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Sample records for feeding operations overview

  1. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  2. Nevada Operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview is given of weapon test site decontamination activities carried out by Nevada Operations Office. Tabulated data is given of event name, date, location, year of cleanup, and radioisotopes that were present, activity levels, and cost of cleanup

  3. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  4. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  5. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps required to provide continuous feed flow and withdrawal of process product and waste flows in support of thruput operation in the cascade or its elements. It particularly requires operator attention to safety considerations

  6. WIPP operations planning: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Cossel, S.C.; Plung, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first-of-a-kind facility for emplacement of radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The concern for safe and efficient operations - coupled with the domestic and international significance of this project - necessitates that WIPP be a ''model plant.'' To develop WIPP as a model plant, a unique planning methodology was employed to identify, evaluate, incorporate, and implement these elements that together will form the best possible overall operation. The resulting improvements in communication among project participants and the smooth transition being made from construction are equally attributable to the methodology employed and the operating program plan developed. 1 fig

  7. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  8. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This document details procedures for the operation of the MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem (F and W). Included are fill with UF 6 , establishment of recycle and thruput flows, shutdown, UF 6 makeup, dump to supply container, Cascade dump to F and W, and lights cold trap dump, all normal procedures, plus an alternate procedure for trapping light gases

  9. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  10. Reactor operation feed-back in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, C.; Fourest, B.; Libmann, J.

    1982-09-01

    The Nuclear Safety Department (DSN), technical support of French Safety Authorities, is, in particular, in charge of the analysis of reactor operation and of measures taken consequently to incidents. It proposed the criteria used to select significant incidents; it analyzes such incidents. DSN also analyzes the operating experience of each plant, several years after starting. It examines foreign incidents to assess in what extent lessons learned can be applied to french reactors. The examples presented show that to improve the safety of units operation, the experience feed-back leads to make arrangements, or modifications concerning not only circuits or materials but often procedures. Moreover they show the importance of procedures concerning the operations carried out during reactor shutdown

  11. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  12. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  13. Overview of FRMAC Operations. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) operations is to describe the FRMAC response to a major radiological emergency and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the immediate boundaries of the radiological emergency site. In the event of a major radiological emergency, Federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the State(s) and a designed Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all Federal radiological assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide monitoring and assessment results for their immediate use in decision making. The Federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated Federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities

  14. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.

    2014-01-01

    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  15. SPACE MEDICINE and Medical Operations Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the function of the work of the Space Medicine & Health Care Systems Office. The objective of the medical operations is to ensure the health, safety and well being of the astronaut corps and ground support team during all phases of space flight. There are many issues that impact the health of the astronauts. Some of them are physiological, and others relate to behavior, psychological issues and issues of the environment of space itself. Reviews of the medical events that have affected both Russian, and Americans while in space are included. Some views of shuttle liftoff, and ascent, the medical training aboard NASA's KC-135 and training in weightlessness, the Shuttle Orbiter Medical system (SOMS), and some of the medical equipment are included. Also included are a graphs showing Fluid loading countermeasures, and vertical pursuit tracking with head and eye. The final views are representations of the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV) approaching the International Space Station, and the moon, and a series of perspective representations of the earth in comparison to the other planets and the Sun, the Sun in relation to other stars, and a view of where in the galaxy the Sun is.

  16. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2015-11-20

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.

  17. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps involved in establishing closed loop flows, providing UF 6 vapor to the FEED header of the Sampling Subsystem and returning it through the PRODUCT and TAILS headers via the F and W recycle valves. It is essentially a Startup Procedure

  18. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps involved in filling two of the four MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal subsystem main traps and the Sample/Inventory Make-up Pipette with uranium hexafluoride from the ''AS RECEIVED'' UF 6 supply

