sampling. Results. A total of 142 FSWs were recruited. Eighty-one (57.0% of them used condoms consistently with clients. HIV prevalence was 0.0%. In the multivariate analysis inconsistent condom use with clients in the previous month was associated with clients’ negative personal attitude [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 22.7, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.3-228.0] or client’s indifference (AOR = 13.0, 95% CI = 1.4-118.9 towards using condom during sex with sexual workers, decision making by clients or by mutual agreement with client about using a condom (AOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 3.7-28.0, and early age of first sex (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.6-18.5. Conclusion. Our results suggest not only the need for further promotion of condom use, information and education for FSW but also the need to strengthen negotiation skills of FSWs with clients on regular use of condoms, as well as the need to extend prevention programs to clients of FSWs.
Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor A; Gray, Ann; Ling, Davina C
For many years, the sex industry in Hong Kong has appeared to be an integral and ever-expanding component of the city's sociocultural and economic structure. Accordingly, the physical and psychological health of sex workers is becoming an increasing concern for the workers themselves, the public, and government policy. A cross-sectional survey on the quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL]) of female sex workers (FSWs) in Hong Kong was used to investigate the physical and psychological well-being of street FSWs, and the results were compared with those of non-sex-working Hong Kong women after adjusting for age, educational level, marital status, and health status. The 89 FSWs surveyed scored significantly lower on QOL--WHOQOL-BREF (HK)--measures compared with the non-sex-working women. One common aspect among these sex workers was their negative view of themselves and of life. Many sex workers were at risk of being abused while at work, and many women worked without legal protection. Most of the women surveyed engaged in sex work to support their families. Because their income was often insufficient, some of their needs, especially those concerning health, were often neglected. The low WHOQOL-BREF (HK) scores in FSWs indicate feelings of helplessness and entrapment, which may well result in detrimental effects on sex workers' health, self-esteem, and confidence when asserting their basic rights, such as access to healthcare and safety. The conclusion highlights the vulnerability of this population to apparent weaknesses in Hong Kong's current healthcare system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly
Full Text Available The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra.Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression.While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77
Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas
Introduction The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010–11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India’s National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Material and methods Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010–11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. Results While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence". Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision and satisfaction in general. RESULTS: The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.
Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Carrasco, Jairo; Bastías, Álvaro; Méndez, María Doris; Jiménez, Andrés
Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence"). Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision) and satisfaction in general. The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development) and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment). Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.
Mamulwar, Megha; Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas
The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77
Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M
Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t =23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P occupational stress determined by JDC and ERI models than the control group (64.5%/12.7% vs 52.6%/9.9%, χ 2 =182.26 and 23.41, both P 60 hours/week, and sleeping time occupational stress in JDC model; education background of Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeoccupational stress in ERI model, while female sex and a high monthly income reduced the risk of occupational stress in ERI model. Conclusion: Assembly line workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time occupational stress.
L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)
textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little
Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health education is one of the responsibilities of healthcare workers at schools, which can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, substance abuse, sexual violence, and suicidal tendencies. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers’ competence in sexual health education for female adolescents at schools. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 healthcare workers, responsible for sexual health education at schools in 2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was completed by the healthcare workers in order to assess their competence in sexual health education at healthcare centers of Khuzestan, Iran. To assess the competence of the participants (i.e., knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance, descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative variables. Also, mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the subjects’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance. Also, the association between demographic variables and participants’ knowledge, attitude, confidence, and performance was evaluated, using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and confidence of healthcare workers in sexual health education were desirable. However, the subjects showed a poor performance in teaching students the required skills to control their emotions, instincts, homosexual tendencies, and masturbation. There was a significant correlation between performance, attitude, and confidence, knowledge and attitude, performance and confidence, and confidence, performance, and attitude (P
Li, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiang-Yi; Ichihara, Gaku; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ding, Xun-Cheng
To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on female exposed workers. Four 1-BP manufacturing plants were investigated. Workers were interviewed with questionnaire and examined with neurobehavioral core test battery, nerve conduction velocity tests of nervus tibialis and nervus suralis, vibration sensation test, hematological and biochemical tests. Ambient 1-BP concentration was measured with detection tube, and time-weighed average levels of individual workers were estimated with passive samplers. 1-BP concentration in the plants ranged from 0 to 402.40 mg/m3 (Geomean 32.19 mg/m3). Time-weighted average exposure levels (TWA-8 h) ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (Geomean 14.08 mg/m3). Compared with the control group, 1-BP exposed workers showed reduced motor nerve conduction velocity [(44.8 +/- 8.7) m/s] and sensory nerve conduction velocity [(45.5 +/- 4.9) m/s], prolonged distal latency [(7.5 +/- 2.1) ms], reduced toe vibration perception, and altered neurobehavior parameters(POMS vigor, tension, anxiety, confusion) significantly (P system, and lead to abnormal hematological and biomedical indicators.
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo
Very little is known regarding the toxicokinetics of inhaled zinc, in particular in the case of female workers and for modern, low exposure settings. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship of external zinc levels to those of serum and urine for female workers. Eleven female workers (age: 41.7±8 years old, body mass index (BMI): 23.5±4.2 kg/m2) in a galvanizing plant were investigated. Exposure assessment consisted of personal/environmental air samples, and measurement of zinc in serum (collected at the end of first shift of the working week (T1)) and urine, collected before the first shift of the working week (T0), T1 and at the end of the last shift of the working week (T2). Both environmental and personal air samplings for zinc and zinc compounds were below the recommended by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG) limit values of 2 mg/m3 (7.34±2.8 μg/m3 and 8.31±2.4 μg/ m3, respectively). Serum (118.6±20.9 μg /dl) and urine zinc levels were within reference values for female Italian subjects: the latter increased from 56.4±33.5 μg/dl at T0, to 59.8±37.0 μg/dl at T1, and ultimately 65.4±34.4 μg/dl at T2, but no significant trend was found. End of shift (Spearman's correlation coefficient p value = 0.027) and differential excretion of urinary zinc (both: T0 vs. T1 and T0 vs. T2) were correlated with airborne zinc concentration (p = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). In general, our data suggests that urine may be a useful medium also for female in order to assess zinc exposure. Further studies are required in order to evaluate whether differential excretion may be useful for the biomonitoring of zinc exposure in the workplaces also for male workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):113-124. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Stockman, Jamila K.; Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest ...
Tokar, Anna; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Blanchard, James; Roura, Maria
HIV testing uptake continues to be low among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). We synthesizes evidence on barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among FSW as well as frequencies of testing, willingness to test, and return rates to collect results. We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS databases for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2017. Out of 5036 references screened, we retained 36 papers. The two barriers to HIV testing most commonly reported were financial and time costs-including low income, transportation costs, time constraints, and formal/informal payments-as well as the stigma and discrimination ascribed to HIV positive people and sex workers. Social support facilitated testing with consistently higher uptake amongst married FSWs and women who were encouraged to test by peers and managers. The consistent finding that social support facilitated HIV testing calls for its inclusion into current HIV testing strategies addressed at FSW.
Hwang, Won Ju; Lee, Chung Yul
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers, and which factors influence their metabolic syndrome by sex. A cross-sectional study was completed of 154 men and 80 women working at small companies in Korea. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire, blood test, and anthropometric and blood pressure measure. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the results of blood test and the measurements of waist circumference and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male and female blue-collar workers was 24.0% and 7.5%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors of metabolic syndrome associated with sex. After controlling for age, marital status, smoking, alcohol drinking, shift work, overtime work, and physical exercise, job stress (odds ratio [OR] = 3.10, P = 0.005) and risk perception (OR = 1.12, P = 0.016) were influencing factors for men, and low job stress (OR = 0.05, P = 0.04), low social support (OR = 1.51, P = 0.009), and risk perception (OR = 1.27, P = 0.023) for women. Metabolic syndrome among blue-collar workers is closely related to psychosocial factors, such as job stress, social support, and risk perception, with the effect of job stress a point of difference between men and women. Occupational health nurses should be cognizant of the importance of assessing the effect of psychosocial factors on cardiovascular risk for blue-collar workers. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Mahmudah, Nurul; Dasuki, Djaswadi; Kurniawati, Herlin Fitriani
Commercial sex worker is one of the groups with the highest level of susceptibility against HIV infection. They are 13,5 fold more prone to a living with HIV infection than the female of non commercial sex workers. Moreover, these commercial sex workers are also stigmatized with social sanction and discrimination against people with HIV-AIDS. The society mostly avoid them, deject them, isolate them, insult them, despise them, distrust them, and even go against the existence of those suffering from or infected by HIV-AIDS. Thus, stigmatizing and discrimination are basicly highly prohibited since they can incur higher social problems. It is also vital to handle the spread of HIV-AIDS in the society as soon as possible in the attempt of fighting against the spread of the disease. Hence, being broad minded, tolerant, and caring towards them as well as working hand in hand with the community are expected to diminish, minimize, and even eradicate the outbreak of HIV-AIDS. Caring towards those suffering from the infection without stigmatizing them and discriminating them will be one of the first measurements to take to improve what is needed to prevent the prevalence and spread of the disease. Thus, the primary objective of this research is to know the perception of female commercial sex workers on the susceptibility of HIV-AIDS in Yogyakarta. The research participants were selected from three localizations in Yogyakarta namely Pasar Kembang, Bongsuwung, and Giwangan. It is revealed that the participants had a good perception on the susceptibility of AIDS infection as seen from the fact there are free avalaible condoms for them to use everytime they have a sexual intercourse with the clients. All participants were aware of their high susceptibility against the infection of STIs/HIV/AIDS and thus they want to save their skin from those diseases. Also they had a good knowledge that having an intercourse without condom may get them infected.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections. The purpose of this study was to explore women's work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers in Guangzhou, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts.
Lee, Kang Ho; Ho Chae, Chang; Ouk Kim, Young; Seok Son, Jun; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Woo Kim, Chan; Ouk Park, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Jun; Saeng Jung, Young
The prevalence of anxiety disorders has been increasing in South Korea, with recent studies reporting anxiety disorders as the most common mental disorder among all South Korean females. Anxiety disorders, which are independent risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, are significantly correlated with productivity loss, high medical costs, impaired work performance, and frequent worker absence, and thus are potentially serious problems affecting the health of South Korean female workers. In previous studies, anxiety disorders were shown to have a significant correlation with occupational stress. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms as well as the relationship between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms among South Korean female manufacturing workers. A structured self-reported questionnaire was administered to 1,141 female workers at an electrical appliance manufacturing plant. The questionnaire collected data on general characteristics, health behaviors, sleep quality, job characteristics (shift work, shift work schedule, and job tenure), occupational stress, and anxiety symptoms. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, occupational stress with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF), and anxiety symptoms with the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A chi square test was conducted to determine the distribution differences in anxiety symptoms based on general characteristics, health behaviors, job characteristics, and sleep quality. A linear-by-linear association test was used to determine the distribution differences between anxietysymptoms and the levels of occupational stress. Last, logistic regression analysis was used in order to determine the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 15.2 %. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for sleep quality and general characteristics
Full Text Available Abstract Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005; if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012; if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005; if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029 or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003, compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006; if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct condom use. More research is also needed on what specific situational parameters
Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Alary, Michel; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Ramesh, B M
Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to provide information and skills on correct
Full Text Available The paper outlines the data obtained in the course of long-term research dedicated to studying the extent to which re-productive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations are occupationally induced. Their peculiarity is joint impacts of various occupational factors (for example, impacts exerted by chemicals together with physical and biological factors, and labor hardness and intensity as well on a female body. Our research goal was to examine the extent to which reproductive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations were occupationally induced. To achieve it, we applied statistical estimate of correlation between health disorders and work. Our occupational group included a number of occupations with harmful or hazardous working conditions in civil en-gineering, metallurgy, chemical industry, polymer-processing industry, and health care as well. As a rule, working condi-tions class of workers from the examined groups varied from 3.1 to 3.3; and occupation with permissible working conditions were used as a comparative group. The research results revealed that there are certain occupations with high risk of reproductive health disorders evolvement and infants development pathologies evolvement. They are: – model makers and checkers in civil engineering and crane operators at a metallurgic plant; – analysts at chemical analysis laboratories, chemical engineers in chemical industry (including petrochemical plants, polymer-processing plants, and organic synthesis plants; – surgeons, obstetrician-gynecologists, midwives, surgical nurses working in in-patient departments. Estimate of correlation and occupational dependence of reproductive system diseases on working conditions revealed that women with harmful working conditions (3.1–3.3 hazard class had defective pregnancies or labor pathologies which had strong and average correlation with working conditions. Health disorders in newborns were estimated as per very
Andrews, Carin Hillerdal; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychaerun, Vanphanom; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a high-risk population for HIV. Correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective measure for reducing transmission of HIV. Lao PDR is a low HIV-prevalence country, but FSWs have a relatively high HIV prevalence. To be able to make recommendations for condom promotion interventions in Lao PDR it is important to know more about the context specific situation. This study looked at reasons for and associated factors of consistent condom use amon...
Şimşek, Zeynep; Kara, Burcu; Ersin, Fatma; Ökten, Şevket; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan
The objective of this study is to determine the male and female seasonal agricultural workers' perception of violence, prevalence of violence, frequency of victimization, and their related factors. Quantitative and qualitative data were used, and 89.5% of women were exposed to violence that included the restriction of their human rights. The sample consisted of 1,211 women and 1,064 men. Their marital status, duration of work, and attention to their health affected the violence exposure. Arabic people who were unmarried, had a poor educational background, and poor health perception approved of the physical violence.
Adams, E.E.; Brues, A.M.
Female radium dial workers first employed before 1930 were analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence using method and rate tables described by Monson and the Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square test for significance. Of 1180 located women, 736 were measured to estimate radium intake. This measured group was analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence according to four possible risk factors: radium intake dose, duration of employment, age at first exposure, and parity. The measured women showed a significant excess of breast cancer incidence and mortality only among those women with a radium intake of 50 μCi or greater
Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Andersen, Lars Louis; Clausen, Thomas; Strøyer, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas
To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous sickness absence, we modeled risk estimates for sickness absence from low and medium physical capacity. Low and medium aerobic fitness, low muscle strength, low flexibility, and low overall physical capacity significantly increased the risk for sickness absence with 20% to 34% compared with health care workers with high capacity. Low physical capacity increases the risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers.
Mathenjwa, Thulile; Maharaj, Pranitha
To explore commercial sex workers' experiences with the female condom in Swaziland. This is a qualitative study that draws on two focus group discussions and ten individual in-depth interviews with female commercial sex workers in Lavumisa, Swaziland. The findings suggest that the majority of female sex workers prefer to use the female condom with their clients because it offers them greater control over the sexual encounter. Other factors that facilitate its use include the absence of side effects, the enhancement of sexual pleasure and protection against the risk of STIs (including HIV). In addition, the women reported that the female condom is stronger and more resistant to breakage than the male condom. Moreover, the female condoms can be inserted well in advance of sexual intercourse. Difficulties of insertion, partner objection and limited product availability were some of the barriers to the use of the device. There was also a tendency to reuse the female condoms because of lack of product availability and privacy to insert it. Although female condom use involves negotiation with clients, the fact that it offers sex workers an independent method of protection gives them more power and also, increases their ability to control their sexual and reproductive health.
Al Mamun, Mahfuz; Parvin, Kausar; Yu, Marat; Wan, Jessica; Willan, Samantha; Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
Women in Bangladesh experience high rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). IPV is more prevalent against income earning women compared to their non-earning counterparts, and Workplace Violence (WPV) is also common. Such violence is a violation of women's rights, and also constrains them from contributing to their personal growth, household, community and the economy at large. There is limited evidence on what works to prevent IPV and WPV amongst garment workers. This paper describes an evaluation of HERrespect, an intervention which aims to reduce IPV and WPV against female garment workers in and around Dhaka, Bangladesh. The trial employs a quasi-experimental design, with four intervention and four control factories. In the intervention factories a randomly selected cohort of married female line workers, a cohort of male line workers, and all middle management staff received the intervention. The intervention strategies involved (1) gender transformative group-based training for workers and management staff; (2) joint session between workers (15 female and male) and middle-management staff; (3) factory-wide activities; (4) awareness raising among top management; (5) factory policy review and development and 6) a community based campaign. For the evaluation, a cohort of randomly selected female workers and a cohort of selected management staff have been established. All workers (n = 800) and management staff (n = 395) from these cohorts were interviewed at baseline using two different questionnaires, and will be interviewed in the endline, 24 months post-baseline. Intention to treat analysis will be used for assessing the impact of HERrespect, comparing the intervention and control factories. To our knowledge this is the first study that seeks to evaluate the impact on IPV and WPV, of group sessions with female workers, male workers, and management; factory-wide campaigns and a community intervention among female garment workers in Bangladesh. Apart
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Wilbur, JoEllen; Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Kyongeun; Lee, Meenhye
The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers to performing stretching exercise experienced by Korean-Chinese female migrant workers during a community-based 12-week stretching exercise intervention trial. Qualitative secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone counseling interview transcripts from 27 middle-aged, Korean-Chinese migrant women workers. A semistructured interview question asking barriers to performing stretching exercise was given to women who did not adhere to recommended stretching exercise. During the 12-week home-based stretching exercise intervention trial, six telephone calls were made to participants biweekly to elicit barriers to performing stretching exercise. Directed content analysis approach was utilized using three barrier categories: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and work-related environmental factors based on the ecological model. Participants experienced an average of 2.5 barriers during the study period. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time and lack of motivation, and interpersonal barriers included no family to provide support and also a feeling resistance from coworkers. Work-related environmental barriers included frequent job changes, long working hours, lack of rest time, and unpredictable job demands. The findings highlight that migrant workers in Korea face unique work-related difficulties which present barriers to exercise. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kemi, Virpi; Nevanlinna, Antti; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Laaksonen, Marika; Jehan, Atia H; Jahan, Khurshid; Khan, Habib Ullah; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel
The manufacture of garments is the main industry in Bangladesh and employs 1.6 million female workers. Due to the indoor lifestyle and low dietary intake of calcium, we hypothesised that they are at risk of low vitamin D and bone mineral status. Two hundred female garment workers (aged 18-36 years) were randomly selected. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphate (S-P) concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (S-ALP) were measured from fasting samples. Bone indexes of hip and spine were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean S-25OHD (36.7 nmol/l) was low compared to that recommended for vitamin D sufficiency. About 16% of the subjects were found to be vitamin D-deficient (S-25OHD 21 ng/l) was associated with progressive reduction in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. According to the WHO criteria, the mean T-score of the femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects were within osteopenic range. We observed that subjects with a bone mineral density T-score S-25OHD and higher S-iPTH and S-ALP. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and low bone mineral density among these subjects are indicative of higher risk for osteomalacia or osteoporosis and fracture.
Against this background, a representative nationwide survey of 1,800 female workers born between 1947 and 1964 was commissioned by the New Quality of Work Initiative (INQA and conducted by the Institute of Gerontology at the Technical University of Dortmund in cooperation with TNS Infratest in 2007. These cohorts are to be affected by the increase of the age limit from 2012 onwards. In addition to structural data, this survey studied the respondents’ assessment of their current ability to work and to continue to work until reaching the standard age limit. Further, the survey explored specific working conditions and strains of work. The results show that more than 40 % of the female respondents are sceptical about the conditions of being able to continue their current work until reaching their statutory age limit. The only moderate to poor workability and the consequential danger of having to leave work result e.g. from work-related strains which accumulate in certain sectors and professional groups. The creation of appropriate jobs for older workers as well as the implementation of a staff policy in companies, which is sensitive to demographic developments and individual circumstances, can contribute to maintaining and nurturing the workability.
Malhotra, Rahul; Arambepola, Chandima; Tarun, Samiksha; de Silva, Vijitha; Kishore, Jugal; Østbye, Truls
Although the number of female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) is increasing worldwide, little is known about their health issues. To systematically review the literature on health issues of female FDWs to ascertain the problems studied, identify limitations, and suggest future research and policy implications. A systematic database (PubMed, EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar) and bibliographic search identified the English-language scientific and gray literature published during 1990-2012 addressing health issues of female FDWs living with the family of the employer, using qualitative and/or quantitative research methods. Studies in which female FDWs constituted less than half of the participants were excluded. The health issues studied and identified were adverse work conditions and associated health problems (such as physical, verbal, and sexual abuse at the workplace, caregiving tasks associated with musculoskeletal strain, and chemical exposure associated with respiratory difficulty), mental health (psychotic, neurotic, and mood disorders), infectious diseases (most of the studies were on intestinal parasitic infections), and health knowledge/attitudes/practices (most of the studies were in context of sexual and reproductive health). Most of the studies were medical record reviews or questionnaire-based surveys utilizing convenience sampling or qualitative interviews/focus group discussions. Female FDWs face numerous health problems. Studies on representative, possibly longitudinal, samples of female FDWs focusing on specific health conditions are needed to better understand the epidemiology of such conditions. Concerted efforts through the governments of both labor-sending and host countries are required to improve the health, work conditions, and safety of this vulnerable group of women.
Cho, Ho-Sung; Kim, Young-Wook; Park, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kang-Ho; Jeong, Baek-Geun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Park, Ki-Soo
Recently, workers' mental health has become important focus in the field of occupational health management. Depression is a psychiatric illness with a high prevalence. The association between job stress and depressive symptoms has been demonstrated in many studies. Recently, studies about the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms have been reported, but there has been no large-scaled study in Korean female workers. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between job stress and sleep quality, and depressive symptoms in female workers. From Mar 2011 to Aug 2011, 4,833 female workers in the manufacturing, finance, and service fields at 16 workplaces in Yeungnam province participated in this study, conducted in combination with a worksite-based health checkup initiated by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form(KOSS-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D). The collected data was entered in the system and analyzed using the PASW (version 18.0) program. A correlation analysis, cross analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted. Among the 4,883 subjects, 978 subjects (20.0%) were in the depression group. Job stress(OR=3.58, 95% CI=3.06-4.21) and sleep quality(OR=3.81, 95% CI=3.18-4.56) were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that job stress displayed explanatory powers of 15.6% on depression while sleep quality displayed explanatory powers of 16.2%, showing that job stress and sleep quality had a closer relationship with depressive symptoms, compared to the other factors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios between the 7 subscales of job stress and depressive symptoms in the range of 1
Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna
Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5-65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10-70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012-2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%-70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Uttar Pradesh (UP and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO, registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS Control Society (UPSACS of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6% than home-based (29.8%. Majority (42.7% of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4% of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client′s demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as
Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J V; Singh, V K; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia
Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi
The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.