  19. An overview of KANUPP operating experience in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, T.

    2010-01-01

    KANUPP is a small CANDU® type PHWR (137MWe), commissioned in 1972 and now operating after life extension (PLEX) since 2004. This paper contains an overview of the plant operating experience in chemistry control over the past year including life extension period. Emphasis is on: Success story; Practices; Future improvements in chemistry programs. Considerable efforts are underway to maintain plant equipment and systems to mitigate the effect of plant ageing. The improvements that have been made at the station are as under: Heat transport system (HTS) chemistry, its effects on construction material; Feed water chemistry on secondary side (considering the condenser leaks). Strict chemistry control is being exercised for the heat transport system (HTS) for its better chemistry control. For short term, the changes are limited to pH adjustments of HTS. This change decreases the rate of thinning of outlet feeders as noted in some CANDUs® due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Water Treatment Plant has been refurbished to get very low total dissolved solids (TDS) de-mineralized water for secondary side systems of the plant. Experience of steam generators flushing before startup, sludge pile analyses mapping, verification of pH from different sampling points of SGs, are the short term mitigating actions to address sludge pile problem in steam generators (SGs). The R and D on HTS and SGs is multifaceted and is aimed at achieving optimum chemistry control. Study is being conducted for improving chemistry control for the material, equipment and systems of the plant. (author)

  20. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marcelle

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The difference in methane production in high and low RFI ... feed, protein turnover and overall tissue metabolism (mitochondrial .... 2007) and is influenced significantly by genetics and diets (Bottje et al., ... From Figure 1 it can be seen that protein turnover, tissue metabolism and stress explain 37% of the.

  1. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-RFI animals tend to digest feed better than high-RFI animals, and as intake increases there is a tendency for digestion to decrease. The correlation between RFI and dry matter (DM) digestibility has been determined to be r = –0.33. A positive correlation exists between metabolisable energy for maintenance (ME) and ...

  2. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  3. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S; Mihalik, M [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  4. ALMA Array Operations Group process overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector

    2016-07-01

    ALMA Science operations activities in Chile are responsibility of the Department of Science Operations, which consists of three groups, the Array Operations Group (AOG), the Program Management Group (PMG) and the Data Management Group (DMG). The AOG includes the Array Operators and have the mission to provide support for science observations, operating safely and efficiently the array. The poster describes the AOG process, management and operational tools.

  5. Alternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Escrivá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is one of the major mycotoxigenic fungal genera with more than 70 reported metabolites. Alternaria mycotoxins showed notably toxicity, such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, induction of DNA strand break, sphingolipid metabolism disruption, or inhibition of enzymes activity and photophosphorylation. This review reports on the toxicity, stability, metabolism, current analytical methods, and prevalence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food and feed through the most recent published research. Half of the publications were focused on fruits, vegetables, and derived products—mainly tomato and apples—while cereals and cereal by-products represented 38%. The most studied compounds were alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tentoxin, and tenuazonic acid, but altenuene, altertoxins (I, II, and III, and macrosporin have been gaining importance in recent years. Solid-liquid extraction (50% with acetonitrile or ethyl acetate was the most common extraction methodology, followed by QuEChERS and dilution-direct injection (both 14%. High- and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was the predominant determination technique (80%. The highest levels of alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were found in lentils, oilseeds, tomatoes, carrots, juices, wines, and cereals. Tenuazonic acid highest levels were detected in cereals followed by beer, while alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tenuazonic acid, and tentoxin were found in legumes, nuts, and oilseeds.

  6. Overview of Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    1999-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP's) are two-phase heat transfer devices that utilize the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid to transfer heat, and the capillary forces developed in the porous wicks to circulate the fluid. The LHP was first developed in the former Soviet Union in the early 1980s, about the same time that the capillary pumped loop (CPL) was developed in the United States. The LHP is known for its high pumping capability and robust operation mainly due to the use of fine-pored metal wicks and an integral evaporator/hydro-accumulator design. The LHP technology is rapidly gaining acceptance in aerospace community. It is the baseline design for thermal control of several spacecraft, including NASA's GLAS and Chemistry, ESA's ATLID, CNES' STENTOR, RKA's OBZOR, and several commercial satellites. Numerous LHP papers have been published since the mid-1980's. Most papers presented test results and discussions on certain specific aspects of the LHP operation. LHP's and CPL's show many similarities in their operating principles and performance characteristics. However, they also display significant differences in many aspects of their operation. Some of the LHP behaviors may seem strange or mysterious, even to experienced CPL practitioners. The main purpose of this paper is to present a systematic description of the operating principles and thermal-hydraulic behaviors of LHP'S. LHP operating principles will be given first, followed by a description of the thermal-hydraulics involved in LHP operation. Operating characteristics and important parameters affecting the LHP operation will then be described in detail. Peculiar behaviors of the LHP, including temperature hysteresis and temperature overshoot during start-up, will be explained. For simplicity, most discussions will focus upon LHP's with a single evaporator and a single condenser, but devices with multiple evaporators and condensers will also be discussed. Similarities and differences between LHP's and

  7. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  8. Operating system verification—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper gives a high-level introduction to the topic of formal, interactive, machine-checked software verification in general, and the verification of operating systems code in particular. We survey the state of the art, the advantages and limitations of machine-checked code proofs, and describe two specific ongoing ...

  9. Operating system verification—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... This paper gives a high-level introduction to the topic of formal, interactive, machine-checked software verification in general, and the verification of operating systems code in particular. We survey the state of the art, the advantages and limitations of machine-checked code proofs, and describe two specific ...

  10. Overview of real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to overview the real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms in the field of experimental physics facility controls. The key issues regarding operating systems as well as standards and development environment are discussed. As an illustration, some current industrial products are indicated. Also, real-time systems operating in some institutes of the EPS/EPCS inter divisional group are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. RLV/X-33 operations overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen T.; Eshleman, Wally

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the VentureStar™ SSTO RLV and X-33 operations concepts. Applications of advanced technologies, automated ground support systems, advanced aircraft and launch vehicle lessons learned have been integrated to develop a streamlined vehicle and mission processing concept necessary to meet the goals of a commercial SSTO RLV. These concepts will be validated by the X-33 flight test program where financial and technical risk mitigation are required. The X-33 flight test program totally demonstrates the vehicle performance, technology, and efficient ground operations at the lowest possible cost. The Skunk Work's test program approach and test site proximity to the production plant are keys. The X-33 integrated flight and ground test program incrementally expands the knowledge base of the overall system allowing minimum risk progression to the next flight test program milestone. Subsequent X-33 turnaround processing flows will be performed with an aircraft operations philosophy. The differences will be based on research and development, component reliability and flight test requirements.

  12. Overview of Intelligent Systems and Operations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallix, Joan; Dorais, Greg; Penix, John

    2004-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious mission objectives for the future, aircraft and spacecraft will need intelligence to take the correct action in a variety of circumstances. Vehicle intelligence can be defined as the ability to "do the right thing" when faced with a complex decision-making situation. It will be necessary to implement integrated autonomous operations and low-level adaptive flight control technologies to direct actions that enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. This paper will describe the array of technologies required to meet these complex objectives. This includes the integration of high-level reasoning and autonomous capabilities with multiple subsystem controllers for robust performance. Future intelligent systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which it interacts. They will also require planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive controllers that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently. The presentation will also address the development of highly dependable software, which is a key component to ensure the reliability of intelligent systems.

  13. THE HANFORD WASTE FEED DELIVERY OPERATIONS RESEARCH MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Gallaher, B.N.

    2011-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), the Hanford tank farm contractor, is tasked with the long term planning of the cleanup mission. Cleanup plans do not explicitly reflect the mission effects associated with tank farm operating equipment failures. EnergySolutions, a subcontractor to WRPS has developed, in conjunction with WRPS tank farms staff, an Operations Research (OR) model to assess and identify areas to improve the performance of the Waste Feed Delivery Systems. This paper provides an example of how OR modeling can be used to help identify and mitigate operational risks at the Hanford tank farms.

  14. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  15. Analyses of odours from concentrated animal feeding operations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, P.; Pifferi, V.; Falciola, L.; Ferrante, V.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are widely present all over the world due to the high population demand for food and products of animal origin. However, they have generated several environmental concerns, including odour nuisance, which affects people health and quality of life. Odours from livestock are a very complex mixtures of molecules and their analytical investigation is highly demanding. Many works have been published regarding the study of odours from CAFOs, using different techniques and technologies to face the issue. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to summarize all the ways to study odours from CAFOs, starting from the sampling methods and then treating in general the principles of Dynamic Olfactometry, Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses. Finally, a deep literature summary of Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses applied to odours coming from poultry, dairy and swine feeding operations is reported. This work aims to make some order in this field and it wants to help future researchers to deal with this environmental problem, constituting a state-of-the-art in this field.