Full Text Available Objectives In most countries around the world, sex work is an illegal activity. Female sex workers (FSWs in Iran hide their identities, and they are known to be a hard-to-reach population. Despite free access to HIV testing, fewer than half of FSWs receive HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reasons for which FSWs do not seek testing at drop-in centers (DICs and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT centers in Iran. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2016. The participants were 24 FSWs who received services at VCT centers and DICs for vulnerable females in the north of Iran and 9 males who were the clients of FSWs. In this study, we made use of purposive sampling and carried out a thematic analysis. Results We found 4 major and 6 minor themes. The major themes were: fear of being infected (with HIV, stigma, indifference, and knowledge. Conclusions Despite the significant efforts made by the government of Iran to establish and expand DICs for vulnerable females, the number of FSWs receiving services at these centers has not been very considerable. Consequently, by introducing and implementing training programs for peer groups, it may be possible to take steps toward establishing strategic programs for the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the development of listening, language and learning is limited in the South African context. Health workers, in particular those ... These health workers also have access to and are active users of computers and the Internet. They may therefore benefit from ...
Gezie, Lemma Derseh; Taye, Belaynew Wassie; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke
Because of the nature of their work, female sex workers are at risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Cross-border areas are places where this situation becomes worse. In Ethiopia, there has been a serious scarcity of studies on the time at which unsafe sexual practice starts and on factors which determine the practice among female sex workers there. Therefore, this study aimed to fill this identified gap. A total of 467 women who had been sex workers at least for three months prior to the resumption of the study were included. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from July-August, 2010. Descriptive statistics was used to explore the data, and the Extended Cox-Regression model was employed to identify the predictors of time-to-unsafe sexual practice. The study participants were followed for 6, 643 person-months. The overall incidence density of unsafe sexual practice was 44.71 persons per 1000 persons-months. The hazard of unsafe sexual practice increased by 3.0 % every month (p-value =0.040) due to problem-drinking. Those female sex workers with familiarized clients had a two-fold hazard of practicing unsafe sex compared to their counterparts (AHR = 1.94 95 % CI 1.49, 2.53). The predominant sexual client type and the work place of sex workers were the other significant predictors of unsafe sexual practice. The incidence of unsafe sexual practice was found to be high among sex workers in the cross-border area. Time-to-unsafe sexual practice was significantly associated with female sex workers' status of familiarity with their clients, predominant sexual client type, their work place, and the interaction term of time and problem-drinking. Interventions need to be made on these controllable social and behavioral characteristics to help sex workers extend the duration of their safe sexual practice beyond the time they will quit sex work.
Ahmed, F; Hasan, N; Kabir, Y
To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status. A cross-sectional study. Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12-19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study. Information on socio-economic conditions and usual pattern of dietary intake were obtained by interview. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview. By NCHS reference standard, 15.5% of the participants were thin ( 120% Wt/Ht). In about 56%, serum vitamin A level was below the adequate level of 1.05 mumol/l, with 14% having vitamin A deficiency (Bangladesh, although the anthropometric indices suggest that they do not suffer from acute under nutrition. Consumption of DGLV appears to have an important relation with the vitamin A status of these girls.
Quist, Helle Gram; Thomsen, Birthe L; Christensen, Ulla
BACKGROUND: While previous research has indicated that unhealthy lifestyle is associated with sickness absence, this association may be confounded by occupational class. To avoid this potential confounding, we examined the association between lifestyle factors (smoking, leisure-time physical......-time physical activity (trend test p-value = 0.01), so that increasing physical activity results in decreasing risk of LTSA. CONCLUSION: In female healthcare workers, an unhealthy lifestyle (too high/ too low body mass index, smoking, and low physical activity) is associated with higher risk of LTSA....... environment. Subsequently, they were followed for 12 months in a national register on social transfer payments (DREAM register). Cox's regression analyses, applied to grouped survival data, were used to estimate the prospective association between these lifestyle factors and LTSA. RESULTS: We found...
Adams, E.E.; Brues, A.M.
Female radium dial workers first employed before 1930 were analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence using method and rate tables described by Manson and the Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square test for significance. Of 1180 located women, 736 were measured to estimate radium intake. This measured group was analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence according to four possible risk factors: radium intake dose, duration of employment, age at first exposure, and parity. The located women had a mortality ratio of 1.51 (p < 0.05). The measured women showed a significant excess of breast cancer incidence and mortality only among those women with a radium intake of 50 μCi or greater. Although not significant, incidence and mortality ratios were slightly higher for nulliparous women
Kaergaard, A.; Hansen, A. M.; Rasmussen, K.
OBJECTIVES: The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: In a cross......-sectional design 145 women from 2 different industries filled out questionnaires about current musculoskeletal complaints, participated in a clinical examination of the neck and upper extremities, and gave a blood sample for the analysis of free testosterone in plasma. Individual characteristics, psychosocial job...... factors, and stress reactions were evaluated by questionnaires. In a follow-up study a subgroup of 73 sewing machine operators from the cross-sectional study was reexamined after 1 year. RESULTS: The group of women with clinically verified neck or shoulder disorders had significantly lower plasma...
Iakunchykova, Olena P; Burlaka, Viktor
While female sex workers (FSWs) carry one of the highest risks of HIV transmission, little is known about predictors of HIV and risky behavior of FSWs in Ukraine. In this study of 4806 Ukrainian FSWs, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6 %. FSWs had higher odds to be HIV infected if they had lower income, were older, injected drugs, experienced violence, and solicited clients on highways. Inconsistent condom use with clients was reported by 34.5 % of FSWs. FSWs who solicited clients at railway stations, via media, through previous clients and other FSWs, and on highways reported lower consistency of condom use. Furthermore, inconsistent condom use was related to younger age, alcohol use, having fewer clients, not being covered with HIV prevention, and experiences of violence. The present study expands on the rather limited knowledge of correlates of the HIV and inconsistent condom use among FSWs in Ukraine.
Maria Adelaida Martinez
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs in Bogotá, Colombia experience stigmatization due to their work, which results in a violation of basic human rights. The article describes the social challenges and violations faced by this group due to different types of stigma present in Colombian society and discusses current political debates around the legality of sex work. It proposes that through empowering these women using a participatory approach and giving them access to technology such as photography and video, empathy can be mobilized and can reduce the barriers that FSWs and their children are facing. By raising awareness of the problem of stigmatization, it becomes possible to effect change on a political level through critical social inclusion praxis. The article begins by analyzing different stigmas that exist in Colombian society and the problems that result from such stigmas, before offering a review of social initiatives and proposing a project outline and policy options using participatory methods.
Padma Savitri, P.; Kamble, M.K.; Reddy, K.S.
Basis for control of occupational exposures of women is same as that of men except for pregnant women. Percentage of women working in radiation areas of DAE has marginally increased in the last three decades. This paper analysed the data on the externally received personal dose equivalent for female radiation workers who have been exposed ti ionizing radiation in different occupations of DAE units in Andhra Pradesh. From this study we can say confidently that it is equally safe for women to work in radiation areas as long as they follow radiation protection principles. Hence, women in India should be made aware that it is safe to work in radiation areas and DAE is taking their care by periodical medical checkups, maintaining dose records, etc
Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Maniyan, C.G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.
Chest wall thickness (CWT) was estimated in fifty four female nonradiation workers of a monazite processing plant by biometric measurements. The CWT ranged from 4.12 cm to 6.94 cm giving an average of 5.19 ± 0.76 cm. CWT was found to have very good correlation with percent Body Fat and abdominal circumference but poor correlation with Body Mass Index, Body Build Index, Slenderness, age etc. CWT increases with age especially in the upper middle-aged group (> 35 years). A single measurement of abdominal circumference can be used to estimate CWT with 94 % accuracy. A factor of 0.0587 was derived to estimate CWT from abdominal circumference. The study also showed that about 11 % of the subjects were obese. The results obtained will be very useful for the accurate measurement of Low Energy Photons like 239 Pu and 241 Am deposited in the lung. (author)
Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi
Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. © 2015 APJPH.
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita
Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.
van Teijlingen Edwin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert
India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access.
Mwanri, Lillian; Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Kustanti, Christina Yeni; Ambarwati, Atik; Merry, Maria Silvia
Background: The spread of HIV infection among men in Indonesia continues to increase every year. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a group at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection due to their frequent engagement in sexual acts with sex workers. This study aimed to identify factors of susceptibility to HIV infection among clients of FSWs. Methods: A qualitative inquiry using one-on-one in-depth interviews was conducted in the Belu and Malaka districts of Indonesia from January to April 2017. The study participants (n =42) were the clients of FSWs recruited using the snowball sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were: being a client of FSWs and being aged 18 years or more. Data were analysed using a framework analysis. Results: Findings were grouped into two main emerging themes that included behavioural and socioeconomic factors. Behavioural factors that mediated HIV susceptibility among clients of FSWs were: frequent engagement in unsafe sex with multiple sex workers; low perceptions of the relevance of available HIV and AIDS services and limited access to these services; and HIV stigma or fear of being labelled as HIV positive. Socioeconomic factors included: participants' economic situation; and individuals' household responsibility and ability to afford FSWs services. Conclusions: The study results indicate the need to reformulate and improve HIV and AIDS-related services, including increasing the level of availability of HIV service points and the dissemination of knowledge and information about HIV and AIDS and condom use and making them accessible to both FSWs and their clients in Belu and Malaka districts.
Marie Marcelle Deschamps
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI (1.8-9.0] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial.
Pando, María A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, María M.
Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092
Palacios-Nava, Martha Edilia; Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Luz María Angela
To assess the differences in the prevalence of muscarinic and nicotinic type symptoms and the level of erythrocytic cholinesterase, prior to pesticide exposure, in male and female migrant agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001 in Sinaloa State, Mexico, among 488 migrant workers. A questionnaire was applied and erythrocytic cholinesterase levels were measured before the beginning of the agricultural season. The differences by sex were compared using the "t" test for continuous variables and chi2 test for categorical variables. Prevalence odds ratios were also estimated. Statistical significance was assessed using p-values migration type, place of origin, education, and migration time (p=0.000). Women were six times more likely to have anemia and asthma, twice more likely to have parasites and respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and 38% more likely to suffer from heart disease. They were also at greater prevalence in thirteen of nineteen investigated symptoms. The average cholinesterase level was within normal limits (4.22 U/ml+/-0.77) and it was similar to the levels reported using the Magnotti method. The prevalence of symptoms, illnesses and cholinesterase levels found in this study may serve as baseline values for future comparisons of the health effects of pesticide exposure. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Liang, Shaoling
Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman's risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women's misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities.
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.
Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076
Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.
Chanda, Michael M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Kanchele, Catherine; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E
Zambia has a generalized HIV epidemic, and HIV is concentrated along transit routes. Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by the epidemic. HIV testing is the crucial first step for engagement in HIV care and HIV prevention activities. However, to date little work has been done with FSWs in Zambia, and little is known about barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in this population. FSW peer educators were recruited through existing sex worker organizations for participation in a trial related to HIV testing among FSWs. We conducted five focus groups with FSW peer educators (N = 40) in three transit towns in Zambia (Livingstone, Chirundu, and Kapiri Mposhi) to elicit community norms related to HIV testing. Emerging themes demonstrated barriers and facilitators to HIV testing occurring at multiple levels, including individual, social network, and structural. Stigma and discrimination, including healthcare provider stigma, were a particularly salient barrier. Improving knowledge, social support, and acknowledgment of FSWs and women's role in society emerged as facilitators to testing. Interventions to improve HIV testing among FSWs in Zambia will need to address barriers and facilitators at multiple levels to be maximally effective.
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L
Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioural intervention amongst female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use amongst FSWs randomized to this intervention. FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana's Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioural intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Registration predicted increased condom use amongst FSWs enrolled in a behavioural intervention. Public health programmes designed to improve condom use amongst FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Qun; Mao, Yuchen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong
Existing research has suggested a positive role of social support in reducing drug use among female sex workers (FSWs). However, there is limited research on the role of social support in amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use among FSWs in China. This study explored the present situation of ATS use among FSWs in Guangxi, China and examined the associations of different types of social support from different sources with ATS use. A sample of 1022 FSWs was recruited from 56 commercial sex venues in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. Bivariate comparison was used to compare demographic characteristics and source of emotional or tangible social support across frequency of ATS use among FSWs. The relationship between social support and ATS use was examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression models controlling for the potential confounding effects of demographic variables. The multiple ordinal logistic regression indicated that FSWs who were from younger age groups (aOR = 10.88 for age group workers for tangible support (aOR = 1.17). Different types of social support from different sources can be either positively or negatively associated with ATS use among FSWs, therefore, the future intervention efforts should differentiate and target different types and different sources of social support in response to the living and work conditions of FSWs.
Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede
Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.
Research purpose: The objective was to determine the relationship between work resources,home resources, work engagement, family engagement and work-family enrichment. The aim was also to test two models representing work-to-family and family-to-work enrichment as mediators. Motivation for the study: By investigating work-family enrichment, as a new research concept,and its antecedents and outcomes, this study will add to the positive side of the work-family interface literature and provide information to organisations.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study with a sample of female workers (N = 420 in South Africa. Polychoric correlations, fit indices, structural equation modelling and testing mediation were used to analyse the data.Omegas and alpha coefficients were employed to determine the reliability. Main findings: A positive relationship between work-family enrichment and its antecedents and outcomes was found. Furthermore, work-family enrichment (W-FE mediated (large effectthe relationship between work resources and work engagement and family-work enrichment mediated (small effect the relationship between home resources and family engagement. Practical/managerial implications: The results provide more insight and understanding to organisations and female workers on the benefits of being involved in both the domain of work life and the domain of family life. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the limited research undertaken on work family enrichment within the South African context. The present study also contributes to the literature on the use of the newly developed MACE Work-Family Enrichment Instrument.
Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936
Ciriello, Vincent M; Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V
Using psychophysics, the maximum acceptable forces for pushing have been previously developed using a magnetic particle brake (MPB) treadmill at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces while performing a pushing task at a frequency of 1min(-1) both on a MPB treadmill and on a high-inertia pushcart. This is important because our pushing guidelines are used extensively as a ergonomic redesign strategy and we would like the information to be as applicable as possible to cart pushing. On two separate days, nineteen female industrial workers performed a 40-min MPB treadmill pushing task and a 2-hr pushcart task, in the context of a larger experiment. During pushing, the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired, weakened, overheated or out of breath." The results demonstrated that maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces of pushing determined on the high inertia pushcart were 0.8% and 2.5% lower than the MPB treadmill. The results also show that the maximum acceptable sustained force of the MPB treadmill task was 0.5% higher than the maximum acceptable sustained force of Snook and Ciriello (1991). Overall, the findings confirm that the existing pushing data developed by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety still provides an accurate estimate of maximal acceptable forces for the selected combination of distance and frequency of push for female industrial workers.
Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan
Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of behaviour change was based on: the consistent use of condoms with both regular and non regular clients, reduced number of clients, routine checks for STIs, and involvement in alternative income generating activities. The adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval computed during binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the behaviour change predictor factors. Most FSWs (84%) had participated in AMREF's integrated intervention programme for at least one year and 59.1% had gone through behaviour change. The adjusted odds ratio showed that the FSWs with secondary education were 2.23 times likely to change behaviour, protestants were 4.61 times, those in sex work for >4 years were 2.36 times, FSWs with good HIV prevention knowledge were 4.37 times, and those engaged in alternative income generating activities were 2.30 times more likely to change their behaviour compared to respective counterparts. Behaviour change among FSWs was possible and is associated with the level of education, religious affiliation, number of years in sex work and one's level of HIV prevention knowledge. A re-orientation on the peer education programme to focus on HIV preventive measures beyond use of condoms is emphasized.
Lianne A Urada
Full Text Available Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines.Female bar/spa workers (N = 498, aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues.Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis, 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34-49.90, economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30, policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49-4.48, and individual risk--substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28-4.35 were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons.Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation
Hernandez Brenda Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.
Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A
Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.
Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, van W.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on
Hooftman, W.E.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.
Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on
De Gieter, S.; Hofmans, J.; De Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.
Although women tend to earn less for doing similar jobs, research indicates that they are at least as satisfied with their pay as their male colleagues. In examining explanations for this "paradox of the contented female worker," the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) is often used to measure and compare the pay satisfaction of both…
Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hagberg, Mats
Background: Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female
Braunstein, Sarah L.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis
The epidemiologic utility of STARHS hinges not only on producing accurate estimates of HIV incidence, but also on identifying risk factors for recent HIV infection. As part of an HIV seroincidence study, 800 Rwandan female sex workers (FSW) were HIV tested, with those testing positive further tested
Reitenbach, E.F.R.; Jochems, A.J.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.; Ball, R.; Eijk, D.J.
In Hong Kong it was noticed that female office and factory workers use chairs that are oversized and can't support their sitting posture in a comfortable way. In order to set up general recommendations to design a more appropriate office chair, a research of the user experience of office chairs was
Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj
The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.
Sjoerd M. Euser
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.
Shannon, K; Strathdee, SA; Goldenberg, SM; Duff, P; Mwangi, P; Rusakova, M; Reza-Paul, S; Lau, J; Deering, K; Pickles, M; Boily, M-C
SUMMARY Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1–31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3–39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per μL could avert 34% (95% UI 25–42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8–36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33–46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947
Treponema pallidumbacteria that can cause disability in patients and babies born. This analysis aims at looking at the relationship typeand work duration as Female Sex Workers (FSW and the syphilis cases within 7 cities in Indonesia.Methods: The data was taken from Survey on FSW using a structured questionnaire in 7 cities (Kupang,Samarinda, Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar and Tangerang in Indonesia in 2007, the crosssectionaldesign and respondents are selected by cluster random sampling directly and indirectly towardsthe WPS who fulfill the operational definition criteria. Syphilis diagnosis was confirmed by laboratorytests Rapid Plasma Reagents (RPR and Treponema pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA.Results: There were 1750 respondents who participated in the study and about 12.2% were infected withthe syphilis. Makassar has the highest prevalence about 55.2%. The WPS who are located outside of Javahave the syphilis infection risk about 3.16 times higher than the WPS located in Java (adjusted relative risk(RRa = 3.16; P = 0.000. The indirect WPS had 46% more risk for syphilis infection compared to directWPS (RRa = 1.46; P = 0.002, whereas the FSW who seek treatment from doctor have a risk about 58%tmore risk compared to the direct health facilities treatment [RRa = 1.58; P = 0.006.Conclusion: The location of FSW which is outside of Java, the FSW does not directly have a higher riskof being infected with syphilis. Female sex workers who seek the doctor treatment are able to be indicatedearlier rather than they are who seek treatment to other health care facilities. (Health Science Journal ofIndonesia 2015;6:132-6Keyword: Syphilis, Female Sex Worker, Indonesia
Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Gonore merupakan salah satu infeksi menular seksual yang menjadi permasalahan besar kesehatan terutama pada wanita penjaja seks (WPS di Indonesia. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk melihat hubungan antara pola pencarian pengobatan gonore. Metode:Data berasal dari studi potong lintang dengan responden WPS yang dipilih secara cluster random sampling dari 7 kota (Timika, Yogyakarta, Kupang, Samarinda, Pontianak, Makassar dan Tangerang di Indonesia pada tahun 2007. Diagnosis gonore berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR menggunakan Amplicor CT/NG dari Roche yang telah disetujui oleh World Health Orgazation (WHO sebagai alat skrining gonore. Hasil:Proporsi responden yang menderita gonore sebesar 26.1% (404/1750. Persentase penderita gonore yang melakukan upaya pengobatan terdistribusi hampir sama dengan yang mengunjungi fasilitas kesehatan / dokter dengan yang membeli obat sendiri. Subyek yeng melakukan pengobatan tradisional memiliki risiko 44% lebih tinggi menderita gonore dibandingkan dengan subyek yang melakukan pengobatan di fasilitas kesehatan / dokter [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,44; P = 0.044]. Sedangkan subyek yang tidak diobati dibandingkan dengan yang berobat ke fasilitas kesehatan / dokter lebih berisiko 55% menderita gonore (RRa = 1.55; P = 0.002.Kesimpulan: Wanita penjaja seks yang melakukan maupun yang tidak pengobatan tradisional dibandingkan dengan yang mengunjungi fasilitas kesehatan/dokter memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi menderita gonore. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:87-92Kata kunci:gonore, wanita penjaja seks, IndonesiaAbstractBackground:Gonorrhea is one of sexually transmitted infections that have become a major health problem especially among female sex workers (FSW in Indonesia. The objective of this article is to identify the relationship between treatment seeking behaviors, the sites of study and gonorrhea among FSW. Methods: The data that analyzed derived from cross
Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats
Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men) was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21-25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49-2.12) and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25-1.69) were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43-3.95). For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21-4.54) and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-3.87) were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.
Brody, Carinne; Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan
Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone's background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs' high interest in receiving health
Full Text Available Abstract Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs
Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last ten years, a resurgence of syphilis has occurred in many countries worldwide, including Togo. Previous studies have shown a wide range of syphilis infection among the female sex workers (FSWs, from 1.5 to 42.1%. In Togo, Key populations, including FSWs, are rarely involved in the sentinel surveillance programs to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs and their clients in Togo. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 2011 targeting FSWs and their clients in Togo. Among participant who consented, we collected blood samples for syphilis and HIV testing. Results In total, 1,836 participants (1,106 FSWs and 730 clients were included in the survey. Their mean age was 28.6 ± 9 years. The prevalence of syphilis was 2.2% (2.2% among FSWs compare to 2.3% among their clients, p = 0.82. This prevalence was higher among FSWs over 30 years old compare to those less than 30 years old (Odd Ratio (OR =5.03; 95% CI [1.95-13.49]. Single FSWs were three times less likely to have syphilis than those living in couple or married (OR = 3.11; CI 95% [1.16-8.83]. Brothel based or declared FSWs were 4 times more likely to be infected by syphilis than secret ones (OR = 3.89; CI 95% [1.60-9.54]. Out of the 1,836 participants of the survey, 165 (8.9% were HIV positive. Having syphilis was associated with HIV infection (OR = 3.41; IC 95% [1.53-7.41]. Conclusion This study showed that: i the prevalence of syphilis among FSWs and their clients was high; ii syphilis was significantly associated with HIV infection. It is necessary to increase awareness campaigns and emphasize on condom use among this key population group.