  16. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas

  17. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  18. Overview of AEOD's program for trending reactor operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, P.W.; O'Reilly, P.D.; Rasmuson, D.M.; Houghton, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the trending program being performed by AEOD. The major elements of the program include: (1) system and component reliability trending and analysis, (2) special data collection and analysis (e.g., IPE and PRA component failure data, common cause failure event data), (3) risk assessment of safety issues based on actual operating experience, (4) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program, and (5) trending US industry risk. AEOD plans to maintain up-to-date safety data trends for selected high risk or high regulatory profile components, systems, accident initiators, accident sequences, and regulatory issues. AEOD will also make greater use of PRA insights and perform limited probabilistic safety assessments to evaluate the safety significance of qualitative results. Examples of a system study and an issue evaluation are presented, as well as a summary of the common cause failure event database

  19. Advanced operation strategy for feed-and-bleed operation in an OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Yoon, Ho Joon; Kim, Jaewhan; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced operating strategy covers all necessary conditions for F&B operation. • Advanced operating strategy identifies the urgency of F&B operation. • An advanced operating strategy for F&B operation is developed using a decision tree. • Human error probability is re-estimated based on a thermohydraulic analysis and K-HRA method. • An advanced operation strategy provides indications under various plant situations. - Abstract: When the secondary side is unavailable in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), heat from the core will accumulate in the primary side causing core damage. In this situation a heat removal mechanism called feed-and-bleed operation (F&B operation) must be used, which is a process of directly cooling the primary reactor cooling system (RCS). However, conventional operation strategy in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) does not cover all possible conditions to initiate F&B operation. If the EOP informs on the urgency of F&B operation, operators will be able to more clearly make decisions regarding F&B operation initiation. In order to cover all possible scenarios for F&B operation and systematically inform its urgency, an advanced operating strategy using a decision tree is developed in this study. The plant condition can be classified according to failure of secondary side, RCS pressure condition, injectable inventory to RCS, and remaining core inventory. RCS pressure, core level, and RCS temperature are representative indicators which provide information regarding the initiation of F&B operation. Indicators can be selected based on their detectability and quantification, and a decision tree is developed according to combinations of indicators. To estimate the effects of the advanced operation strategy, human error probability (HEP) of F&B operation is re-estimated based on a thermohydraulic analysis. The available time for operators to initiate F&B operation is also re-estimated to obtain more realistic data. This

  20. The ATLAS Tier-0: Overview and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsing, Markus; Goossens, Luc; Nairz, Armin; Negri, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Within the ATLAS hierarchical, multi-tier computing infrastructure, the Tier-0 centre at CERN is mainly responsible for prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system, to archive the raw and derived data on tape, to register the data with the relevant catalogues and to distribute them to the associated Tier-1 centers. The Tier-0 is already fully functional. It has been successfully participating in all cosmic and commissioning data taking since May 2007, and was ramped up to its foreseen full size, performance and throughput for the cosmic (and short single-beam) run periods between July and October 2008. Data and work flows for collision data taking were exercised in several 'Full Dress Rehearsals' (FDRs) in the course of 2008. The transition from an expert to a shifter-based system was successfully established in July 2008. This article will give an overview of the Tier-0 system, its data and work flows, and operations model. It will review the operational experience gained in cosmic, commissioning, and FDR exercises during the past year. And it will give an outlook on planned developments and the evolution of the system towards first collision data taking expected now in late Autumn 2009.