Halatoko, Wemboo Afiwa; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Akolly, Koffi; Layibo, Yao; Yaya, Issifou; Gbetoglo, Dodji; Banla, Abiba Kere; Pitché, Palokinam
During the last ten years, a resurgence of syphilis has occurred in many countries worldwide, including Togo. Previous studies have shown a wide range of syphilis infection among the female sex workers (FSWs), from 1.5 to 42.1%. In Togo, Key populations, including FSWs, are rarely involved in the sentinel surveillance programs to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Togo. We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 2011 targeting FSWs and their clients in Togo. Among participant who consented, we collected blood samples for syphilis and HIV testing. In total, 1,836 participants (1,106 FSWs and 730 clients) were included in the survey. Their mean age was 28.6 ± 9 years. The prevalence of syphilis was 2.2% (2.2% among FSWs compare to 2.3% among their clients, p = 0.82). This prevalence was higher among FSWs over 30 years old compare to those less than 30 years old (Odd Ratio (OR) =5.03; 95% CI [1.95-13.49]). Single FSWs were three times less likely to have syphilis than those living in couple or married (OR = 3.11; CI 95% [1.16-8.83]). Brothel based or declared FSWs were 4 times more likely to be infected by syphilis than secret ones (OR = 3.89; CI 95% [1.60-9.54]). Out of the 1,836 participants of the survey, 165 (8.9%) were HIV positive. Having syphilis was associated with HIV infection (OR = 3.41; IC 95% [1.53-7.41]). This study showed that: i) the prevalence of syphilis among FSWs and their clients was high; ii) syphilis was significantly associated with HIV infection. It is necessary to increase awareness campaigns and emphasize on condom use among this key population group.
S. F. Sosnina
Full Text Available The study of deviations in health status of children whose parents were exposed to radiation on production enterprise is important for radiation safety of people of reproductive age and their subsequent generations.The purpose of the study: the analysis of endocrine-metabolic pathology in the offspring of female workers of nuclear production, which had accumulated preconceptual doses of external gamma-irradiation.Material and methods: Retrospective data analysis of medical records of 650 children under 15 years old was carried out, 130 of whom were the offspring of mothers exposed to radiation in the workplace. Methods of nonparametric statistics were applied. To identify latent factors, factor analysis by the main component method was used.Results: The range of preconceptive doses of external gamma irradiation to mothers’ gonads was 0.09–3523.7 mGy, the average absorbed dose for gonads was 423.2±52.2 mGy. The structure of the class «Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases» among the descendants of irradiated and intact mothers did not significantly differ. There was predominance of rickets, malnutrition among infants in both groups. Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders were most frequently recorded in the structure of thyroid gland diseases without statistically significant differences in the groups. The gender dependence was noted: endocrine-metabolic pathology occurred in girls by 1.8 times more often than among boys. Frequent occurrence of polypathies and secondary endocrine pathology were indicated in the group of children of irradiated mothers. Factor analysis in study group identified four factors characterizing the antenatal period in children (19.4% of the variance, obstetric-gynecologic anamnesis (14.1% of the variance, mothers’ bad health habits (10.6% of the variance and preconceptional external gamma-radiation exposure of female workers (9.6% of the variance.Conclusion: The features identified in the analysis
Andrews, Carin Hillerdal; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychaerun, Vanphanom; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone
Female sex workers (FSWs) are a high-risk population for HIV. Correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective measure for reducing transmission of HIV. Lao PDR is a low HIV-prevalence country, but FSWs have a relatively high HIV prevalence. To be able to make recommendations for condom promotion interventions in Lao PDR it is important to know more about the context specific situation. This study looked at reasons for and associated factors of consistent condom use among FSWs. A cross-sectional survey among 258 FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Savannakhet province was performed. Almost all FSWs had enough condoms (94%), condoms always available (100%) and could always afford condoms (92%). Consistent condom use was 97% with non-regular partners and 60% with regular partners. Almost all respondents (95%) had received information about condoms from the drop-in centre. Stated reasons for consistent condom use were prevention of HIV (94%), STIs (88%) and pregnancy (87%). Most reasons for inconsistent condom use were related to partners not wanting to use condoms because of reduced sexual pleasure. Some FSWs reported that they were physically abused and forced not to use condoms. Shorter time in sex work, higher education and FSW not having regular partners were significantly associated with consistent condom use. Consistent condom use was very high with non-regular partners, but less frequent with regular partners. The main reason for inconsistent condom use was that the partner did not want to use a condom. Associated factors for consistent condom use were not having regular partners, higher education and shorter time in sex work. Condom promotion programs should include both FSWs and their partners and female condoms should be included in condom intervention efforts. Future studies should investigate the validity of self-reported sexual practices, partners' reasons for inconsistent condom use, risk of violence in sex work and why shorter time in sex
Lim, Sahnah; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Cange, Charles; Papworth, Erin; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Kamla, Aristide; Billong, Serge; Fokam, Pamella; Njindam, Iliassou; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Baral, Stefan
Female sex workers (FSWs) in Cameroon, and West Africa generally, suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV. Although violence against FSWs has been documented extensively in other parts of the world, data on violence from West African countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to qualitatively document violence and harm reduction strategies from the perspective of FSWs in Cameroon as well as to understand how experiences of violence may increase FSWs' HIV risk. FSWs from 7 major cities in Cameroon (Douala, Yaounde, Bamenda, Bertoua, Nagoundere, Kribi, and Bafoussam) were purposively recruited. Data from 31 in-depth interviews and 7 focus groups (n = 70; with some overlapping participants from in-depth interviews) conducted with these FSWs in 6 of these 7 cities (excluding Kribi) were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Transcripts revealed 3 primary themes related to violence: (1) sources and types of violence, including sexual, physical, and financial violence perpetrated by clients and police, (2) harm reduction strategies, including screening clients and safe work locations, receipt of payment before sexual act, and formation of an informal security network, and (3) recommendations on structural changes to reduce violence that emphasized sex work decriminalization and increased police accountability. As in other parts of the world, violence against FSWs is pervasive in Cameroon. Interventions targeting violence and HIV must address the forms of violence cited locally by FSWs and can build on FSWs' existing strengths and harm reduction strategies. Structural changes are needed to ensure access to justice for this population.
Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail
To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.
Rapolu Ramakrishna Murty
Full Text Available IMR and MMR in tribal areas of Telangana are still worrisome. Often two main reasons attributed to this problem were; low number of institutional deliveries and deliveries in the absence of skilled health provider. This study intended to know how skilled are the skilled health providers and it attempted to measure the knowledge and skills of Female Health Workers in maternal care, labour/child birth and neonatal care including communication skills. The participants’ perceived training needs were also considered as important and included in this study. Out of 700 notified scheduled villages, the participants were covered approximately in 1:2 ratio (n=350. Nearly 80% (mean=281.5 of the participants obtained scores below 50% and nearly 50% (mean=168.5 of the participants have scored below 30%. The scores of 40% of the participants reflected poor communication skills. Scores in all the areas found to be poor. Scores on skills in maternal care were better than skills in childbirth and scores on skills in child birth were better than neonatal care. On the scale of perceived training needs, skills in Labour/Child birth was given top priority by participants followed by Neonatal care, Communication skills and Maternal care respectively.
Carvajal, Bielka; Stuardo, Valeria; Manríquez, José Manuel; Belmar, Julieta; Folch, Cinta
To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels. Applicability aspects were determined by the application of the questionnaire to FSW in the Metropolitan Region. The questionnaire, drafted in Spain, was successfully adapted to Chilean Spanish. The content validity process enabled sections to be created that address HIV in FSWs. The adapted questionnaire takes less than 15minutes to complete, which makes it usable in fieldwork. The 61 women surveyed came from different countries (all were Latin Americans) and had different educational levels; all this enabled potential applicability problems to be detected. The adapted questionnaire for Chile contains all the UNAIDS indicators for FSWs, as well as the recommended indicators of Family Health International for bio-behavioural surveillance. Said questionnaire serves as a tool for second-generation HIV/other STD surveillance and further contributes to preventive policies in Chilean FSWs. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu
Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors, but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. All identified reasons except confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol's sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs' vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking.
Full Text Available Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China.A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects.About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders.This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.
The values of initial systemic intake and of skeletal dose for all of the U.S. radium cases have recently been revised. This revision was required following the demonstrations by Rundo and by Keane that humans who were exposed to radium as adults lost radium at a rate that depended on the quantity of radium originally deposited within their bodies. These new values have been used to define new dose-response relationships for both the bone sarcomas and the carcinomas arising in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells induced by internally deposited radium. The population examined was employed in the U.S. dial painting industry prior to 1950 and consisted of 1530 female dial workers for whom radium body burden measurements were available. By the end of 1990, 46 cases of bone sarcomas and 19 cases of head carcinomas had been diagnosed in this cohort. The head carcinoma incidence can be adequately fitted by a simple linear function, as was found in previous analyses. The bone sarcoma cases were previously fitted by a dose-squared-exponential function. With the revised values of systemic intake, the sarcoma results could not be satisfactorily fitted with this expression. When the exponent on D was increased to larger values, excellent fits were obtained
Baars, Jessica E; Boon, Brigitte J F; Garretsen, Henk F; van de Mheen, Dike
We sought to explore the reach of a free hepatitis B vaccination program among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) within a legalized prostitution setting in the Netherlands. We also investigated the reasons for nonparticipation and noncompliance. In this cross-sectional study based on ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling, 259 CSWs were interviewed at their work in 3 regions in the Netherlands. The semistructured interviews contained questions on sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, sex work, awareness of the opportunity to obtain free hepatitis B vaccination, vaccination uptake, and compliance with the full vaccination schedule. Of our sample, 79% reported awareness of the opportunity to obtain hepatitis B vaccination, and 63% reported to be vaccinated against hepatitis B (received > or =1 vaccination). A personal approach by health professionals or was associated with vaccination uptake, when specific sociodemographic variables, sexual behavior, and sex work related covariates were controlled for in the analysis. Window prostitution and the duration of working in the region were associated with awareness of the opportunity to obtain free hepatitis B vaccination. The results of this study suggest that outreach activities (i.e., a personal approach) within this program are beneficial. Transient CSWs are more difficult to reach within the current vaccination program. These results can be used to increase the success of future health programs among this risk group.
Medhi, G K; Mahanta, J; Hazarika, I; Armstrong, G; Adhikary, R; Mainkar, M; Paranjape, R S
This paper describes the sex work characteristics and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur district of high HIV prevalence Indian state, Nagaland. The study recruited 426 FSWs in 2006 using respondent-driven sampling. The prevalence of syphilis was 21.1% and HIV prevalence was 11.7%. Approximately half were under 25 years of age. Clients were solicited mainly in public places (32.7%), while hotels/lodges/rented rooms were the most common places of entertainment (57.2%). Condom use during the last sex was 36.5% with occasional and 27% with regular clients. Being married, being widowed/divorced/separated, being illiterate or having a history of drug use increased the likelihood of syphilis infection. Entertaining clients in bars/booze joints decreased the probability of syphilis. FSWs who moved between soliciting in public places or bars/booze joints and then entertaining in hotels/lodges/rented rooms had a higher vulnerability to syphilis. In summary, we found that the vulnerability to syphilis among mostly young FSWs in Dimapur varied according to their sex work characteristics, marital and educational status and drug use habits. They may be more vulnerable to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) due to the low rate of condom use. The findings have direct implications for HIV/STI prevention programmes in Northeast India.
Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L
This study examined correlates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex (UVA) with male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Baseline data were gathered from 1089 FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico enrolled in an evidence-based sexual risk reduction intervention. We used generalised estimating equations (GEE) to predict total UVA while controlling for the nested structure of the data. Total UVA with clients in the past month was examined in relation to selected sociodemographic, substance-use, and micro- and macro-environmental factors. A greater number of UVA acts was associated with three micro-level environmental factors (i.e. never getting condoms for free, unaffordability of condoms, greater number of clients per month), and three macro-level environmental factors (i.e. lower health and higher education indices, greater population size of city). These findings suggest the development of social and structural approaches to HIV prevention for FSWs in Mexico, including modification of venue-based policies that pressure FSWs to maximise client volume, changes to the work environment that promote availability and affordability of condoms, and improved population health. Moreover, our findings call for the development of context-specific HIV interventions that take into account variations in the sexual risk behaviours and HIV risk environments of FSWs throughout Mexico.
Yang, Hongmei; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Liang, Shaoling; Zhou, Yuejiao; Hong, Yan
The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The goals of this study were to explore FSWs' perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs' practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. Perceived gatekeeper support for condom use was low among FSWs. Perceived support was positively associated with condom use communication with sexual partners, condom use frequency and intention, but not associated with proper condom use among FSWs. Perceived support was significantly associated with most condom use-related perceptions (e.g., self-efficacy of condom use, barriers to condom use, and perceived peer condom use) among FSWs. Healthcare professionals should work with gatekeepers to create a supportive local environment for condom use in sex work establishments. Gatekeepers need to clearly articulate their support for condom use to the FSWs. Training and skill acquisition regarding correct use of condoms among FSWs will be necessary.
Mukenge-Tshibaka, Léonard; Alary, Michel; Geraldo, Nassirou; Lowndes, Catherine M
Our objective was to assess if female sex workers (FSWs) and their potential male clients in Cotonou, Benin, know how to use male condoms correctly. From April to June 2000, 314 FSWs and 208 men were interviewed, and asked to demonstrate on a wooden penis how they usually use male condoms. In all, 27.6% of both women and men tore the condom envelope on the notch; 89.3% of the women versus 75.4% of the men easily found the correct side; 17.3% of the women versus 28.3% of the men held the top of the condom to avoid air entering; 91.4% of the women versus 75.6% of the men correctly unrolled the condom. Taking all the four criteria together, only approximately 11% of participants performed a correct condom use demonstration. FSWs frequently reported condom breakage, which was significantly associated with incorrect condom demonstration (P = 0.04). Correct condom use is suboptimal in these heavy consumers of male condoms in Benin. Condom breakage is frequent and is associated with incorrect use.
Mantsios, Andrea; Galai, Noya; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Shembilu, Catherine; Mwampashi, Ard; Beckham, S W; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Sherman, Susan; Kennedy, Caitlin; Kerrigan, Deanna
This study assessed the association between community savings group participation and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers (FSW) in Iringa, Tanzania. Using cross-sectional data from a survey of venue-based FSW (n = 496), logistic regression was used to examine the associations between financial indicators including community savings group participation and CCU. Over one-third (35%) of the women participated in a savings group. Multivariable regression results indicated that participating in a savings group was significantly associated with nearly two times greater odds of CCU with new clients in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.10-2.86). Exploratory mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between savings group participation and CCU was partially mediated by financial security, as measured by monthly income. Findings indicate that community savings groups may play an important role in reducing sexual risk behaviors of FSW and hold promise as part of comprehensive, community-led HIV prevention strategies among FSW.
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Nguyen, Lucie; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L
Sex work is regulated in Tijuana, Mexico, but only half of the city's female sex workers (FSWs) are registered with the municipal health department, which requires regular screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We examined correlates of registration to determine if it confers measurable health benefits. From 2004 to 2006, we interviewed FSWs in Tijuana > or = 18 years of age who reported recent unprotected sex with at least one client and were not knowingly HIV-positive, and tested them for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with registration. Of 410 FSWs, 44% were registered, 69% had been tested for HIV, 6% were HIV-positive, and 44% tested positive for any STI. Compared with unregistered FSWs, registered FSWs were more likely to have had HIV testing (86% vs. 56%, p $30 per transaction without a condom (AOR = 2.41), whereas working on the street (AOR = 0.34), injecting cocaine (AOR = 0.06), snorting or smoking methamphetamine (AOR = 0.27), and being born in the Mexican state of Baja California (AOR = 0.35) were inversely associated with registration. Registered FSWs were more likely than unregistered FSWs to have had HIV testing and to engage in less drug use, but did not have significantly lower HIV or STI prevalence after adjusting for confounders. Current regulation of FSWs in Tijuana should be further examined to enhance the potential public health benefits of registration.
Goldenberg, Shira M; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L
Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from Tijuana. In 2008, males from San Diego (N = 189) and Tijuana (N = 211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews, and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic, and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. FSWs' clients represent a sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission "bridge" through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives, and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.
Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter
Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.
Muñoz-Ramírez, Azucena; López-Monteon, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Guapillo-Vargas, Mario R B
Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HPV infections in FSWs in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Samples from 105 FSWs were obtained by cervical swab and analyzed. The identification of T. vaginalis and HPV was performed by molecular methods. HPV DNA was identified in 5.71% of the samples with the presence of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58. A percentage of 25.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis for optical microscopy and 23.8% for PCR. The results of the study indicate the need to incorporate more sensitive methods for the timely diagnosis of STIs as well as comprehensive health promotion programs directed to the most vulnerable groups among FSWs. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice
The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W
We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.
Full Text Available Abstract Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing. At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry
Dounias, George; Rachiotis, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing.At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry.
Carr Jean K
Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.
Full Text Available Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile.
Saggurti, Niranjan; Verma, Ravi K; Halli, Shiva S; Swain, Suvakanta N; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Ramarao, Saumya; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Jain, Anrudh K
This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007-2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere.
Farazi, Paraskevi A; Hadji, Panayiota; Roupa, Zoe
The incidence rate of cervical cancer varies by geographic region, with less developed regions showing the highest rates. All risk factors for cervical cancer are actually preventable if appropriate lifestyle changes are adopted. In addition, vaccines protecting against the majority of human papilloma virus (HPV) high-risk types have been developed. Even though cervical cancer is preventable, not all women are aware of this or how it can be prevented. Thus, it is essential for every nation to assess the level of knowledge among women of cervical cancer and HPV prevention. In this work, we assessed the level of awareness and attitudes of Greek female healthcare workers on cervical cancer and HPV prevention through the delivery of a validated questionnaire between March and June 2012 in three hospitals in Greece. Our results show that there exist gaps in the knowledge of women on this topic, especially in terms of the newest information on cervical cancer prevention through HPV testing and vaccination. In fact, only 80% of surveyed women knew about the existence of HPV testing. We propose that more information needs to be transmitted to Greek women and men on HPV testing and vaccination. Even though the incidence of cervical cancer is not extremely high in Greece, this number can easily change, especially in the face of the economic crisis and the increasing rates of migration, which can result in higher rates of HPV infection in the population if no measures for HPV prevention are implemented.
Shokoohi, Mostafa; Noori, Atefeh; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Hamid; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Fahimfar, Noushin; Hosseini-Hooshyar, Samira; Kazerooni, Parvin Afsar; Mirzazadeh, Ali
We estimated the prevalence of recent HIV testing (i.e., having an HIV test during the last 12 months and knew the results) among 1295 HIV-negative Iranian female sex workers (FSW) in 2015. Overall, 70.4% (95% confidence intervals: 59.6, 79.3) of the participants reported a recent HIV testing. Concerns about their HIV status (83.2%) was reported as the most common reason for HIV testing. Incarceration history, having >5 paying partners, having >1 non-paying partner, receiving harm reduction services, utilizing healthcare services, and knowing an HIV testing site were significantly associated with recent HIV testing. In contrast, outreach participants, having one non-paying sexual partner, and self-reported inconsistent condom use reduced the likelihood of recent HIV testing. HIV testing uptake showed a ~2.5 times increase among FSW since 2010. While these findings are promising and show improvement over a short period, HIV testing programs should be expanded particularly through mobile and outreach efforts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.
Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.
Reed, Elizabeth; Fisher, Celia B; Blankenship, Kim M; West, Brooke S; Khoshnood, Kaveh
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the motivation for and perceived voluntariness of participation in non-intervention HIV research among female sex workers (FSW) in India. FSW (n = 30) who participated in non-intervention HIV studies in the previous three years were recruited from a local community-based organization. Semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on women's personal and economic motivations for participation and their perceptions of the informed consent process. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, transcribed, and reviewed for common themes. Content analysis indicated that while many women reported willing participation, reports of obligatory participation were also a common theme. Obligations included money-related pressures and coercion by other FSW, social pressures, not wanting to disappoint the researchers, and perceiving that they had a contractual agreement to complete participation as a result of signing the consent form. Findings suggest a need for additional efforts during and following informed consent to prevent obligatory participation in HIV research studies among FSW. Findings emphasize the importance of integrating ongoing participant feedback into research ethics practices to identify issues not well addressed via standard ethics protocols when conducting HIV research among vulnerable populations.
Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n = 1451) identified during the study period (1989-2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n = 3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity, and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; P(trend) = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; P(trend) = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant.
Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R; Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John
Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women's first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This was considerably lower than
King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Dudina, Victoria I; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael
Female sex workers are particularly susceptible to HIV-infection in Russia. However, a dearth of information exists on their utilisation of HIV services. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia. The health belief model was the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty-nine sex workers participated in in-depth interviews, and 139 sex workers completed interviewer-administered surveys between February and September 2009. Barriers to getting an HIV test were fear of learning the results, worrying that other people would think they were sick, and the distance needed to travel to obtain services. Motivators for getting tested were protecting others from infection, wanting to know one's status and getting treatment if diagnosed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that knowing people living with HIV [aOR = 6.75, 95% CI (1.11, 41.10)] and length of time since start of injection drug use [aOR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.09, 0.97)] were significantly associated with recently getting tested. These results are important to consider when developing public health interventions to help female sex workers in Russia learn their HIV status and get linked to care and treatment services if needed.