  1. The ATLAS Tier-0 Overview and operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, M; Nairz, A; Negri, G

    2010-01-01

    Within the ATLAS hierarchical, multi-tier computing infrastructure, the Tier-0 centre at CERN is mainly responsible for prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system, to archive the raw and derived data on tape, to register the data with the relevant catalogues and to distribute them to the associated Tier-1 centers. The Tier-0 is already fully functional. It has been successfully participating in all cosmic and commissioning data taking since May 2007, and was ramped up to its foreseen full size, performance and throughput for the cosmic (and short single-beam) run periods between July and October 2008. Data and work flows for collision data taking were exercised in several "Full Dress Rehearsals" (FDRs) in the course of 2008. The transition from an expert to a shifter-based system was successfully established in July 2008. This article will give an overview of the Tier-0 system, its data and work flows, and operations model. It will review the operational experience gained in cosmic, c...

  2. The ATLAS Tier-0: Overview and operational experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Markus; Goossens, Luc; Nairz, Armin; Negri, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Within the ATLAS hierarchical, multi-tier computing infrastructure, the Tier-0 centre at CERN is mainly responsible for prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system, to archive the raw and derived data on tape, to register the data with the relevant catalogues and to distribute them to the associated Tier-1 centers. The Tier-0 is already fully functional. It has been successfully participating in all cosmic and commissioning data taking since May 2007, and was ramped up to its foreseen full size, performance and throughput for the cosmic (and short single-beam) run periods between July and October 2008. Data and work flows for collision data taking were exercised in several "Full Dress Rehearsals" (FDRs) in the course of 2008. The transition from an expert to a shifter-based system was successfully established in July 2008. This article will give an overview of the Tier-0 system, its data and work flows, and operations model. It will review the operational experience gained in cosmic, commissioning, and FDR exercises during the past year. And it will give an outlook on planned developments and the evolution of the system towards first collision data taking expected now in late Autumn 2009.

  3. A Study on the Operator Decision Support for Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    In the case of a combined accident that includes a failure of the secondary cooling system, it is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of an feed and bleed (F and B) operation because a lot of parameters and alarms should be checked before a decision, and operators may spend a considerable amount of time arriving at the entry for a proper emergency operating procedure that contains the procedure for an F and B operation. Therefore, a clear identification of the success boundary of an F and B operation would help operators in their decision-making when a combined accident that includes a secondary cooling system failure occurs. This study will provide a useful guideline for the initiation of an F and B operation for operators. Cooling the RCS after a scram is one of the most important safety functions for preventing core damage. To support the operator in decision making whether to initiate the F and B operation, plant conditions requiring the initiation of an F and B operation were identified. Plant conditions are affected by the steam generator inventory, RCS inventory, core inventory, and safety injection availability. The combination of accident types, component availabilities, and the initiation time of an F and B operation affect the success of the F and B operation. Operators need clear information about the RCS condition when the steam generators, the RCS's main residual heat removal mechanism, become unavailable. When this happens, the initiation of an F and B operation becomes necessary. As the number of the state increases, the necessity of an F and B operation increases. Especially, the operator should initiate an F and B operation when the RCS condition enters State 3 for Type 1 incidents or State 3-2 for Type 2 incidents. The results of this study may be useful in providing information regarding the necessity and effects of an F and B operation in a quantitative manner. In particular, in the case of a combined accident including a

  4. Reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding : analysis, modeling and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhi, Y.W.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The novel concept of reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding is studied for selective oxidation of NH3 to produce either N2, N2O, or NO. During normal reverse flow operation, where the feeds are alternately introduced from either end of the reactor, the conversion is always lower when

  5. Trickle Bed Reactor Operation under Forced Liquid Feed Rate Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Karnetová, P.; Kolena, J.; Lederer, J.; Skála, D.; Staněk, Vladimír; Tukač, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2007), s. 192-198 ISSN 1451-9372 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : trickle -bed reactor * period * feed rate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. Application of Operational Research Techniques in Operating Room Scheduling Problems: Literature Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Gür

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased healthcare costs are pushing hospitals to reduce costs and increase the quality of care. Operating rooms are the most important source of income and expense for hospitals. Therefore, the hospital management focuses on the effectiveness of schedules and plans. This study includes analyses of recent research on operating room scheduling and planning. Most studies in the literature, from 2000 to the present day, were evaluated according to patient characteristics, performance measures, solution techniques used in the research, the uncertainty of the problem, applicability of the research, and the planning strategy to be dealt within the solution. One hundred seventy studies were examined in detail, after scanning the Emerald, Science Direct, JSTOR, Springer, Taylor and Francis, and Google Scholar databases. To facilitate the identification of these studies, they are grouped according to the different criteria of concern and then, a detailed overview is presented.