Choi, Susanne Y P; Holroyd, Eleanor
This paper analyses barriers to consistent condom use in the context of transactional sex among female sex workers in mainland China. It reveals how differences in socioeconomic profile and organisational hierarchies amongst different groups of sex workers create different barriers to condom use. Data was collected by means of field observation of entertainment venues and in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that, compared with other sex workers, street-walkers are less likely to use condoms with their clients, hold highly disadvantaged socioeconomic profiles and work in isolation. Major barriers to condom use link to economic deprivation and threats of violence from clients. For the women working in entertainment venues, drunkenness of clients, pricing mechanisms and familiarity with clients pose barriers to condom use. Yet within all these constraints women are not powerless and instead find ways to exercise agency and gain personal protection and economic advantage. In the newly emerging China, both structural hierarchies of work and individual agency inform condom use by female sex workers. Future HIV intervention programmes need to take these factors into account in order to meet the needs of different groups of women sex workers.
Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu
The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.
Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel
Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.
Daniel D. Reidpath; Mei Lee Ling; Shajahan Yasin; Kanason Rajagobal; Pascale Allotey
Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers usin...
Birse, Kenzie D M; Cole, Amy L; Hirbod, Taha; McKinnon, Lyle; Ball, Terry B; Westmacott, Garrett R; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Frank; Cole, Alexander M; Burgener, Adam; Broliden, Kristina
Cationic proteins found in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) are known to contribute to the early antiviral immune response against HIV-infection in vitro. We here aimed to define additional antiviral factors that are over-expressed in CVS from female sex workers at high risk of infection. CVS were collected from Kenyan HIV-seronegative (n = 34) and HIV-seropositive (n = 12) female sex workers, and were compared with those from HIV-seronegative low-risk women (n = 12). The highly exposed seronegative (HESN) sex workers were further divided into those with less (n = 22) or more (n = 12) than three years of documented sex work. Cationic protein-depleted CVS were assessed for HIV-neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based HIV-neutralizing assay, and then characterized by proteomics. HIV neutralizing activity was detected in all unprocessed CVS, however only CVS from the female sex worker groups maintained its HIV neutralizing activity after cationic protein-depletion. Differentially abundant proteins were identified in the cationic protein-depleted secretions including 26, 42, and 11 in the HESN>3 yr, HESNHIV-positive groups, respectively. Gene ontology placed these proteins into functional categories including proteolysis, oxidation-reduction, and epidermal development. The proteins identified in this study include proteins previously associated with the HESN phenotype in other cohorts as well as novel proteins not yet associated with anti-HIV activities. While cationic proteins appear to contribute to the majority of the intrinsic HIV neutralizing activity in the CVS of low-risk women, a broader range of non-cationic proteins were associated with HIV neutralizing activity in HESN and HIV-positive female sex workers. These results indicate that novel protein factors found in CVS of women with high-risk sexual practices may have inherent antiviral activity, or are involved in other aspects of anti-HIV host defense, and warrant further exploration into their mode of action.
In this paper, we examined the will of career advancement of the Japanese female core-workers (Sougoushoku). The main results obtained from the analyses of this paper are the following two points. First, the women who want the work-life-balance (WLB) to continue the current job do not want to be a manager even if they are core-workers. Secondly, on the other hand, the women who want the equal treatment between women and men in the workplace to continue the current job want to be a manager. (8...
Jacobsen, Henrik B; Reme, Silje E; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stiles, Tore C; Sorensen, Glorian; Porter, James H; Marino, Miguel; Buxton, Orfeu M
The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of work-related stress, sleep deficiency, and physical activity on 10-year cardiometabolic risk among an all-female worker population. Data on patient care workers (n=99) was collected 2 years apart. Baseline measures included: job stress, physical activity, night work, and sleep deficiency. Biomarkers and objective measurements were used to estimate 10-year cardiometabolic risk at follow-up. Significant associations (Pwork-related stress and sleep deficiency, maintaining sleep and exercise patterns had a strong impact on modifiable 10-year cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goldenberg, Shira M.; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Fisher., Celia B.
This study explored perceived benefits and risks of participation in HIV research among 33 female sex workers in Tecun Uman, Guatemala. Stigma associated with sex work and HIV was a critical barrier to research participation. Key benefits of participation included access to HIV/STI prevention and testing, as well as positive and trusting relationships between sex workers and research teams. Control exerted by managers had mixed influences on perceived research risks and benefits. Results underscore the critical need for HIV investigators to develop population-tailored procedures to reduce stigma, engage managers, and reinforce trusting, reciprocal relationships between sex work communities and researchers. PMID:27840564
Sardana, Srishti; Marcus, Marina; Verdeli, Helen
This study explores the narratives of psychological distress and resilience among a group of female sex workers who use residential spaces to attend to clients in rural India. The narratives reflect the lived experiences of these women. They describe the women's reasons for opting into sex work; guilt, shame, and stigma related to their sex worker status; experiences with intimate partner and domestic violence; health-related problems; communication with their family members about their sex worker status; mental health referral practices among the women; and elements of resilience and strength that they experience within themselves and within their community of fellow sex workers. The article also offers elements of our own experiences of recruiting the women to participate in the focus group, training local outreach workers in conducting focus group discussions, and forging a collaboration with a local community-based organization to highlight important barriers, challenges, and strategies for planning a group-based discussion to explore the mental health needs of home-based sex workers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B
Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.
Magalhães, Rosilane de Lima Brito; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Renata Karina; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Gir, Elucir
to assess predictive factors for noncompletion of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule in female sex workers in the city of Teresina, Northeastern Brazil. 402 women were interviewed and, for those who did not wish to visit specialized sites, or did not know their hepatitis B vaccination status, the vaccine was offered at their workplaces. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. of the 284 women eligible for vaccination, 258 (90.8%) received the second dose, 157/258 (60.8%) and 68/258 (26.3%) received the second and third doses, respectively. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. the high acceptability of the vaccine's first dose, associated with low completion rates of the vaccination schedule in sex workers, shows the need for more persuasive strategies that go beyond offering the vaccine at their workplaces. avaliar fatores preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B em mulheres que se prostituem em Teresina, Nordeste do Brasil. Um total de 402 mulheres foi entrevistado e, para as que se negaram a irem a lugares especializados, ou desconheciam sua situação vacinal contra hepatite B, a vacina foi oferecida no local do trabalho. Análises bi e multivariadas foram realizadas para identificar potenciais preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal. Das 284 mulheres elegíveis para vacinação, 258 (90,8%) receberam a primeira dose, 157/258 (60,8%) e 68/258 (26,3%) receberam a segunda e terceira doses. Trabalhar em boates e consumir drogas ilícitas foram preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal (p<0,05). A elevada aceitabilidade da primeira dose da vacina, associada à baixa completude do esquema vacinal em profissionais do sexo, evidencia a necessidade de estratégia mais persuasiva que vá além da oferta da vacina no local de trabalho.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the multi-instrument assessment of physical activity in female office workers. Material and Methods: Fifty healthy women (age (mean ± standard deviation: 34.8±5.9 years, body height: 158±0.4 cm, body weight: 61.8±7.5 kg, body mass index: 24.6±2.7 kg/m2 workers from the same workplace volunteered to participate in the study. Physical activity was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (7-d PAAQ, an objective multi-sensor armband tool, and also a waist-mounted pedometer, which were both worn for 7 days. Results: A significant correlation between step numbers measured by armband and pedometer was observed (r = 0.735, but the step numbers measured by these 2 methods were significantly different (10 941±2236 steps/ day and 9170±2377 steps/day, respectively; p < 0.001. There was a weak correlation between the value of 7-d PAAQ total energy expenditure and the value of armband total energy expenditure (r = 0.394, p = 0.005. However, total energy expenditure values measured by armband and 7-d PAAQ were not significantly different (2081±370 kcal/ day and 2084±197 kcal/day, respectively; p = 0.96. In addition, physical activity levels (average daily metabolic equivalents (MET measured by armband and 7-d PAAQ were not significantly different (1.45±0.12 MET/day and 1.47±0.24 MET/day, respectively; p = 0.44. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the correlation between pedometer and armband measurements was higher than that between armband measurements and 7-d PAAQ selfreports. Our results suggest that none of the assessment methods examined here, 7-d PAAQ, pedometer, or armband, is sufficient when used as a single tool for physical activity level determination. Therefore, multi-instrument assessment methods are preferable. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:937–945
Shirley J Semple
Full Text Available Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico.FSWs (N = 1,089 who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence.The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%, physical (11.8%, economic (16.9%, and any violence (22.6%. Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs' alcohol use score (AUDIT-C was associated with economic violence only.Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients, enhancement of FSWs' community-based supports, development of interventions that deliver an anti
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs, and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7% had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2% reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73, no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98, being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04, and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70 were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9% had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8% had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher
Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Huq, Molla
BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, recently has been using female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in Dhaka urban slums to provide maternal and child health services. Due to erratic performance-based income and higher opportunity cost the urban CHWs lose motivation which contributes to high dropout and poor performance. This results challenges for the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the urban health program. CHWs also consider their performance-based income very low compare to their work load. So, CHWs raise their voice for a fixed income. In order to understand this problem we explored fixed income for CHWs and the correlates that influence it. We surveyed a sample of 542 current CHWs. We used bidding game approach to derive the equilibrium reservation wage for CHWs for providing full-time services. Then, we performed ordered logit models with bootstrap simulation to identify the determinants of reservation wage. The average reservation wage of CHWs to continue their work as full-time CHWs rather than volunteer CHWs was US$24.11 which was three times higher than their current performance-based average income of US$ 8.03. Those CHWs received additional health training outside BRAC were 72% and those who joined with an expectation of income were 62% more likely to ask for higher reservation wage. On the contrary, CHWs who were burdened with household loan were 65% and CHWs who had alternative income generating scope were 47% less likely to ask for higher reservation wage. Other important factors we identified were BRAC village organization membership, competition with other health services providers, performance as a CHW, and current and past monthly CHW income. The findings of this study are relevant to certain developing countries such as Bangladesh and Tanzania which commonly use volunteer CHWs, and where poor retention and performance is a common issue due to erratic and performance-based income. So, the study has implications in improving
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. METHODS: The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040. The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. RESULTS: Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%. Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%, and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%. Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001 and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001. In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.
Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine
It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.
High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men.
Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Hoebe, Christian J P A
Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outside this context. This clinic-based observational study included consultations by male sex workers (n = 212), female sex workers (n = 801) and in men having sex with men who did not report being paid for sexual contacts (MSM, n = 2703) who received STI and HIV testing and counselling at our clinic during the study period. In this study we compare the consultations in male sex workers to those in in female sex workers and MSM. Demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour of the male sex workers, female sex workers and MSM were compared using chi-square tests and non-parametric tests. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses, determinants for STI positivity in male sex workers were evaluated. Male sex workers tested positive for STI (including HIV) in 40 % of the consultations; female sex workers and MSM respectively in 9 and 14 % of the consultations. A new HIV infection was found in 8 % of the consultations of male sex workers. Male sex workers were a young population of migrant sex workers from Eastern Europe. They reported more often to also have sex contacts with women and other sex workers. Male sex workers are at a higher risk for one or more new STI than female sex workers and other MSM, even after correction for age, ethnicity, known HIV positivity and behavioural variables. Male sex workers form a hidden key population that impacts the transmission of STI and HIV within the MSM population and, possibly, to the heterosexual population. They require specific targeted
García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores
Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.
Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social ...
Longo, Jean De Dieu; Simaleko, Marcel Mbeko; Diemer, Henri Saint-Calvaire; Grésenguet, Gérard; Brücker, Gilles; Belec, Laurent
The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women. After collection of social and behavioral characteristics, each woman received a physical examination and a blood sample was taken for biological analyses, including HIV testing. The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral variables involved in high risk for HIV as well as biological results were investigated by bivariate analysis in relationship with FSW categories as main outcomes, and by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis in relationship with HIV as the main outcome. The strength of statistical associations was measured by crude and adjusted Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The typology of FSW comprised six different categories. Two groups were the "official" professional FSW primarily classified according to their locations of work [i) "kata"(18.55%) representing women working in poor neighborhoods of Bangui; ii) "pupulenge" (13.91%) working in hotels and night clubs to seek white men]. Four groups were "clandestine" nonprofessional FSW classified according to their reported main activity [i) "market and street vendors" (20.86%); ii) "schoolgirls or students" (19.13%) involved in occasional transactional sex (during holidays); iii) "housewives or unemployed women" (15.65%); iv) "civil servants" (11.88%) working as soldiers or in the public sector]. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 was 19.12% (66/345). HIV varied according to FSW categories. Thus, among professional FSW, the HIV prevalence was 6-fold higher in "kata
Lee, Ji Hyun; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Jin Soo; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Taik Min; Yu, Il Je
Printed electronics uses converging technologies, such as printing, fine mechanics, nanotechnology, electronics and other new technologies. Consequently, printed electronics raises additional health and safety concerns to those experienced in the traditional printing industry. This study investigated two printed electronics workplaces based on a walk-through survey and personal and area sampling. All the printed electronics operations were conducted in a cleanroom. No indication of exposure to excess silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was found. While the organic solvents were lower than current occupational exposure limits, there was a lack of engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, correct enclosure and duct connections. There was also an insufficient quantity of personal protective equipment, and some organic solvents not described in the safety data sheets (SDSs) were detected in the air samples. Plus, the cleaning work, a major emissions operation, was not conducted within a hood, and the cleaning waste was not properly disposed of. Therefore, the present exposure assessment results from two printed electronics workplaces suggest that the printed electronics industry needs to take note of the occupational safety and health risks and hazards already established by the traditional printing industry, along with new risks and hazards originating from converging technologies such as nanotechnology.
Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P
The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.
Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang
The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.
Magnani, Robert; Riono, Pandu; Nurhayati; Saputro, Eko; Mustikawati, Dyah; Anartati, Atiek; Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Majid, Nurholis; Morineau, Guy
To assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation among female sex workers (FSW) in Indonesia using data from the 2007 Integrated Biological-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS). Behavioural data were collected from time-location samples of 5947 FSW in 10 cities in late 2007. HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia test results were obtained for 4396, 4324, 3291 and 3316 FSW, respectively. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed via linkage with sentinel surveillance data. Factors associated with HIV, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. HIV prevalence averaged 10.5% among direct and 4.9% among indirect FSW, and had increased steadily among direct FSW from 2002 to 2007. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and active syphilis averaged 35.6%, 31.8% and 7.3%, respectively, among direct FSW, and 28.7%, 14.3% and 3.5% among indirect FSW. Being a direct FSW, younger age and having current infection with syphilis and gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV infection. Number of clients in the past week and consumption of alcohol before having sex were associated with a higher likelihood of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia infection, while having received a STI clinic check-up in the previous 3 months and/or periodic presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 6 months were associated with reduced likelihood of infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic among FSW in Indonesia appears to be expanding, albeit unevenly across provinces and types of FSW. High STI prevalence is conducive to further expansion, but recent efforts to strengthen STI control appear promising.
Sangram Kishor Patel
Full Text Available Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India.Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400 in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics.Most FSWs (87% reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5 and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3 as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt.This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.
Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C
Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention.
Blanchard, Andrea K; Mohan, Haranahalli Lakkappa; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Prakash, Ravi; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa Manjappa; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Gurnani, Vandana; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F
While community mobilization has been widely endorsed as an important component of HIV prevention among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), there is uncertainty as to the mechanism through which it impacts upon HIV risk. We explored the hypothesis that individual and collective empowerment of FSW is an outcome of community mobilization, and we examined the means through which HIV risk and vulnerability reduction as well as personal and social transformation are achieved. This study was conducted in five districts in south India, where community mobilization programs are implemented as part of the Avahan program (India AIDS Initiative) of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We used a theoretically derived "integrated empowerment framework" to conduct a secondary analysis of a representative behavioural tracking survey conducted among 1,750 FSWs. We explored the associations between involvement with community mobilization programs, self-reported empowerment (defined as three domains including power within to represent self-esteem and confidence, power with as a measure of collective identity and solidarity, and power over as access to social entitlements, which were created using Principal Components analysis), and outcomes of HIV risk reduction and social transformation. In multivariate analysis, we found that engagement with HIV programs and community mobilization activities was associated with the domains of empowerment. Power within and power with were positively associated with more program contact (p empowerment were also associated with outcomes of "personal transformation" in terms of self-efficacy for condom and health service use (p empowerment (power with others) was most strongly associated with "social transformation" variables including higher autonomy and reduced violence and coercion, particularly in districts with programs of longer duration (p empowerment as a means to HIV prevention.
Junice Y S Ng
Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.
Todd, Catherine S; Nasir, Abdul; Stanekzai, Mohammad R; Scott, Paul T; Close, Nicole C; Botros, Boulos A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tjaden, Jeffrey
There is little information about HIV awareness or condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess HIV awareness, knowledge, and condom use among FSWs in three Afghan cities. FSWs residing in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited through outreach programs and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and rapid tests for hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV awareness, comprehensive HIV knowledge (knowledge that HIV cannot be detected by sight, that condoms prevent HIV, and rejection of local misconceptions about HIV transmission), and consistent condom use (use with every sex act) with clients in the last six months. Of 520 participants, 76.9% had no formal education and 37.7% lived outside Afghanistan in the last five years. Nearly half (44.2%) were aware of HIV but, of these, only 17.4% (N = 40) had comprehensive HIV knowledge. There were significant differences by site; FSWs in Jalalabad were more likely to be aware of HIV but FSWs in Kabul were more likely to have correct HIV knowledge and use condoms consistently with clients. Consistent client condom use was reported by 11.5% (N = 60) and was independently associated with having more clients per month (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.04-3.81). In conclusion, comprehensive HIV knowledge and consistent condom use with clients are low among Afghan FSWs in these cities. Efforts to reach this population should focus on relaying accurate information and expanding condom use with clients.
Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jeannie; Feng, Cindy; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate
To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g. massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a 'yes' or 'no' response to the question "Are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?". Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. Regarding ethnicity, 35.3% were Caucasian and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status; 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs' access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kathryn Elizabeth Lancaster
Full Text Available The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW, a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi.From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome.HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138. Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 22-28. Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 3-17. The majority (69% of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes.FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered.
Conners, Erin E; Gaines, Tommi L; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Brouwer, Kimberly C
Smoking methamphetamine is associated with increased risk of HIV among female sex workers (FSW). The structural context of substance use is an important shaper of individual behaviour; however, structural determinants of methamphetamine use among FSWs are largely unknown. We identified individual, structural and neighbourhood factors associated with smoking methamphetamine among FSWs in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. A prospective cohort of 301 FSWs sampled from indoor and outdoor sex work venues throughout Tijuana participated in quantitative surveys on behaviours and mapping of home and work neighbourhoods across three visits. Multinomial logistic regression using generalised estimating equations identified individual, structural and neighbourhood variables associated with smoking methamphetamine. Methamphetamine use, particularly smoking, was highly prevalent among FSWs. Over half (61%) of FSWs had ever used methamphetamine in their lifetime and at baseline, 38% currently smoked methamphetamine. Smoking methamphetamine daily was associated with living in the red light district [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-6.02] and with perceived homelessness, but only among women in a good financial situation (AOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.58-10.50). Smoking methamphetamine less than daily was associated with older age (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10). Our findings point to the important dynamic between the residential environment and more severe methamphetamine use. FSWs may prioritise the purchase of methamphetamine over stable housing if they have the financial means. Given the high prevalence of smoking methamphetamine among FSWs in Tijuana, drug treatment options, especially for women living in the red light district, are needed. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra
Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG infections with their potential correlates.A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted.185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou, aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG.Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG.Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH practices among female sex workers (FSWs including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs with the aim of developing recommendations for action.A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations.About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%, ongoing pregnancy (9.0%, childbirth (8.3% or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%. Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113, the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%, followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31% and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%. About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61, 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants.There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.
Kozma, Chahira; Sarry El Din, Azza Mohamed; El Shafy El Banna, Rokia Abd; El Samie Kandeel, Wafaa Abd; Lachman, Ralph
The existence of dwarfism is amply documented in ancient Egypt due to the rich biological and artistic legacies. In previous articles published in this journal, I discussed the roles of people with skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egyptian civilization. In this article I, along with my Egyptian and American colleagues, describe two skeletons of dwarfs that date to 2700-2184 BCE and were unearthed from a funerary complex near the Great Pyramids in Giza. The first skeleton belongs to a high official, Per-ni-ankh-w, who died between 45 and 50 years of age. His statue is on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. The second skeleton belongs to a pregnant female worker found with a fetus in situ. Her estimated age at death was 25-30 years. She most likely died during childbirth due to a small pelvic outlet as supported by her narrow sacrum. The fetal bones appear normal. Radiological examination of both skeletons confirmed the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia. Ancient Egyptians concerned themselves with the search for spiritual fulfillment through the tradition of moral teachings. Amenemope, a wise man who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III (1391-1354 BCE), advocated respect toward individuals with disabilities: Do not jeer at a blind man nor tease a dwarf, Neither interfere with the condition of a cripple. Do not taunt a man who is in the hand of God, Nor scowl at him if he errs. In summary, artistic, biological, and written resources indicate that dwarfs were well integrated in ancient Egyptian society. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M
Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%), belonging to scheduled caste (35.3%) and scheduled tribe (10.5%), illiterate (74.7%), and of those separated/divorced (30.7%) was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years) and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years) was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively). Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India. PMID:16615869
Pablo E Campos
Full Text Available As part of a community-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections, we created Mobile Teams (MTs in ten intervention cities across Peru to improve outreach to female sex workers (FSW for strengthened STI prevention services.Throughout 20 two-month cycles, MTs provided counseling; condoms; screening and specific treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and vaginal Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections; and periodic presumptive metronidazole treatment for vaginal infections.MTs had 48,207 separate encounters with 24,814 FSW; numbers of sex work venues and of FSW reached increased steadily over several cycles. Approximately 50% of FSW reached per cycle were new. Reported condom use with last client increased from 73% to 93%. Presumptive metronidazole treatment was accepted 83% of times offered. Over 38 months, CT prevalence declined from 15.4% to 8.2%, and TV prevalence from 7.3% to 2.6%. Among participants in ≥ 9 cycles, CT prevalence decreased from 12.9% to 6.0% (p <0.001; TV from 4.6% to 1.5% (p <0.001; and NG from 0.8% to 0.4% (p = 0.07.Mobile outreach to FSW reached many FSW not utilizing government clinics. Self-reported condom use substantially increased; CT and TV prevalences declined significantly. The community-randomized trial, reported separately, demonstrated significantly greater reductions in composite prevalence of CT, NG, TV, or high-titer syphilis serology in FSW in these ten intervention cities than in ten matched control cities.
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Samuel, Malamba S; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gasasira, Antoine R; Chitou, Bassirou; Boer, Kimberly; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Gupta, Neil; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is often high among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV infection in this key population is critical to developing appropriate prevention strategies. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated risk factors among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda from a survey conducted in 2010. A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted among FSWs in Rwanda. Time-location sampling was used for participant recruitment from 4 to 18 February 2010. HIV testing was done using HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as per Rwandan national guidelines at the time of the survey. Elisa tests were simultaneously done on all samples tested HIV-positive on RDT. Proportions were used for sample description; multivariable logistic regression model was performed to analyze factors associated with HIV infection. Of 1338 women included in the study, 1112 consented to HIV testing, and the overall HIV prevalence was 51.0%. Sixty percent had been engaged in sex work for less than five years and 80% were street based. In multivariable logistic regression, HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs 25 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.83, 95% [confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.37]), FSWs with consistent condom use in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.39, [95% CI: 1.05-1.82]), and FSWs experiencing at least one STI symptom in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.74 [95% CI: 1.34-2.26]). There was an inverse relationship between HIV prevalence and comprehensive HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.65, [95% CI: 0.48-0.88]). HIV prevalence was high among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda, and successful prevention strategies should focus on HIV education, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and proper and consistent condom use using an outreach approach.
van der Ham, Alida Joanna; Ujano-Batangan, Maria Theresa; Ignacio, Raquel; Wolffers, Ivan
Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in different phases of the migration process; prior to migration, in the country of destination and upon return to the Philippines. Data were collected in 2010 using questionnaires (N = 500). Validation of findings took place in a work shop (23 participants) and two focus groups (13 and 8 participants). Stress levels of women were significantly higher abroad than in the Philippines. Stress and coping in the Philippines was primarily related to financial issues, while stress and coping abroad related more strongly loneliness, working conditions and employers. Findings from this study provide insight in the phase-specific and transnational dimensions of stress and coping.
Ling, Davina C; Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor A; Gray, Sister Ann
This article examines factors that relate to psychological health (as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument) as well as suicide attempts among female street sex workers (FSSWs) in Hong Kong. On average, our sampled FSSWs scored significantly lower on the psychological health domain in comparison to the general Hong Kong female population. Factors associated with the working environment in the sex industry were significantly associated with poor psychological health and suicidality. Greater attention is needed to examine the physical and emotional harm intrinsic to certain occupations and the role of financial needs in the experience of psychological stress.
Maakip, Ismail; Oakman, Jodi; Stuckey, Rwth
Purpose Workers with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) often continue to work despite their condition. Understanding the factors that enable them to remain at work provides insights into the development of appropriate workplace accommodations. This qualitative study aims to explore the strategies utilised by female Malaysian office workers with MSP to maintain productive employment. Methods A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was used. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 female Malaysian office workers with MSP. Initial codes were identified and refined through iterative discussion to further develop the emerging codes and modify the coding framework. A further stage of coding was undertaken to eliminate redundant codes and establish analytic connections between distinct themes. Results Two major themes were identified: managing the demands of work and maintaining employment with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Participants reported developing strategies to assist them to remain at work, but most focused on individually initiated adaptations or peer support, rather than systemic changes to work systems or practices. A combination of the patriarchal and hierarchical cultural occupational context emerged as a critical factor in the finding of individual or peer based adaptations rather than organizational accommodations. Conclusions It is recommended that supervisors be educated in the benefits of maintaining and retaining employees with MSP, and encouraged to challenge cultural norms and develop appropriate flexible workplace accommodations through consultation and negotiation with these workers.
Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.
Attanapola, Chamila T
Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles.
Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa
Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014....
Liao, Ping-Tai; Kou, Zhen-Xia; Li, Zhi-Lan; He, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wen-Lan; Zho, An-Shou
To understand the status of occupational health of female migrant workers in different kinds of pharmaceutical industries in Gansu province and to provide the basis for improving occupational health condition. One thousand eight hundreds and one female workers from 16 enterprises were selected by cluster sampling in Gansu province and investigated by interviewing and questionnaires. There were statistical significances of education level, status of residency registrations, employment relationship and occupational hazards among female workers in three types of enterprises (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The morbidities of skin disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 4.46%, 2.53% and 3.70%, respectively. The morbidities of reproductive system disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 48.57%, 36.70% and 36.11%, respectively. The levels of education and working conditions of female workers in the traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine plants are low. There are more severe occupational hazards in female workers of the traditional Chinese medicine plants.
Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K
This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne; Grafton, Iain; Falcone, M Aurora; Shaw, Steve
The attrition of rape cases from the criminal justice system (CJS) remains high and there is a paucity of research in relation to marginalized groups. Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to sexual violence due to the nature of their work. They are also unlikely to report such violence to police for a range of reasons. Two stages of research sought to describe the victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics of SW rape and to examine the attrition of these cases. All rapes and attempted rapes (N = 1,146) reported to police in a large city in the South West of England over a 21-year period were examined; 67 cases involved SWs. Data were extracted from police files in line with the variables of interest. Secondary analysis of the total number of SW rapes (n = 67) resulted in a profile of these cases. A matched pairs study revealed significant differences in victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics between SW (n = 62) and non-sex-worker (NSW) samples (n = 62). Although no significant difference was found in terms of attrition from the CJS, SW cases were observed to secure more convictions for rape than NSW cases. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Luciana Fernandes Portela
Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the workplace plays an important etiologic role in blood pressure (BP alterations. Associations in female samples are controversial, and the domestic environment is hypothesized to be an important factor in this relationship. This study assessed the association between job strain and BP within a sample of female nursing workers, considering the potential role of domestic overload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 175 daytime workers who wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 24 h during a working day. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were calculated. Job strain was evaluated using the Demand-Control Model. Domestic overload was based on the level of responsibility in relation to four household tasks and on the number of beneficiaries. After adjustments no significant association between high job strain and BP was detected. Stratified analyses revealed that women exposed to both domestic overload and high job strain had higher systolic BP at home. These results indicate a possible interaction between domestic overload and job strain on BP levels and revealed the importance of domestic work, which is rarely considered in studies of female workers.
Measures effects of nonformal training on Peruvian workers' employment and earnings. Workers with limited educational attainment face limited training opportunities. Training significantly improves employment probabilities, but not earnings, of private-sector employed or self-employed women. Training significantly affects male private-sector…
Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H
Hearing loss induced in thirty female workers because of exposure to continuous noise was studied in a plastic bag plant in Samutprakarn Province, the largest industrial zone in Thailand. The sound level in this plant was 98.5 dBA., 94.0 dBA. and 93.0 dBA. in the weaving, winding and warping sections, respectively. Results of an audiometric test showed a significant relationship between high noise level and hearing loss at frequency 4,000 Hz. A questionnaire survey found that a relatively high number of workers had various symptoms such as: 76.7% general fatigue, 70% headache, 63.3% ear distension and 56.7% vertigo. Concerning the usage of ear protective devices, it was found that 80% of the workers have never used such devices, 16.7% occasionally used them, and 3.3% have always used cotton wool to reduce the high noise level. Their reasons for non-use of ear protective devices were 1) not provided by the employer (86.7%), 2) not necessary (83.3%), 3) accustomed to the noise (63.3%), 4) nobody uses (56.7%), and 5) no loud noise (16.7%). These results point to the need for improving the work conditions and welfare services of the workers at this plant. Also, hearing conservation programmes can be instituted in developing countries through cooperation among the safety inspectorate, the employer and the workers.
Dhesi Ari Astuti
Full Text Available Background: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Indonesia is among the highest in Asia after Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Indirect sex workers posed a heightened risk of HIV infection compared to direct sex workers because they usually earn less than their direct counterpart and have lower bargaining power in condom use. Objective: This study aims to examine the factors influencing indirect sex workers’ attitudes toward HIV testing. Methods: This study employed a quantitative method with a cross-sectional approach involved 67 indirect sex workers from massage parlors and beauty salons in Bantul district. Descriptive analysis of respondents’ attitude, perceive threat and expectation was drawn from Health Belief Model Theory. Results: The majority of indirect sex workers had positive attitude towards HIV testing. They are aware to the importance of condom in every commercial sex works, but the majority believe themselves were not susceptible to HIV-AIDS due to their preference to healthy-looking clients to serve sex. Personal expenses to visit the health center for HIV testing are less considered compared to public opinion and discrimination. Peers encouraged the workers to get tested. Disseminating HIV/AIDS information to sex workers through media and mobile phone are not successful. Conclusion: The findings of the study carrying an expectation that when individuals’ attitudes toward HIV testing are positive, the likelihood of getting themselves tested would also be higher. Since the perception is driven by information as stimulus, it is important to provide continuous information to create stimulus which eventually will influence their perception.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. Methods A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21–25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Results Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49–2.12 and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25–1.69 were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43–3.95. For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21–4.54 and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10–3.87 were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.
Harper, Vernon B., Jr.
Electronic mail is one of the most successfully diffused modern communication technologies. Yet, few researchers have investigated whether gender differences exist in perceptions of the types of appropriateness embedded within electronic mail messages. A framework originally created by Wiemann and Backlund (1980) served as the basis for the…
Liu, X M; Li, S; Zhang, Q Y; Wang, C; Ji, Y Q; Wang, J; Shi, J
Objective: To investigate occupational stress in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise and the association between occupational stress and early health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia. Methods: In August 2015, stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 1 097 migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The Job Demand-Autonomy Questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to investigate occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance, and Burnout Inventory, depression scale, and self-management sleep questionnaire were used to investigate the early health effects of occupational stress. Results: In these migrant workers, the detection rates of occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance were 69.8%(766/1 097) and 11.9%(131/1 097). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the workers who had occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance had significantly higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who did not have these two types of occupational stress ( P workers who had occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance had a significantly higher ability to predict the risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who had occupational stress with the type of high workload ( P health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia, in the migrant workers in this electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The workers who have occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance have higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who have occupational stress with the type of high workload.
Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne
To explore risk factors associated with induced abortion among sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia. This study included 556 FEWs aged 18-47 years randomly selected from entertainment establishments in the two cities in 2014 using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. History of induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. Of the total sample, 45.6% reported currently using a contraceptive method with condom (42.4%) being the most common method, followed by pills (25.6%). One-fourth (25%) of the respondents reported having been pregnant at least once, and 21.4% reported having at least one induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. After controlling for other covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model, FEWs with a history of induced abortion remained significantly more likely to be currently working in a karaoke bar (AOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.78), to have worked longer as a FEW (AOR=1.42, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43), to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the past 12 months (AOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54), to be currently using a contraceptive method (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), to be able to find condoms when they needed them (AOR=2.03, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.82), and to report inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners in the past 3 months (AOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.44). This study highlights the high rates of unwanted pregnancies that ended in induced abortions among FEWs in Cambodia. Access of FEWs to quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services is deemed a high priority. Integrated interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health among these vulnerable women should be tailored to reach the most-at-risk groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go
Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kituma, Elimsaada; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M
A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The present study determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among ART-naive female bar and hotel workers, a high-risk population for HIV-1 infection in Moshi, Tanzania. A partial HIV-1 pol gene was analyzed by single-genome amplification and sequencing in 45 subjects (622 pol sequences total; median number of sequences per subject, 13; IQR 5-20) in samples collected in 2005. The prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, and D, and inter-subtype recombinant viruses, was 36%, 29%, 9% and 27%, respectively. Thirteen different recombination patterns included D/A1/D, C/A1, A1/C/A1, A1/U/A1, C/U/A1, C/A1, U/D/U, D/A1/D, A1/C, A1/C, A2/C/A2, CRF10_CD/C/CRF10_CD and CRF35_AD/A1/CRF35_AD. CRF35_AD was identified in Tanzania for the first time. All recombinant viruses in this study were unique, suggesting ongoing recombination processes among circulating HIV-1 variants. The prevalence of multiple infections in this population was 16% (n = 7). Primary HIV-1 drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were identified in three (7%) subjects (K65R plus Y181C; N60D; and V106M). In some subjects, polymorphisms were observed at the RT positions 41, 69, 75, 98, 101, 179, 190, and 215. Secondary mutations associated with NNRTIs were observed at the RT positions 90 (7%) and 138 (6%). In the protease gene, three subjects (7%) had M46I/L mutations. All subjects in this study had HIV-1 subtype-specific natural polymorphisms at positions 36, 69, 89 and 93 that are associated with drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. These results suggested that HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and natural polymorphisms existed in this population before the initiation of the national ART program. With increasing use of ARV, these results highlight the importance of drug
Baral, Stefan; Ketende, Sosthenes; Green, Jessie L; Chen, Ping-An; Grosso, Ashley; Sithole, Bhekie; Ntshangase, Cebisile; Yam, Eileen; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Adams, Darrin
HIV is hyperendemic in Swaziland with a prevalence of over 25% among those between the ages of 15 and 49 years old. The HIV response in Swaziland has traditionally focused on decreasing HIV acquisition and transmission risks in the general population through interventions such as male circumcision, increasing treatment uptake and adherence, and risk-reduction counseling. There is emerging data from Southern Africa that key populations such as female sex workers (FSW) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV even in generalized epidemics such as Swaziland. The burden of HIV and prevention needs among FSW remains unstudied in Swaziland. A respondent-driven-sampling survey was completed between August-October, 2011 of 328 FSW in Swaziland. Each participant completed a structured survey instrument and biological HIV and syphilis testing according to Swazi Guidelines. Unadjusted HIV prevalence was 70.3% (n = 223/317) among a sample of women predominantly from Swaziland (95.2%, n = 300/316) with a mean age of 21(median 25) which was significantly higher than the general population of women. Approximately one-half of the FSW(53.4%, n = 167/313) had received HIV prevention information related to sex work in the previous year, and about one-in-ten had been part of a previous research project(n = 38/313). Rape was common with nearly 40% (n = 123/314) reporting at least one rape; 17.4% (n = 23/314)reported being raped 6 or more times. Reporting blackmail (34.8%, n = 113/314) and torture(53.2%, n = 173/314) was prevalent. While Swaziland has a highly generalized HIV epidemic, reconceptualizing the needs of key populations such as FSW suggests that these women represent a distinct population with specific vulnerabilities and a high burden of HIV compared to other women. These women are understudied and underserved resulting in a limited characterization of their HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs and only sparse specific and competent
Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhong, Xiaoni; Ruan, Yuhua; Lin, Xinqin; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Deren; Jiang, Junjun; Xie, Peiyan; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Zhou, Bo; Su, Jinming; Liang, Hao; Huang, Ailong
Objectives Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three cities in Guangxi. Structured, self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the acceptability of PrEP and the willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors. Results Among 405 participants, 15.1% had heard of PrEP. If PrEP was deemed to be effective, safe and provided for free, 85.9% reported that they would accept it, and 54.3% of those who accepted PrEP said that they would participate in a clinical trial. The increased acceptability of PrEP was associated with working in male dominated venues, higher income, a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, not being forced to use condoms by the gatekeepers, consistent use of condoms, and use of drugs to prevent STD infection. The increased willingness to participate in a clinical trial was associated with a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, a willingness to adhere to daily PreP use, and not being concerned about discrimination by others. The main reason for rejecting PrEP or participating in a clinical trial was the concern about the side effects of PrEP. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP among Guangxi FSWs is relatively high, indicating that PrEP intervention programs may be feasible for Chinese FSWs. Given the fact that most of the participants had never heard of PrEP before, and that family, gatekeepers, and social discrimination could significantly affect its acceptability, a comprehensive mix of multiple interventions is necessary for the successful implementation of a PrEP program among this population in Guangxi. PMID:24465956
Lars L Andersen
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.
Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha; Sholi, Mohammad; Lahaseh, Rawya
Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control in terms of outcome and survival. Thus far the only breast cancer screening method proven effective is mammography. The awareness of female health care workers (HCW) about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, as their beliefs and behavior may have a major impact on other women. This study was designed to assess mammography screening uptake among female healthcare workers at primary healthcare centers, and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake results. A cross sectional study design was used to assess mammography screening by 299 female healthcare workers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed demographics, screening uptake, motivators and barriers. The mean age was 46 years (within age of risk). The majority (95.1%) demonstrated adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening and 50% of the participants reported having at least one mammogram; however only 21% of them had regularly scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivator was the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (89.6%), followed by the belief that mammography can detect breast cancer before its symptoms appear (84.4%). On the other hand, the most frequent barrier reported was being busy (46.7%), followed by the lack of perceived susceptibility (41.5%). Mammography screening was found to be sub-optimal in a population of HCW's with 50 % stating that they received a mammogram at least once, and a minority reported regular screening. There is a pressing need for educational programs aimed at removing the barriers that limit compliance with recommendations for mammography screening, and to emphasize the importance of early detection in breast cancer treatment. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of screening services, particularly for healthcare workers within their work settings are other
Daniel D. Reidpath
Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-yann J; Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Chung-Fu
No previous research has examined the importance of both individual and environmental factors for predicting caregivers' menstrual attitudes. To explore the predictors of female caregivers' attitudes towards menstruation and the help they give to women with intellectual disabilities, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey which was completed by 725 female workers from 12 institutions in Taiwan. The Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ) and a structured questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that individual characteristics such as age and education were significantly associated with menstrual attitudes of female caregivers working with institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the environmental context, such as the frequency of discussions with colleagues, training in menstrual management care and the level of difficulty when giving help in menstruation management, was important for improving caregivers' menstrual attitudes. This study contributes to the existing literature by determining both individual and environmental predictors of caregivers' menstrual attitudes.
Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K
Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon
Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20?40 years enrolled in the 2011?2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the...
U M Lawan
Conclusion: Sex workers engage in unhealthy sex for social and economic reasons. They should be empowered through vocational training to acquire sustainable sources of income. Regulatory authorities should also work with development partners/Non-governmental organisations (NGOs to package and implement a formidable health strategy/intervention for the control of substance abuse and promotion of safer sex among both the sex workers and their clients.
Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard
Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jean De Dieu Longo
Full Text Available The aims of the study were i to categorize female sex workers (FSW according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii to investigate factors associated with HIV status.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women. After collection of social and behavioral characteristics, each woman received a physical examination and a blood sample was taken for biological analyses, including HIV testing. The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral variables involved in high risk for HIV as well as biological results were investigated by bivariate analysis in relationship with FSW categories as main outcomes, and by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis in relationship with HIV as the main outcome. The strength of statistical associations was measured by crude and adjusted Odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals.The typology of FSW comprised six different categories. Two groups were the "official" professional FSW primarily classified according to their locations of work [i "kata"(18.55% representing women working in poor neighborhoods of Bangui; ii "pupulenge" (13.91% working in hotels and night clubs to seek white men]. Four groups were "clandestine" nonprofessional FSW classified according to their reported main activity [i "market and street vendors" (20.86%; ii "schoolgirls or students" (19.13% involved in occasional transactional sex (during holidays; iii "housewives or unemployed women" (15.65%; iv "civil servants" (11.88% working as soldiers or in the public sector]. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 was 19.12% (66/345. HIV varied according to FSW categories. Thus, among professional FSW, the HIV prevalence was 6-fold higher in "kata
Sett, M; Sahu, S
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); pright (mean 379.52 vs. 267.72N; pwomen are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
DeSouza, Eros R; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment than those residing in their own homes, when controlling for participants' age, race, and social class. Women residing in their employers' residences used more alcohol and drugs than their counterparts. Harassed women had significantly higher self-esteem impairment and anxiety and depression than nonharassed women. Nonharassed women residing in their own homes had the best physical well-being. Concerning participants' worst sexually harassing experiences, the perpetrators were likely to be men (75%), who also engaged in more severe types of sexual harassment than female perpetrators. The emotional reactions to such incidents were significantly more negative when perpetrated by men than by women. Implications for foreign in-home workers employed by Europeans and North Americans are discussed.
..., North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group to be covered by this certification. The intent of the... North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment...
Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter
In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the scenario with lower condom use
Muldoon, Katherine A; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Simo, Annick; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate
Sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa experience a high burden of HIV with a paucity of data on violence and links to HIV risk among sex workers, and even less within conflict-affected environments. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda (n = 400). Logistic regression was used to determine the specific association between policing and recent physical/sexual violence from clients. A total of 196 (49.0%) sex workers experienced physical/sexual violence by a client. From those who experienced client violence the most common forms included physical assault (58.7%), rape (38.3%), and gang rape (15.8%) Police harassment was very common, a total of 149 (37.3%) reported rushing negotiations with clients because of police presence, a practice that was significantly associated with increased odds of client violence (adjusted odds ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03-2.52). Inconsistent condom use with clients, servicing clients in a bar, and working for a manager/pimp were also independently associated with recent client violence. Structural and community-led responses, including decriminalisation, and engagement with police and policy stakeholders, remain critical to addressing violence, both a human rights and public health imperative.
Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji
Prangnell, Amy; Shannon, Kate; Nosova, Ekaterina; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna
Workplace violence, by clients or predators, poses serious negative health consequences for sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver (British Columbia), Canada Police Department changed their guidelines with the goal of increasing safety for sex workers by focusing law enforcement on clients and third parties, but not sex workers. We sought to examine the trends and correlates of workplace violence among female sex workers (FSW) before and after the guideline change, using data collected from prospective cohorts of persons who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Among 259 FSW, 21.0% reported workplace violence at least once during the study period between 2008 and 2014. There was no statistically significant change in rates of workplace violence after the guideline change. In our multivariable analysis, daily heroin use was independently associated with workplace violence. The 2013 policing guideline change did not appear to have resulted in decreased reports of workplace violence. Increased access to opioid agonist therapies may reduce workplace violence among drug-using FSW.