  7. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  8. Seaside operations in container terminals : literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Héctor J.; Vis, Iris F.A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    Seaside operations are considered the bottleneck operation in most container terminals around the world. This paper presents an in-depth updated overview of the seaside operations at container terminals and highlights current trends and developments. We review and classify scientific journal papers

  9. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-H.; Afanador, R.; Barnhart, D. L.; Crofford, M.; Degraff, B. D.; Doleans, M.; Galambos, J.; Gold, S. W.; Howell, M. P.; Mammosser, J.; McMahan, C. J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Peters, C.; Saunders, J. W.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  10. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; Crofford, Mark T.; Degraff, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  11. An overview of the legislation and light microscopy for detection of processed animal proteins in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia; Veys, Pascal; Baeten, Vincent; Jiang, Xunpeng; Dardenne, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    From the first cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) among cattle in the United Kingdom in 1986, the route of infection of BSE is generally believed by means of feeds containing low level of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Therefore, many feed bans and alternative and complementary techniques were resulted for the BSE safeguards in the world. Now the feed bans are expected to develop into a "species to species" ban, which requires the corresponding species-specific identification methods. Currently, banned PAPs can be detected by various methods as light microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, near infrared spectroscopy, and near infrared microscopy. Light microscopy as described in the recent Commission Regulation EC/152/2009 is the only official method for the detection and characterization of PAPs in feed in the European Union. It is able to detect the presence of constituents of animal origin in feed at the level of 1 g/kg with hardly any false negative. Nevertheless, light microscopy has the limitation of lack of species specificity. This article presents a review of legislations on the use of PAPs in feedstuff, the detection details of animal proteins by light microscopy, and also presents and discusses the analysis procedure and expected development of the technique. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. An Overview of Android Operating System and Its Security Features

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Android operating system is one of the most widely used operating system these days. Android Operating System is mainly divided into four main layers: the kernel, libraries, application framework and applications. Its kernel is based on Linux. Linux kernel is used to manage core system services such as virtual memory, networking, drivers, and power management. In these paper different features of architecture of Android OS as well security features of Android OS are discussed.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding-A clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself...

  14. Demonstration test operation of Feed Materials Production Center Biodenitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Patton, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A fluidized-bed biological denitrification (BDN) system was used to treat high-nitrate wastewater streams from a DOE owned uranium processing plant. A two-column system was used to demonstrate BDN operation on a production scale. In a continuous 200 hour rate determination period, the BDN processed over 1.6 million gallons that contained over 4700 kilograms of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. The BDN removed an average 97% of the incoming nitrate and nitrite. The BDN effluent was discharged to the FMPC sewage treatment plant where it caused increased levels of TOD, TSS and fecal coliforms in the STP discharge. This indicated the BDN effluent will require treatment prior to discharge to the environment. Preliminary chemical consumption rates and associated costs of operation were determined. Several modifications and additions to the system were identified as necessary for the permanent production facility. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  16. CERN's LEIR Digital LLRF : system overview and operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Blas, A; Bracke, E; Butterworth, A; Dubouchet, F; Findlay, A; Pedersen, F; Sanchez-Quesada, J

    2010-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is an accumulation and acceleration ring in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion injector chain. After its successful start in 2005, it has been running in three operational campaigns. The LEIR low-level RF (LLRF) system is the first all-digital system to operate in a CERN circular machine. Its capabilities include beam control tasks as well as dual-harmonic cavity voltage/phase servoing. All the system’s control parameters are fully configurable, remotely and in-between cycles; extensive built-in observation capabilities and diagnostics are available. The system is flexible, powerful and extremely reliable. This paper outlines the main building blocks and operational features, along with results obtained during the first years of operation.

  17. System 80+TM standard plant: Design and operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Ritterbusch, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The System 80+ Standard Plant Design is a 1400 MWe evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), designed to meet the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) and the demands of the international market for nuclear power plants which are not only safer but also more economical to maintain and operate. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power used a defense-in-depth process that (1) adds design margin to basic components to improve performance during normal operation and to decrease the likelihood of an unanticipated transient or an accident, (2) improves the redundancy and diversity of safety systems in order to mitigate design basis accidents and prevent severe accidents, and (3) improves severe accident mitigation capability. This paper describes the most important improved systems and components with emphasis on severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. The improved design features were implemented in an evolutionary manner using proven components. This approach ensures that the plant operates safely and economically, as demonstrated by operating plants in the US and the Republic of Korea. Detailed studies, summarized in this paper, have shown that the System 80+ plant availability is expected to exceed the ALWR requirement of 87% and that the annual operations and maintenance costs are expected to be reduced by $14 million. (author)

  18. Conduct of operations: The foundation of safety -- An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, D.J.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses issues and approaches dealing with conceptualizing, implementing, and maintaining configuration control commensurate with the conduct of operations approach defined by DOE ORDER 5480.19. Specific topics reviewed will include key elements of assessments to determine the status quo such as assessment criteria, assessment personnel, and assessment scope; administrative programs to maintain the status quo such as organizational definition, responsibilities, interfaces, and priorities; oversight to determine control effectiveness via compliance and performance assessment

  19. Overview on technological and operational aspects of PLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevander, Olli; Hytoenen, Yrjoe; Raitanen, Raimo

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Loviisa NPP with two VVER 440 units is owned and operated by Fortum. In year 1997 after the power uprating and relicensing project a comprehensive life management strategy with a target lifetime of 50 years was selected as a key issue for the remaining lifetime. Two licensed fuel suppliers as well as the successful power uprating assist with long-term economy of production. The plant has recently established a life management programme (LMP), which should improve and unify the present programmes and separate ageing projects. The scope of the new LMP of the Loviisa NPP comprises the scientific and analytic research of the ageing phenomena as well as routine repairs and preventive maintenance at the site. On one hand, the work emphasises practical repair and replacement of active components, and, on the other hand, the structural and safety review of the passive nonreplaceable main components as well. The goal of the development is that all maintenance and inspection activities should support plant life management. In general, an effective approach of ageing management of systems, structures and components (SSC) is a mixture of four elements: careful operation and maintenance, replacement strategy, technical modifications of SSCs and mitigation of analysed ageing effects. Therefore, at Loviisa the organisation and functions of LMP are included as far as possible in the normal operating organisation. Thus the practical LMP program includes effective links from operating experiences to the ageing database and also to the long-term decision making. The difficulty in the implementation of the LMP is to apply an adequate and balanced approach through all areas and important components in long-term. Therefore, such assessment tools as cost-benefit analysis and classification of components according to their impact on safety and operation is needed. During the past few years, the most important ageing attributes of main passive components and safety systems of

  20. Overview of Savannah River Plant waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, J.E.; Killian, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Du Pont Savannah River Plant (SRP) Waste Management Program is committed to the safe handling, storage, and disposal of wastes that result from the production of special nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (US DOE). High-level radioactive liquid waste is stored in underground carbon steel tanks with double containment, and the volume is reduced by evaporation. An effluent treatment facility is being constructed to treat low-level liquid hazardous and radioactive waste. Solid low-level waste operations have been improved through the use of engineered low-level trenches, and transuranic waste handling procedures were modified in 1974 to meet new DOE criteria requiring 20-year retrievable storage. An improved disposal technique, Greater Confinement Disposal, is being demonstrated for intermediate-level waste. Nonradioactive hazardous waste is stored on site in RCRA interim status storage buildings. 5 figs