Bau, Jian-Guo; Chia, Taipau; Wei, Shan-Hua; Li, Yung-Hui; Kuo, Fun-Chie
Modern office workers are often impacted by chronic neck/shoulder pain. Most of the previous studies which investigated the relationship of the occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms had adopted questionnaire survey. In this study the microcirculatory characteristics and perceived symptoms in neck/shoulder region were compared among office workers with sedentary lifestyle. Thirty-seven female office workers were recruited in this study. Microcirculatory flow in neck/shoulder region characterized by the mean blood flow (MMBF value), pulsatile blood flow (PMBF value), and the PMBF/MMBF ratio (perfusion pulsatility, PP) were investigated using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). A Chinese version of the Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) were also administered to collect the information of perceived neck/shoulder symptoms. Correlations between the perfusion characteristics and the individual/occupational factors were analyzed using the Spearman test. The difference of the MMBF values between the low-pain group (pain level≤2) and the high-pain group (pain level>2) were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. There were 81% participants reported neck or shoulder pain symptoms. The duration of shoulder pain was significantly correlated with the workers' age and the duration of employment (psedentary lifestyle, was found to be more likely to evoke ischemia shoulder pain. Further studies are needed to assess current indicator, PP value, and the underlying mechanism of pain caused by sedentary lifestyle.
Hwang, Won Ju; Kim, Jin Ah; Rankin, Sally H
Depression is one of the psychiatric diseases with a high prevalence rate, globally, and reportedly more prevalent among women than among men. Especially, women workers working at traditional markets are in depressive conditions without occupational health services. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors having a significant effect on the depressive symptoms of women workers at traditional markets in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was used and subjects for the present study were 500 female workers in three selected representative traditional marketplaces in South Korea. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that increased BMI (β = 0.297, p = 0.017), poor nutritional status (β = 0.596, p < 0.001), street vendor status (β = 2.589, p = 0.001), job stress (β = 0.491, p < 0.001), lower back pain (β = 0.377, p = 0.011), lower self-efficacy (β = -0.368, p = 0.002) and diminished family function (β = -0.633, p = 0.001) affected workers' depressive symptoms. The explanatory power of these variables was 38.5%. Based on these results, future research should focus on incorporating theses significant factors into effective interventions designed to decrease depressive symptoms in this population. Moreover, this study will increase interest in occupational health nursing, particularly in relation to vulnerable social groups, and expand the scope of practice in the field.
These Procedures set forth the health, maternity, and child care rights of women staff and workers in Guangzhou Municipality, China. They are applicable to all women staff and workers of state institutions, people's organizations, state-owned and -operated enterprises, public institutions, foreign investment enterprises, share system enterprises, village and town enterprises, private enterprises, and individual businesses. Among other things, the Procedures provide that a) during pregnancy, maternity leave, or nursing, work units are not permitted to dismiss women staff and workers or terminate their employment contracts unless they are fired in accordance with the Enterprise Staff and Worker Reward and Punishment Regulations; b) women staff and workers are entitled to 90 days paid maternity leave; and c) if special difficulties arise after the completion of maternity leave, nursing leave may be extended until the child is 1 year old (subject to application and approval); during the nursing period, the woman's work unit will pay 75% of her standard wages, as well as wage-related subsidies.
Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
The fungal cultivars of fungus-growing ants are vertically transmitted by queens but not males. Selection would therefore favor cultivars that bias the ants' sex ratio towards gynes, beyond the gyne bias that is optimal for workers and queens. We measured sex allocation in 190 colonies of six...... sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonies tended to raise mainly a single sex, which could be partly explained by variation in queen number......, colony fecundity, and fungal garden volume for Acromyrmex and Sericomyrmex, but not for Trachymyrmex. Year of collection, worker number and mating frequency of Acromyrmex queens did not affect the colony sex ratios. We used a novel sensitivity analysis to compare the population sex allocation ratios...
Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom
Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik
Study Design. Randomized controlled trial. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Summary of Background Data. LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide......, stress management, or reference arm. A total of 163 individuals (79% of the source population) participated in both baseline and follow-up after 2 years. Outcome was intra-individual change in rating of LBP during the past 3 and 12 months. Results. We found no difference in LBP in any of the intervention...... arms over the study period. Conclusion. The study showed no effect of a transfer technique or stress management program targeting LBP. Thus, there is a need for discussing other priorities in the prevention of LBP among health care workers....
Michael M Chanda
Full Text Available HIV self-testing (HIVST may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs in Zambia.Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1 delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator, (2 coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy, or (3 standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320; 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005. Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40. At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%. HIV self
Chanda, Michael M; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kanchele, Catherine; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Fullem, Andrew; Dunn, Caitlin; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E
HIV self-testing (HIVST) may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs) in Zambia. Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator), (2) coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy), or (3) standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320); 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40). At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%). HIV self-test use
Akoku, Derick Akompab; Tihnje, Mbah Abena; Vukugah, Thomas Achombwom; Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang; Mbu, Robinson Enow
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use and transactional sex among female bar workers in Yaounde, Cameroon. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 410 female bar workers, recruited through a modified version of venue-based cluster sampling technique from May to June 2017. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sexual partner in the past 12 months. Logistic regression models were performed to identify the factors associated with transactional sex. The level of statistical significance was set at panalysis showed that those who engaged in transactional sex were more likely to have had sex with a male customer in the past 6 months (aOR = 7.34; 95% CI, 3.63-16.98), had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past 6 months (aOR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.18-4.96) and frequent alcohol consumers (aOR = 2.06; 95%CI, 1.04-4.10). Respondents who had their last sexual intercourse 4 weeks or more prior to the study (aOR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.84) were less likely to have engaged in transactional sex. Our study concludes that female bar workers are exposed to male customers and engage in risky sexual practices including transaction sex. Most of them also consume alcohol which increases their risk of HIV and STI acquisition. They are a high-risk group that need to be targeted with HIV prevention interventions.
Md Aminul Haque
Full Text Available This study was conducted in 4 selected garment factories within Dhaka city. The objectives of this study were to find out health care access (Supply-side effect in the garments factory for the women workers and their relation to the productivity. A total of 300 women garment workers were included in this study. Most (60.0% of the respondents were adolescents, unmarried and having only primary level education (5 years of school education. Their average take home monthly salary was 1791.7 taka which was spent mostly on food. They passed a tight work schedule from 6 AM to 11.30 PM without any rest. Hundred percent of female workers had no previous idea about garments nor had any formal training, but they produced on an average 1016 garment pieces a day. They did not get any vaccine, health education or health related knowledge from the garments factory. There was no provision of health care centre or doctor, treatment for fire burn (other than gas, medicine and support in chronic, severe illness for themselves or their family members. More than half (63.0% of the respondents mentioned about loss of time due to illness. There was a strong correlation (r=0.858 between sickness and production loss, between hour loss and production loss (r=0.9283, between production loss and percentage loss (r=0.871. Though there was loss due to illness, no health access or facility for women workers in the garments factory was available. To overcome the situation and improve the productivity, owners have to provide health access and women workers have to come forward for their rights. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 4-8
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita
We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.
Wu, J.; Zhou, X.; Lu, C.; Moyer, E.; Wang, H.; Hong, L.; Deng, X.
Background: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use,
Squires, Allison; O'Brien, Matthew J.
Drawing from role theory, this study sought to explore the effects of assuming a new role on Latina community health workers (CHW) participating in a cervical cancer prevention program in a new Latino immigrant community located on the East Coast of the United States. Through a series of in-depth, Spanish language interviews with the 4…
Johnston, Lisa G; Bonilla, Luis; Caballero, Tessie; Rodriguez, Martha; Dolores, Yordana; de la Rosa, Miguel Angel; Malla, Annie; Burnett, Janet; Terrero, Víctor; Martinez, Sam; Morgan, Oliver
The Caribbean region has one of the highest proportions of HIV in the general female population attributable to sex work. In 2008 (n = 1256) and 2012 (n = 1525) in the Dominican Republic, HIV biological and behavioral surveys were conducted among female sex workers (FSW) in four provinces using respondent driven sampling. Participants were ≥15 years who engaged in intercourse in exchange for money in the past 6 months and living/working in the study province. There were no statistically significant changes in HIV and other infections prevalence from 2008 to 2012, despite ongoing risky sexual practices. HIV testing and receiving results was low in all provinces. FSW in 2012 were more likely to receive HIV testing and results if they participated in HIV related information and education and had regular checkups at health centers. Further investigation is needed to understand barriers to HIV testing and access to prevention services.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.
Okafor, Uchenna; Crutzen, Rik; Okekearu, Ifeanyi; Adebajo, Sylvia; Uzoh, Adaora; Awo, Egbe Aneotah; Chima, Chukwuemeka; Agwagwa, Ogechukwu; Van Den Borne, Bart
Background The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs) having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general
Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming
The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices.
Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita
To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.
Won Ju Hwang
Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the psychiatric diseases with a high prevalence rate, globally, and reportedly more prevalent among women than among men. Especially, women workers working at traditional markets are in depressive conditions without occupational health services. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors having a significant effect on the depressive symptoms of women workers at traditional markets in South Korea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used and subjects for the present study were 500 female workers in three selected representative traditional marketplaces in South Korea. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that increased BMI (β = 0.297, p = 0.017, poor nutritional status (β = 0.596, p < 0.001, street vendor status (β = 2.589, p = 0.001, job stress (β = 0.491, p < 0.001, lower back pain (β = 0.377, p = 0.011, lower self-efficacy (β = −0.368, p = 0.002 and diminished family function (β = −0.633, p = 0.001 affected workers’ depressive symptoms. The explanatory power of these variables was 38.5%. Conclusions: Based on these results, future research should focus on incorporating theses significant factors into effective interventions designed to decrease depressive symptoms in this population. Moreover, this study will increase interest in occupational health nursing, particularly in relation to vulnerable social groups, and expand the scope of practice in the field.
Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming
The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the ‘structure-agency’ framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs’ responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069
Yasmeen, Humaira; Qadir, Abdul; Mumtaz, Mehvish; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Syed, Jabbir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Jamil, Nadia; Nazar, Farva; Ali, Habib; Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq; Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal; Zhang, Gan
The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine-pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener-specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3 ppb and from 16.4 ppb to 747.1 ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener-specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1193-1201. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G
Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group.
Megan M McLaughlin
Full Text Available Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia.The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking (PST on sexually transmitted disease (STD infections among South Korean female sex workers (FSWs working at prostitution blocks. Research data were collected twice through the Korean government-sanctioned survey for female sex workers (1st wave = 1,083; 2nd wave = 926. We examined the associations among health behavior, working conditions, and the effect of PST act via hierarchical logistic regression analyses using propensity score matching. After adjusted covariates, the risk probability was 0.288 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act enforcement compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Similarly, the risk probability for a gonorrhea infection was 0.219 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Therefore, this study showed that, besides already known factors, the implementation and establishment of the PST Act was a strong factor that suppressed STD infections among FSWs.
Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Mwananawe, Aimable; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irwin, Alec; Karema, Corine
How governments should address sex work is a topic of current debate in Rwanda and other countries. Some constituencies propose harsher punishment of sex workers as the cornerstone of an improved policy. We argue that an adequate policy response to sex work in the Rwandan context must prioritize public health and reflect current knowledge of the social determinants of health. This does not imply intensified repression, but a comprehensive agenda of medical and social support to improve sex workers' access to health care, reduce their social isolation, and expand their economic options. Evidence from social epidemiology converges with rights-based arguments in this approach. Recent field interviews with current and former sex workers strengthen the case, while highlighting the need for further social scientific and epidemiological analysis of sex work in Rwanda. Rwanda has implemented some measures that reflect a rights-based perspective in addressing sex work. For example, recent policies seek to expand access to education for girls and support sex workers in the transition to alternative livelihoods. These policies reinforce the model of solidarity-based public health action for which Rwanda has been recognized. Whether such measures can maintain traction in the face of economic austerity and ideological resistance remains to be seen. Copyright © 2010 Binagwaho, Agbonyitor, Mwananawe, Mugwaneza, Irwin, and Karema. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael
Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression model of sickness absence risk revealed the following significant predictors of short-term absence spells (1–29 days: 1 marital status, sickness absence risk for single women was (rate ratio (RR = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–2.39 vs. married women; 2 post offices employing 7 workers had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.04–2.42; 13–25 workers – RR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.41–2.93; > 25 workers – RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.15–2.88 compared with an average number of 8–12 workers; 3 shift work, RR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.14–2.14; 4 breaks from work – the risk of absence in the case of any breaks amounted to RR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.07–2.07 in comparison with the statutory breaks; 5 self-rated health reported as moderate relative to good health, RR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26–2.32; and 6 occurrence of respiratory diseases resulted in the risk of RR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08–2.08. The Poisson regression model of long-term sickness absence spells (≥ 30 days revealed the following significant predictors: 1 number of clients per shift: 51–100 clients, RR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.07–22.6 compared with a lower number of clients; 2 self-rated health, assessed as moderate, RR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.06–3.78 and 3 household chores performed for at least 4 h a day, RR = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.18–0.79. Conclusions: Association between sickness absence and workload as well as work organization indicates directions of corrective actions, which could reduce the
Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Gurung, Manju; Wasti, Sharada P
Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researched. The aim of the study was to explore the health problems of female Nepalese migrants working in the Middle-East and Malaysia. The study was conducted among 1010 women who were registered as migrant returnees at an organisation called Pourakhi Nepal. Secondary data were extracted from the records of the organisation covering the five-year period of July 2009 to July 2014. The 1010 participants were aged 14 to 51 with a median age of 31 (IQR: 38-25) years. A quarter of respondents (24%) reported having experienced health problems while in the country of employment. Fever, severe illness and accidents were the most common health problems reported. Working for unlimited periods of time and not being able to change one's place of work were independently associated with a greater likelihood of health problems. Logistic regression shows that migrant women who are illiterate [OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.38, p = 0.042], who had changed their workplace [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.32, p = 0.007], who worked unlimited periods of time [OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.44 to 1.93, p = 0.020], had been severely maltreated or tortured in the workplace [OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.92, p = 0.010], were not being paid on time [OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.60 to 3.55, p = 0.038] and migrant women who had family problems at home [OR = 3.48, CI 95%: 1.22 to 9.98, p = 0.020] were significantly associated with health problems in their host country in the Middle East. Female migrant workers face various work-related health risks, which are often related to exploitation. The Government of Nepal should initiate awareness campaigns about health risks and rights in relation to health care services in the host countries. Recruiting agencies
Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.
This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892
Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.
Ajanaku, Femi I.; And Others
The work experience of the African-American woman is often overlooked. In this article, the development/underdevelopment model, usually applied to the depressed situation of the Third World, is used to assess the dynamics of race, class, and gender for African-American females in the labor market. (SLD)
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,501M] Sony Electronics, Inc... Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, including on-site leased workers of SelectRemedy, StaffMark, and Payrolling.com , San Diego, California (TA-W-71,501); Sony Electronics, Inc., including on-site leased...
Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L
Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.
Full Text Available Knowledge and research on sexual-economic relationships between local men and Western female tourists in different touristic locations around the world has grown, as has public interest and awareness of the phenomenon. However, the direct perspectives of the men whose lives constitute the focus of such studies remain scarce. This has resulted in the phenomenon being understood mainly and inadequately through the concepts of 'romance tourism' and 'female sex tourism'. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Kenya's South Coast region, this article foregrounds the voices of male beach workers and the meanings they assign to these relationships, against a backdrop of the historical, social, economic and political dynamics within which these relationships are pursued. The men attest to socio-economic hardships and marginalization, against which they seek to establish long-term intimate relationships with foreign female tourists, as well as non-sexual economically motivated friendships with foreign tourists, termed family friends. The narratives and analyses show that the pursuit of these relationships as livelihood strategies also flows from the men's struggles to fulfil traditional and contemporary ethno-societal gender expectations, through which men are generally construed as the expected breadwinners and providers.
Shannon, Kate; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Purpose of review This article reviews the current state of the epidemiological literature on female sex work and HIV from the past 18 months. We offer a conceptual framework for structural HIV determinants and sex work that unpacks intersecting structural, interpersonal, and individual biological and behavioural factors. Recent findings Our review suggests that despite the heavy HIV burden among female sex workers (FSWs) globally, data on the structural determinants shaping HIV transmission dynamics have only begun to emerge. Emerging research suggests that factors operating at macrostructural (e.g., migration, stigma, criminalized laws), community organization (e.g., empowerment) and work environment levels (e.g., violence, policing, access to condoms HIV testing, HAART) act dynamically with interpersonal (e.g., dyad factors, sexual networks) and individual biological and behavioural factors to confer risks or protections for HIV transmission in female sex work. Summary Future research should be guided by a Structural HIV Determinants Framework to better elucidate the complex and iterative effects of structural determinants with interpersonal and individual biological and behavioural factors on HIV transmission pathways among FSWs, and meet critical gaps in optimal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care for FSWs globally. PMID:24464089
Full Text Available The article addresses the incorporation of gender demands into the claims of female textile workers in Argentina, as well as the positions assumed in that respect by the Socialist Party and the Communist Party, through the analysis of three case studies: two textile worker strikes and the claim for the reform of the Maternity Insurance Law. The objective is to study the relationships of these parties with the claims of female workers from a perspective that links gender and class relations, on the basis of both worker and State sources. One of the fundamental conclusions of this study is that the Socialist and Communist Parties played an active role in transforming those claims into concrete realizations.
YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...
Jungari, Suresh Banayya
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.
Yu, Emily A; Akormedi, Matthew; Asampong, Emmanuel; Meyer, Christian G; Fobil, Julius N
This study was conducted to investigate the electronic waste workers' knowledge about the potential health hazards associated with their work as well as the livelihood alternatives that they would prefer if they were given the opportunity. A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted to gather empirical information on e-waste workers' knowledge about the potential hazards associated with their work and the livelihood alternatives to e-waste recycling with a sample consisting of twenty all-male electronic waste workers at the Agbogbloshie scrap metal yard in Accra, Ghana. Electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie were found to be exposed to a variety of injuries and illnesses. The workers' knowledge of the association between their health status and their work was generally poor. Apart from the physical injuries, they did not believe their work played any negative role in their health conditions. They preferred occupations such as farming or professional driving located in the northern region of Ghana to be closer to their families. The study concludes that the low knowledge level of the workers on the hazards that are associated with their work has implications for them accepting technologies to protect them and the natural environment from contamination. It is therefore imperative for any intervention to consider the current low level of knowledge and actively educate the workers to raise their awareness level, taking into account the provision of opportunities for workers to acquire applicable skills for future employment in other fields.
Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M
A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.
Fleming, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Pitpitan, Eileen V
We use data collected from a sample of 400 male clients of female sex workers (FSW) to examine their HIV testing behavior. We present frequencies of HIV testing and used bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess its socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates. We found that the majority (55 %) of male clients of FSW in Tijuana, Mexico had never had an HIV test and the prevalence of HIV testing within the past year was low (9 %). In multivariable analyses, significant correlates of having ever tested for HIV were higher age, higher HIV knowledge score, lower sexual compulsiveness score, lower misogynistic attitudes score, having a condom break during sex with a FSW, and higher frequency of sex with a FSW while she was high. Our findings represent an important starting point for developing effective interventions to address the need to promote HIV testing among this population.
Monica D. Ulibarri
Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D
This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.
Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Rodriguez, Rachel; Ammar, Nawal; Nemoto, Keiko
A common form of employment for low-income third world women is domestic work. The power dynamics in this type of employer-employee relationship may place women at risk for abuse. Our aim in conducting this qualitative inquiry was to describe the experiences of violence in the lives of young female domestic workers in Malawi, a small country in South East Africa. Forty-eight women participated in focus group and individual interviews. "Surviving" was the main theme identified, with women employing creative ways of surviving the challenges they met at various points in their lives. This study provides information that health care professionals could use in assisting women through the process of surviving.
Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.
Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194
Augusto, Ângelo do Rosário; Young, Peter W; Horth, Roberta Z; Inguane, Celso; Sathane, Isabel; Ngale, Katia; Benedetti, Marcos; Cummings, Beverley; Botão, Carlos Francisco Sande; Baltazar, Cynthia Amino Semá; Frank, Heidi; Fagan, Jennifer; Fisher Raymond, Henry; McFarland, Willi
This is the first integrated biological and behavioral survey among female sex workers (FSW) in Mozambique. Using respondent-driven sampling, 400, 411 and 429 FSW were enrolled respectively in Maputo, Beira and Nampula in 2011-2012. Estimates were produced using RDSAT 7.1. HIV prevalence was 31.2, 23.6, and 17.8 % in each location respectively. Among HIV-positive FSW, 48.1, 79.8 and 89.6 % in each city, were unaware of their serostatus. Condom use at last sex with a client was 85.8, 73.4 and 62.8 % among FSW, respectively. HIV was associated with current age, age of first sex for money, low educational level, and having had a genital ulcer in the last 6 months. Results suggest the urgent need to increase behavioral and structural interventions in this key population.
Nguyen, Tri; Stewart, Donald Edwin; Lee, Chiao Tzu Patricia; Dang, Thi Nhu Hang
Female sex workers (FSWs) are at heightened risk of HIV infection. This research aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and relevant risk factors and related behavior among FSWs in Ba Ria - Vung Tau, a southeast province of Vietnam. 420 FSWs were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and biological samples tested for HIV. 2.6 % were found to be HIV positive. HIV infection was significantly higher in FSWs who had low income (≤AUD 200 per month), have had anal sex, have had sex with injecting drug users, and had a low level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Improved employment opportunities and income are important to reduce the pressure for young women to engage in sex work for income purposes, but in public health terms, existing HIV treatment, prevention and intervention programs needs better targeting and improvements to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
Kim, Seung-Sup; Chung, Yeonseung; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R
To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th) wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD) was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA), as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.
Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia
Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. METHODS: Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA, as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. RESULTS: On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.
Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano
Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Anjara, S G; Nellums, L B; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T
There is a global increase in migrant workers. In Singapore, there are over 230,000 migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs may experience high levels of stress and social isolation, which may negatively impact on their health and quality of life. There have also been documented cases of abuse and exploitation. However, there is a lack of empirical research with this population. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting on the health and quality of life of female MDWs in Singapore, including socio-demographic and job related characteristics, stress, social isolation, and working management style. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 182 female MDWs in Singapore. The survey examined health and quality of life (WHOQoL-Bréf), social connectedness (the Friendship Scale), and preferred and experienced working management style (the Theory X and Theory Y Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses were carried out in addition to ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square tests, followed by a multivariate analysis using linear regression. Participants were found to have good overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. Age and working experience were found to be significantly (p health). Agreement between experienced and preferred working management style was also found to be associated with higher quality of life scores (with the exception of the social relationships domain). Though women reported relatively good overall quality of life, more than half of participants reported feeling stressed. In addition, nearly 20% of participants reported being isolated or very isolated. Stress was identified to be associated with isolation. In the multivariate analysis, stress was found to contribute to worse quality of life in all domains except social relationships, after adjusting for confounders. Social connectedness was positively associated with all domains of quality of life, and agreement of working management style was positively associated with physical health
Vuylsteke, Bea; Sika, Lazare; Semdé, Gisèle; Anoma, Camille; Kacou, Elise; Laga, Marie
To report on the results of three size estimations of the populations of female sex workers (FSW) in five cities in Côte d'Ivoire and on operational lessons learned, which may be relevant for key population programmes in other parts of the world. We applied three methods: mapping and census, capture-recapture and service multiplier. All were applied between 2008 and 2009 in Abidjan, San Pedro, Bouaké, Yamoussoukro and Abengourou. Abidjan was the city with the highest number of FSW by far, with estimations between 7880 (census) and 13 714 (service multiplier). The estimations in San Pedro, Bouaké and Yamoussoukro were very similar, with figures ranging from 1160 (Yamoussoukro, census) to 1916 (San Pedro, capture-recapture). Important operational lessons were learned, including strategies for mapping, the importance of involving peer sex workers for implementing the capture-recapture and the identification of the right question for the multiplier method. Successful application of three methods to estimate the population size of FSW in five cities in Côte d'Ivoire enabled us to make recommendations for size estimations of key population in low-income countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wondergem, Peter; Green, Kimberly; Wambugu, Samuel; Asamoah-Adu, Comfort; Clement, Nana Fosua; Amenyah, Richard; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Szpir, Michael
Female sex workers (FSWs) in Ghana have a 10-fold greater risk for acquiring HIV than the general adult population, and they contribute a substantial proportion of the new HIV infections in the country. Although researchers have conducted behavioral and biological surveys, there has been no review of the contextual, programmatic, and epidemiological changes over time. The authors conducted a historical review of HIV prevention programs in Ghana. We reviewed the use of different interventions for HIV prevention among FSWs and data from program monitoring and Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Surveys. In particular, we looked at changes in service access and coverage, the use of HIV testing and counseling services, and the changing prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention interventions among FSWs increased greatly between 1987 and 2013. Only 72 FSWs were reached in a pilot program in 1987, whereas 40,508 FSWs were reached during a national program in 2013. Annual condom sales and the proportion of FSWs who used HIV testing and counseling services increased significantly, whereas the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia decreased. The representation of FSWs in national HIV strategic plans and guidelines also improved. Ghana offers an important historical example of an evolving HIV prevention program that-despite periods of inactivity-grew in breadth and coverage over time. The prevention of HIV infections among sex workers has gained momentum in recent years through the efforts of the national government and its partners-a trend that is critically important to Ghana's future.
Sharma, Varun; Suryawanshi, Dipak; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini
Accessibility and frequency of use of health care services among female sex workers (FSWs) are constrained by various factors. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of frequency of using health care services under targeted interventions among FSWs. A sample of FSWs (N = 1,973) was obtained from a second round (2012) of Behavioral Tracking Survey, conducted in five districts of Andhra Pradesh, a high-HIV-prevalence state in southern India. We used negative binomial regression models to analyze frequency of utilization of health care services among FSWs. Based on our analysis, we suggest that various predisposing and enabling factors were found to be significantly associated with the visit to NGO clinics for treatment of any health problem, any sexually transmitted infection symptom, and the number of condoms received from the peer worker or condom depot. We suggest the need for further research with respect to various correlates of frequency of using health care among FSWs to develop effective intervention strategies in countries that have high HIV prevalence among FSWs and targeted interventions need more diligent implementation to reach the unreached.
Espirito Santo, M. E. Gomes do; Etheredge, G. D.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified "by surprise" and interviewed and requested to donate saliva for HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the 1450 clients of prostitutes who were solicited to enter the study, 1140 (79.8%) agreed to be interviewed; 1083 (95%) of these clients provided saliva samples for testing. Of the samples tested, 47 were positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2, giving an HIV prevalence of 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The procedures adopted were successful in reaching the target population. Men present in the brothels could not deny being there, and it proved possible to explain the purpose of the study and to gain their confidence. Collection of saliva samples was shown to be an excellent method for performing HIV testing in difficult field conditions where it is hard to gain access to the population under study. The surveying of prostitution sites is recommended as a means of identifying core groups for HIV infection with a view to targeting education programmes more effectively. In countries such as Senegal, where the prevalence of HIV infection is still low, interventions among commercial sex workers and their clients may substantially delay the onset of a larger epidemic in the general population. PMID:12378288
Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita
Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Landripet, Ivan; Božić, Jasmina; Božičević, Ivana
Harm reduction-based HIV prevention has been in place among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia for more than a decade. However, little is known about how well the existing programs meet the needs of FSWs in an environment where sex work remains criminalized and highly stigmatized. This study aims to assess changes in FSWs' vulnerability to HIV infection in the 2008-2014 period. Using convenience samples of FSWs in Croatia's two largest urban settings, behavioral data were collected in 2007-2008 and 2014. Outreach workers interviewed 154 FSWs in the first wave of the survey and 158 in the second. The period under observation was characterized by a stable prevalence of most HIV-relevant risk behaviors and experiences. Significant changes in client-based victimization and HIV knowledge were observed only among FSWs in the capital city. Substantial and mostly sustained levels of sexual and nonsexual victimization call for more research into the limits of the current behavior-based harm reduction approach to HIV prevention in the country.
Hladik, Wolfgang; Baughman, Andrew L; Serwadda, David; Tappero, Jordan W; Kwezi, Rachel; Nakato, Namakula D; Barker, Joseph
Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37%) and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two thirds (65%) of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19%) FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW. Methods We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. Results A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37% and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI. Two thirds (65% of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19% FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. Conclusions One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.
Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa
This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The activities of female sex workers (FSWs have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Shen, Tian; Pei, Bei; Jiang, Xueqin; Ye, Xiuxia; Xu, Gang; Li, Shenghui; Huang, Hong; Shang, Meili
China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P use of condoms was 33.6%. Condom slippage or breakage was reported as having occurred at least once by 51.2% of the FSWs. FSWs from suburban areas were found to more often engage in high-risk behaviors, including oral and anal sex, than those from downtown areas (P condom usage with these partners were lower (34.3%). Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Hail-Jares, Katie; Choi, Sugy; Duo, Lin; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Z Jennifer
Within the last decade, the use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) has swelled in Myanmar. Regionally, female sex workers have reported turning to ATS for occupational reasons. In doing so, drug-using female sex workers (FSW) face compounded risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Here, we examine the factors that impact FSW drug use in Muse, a town along the China-Myanmar border. In 2012, 101 FSW were recruited from entertainment venues and brothels along the Myanmar-Chinese border. Participants participated in a self-administered behavioral survey covering demographics, drug use, sex work, and risk behaviors. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. Thirty four percent of respondents indicated current drug use. ATS derivatives were the most commonly used drugs (87.5%) with injection drug use being nearly non-existent in the sample. Drug using FSWs were older, had engaged in sex work longer, had more Chinese clients, and were more likely to have a previous boyfriend who had used drugs. They were also 3.5 times more likely to report a STI. Client condom use, HIV testing rates, and familiarity with public health resources did not statistically differ by drug use status. More research is needed to examine how romantic and professional sexual relationships push-and-pull FSW into using drugs. Our results suggest that diverse safer sex strategies, beyond client condom use, should be promoted with drug using FSWs, including strategies that acknowledge the impact of ATS use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ilychova, Svetlana A; Zaridze, David G
Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of lead for humans has been based primarily on the results of studies on occupationally exposed men, although gender differences in lead metabolism have been reported. In addition, most of the previous studies have been limited by a failure to identify and control for co-exposures to other known occupational carcinogens. The present study follows an industrial cohort of workers, mostly women, with moderate lead exposure and no confounding by other occupational exposures. Workers, employed at least 2 years between 1950 and 1978 in manual and mechanical (linotype) typesetting and type foundries in 27 printing plants in Moscow, were included in the cohort, which comprised 1423 men and 3102 women. The cohort was followed up during 1979-2003 and contributed 93,682 person-years of observation. Follow-up was 97.7% complete. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs, based on mortality rates of the Moscow general population and adjusted for gender, age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. Among women, mortality from all causes, circulatory diseases and all cancers combined was lower than that in the Moscow general population and was similar across work groups. Among men, there was excess overall mortality, mainly due to increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease. For both sexes, no significant excess risk for any cancer site was observed, although some dose-response patterns were found. In the overall cohort, mortality from cancers of the kidney and pancreas increased up to twofold in the highest tertile of cumulative lead exposure based on duration and a relative ranking of the three subcohorts (9 deaths; SMR=2.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.07) and (18 deaths; SMR=2.32, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.68), respectively. Similar mortality trends for these two cancers were found in analyses by gender. Consistencies by sex and exposure level make a strong case for a
Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua
Abstract Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40–49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time. By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%–2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%–0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%). Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission
Milrod, Christine; Monto, Martin
Recent research has provided increased information about the clients of sex workers; however, little is known about the population of older male customers who contract for heterosexual services online. Clients (N = 208) between 60 and 84 years of age were obtained through sex work review sites and online discussion forums. Participants completed a 129-item questionnaire focusing on physical health, sexual and non-sexual behaviors with sex providers, and the qualities sought in the same. More than half reported having visited sex providers between 13 and 24 times or more during the past 12 months. Participants' advancing age was positively associated with frequency of paid sex. Most frequent sexual activities with providers were fellatio without a condom, followed by penile-vaginal sex with a condom. Analyses also examine the relationship between aging and buying sex. Those with higher incomes and without spouses or partners were more likely to report non-sexual activities with providers, and many participants sought a "GFE" or girlfriend experience, in which paid sexual exchanges are part of a relationship that mirrors conventional non-remunerative relationships.
Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Essling, M.A.
The results of measurements of radium contents in 13 women made over 20 years or more were used to measure radium retention. The women were all employed at different studios of the same Illinois plant as luminous dial workers for up to 4 years. The data for each woman were fitted to an exponential function of time, yielding a biological half-life of approximately 30 to 60 years. There was a strong negative correlation between elimination rate and body content, suggesting an effect of radiation of bone resorption or remodelling. A strong negative correlation was observed between the elimination rate and the reduced x-ray score, a measure of bone damage observed radiographically in the same subjects. Age at first exposure and duration of exposure were not significantly correlated with the elimination rate. The concentration of radium in soft tissues from eight other subjects, expressed as a percentage of the terminal radium content, decreased with increasing body content, providing further evidence that radiation was affecting the elimination rate. An effect of radiation on the late retention of radium has been demonstrated. 10 references, 4 figures, 2 tables
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea
Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye
Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye
Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning; Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei
New interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among female sex workers are introduced into the context of women's existing prevention beliefs and practices. These indigenous practices affected implementation of our program to introduce female condoms to women in sex-work establishments in southern China. We used ethnographic field observations and in-depth interviews to document common prevention methods women reported using to protect themselves before and during intervention implementation. Individual, sex-work establishment, and other contextual factors, including sources of information and social and economic pressures to use or reject prevention options, shaped their perceptions and selection of these methods and affected adoption of female condoms as an additional tool. Efforts to improve uptake of effective prevention methods among low-income sex workers require attention to the context and spectrum of women's HIV/STI prevention practices when introducing innovations such as female condoms, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis pills, and others, as they become available.
Otobo, Eloghene; Nhongo, Kundai; Takaruza, Albert; White, Peter J; Nyamukapa, Constance Anesu; Gregson, Simon
Objective Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment cascades for FSWs and non-sex workers (NSWs) in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, and to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and intermediate determinants that might explain differences in service uptake. Methods Data from a household survey conducted in 2009–2011 and a parallel snowball sample survey of FSWs were matched using probability methods to reduce under-reporting of FSWs. HIV treatment cascades were constructed and compared for FSWs (n=174) and NSWs (n=2555). Determinants of service uptake were identified a priori in a theoretical framework and tested using logistic regression. Results HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs than in NSWs (52.6% vs 19.8%; age-adjusted OR (AOR) 4.0; 95% CI 2.9 to 5.5). In HIV-positive women, FSWs were more likely to have been diagnosed (58.2% vs 42.6%; AOR 1.62; 1.02–2.59) and HIV-diagnosed FSWs were more likely to initiate ART (84.9% vs 64.0%; AOR 2.33; 1.03–5.28). No difference was found for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence (91.1% vs 90.5%; P=0.9). FSWs’ greater uptake of HIV treatment services became non-significant after adjusting for intermediate factors including HIV knowledge and risk perception, travel time to services, physical and mental health, and recent pregnancy. Conclusion FSWs are more likely to take up testing and treatment services and were closer to achieving optimal outcomes along the cascade compared with NSWs. However, ART coverage was low in all women at the time of the survey. FSWs’ need for, knowledge of and proximity to HIV testing and treatment facilities appear to increase uptake. PMID:29490957
Rhead, Rebecca; Elmes, Jocelyn; Otobo, Eloghene; Nhongo, Kundai; Takaruza, Albert; White, Peter J; Nyamukapa, Constance Anesu; Gregson, Simon
Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment cascades for FSWs and non-sex workers (NSWs) in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, and to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and intermediate determinants that might explain differences in service uptake. Data from a household survey conducted in 2009-2011 and a parallel snowball sample survey of FSWs were matched using probability methods to reduce under-reporting of FSWs. HIV treatment cascades were constructed and compared for FSWs (n=174) and NSWs (n=2555). Determinants of service uptake were identified a priori in a theoretical framework and tested using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs than in NSWs (52.6% vs 19.8%; age-adjusted OR (AOR) 4.0; 95% CI 2.9 to 5.5). In HIV-positive women, FSWs were more likely to have been diagnosed (58.2% vs 42.6%; AOR 1.62; 1.02-2.59) and HIV-diagnosed FSWs were more likely to initiate ART (84.9% vs 64.0%; AOR 2.33; 1.03-5.28). No difference was found for antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence (91.1% vs 90.5%; P=0.9). FSWs' greater uptake of HIV treatment services became non-significant after adjusting for intermediate factors including HIV knowledge and risk perception, travel time to services, physical and mental health, and recent pregnancy. FSWs are more likely to take up testing and treatment services and were closer to achieving optimal outcomes along the cascade compared with NSWs. However, ART coverage was low in all women at the time of the survey. FSWs' need for, knowledge of and proximity to HIV testing and treatment facilities appear to increase uptake. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Barene, Svein; Strahler, Katharina
and adherence to regular physical activity 18 weeks after the end of the intervention was found. Furthermore, repeated measures throughout the intervention period showed a significantly different development of flow values over time for the adherers and nonadherers. Flow therefore may be of importance...... for adherence to regular workplace physical activity. Future research needs to investigate the importance of flow in other physical activity settings, especially also for male participants.......Flow is a rewarding psychological state that motivates individuals to repeat activities. This study explored healthcare workers’ flow experiences during a workplace exercise intervention. Seventy-nine females were assigned to either a 12-week football or Zumba exercise intervention and their flow...
Nadia Musimbi Chanzu
Full Text Available The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors' while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'. Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18-65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis.Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7% were secretors and 68 (24.3% were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7% versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8% (p = 0.029 Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%, in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066, AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355, and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028.This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes in the female genital tract among a high-risk population
Katrina N. Burns
Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.
Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu
French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nyblade, Laura; Reddy, Aditi; Mbote, David; Kraemer, John; Stockton, Melissa; Kemunto, Caroline; Krotki, Karol; Morla, Javier; Njuguna, Stella; Dutta, Arin; Barker, Catherine
The barrier HIV-stigma presents to the HIV treatment cascade is increasingly documented; however less is known about female and male sex worker engagement in and the influence of sex-work stigma on the HIV care continuum. While stigma occurs in all spheres of life, stigma within health services may be particularly detrimental to health seeking behaviors. Therefore, we present levels of sex-work stigma from healthcare workers (HCW) among male and female sex workers in Kenya, and explore the relationship between sex-work stigma and HIV counseling and testing. We also examine the relationship between sex-work stigma and utilization of non-HIV health services. A snowball sample of 497 female sex workers (FSW) and 232 male sex workers (MSW) across four sites was recruited through a modified respondent-driven sampling process. About 50% of both male and female sex workers reported anticipating verbal stigma from HCW while 72% of FSW and 54% of MSW reported experiencing at least one of seven measured forms of stigma from HCW. In general, stigma led to higher odds of reporting delay or avoidance of counseling and testing, as well as non-HIV specific services. Statistical significance of relationships varied across type of health service, type of stigma and gender. For example, anticipated stigma was not a significant predictor of delay or avoidance of health services for MSW; however, FSW who anticipated HCW stigma had significantly higher odds of avoiding (OR = 2.11) non-HIV services, compared to FSW who did not. This paper adds to the growing evidence of stigma as a roadblock in the HIV treatment cascade, as well as its undermining of the human right to health. While more attention is being paid to addressing HIV-stigma, it is equally important to address the key population stigma that often intersects with HIV-stigma.
YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499
Veromaa, Veera; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saxen, Ulla; Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Bergman, Elina; Korhonen, Päivi E
Ideal cardiovascular health has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and the presence of seven key health factors and behaviours. However, little is known about the mental aspects associated with ideal cardiovascular health metrics. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between psychosocial risk factors and ideal cardiovascular health metrics among Finnish women at municipal work units. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Finland among 732 female employees (mean±SD age 48±10 years) from ten work units in 2014. Ideal cardiovascular health metrics were evaluated with a physical examination, laboratory tests, medical history and self-administrated questionnaires. Psychosocial risk factors (social isolation, stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, hostility and type D personality) were assessed with core questions as suggested by the European Society of Cardiology. The prevalence of having 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was 183 (25.0%), of whom 54.1% had at least one psychosocial risk factor. Anxiety (31.3%), work stress (30.7%) and type D personality (26.1%) were the most prevalent of the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms ( ppsychosocial risk factors at municipal work units. Although the association is possibly bidirectional, screening and treating depression and dealing with type D personality might be crucial in improving cardiovascular health among women.
Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Kawachi, Ichiro
Previous studies have investigated the relationship between workplace social capital and mental health, yet few have sought to examine the mediating mechanisms. We sought to explore the role of workplace social capital on health related behaviors and on mental health among female employees in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 553 women aged 28-50 years working in the production line of a poultry processing plant. We assessed workplace social capital, common mental disorders, stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and health related behaviors (physical activity, healthy eating habits and co-occurrence of risk behaviors). We used structural equation modeling to clarify relationships between exposures, outcomes, and mediating variables. Our model demonstrated a direct effect of social capital on the outcomes studied. Higher workplace social capital was associated with lower stress and common mental disorders as well as more favorable health-related behaviors. Our model also showed an indirect effect of social capital on mental health and on behaviors that was mediated by lower levels of perceived stress. Workplace social cohesion may play an important role in the promotion of mental health and healthy behaviors among women employees.
Albert, A E; Warner, D L; Hatcher, R A; Trussell, J; Bennett, C
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate condom use and the incidence of breakage and slippage during vaginal intercourse among female prostitutes in legal Nevada brothels, where use of condoms is required by law. METHODS. Forty-one licensed prostitutes in three brothels were enrolled in a prospective trial in August 1993. Used condoms were collected to verify reported breaks visually. Retrospective breakage and slippage rates were obtained in a standardized interview. RESULTS. Condoms were used for every act of vaginal intercourse with a brothel client during the study period, as well as in the previous year. In the prospective study phase, condoms were used in 353 acts of vaginal intercourse with clients. No condoms broke, and none fell off the penis during intercourse. Only twice (0.6%) did condoms completely fall off during withdrawal. Twelve times (3.4%) during intercourse and 15 times (4.3%) during withdrawal, condoms slipped down the penis but did not fall off. CONCLUSIONS. These findings, among the lowest breakage and slippage rates published, suggest that regular condom use may lead to condom mastery and the development of techniques to reduce the likelihood of breakage and slippage. PMID:7485663
Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.
Braunstein, Sarah L.; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis
To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to
Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.
In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the
Veldhuijzen, N. J.; van Steijn, M.; Nyinawabega, J.; Kestelyn, E.; Uwineza, M.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.
Timely diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often hampered by the lack of symptoms, inadequate diagnostics and/or poor availability, accessibility and quality of treatment in resource-limited settings. Female sex workers (FSW) are highly vulnerable for HIV and key
Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Nguyen, Trang Q; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
Evidence indicates that social cohesion is a successful strategy to improve consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers. However, the individual and layered or combined effect that various types of overlapping stigmas may have on CCU between female sex workers living with HIV and their clients and steady partners has not been analyzed. Drawing on the Abriendo Puertas cohort of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic, we used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that both HIV stigma and sex work stigma mediate the association between social cohesion and CCU and that they have a layered effect. The results indicated that HIV stigma mediated the association between social cohesion and CCU with clients and partners, while sex work-related stigma did not. There was no evidence of a layered HIV stigma and sex work stigma effect, which may be due to methodological limitations to handle highly correlated latent variables. Findings highlight the need to address internalized HIV stigma within the context of community-based approaches to enhance their HIV prevention impact. This will help to reduce the risk of HIV re-infection with a new distinct HIV viral strain, STI infection, and onward HIV transmission among female sex workers living with HIV.
Marra, E.; Kroone, N.; Freriks, E.; van Dam, C. L.; Alberts, C. J.; Hogewoning, A. A.; Bruisten, S.; van Dijk, A.; Kroone, M. M.; Waterboer, T.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.
We studied prevalence, risk factors and concordance of vaginal and anal HPV infection and L1 seropositivity among female sex workers (FSW) in Amsterdam. In 2016, FSW aged ≥18 years having a sexually transmitted infections (STI) consultation were invited to participate. Participation entailed taking
Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.
Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to
Okafor, Uchenna O.; Crutzen, Rik; Sylvia, Adebajo; Ifeanyi, Okekearu; Van Den Borne, Bart
Support by brothel leaders and the promotion of a conducive environment for HIV prevention programs within brothel establishments are important to promote a safe working environment for Brothel-Based Female Sex Workers (BB FSWs). This study assesses the effects of a cluster randomized pilot trial
Remes, Pieter; Selestine, Veronica; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A; Wight, Daniel; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J; Watson-Jones, Deborah
As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in developing countries, acceptability studies can help to better understand potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination and guide immunisation programs. Prior to a cluster-randomised phase IV trial of HPV vaccination delivery strategies in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, qualitative research was conducted to assess attitudes and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV, and acceptability of and potential barriers to HPV vaccination of Tanzanian primary schoolgirls. Semi-structured interviews (n=31) and group discussions (n=12) were conducted with a total of 169 respondents (parents, female pupils, teachers, health workers and religious leaders). While participants had heard of cancer in general, most respondents had no knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, or HPV vaccines. Only health workers had heard of cervical cancer but very few knew its cause or had any awareness about HPV vaccines. After participants were provided with information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, the majority stated that they would support HPV vaccination of their daughter to protect them against cervical cancer. Opt-out consent for vaccination was considered acceptable. Most preferred age-based vaccination, saying this would target more girls before sexual debut than class-based vaccination. Potential side effects and infertility concerns were raised by 5/14 of participating male teachers. Reported acceptability of HPV vaccination amongst parents, teachers and other community members was high in this population. Respondents stressed the need to provide adequate information about the vaccine to parents, that also addresses side effects and infertility concerns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A
Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375
L O Omokanye
Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to
Charles, Bimal; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Edwin Sam, Asirvatham; Kumar Pandian, Arvind; Thenmozhi, Mani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi
HIV epidemic in India is predominantly concentrated in subgroups of population, such as female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, whose behavior exposes them to a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. This paper aims to present the changing patterns of socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated factors among FSWs over 11 years. Multistage cluster sampling with probability-proportional-to-size (PPS) method was used in the surveys. A sample of 400 FSWs was studied every year. The mean age and literacy at the baseline level increased significantly over the years. House-based sex increased by 40% from 43.3% in 1997 to 83% in 2008 (p<0.001). Condom use at last sex with one-time clients; consistent condom use (CCU) with one-time and regular clients indicated increasing trends. FSWs reported low levels of condom use at last sex (14.5% in 1997 to 5% in 2008; p<0.001) and CCU (12.6% in 2004 to 3.6% in 2008; p<0.01) with regular partners. FSWs who used condom with one-time clients at last sex reported significantly less STI symptoms. A two-third reduction in genital ulcers was found from 13.1% in 1997 to 4.5% in 2008 (p<0.001). Nonliterate and hotel-based sex workers were 1.6 (1.0-2.5; 95% CI) and 2.2(1.3-3.7; 95% CI) times more likely to have reported STI symptoms. The percentage of FSWs who underwent HIV testing increased (p<0.001); similarly, a 20% increase was found in FSWs who availed counseling services from 65.2% in 1997 to 85.4% in 2008 (p<0.001). Poor, illiterate, and marginalized were more likely to get involved in risky behaviors which suggest the need for structural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategy.
Coetzee, Jenny; Hunt, Gillian; Jaffer, Maya; Otwombe, Kennedy; Scott, Lesley; Bongwe, Asiashu; Ledwaba, Johanna; Molema, Sephonono; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E
HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa. A cross-sectional, respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enrol FSWs based in Soweto. Participants were tested for HIV and undertook a survey that included HIV knowledge and treatment status. Whole blood specimens were collected from HIV positive FSWs to measure for CD4 counts, viral load (VL) and perform HIVDR genotyping. Frequencies were determined for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for the continuous. Of the 508 enrolled participants, 55% (n = 280) were HIV positive and of median age 32 (IQR: 20-51) years. Among the HIV positive, 51.8% (132/269) were defined as virologically suppressed (VL HIV positive FSWs had unsuppressed viral loads, increasing the likelihood for onward transmission of HIV. Disturbingly, more than 1:4 treatment naïve women with unsuppressed viral loads had HIVDR suggesting that possible sexual transmission of drug resistance is occurring in this high-risk population. Given the high burden of HIVDR in a population with a high background prevalence of HIV, it is imperative that routine monitoring of HIVDR be implemented. Understanding transmission dynamics of HIVDR in FSW and its impact on treatment success should be urgently elucidated.
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP represents a major socioeconomic burden for the Western societies. Both life-style and work-related factors may cause low back pain. Prospective cohort studies assessing risk factors among individuals without prior history of low back pain are lacking. This aim of this study was to determine risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP among health care workers. Methods Prospective cohort study with 2,235 newly educated female health care workers without prior history of LBP. Risk factors and incidence of LBP were assessed at one and two years after graduation. Results Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and psychosocial factors showed that workers with high physical work load had higher risk for developing LBP than workers with low physical work load (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8. In contrast, workers with high BMI were not at a higher risk for developing LBP than workers with a normal BMI. Conclusion Preventive initiatives for LBP among health care workers ought to focus on reducing high physical work loads rather than lowering excessive body weight.
Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha
Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (pworkers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; pworkers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sara J Elazan
Full Text Available Background: Male community health workers (CHWs have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care.
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Ho, Kuo-Jung
To evaluate the association between night-shift work exposure and visual health, this cross-sectional study utilized visual acuity, a surrogate measure for visual function, as a parameter, and performed an analysis comparing visual acuity between daytime and nighttime employees in an electronics manufacturing company. Data of personal histories, occupational records, physical examinations and blood tests was obtained from the electronic health records of workers. The total of 8280 workers including 3098 women and 5182 men, wearing their own daily used eyeglasses, were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the sample population was 34.7 years old (standard deviation = 5.4 years). All workers were divided into 3 work categories - consistent daytime worker (CDW), day-shift worker (DSW) and night-shift worker (NSW). The check-up results of glasses-corrected visual acuity (c-VA) were utilized to classify individuals as good (≥ 1.2, both eyes) and inadequate (electronics manufacturing company. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):71-79. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Mooney, Alyssa; Kidanu, Aklilu; Bradley, Heather M; Kumoji, Evelyn Kuor; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kerrigan, Deanna
Although reported condom use between female sex workers and their clients is high in Ethiopia, condom use with regular, non-paying partners remains low, posing a substantial risk of HIV infection to sex workers, their partners and the general population. Previous studies have identified the synergistic effects of substance abuse, violence and HIV risk, but few have examined these inter-relationships among female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners. This study explored the associations between work-related violence, alcohol abuse and inconsistent condom use among establishment-based female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners in Adama City, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 350 establishment-based female sex workers, aged 15-35, at 63 bars, hotels and nightclubs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between work-related violence and condom use with regular, non-paying partners, controlling for age, overall income, education and sex workers' total number of sexual partners in the past week. Alcohol abuse was explored as an effect modifier. Respondents reported a high prevalence of work-related violence (59%) and alcohol abuse (51%). Work-related violence was statistically significantly associated with unprotected sex with regular, non-paying partners among those who abused alcohol (OR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.43-16.56) and among those who did not (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.54). Alcohol abuse was not associated with inconsistent condom use within these partnerships, though it may strengthen the effect of work-related violence on unprotected sex. Findings suggest violence against establishment-based female sex workers is associated with HIV risk within regular, non-paying partnerships. Qualitative work is needed to better understand the links between a violent work environment and condom use with regular, non-paying partners and how interventions can be implemented in this context to
Mo, Phoenix K H; Mak, Winnie W S; Kwok, Yvonne T Y; Xin, Meiqi; Chan, Charlie W L; Yip, Louise W M
Young female sex workers (YFSWs) are confronted with significant threats during sex work. The present cross-sectional study examined different levels of threats (i.e., threats to life and health, threats to humanity, threats to control of work and financial security, and the threats to future) experienced by 87 YFSWs (age 16-25) in Hong Kong, and identified their association with mental health (i.e., psychological well-being) together with other factors, including childhood trauma, self-efficacy, hope, and social support. Results showed that the participants encountered a significant number of threats. More than half reported that they had a condom removed by clients during sex (51.7%); or have been humililated by clients (51.7%). Because of sex work, about a quarter (25.3%) have had sexually transmitted disease, and respectively 10.3% and 12.6% have had abortion and unplanned pregnancy. The majority have had friends found out that they engaged in sex work (72.4%). They also showed a high level of worry about the various threats. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that childhood trauma (β = -.26) and worry about threats during sex work (β = -.22) were significantly negative predictors, while self-efficacy (β = .20) and hope (β = .27) were significantly positive predictors of mental health. Future services should improve YFSWs' skills to minimize potential threats during female sex work, address the structural correlates and relieve their worries, and empower them with more hope and self-efficacy in choosing clients.
Full Text Available IMR\tand\tMMR\tin\ttribal\tareas\tof\tTelangana\tare\tstill\tworrisome.\tOften\ttwo\tmain reasons\tattributed\tto\tthis\tproblem\twere;\tlow\tnumber\tof\tinstitutional\tdeliveries and\tdeliveries\tin\tthe\tabsence\tof\tskilled\thealth\tprovider.\tThis\tstudy\tintended\tto know\thow\tskilled\tare\tthe\tskilled\thealth\tproviders\tand\tit\tattempted\tto\tmeasure the knowledge and skills of Female Health Workers in maternal care, labour/child birth and neonatal care including communication skills. The participants’ perceived training needs were also considered as important and included\tin this\tstudy.\tOut\tof\t700\tnotified\tscheduled\tvillages, the\tparticipants were\tcovered approximately\tin\t1:2 ratio (n=350.\tNearly\t80% (mean=281.5\tof the participants obtained scores below 50% and nearly 50% (mean=168.5 of the participants\thave\tscored\tbelow\t30%.\tThe\tscores\tof\t40%\tof\tthe\tparticipants reflected\tpoor\tcommunication\tskills.\tScores\tin\tall\tthe\tareas\tfound\tto\tbe\tpoor.\tScores\ton\tskills\tin\tmaternal\tcare were\tbetter\tthan\tskills\tin\tchildbirth\tand\tscores\ton\tskills\tin\tchild\tbirth\twere\tbetter\tthan\tneonatal\tcare.\tOn\tthe scale\tof\tperceived\ttraining\tneeds,\tskills\tin\tLabour/Child\tbirth\twas\tgiven\ttop\tpriority\tby\tparticipants\tfollowed\tby Neonatal\tcare,\tCommunication\tskills\tand\tMaternal\tcare\trespectively.
Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Weaver, Mark A; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Van Damme, Kathleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio
Research on the determinants of condom use and condom non-use generally has relied on self-reported data with questionable validity. We identified predictors of recent, unprotected sex among 331 female sex workers in Madagascar using two outcome measures: self-reports of unprotected sex within the past 48 h and detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biological marker of recent semen exposure. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that self-reported unprotected sex was associated with three factors: younger age, having a sipa (emotional partner) in the prior seven days, and no current use of hormonal contraception. The sole factor related to having PSA detected was prevalent chlamydial infection (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-10.1). Differences in predictors identified suggest that determinants of unprotected sex, based on self-reported behaviors, might not correlate well with risk of semen exposure. Caution must be taken when interpreting self-reported sexual behavior measures or when adjusting for them in analyses evaluating interventions for the prevention of HIV/STIs.
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao
HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.
Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Jin-Ding
There is little information about the burnout and wellbeing of institutional caregivers working for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities; information is particularly limited in the understanding of experiences of direct care workers. The aims of the study were to provide a profile of self-perceived burnout and wellbeing of direct-care caregivers working in disability institutions, and to compare the difference between native- and foreign caregivers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. We recruited 46 female living assistants of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in two disability institutions in Taiwan. There were 23 subjects who were local residents and 23 subjects who were foreign providers of labor. A self-administered questionnaire which included scale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI), the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were employed in the survey. Findings revealed the local caregivers were slightly higher than foreign caregivers in personal burnout score (PBS) and work-related burnout score (WBS), although there were no significant differences. Those caregivers from foreign countries seem to be slightly happier and have higher life satisfaction than native caregivers. In order to decrease the burnout and improve wellbeing of caregivers of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, service providers should understand the experiences which caregivers encounter in their workplaces. Caregivers can benefit if they receive appropriate support to improve positive health while working for their service clients.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L
HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.
Eccles, Claire; Clarke, Janette
To assess the proportion of independent indoor female sex workers (FSW) in West Yorkshire, UK who advertise unprotected sex, and to investigate any association with cost, location and provision of anal sex. Data on whether independent indoor FSW (defined as those not advertising via an escort agency or through a parlour) advertised unprotected sexual services, along with demographic data, were collected from 462 advertisement profiles of FSW in West Yorkshire from the website http://www.adultwork.com. Independent t test and χ(2) statistics were used to test the association between advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and FSW age, cost of services, location and whether they advertised anal sex. Unprotected vaginal sex was advertised by 8% of FSW, and unprotected oral sex by 74% of FSW. FSW advertising unprotected vaginal sex were more likely to live in Wakefield and Bradford than in Leeds, had significantly lower hourly rates, and were more likely to advertise anal sex. Advertised condom use for vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor FSW in West Yorkshire was significantly lower than reported rates of protected sex found in previous studies based in London and the south of England. The advertisement of unprotected vaginal sex is associated with factors such as lower hourly rates and the advertisement of higher risk anal sex, which may signify greater economic need. FSW offering unprotected sex therefore represent an at-risk target group for health promotion.
Full Text Available Background. Our study aimed to assess the burden of depression and evaluate factors associated with depression and status of HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs in Guangdong, China. Method. We recruited FSWs from massage parlors, saunas, restaurants, hotels, hair salons, and streets in Guangdong, China, in 2014. Information on demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and sexual behaviors was collected using a questionnaire. A blood sample was collected to test for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. A participant was defined as being depressed if she obtained 6 points or above using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Results. Among the 653 participants, 41.7% were 21–30 years old and 43.6% married. Overall, 52.4% were found to be depressed. FSWs who had correct syphilis related knowledge [aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04–2.03] and had primary sex partner (1.63, 1.14–2.33 were more likely to be depressed. FSWs who did not use a condom during their last sex with the primary sex partner were less likely to be depressed (0.47, 0.31–0.71. Conclusion. Our study observed high level of depression and HIV risk behaviors among Chinese FSWs. Future interventions should integrate mental health services in comprehensive interventions to prevent depression among Chinese FSWs.
Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.
Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk for HIV. Whereas the HIV risks of alcohol use are well understood, less is known about hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs, particularly in Mexico. We sought to identify risk factors for hazardous alcohol use and test associations between hazardous alcohol use and HIV risk behavior among male clients in Tijuana. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana (n = 400) completed a quantitative interview in 2008. The AUDIT was used to characterize hazardous alcohol use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent associations of demographic and HIV risk variables with hazardous alcohol use (vs. non-hazardous). Forty percent of our sample met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Variables independently associated with hazardous drinking were reporting any sexually transmitted infection (STI), having sex with a FSW while under the influence of alcohol, being younger than 36 years of age, living in Tijuana, and ever having been jailed. Hazardous drinkers were less likely ever to have been deported or to have shared injection drugs. Hazardous alcohol use is associated with HIV risk, including engaging in sex with FSWs while intoxicated and having an STI among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. We systematically described patterns and correlates of hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. The results suggest that HIV/STI risk reduction interventions must target hazardous alcohol users, and be tailored to address alcohol use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L
Sex work is regulated in the Zona Roja (red light district) in Tijuana, Mexico, where HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence is high among female sex workers (FSWs). We examined the spatial distribution of STDs by work venue among FSWs in Tijuana. FSWs aged 18 years and older who reported unprotected sex with ≥ 1 client in the past 2 months underwent testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. HIV/STDs were mapped by venue (i.e., bar, hotel) and Getis-Ord Gi statistics were used to identify geographic hotspots. High-risk venues were then identified using a standardized STD ratio (high risk defined as a ratio ≥ 1.25). Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of working at a high risk venue. Of 474 FSWs, 176 (36.4%) had at least 1 bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI); 36 (7.6%) were HIV-positive. Within the Zona Roja, 1 venue was identified as a geographic "hotspot," with a higher than expected number of HIV/STD-positive FSW (P Tijuana. Structural interventions that focus on sex work venues could help increase STI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment among FSWs in Tijuana.
Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.
Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.
In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs’ income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs’ health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477
Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj
Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.
Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.
Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735
Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M
To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence and correlated factors of HIV-1 among Chinese and Vietnamese female sex workers (FSW in the border county of Hekou, Yunnan province, China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted collecting information on demographics, sexual behavior, medical history, and drug use. Blood samples were obtained to test for HIV/STIs. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine associations between factors and HIV-1 infection.Of 345 FSWs who participated in this study, 112 (32.5% were Chinese and 233 (67.5 were Vietnamese. Vietnamese FSWs were significantly more likely to be HIV-1 positive (7.7% compared with Chinese FSWs (0.9% (p = 0.009. In multivariate analysis, sexual debut at age ≤ 16 (OR 3.8: 95% CI: 1.4, 10.6, last client's payment <150 RMB ($22 USD (OR: 5.2, 95% CI; 1.7, 16.6, and HSV-2 (OR: 12.3; 95% CI: 1.6, 94.8 were significant for HIV-1 infection.Differences in HIV prevalence in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs may be indicative of differential risk. It is important to characterize the nature of trans-border transmission in order to gain a better understanding of the potential impact on the international HIV epidemic. Understanding the correlated factors for HIV in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs is important for designing interventions for this vulnerable population.
Wang, Baoxi; Wang, Qian-Qiu; Yin, Yue-Ping; Liang, Guo-Jun; Jiang, Ning; Gong, Xiang-Dong; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; Liu, Qiao; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Li-Gang; Tan, Guang-Jie; Pei, Dong-Nu; Tucker, Joseph D; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
Syphilis has made a rapid resurgence in China, especially among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs). Two cities in each of 3 provinces in South China were chosen and allocated to intervention or control arms. The intervention consisted of enhancing community-based syphilis screening outreach intervention with comprehensive sexually transmitted infection services at designated clinics while the control maintained routine intervention activities. Generalized linear modeling was used to examine effect of the intervention on incident syphilis infection. A total of 8275 women were eligible, and 3597 women enrolled (n = 2011 in control arm, n = 1586 in intervention arm) in the study. The median follow-up duration was 375 days (interquartile range, 267–475). Syphilis incidence density in the intervention group was reduced by 70% (95% confidence interval, 53%–81%) compared with the incidence in the control arm. The syphilis prevention intervention benefits were robust among FSWs at low-tier venues, individuals with less than high school education, migrants, and women who did not report condom use during the last episode of sex. Integrated sexually transmitted infection and human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategies substantially reduce syphilis incidence among FSWs, especially among those at low-tier venues. This intervention suggests the need for scaling up comprehensive FSW programs in China.
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factors that influence wage disparity between working women (female workers in urban and rural areas in South Sumatera in 2013 using cross-sectional data from Susenas 2013. Methods used in this study are wage equation of Mincer (1994 and wage decomposition model of Blinder-Oaxaca. The results show that average wage disparity between working women in urban and rural areas are 34.93%. This disparity is caused by endowment (independent variables, namely, education, age, working hours (jam kerja, non-agricultural sector (non-pertanian, marital status (menikah, and the presence of children under the age of five (balita, by 11.82%. The rest of 88.18% are explained by other variables outside this study. Endownment variables such as senior high school (SMA education, higher education (pendidikantinggi and working hours (jam kerja are also found to be the cause of an increase in wage disparity of working women in urban and rural areas.
Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E
There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.
Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Rui; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Zhibin; Wang, Ning; Wang, Bei
Female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients are vulnerable to HIV infection and serve as a bridge in HIV transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. To examine the factors of FSWs and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of HIV infection in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the Hekou county of the Yunnan province of China. We performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections and drug use. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among FSWs was 2.74%, and 15 male clients (2.62%) were HIV-positive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was a risk factor for HIV infection in FSWs and male clients, suggesting the increased role of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region. Positive urinalysis result for amphetamine-type stimulants was observed in FSWs with HIV infection. History of drug use was correlated with HIV infection, which increased the HIV infection risk of male clients, confirming that drug use is an important target in future interventions for HIV prevention.
Full Text Available Promoting awareness of serostatus and frequent HIV testing is especially important among high risk populations such as female sex workers (FSW and their sexual partners. HIV self-testing is an approach that is gaining ground in sub-Saharan Africa as a strategy to increase knowledge of HIV status and promote safer sexual decisions. However, little is known about self-test distribution strategies that are optimal for increasing testing access among hard-to-reach and high risk individuals. We conducted a qualitative study with 18 FSW who participated in a larger study that provided them with five oral fluid-based self-tests, training on how to use the tests, and encouragement to offer the self-tests to their sexual partners using their discretion. Women demonstrated agency in the strategies they used to introduce self-tests to their partners and to avoid conflict with partners. They carefully considered with whom to share self-tests, often assessing the possibility for negative reactions from partners as part of their decision making process. When women faced negative reactions from partners, they drew on strategies they had used before to avoid conflict and physical harm from partners, such as not responding to angry partners and forgoing payment to leave angry partners quickly. Some women also used self-tests to make more informed sexual decisions with their partners.
Shen, Hongcheng; Zou, Huachun; Huang, Shujie; Liu, Fengying; Zhao, Peizhen; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Luo, Xiaomin; Tang, Weiming; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin
Background. Our study aimed to assess the burden of depression and evaluate factors associated with depression and status of HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangdong, China. Method. We recruited FSWs from massage parlors, saunas, restaurants, hotels, hair salons, and streets in Guangdong, China, in 2014. Information on demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and sexual behaviors was collected using a questionnaire. A blood sample was collected to test for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. A participant was defined as being depressed if she obtained 6 points or above using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Results. Among the 653 participants, 41.7% were 21-30 years old and 43.6% married. Overall, 52.4% were found to be depressed. FSWs who had correct syphilis related knowledge [aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04-2.03] and had primary sex partner (1.63, 1.14-2.33) were more likely to be depressed. FSWs who did not use a condom during their last sex with the primary sex partner were less likely to be depressed (0.47, 0.31-0.71). Conclusion. Our study observed high level of depression and HIV risk behaviors among Chinese FSWs. Future interventions should integrate mental health services in comprehensive interventions to prevent depression among Chinese FSWs.