  1. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  2. Overview of long pulse H-mode operation on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Wan, B.; Li, J.; Qian, J.; Li, E.; Liu, F.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.; Xu, H.; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    The EAST research program aims to demonstrate steady-state long-pulse high-performance H-mode operations with ITER-like poloidal configuration and RF-dominated heating schemes. In the recent experimental campaign, a long pulse fully non-inductive H-mode discharge lasting over 100 seconds using the upper ITER-like tungsten divertor has been achieved in EAST. This scenario used only RF heating and current drive, but also benefitted from an integrated control of the wall conditioning, plasma configuration, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, impurity management and superconducting coils safety. Maintaining effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources on EAST is a critical ingredient. This long pulse discharge had good energy confinement, H98,y2 1.1-1.2, and all of the plasma parameters reach a true steady-state. Power balance indicates that the confinement improvement is due partly to a significantly reduced core electron transport inside minor radius rho<0.4. This work was supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China Contract No. 2015GB10200 and the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-SC0010685.

  3. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  4. Maternal fat-soluble vitamins, brain development, and regulation of feeding behavior: an overview of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Anderson, G Harvey; Poon, Abraham N; Pannia, Emanuela; Cho, Clara E; Huot, Pedro S P; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-10-01

    Recent research shows a link between vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring health. Inadequate intakes of water-soluble vitamins during pregnancy lead to obesity and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, concurrent with altered developments in food intake regulatory pathways. Few studies, however, have reported on the effects of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) on the development of food intake regulatory pathways. The majority of studies to date have focused on associations between inadequate and high intakes of folic acid and vitamin D and neurocognitive development of the offspring. Hence, the objective of this review is to present an evaluation of the role of maternal vitamins A, D, E, and K in brain development and function of neural pathways that regulate feeding behaviors. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1975 through September, 2016. Most studies supporting a role for fat-soluble vitamins in regulating brain development and associated behaviors have been conducted in animal and cell models, leaving uncertain their relevance to neurocognitive development and function in humans. Nevertheless, although current research on defining the role of maternal fat-soluble vitamins in offspring's brain development is limited, it is sufficient to warrant further investigations on their impact when intake amounts during pregnancy are not only inadequate but also exceed requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  6. Hydraulic design of a boiler feed pump to ensure stable operation at reduced flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    The boiler feed pumps for industrial and power station boilers have to operate often at reduced capacities to meet the changing demand of steam and electricity. The operation of centrifugal pumps at reduced capacities lead to a number of unfavourable results seriously affecting the pump reliability. Some of these, such as internal recirculation of flow inside the pump have been recently studied. The paper discusses these unfavourable results and analyses various design factors which can control unstable operation of the pumps at reduced flows. The commissioning problems of boiler feed pumps faced at Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant at Kota and modifications carried out in the light of the above studies are described in the paper. (author). 2 tabs

  7. Sensitivity Study for Feed and Bleed Operation for Domestic CANDU Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S; Kim, B. S.; Yoo, H. K.; Kim, H. J. [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, S. W. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the feed and bleed operation using DCT(Degassing Condenser Tank) over-pressure protection valves when LOCL4 with LOCL3 occurs during LPSD mid-loop operation. The CDF(Core Damage Frequency) of Level-1 Internal Event for Wolsong NPP Unit 1 during LPSD POS5A/5B accounts for about 89.08%(POS5A: 30.04%, POS5B: 59.04%) of the total CDF. For Wolsong NPP Unit 1 LPSD External Event, seismic analysis is excluded from this study because it is PSA-based SMA(Seismic Margin Assessment based Probabilistic Safety Assessment). For the domestic CANDU NPP, the feed and bleed operation using DCT over-pressure protection valves has been incorporated as an additional measure to mitigate the consequences during LPSD mid-loop operation. Since LOCL4 with LOCL3 is considered to be the event with highest frequency among all initial events, the effect of the feed and bleed operation on the safety of Nuclear Power Plant has been evaluated using PSA methodology.

  8. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan M.; Miller, Paul; Pickett, Chris A.; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Younkin, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F and W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F and W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F and W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  9. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241

  10. Feed-Forward Corrections for Tune and Chromaticity Injection Decay During 2015 LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Lamont, Mike; Schaumann, Michaela; Todesco, Ezio; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    After two years of shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated in 2015 at 6.5 TeV, close to its designed energy. When the current is stable at low field, the harmonic components of the main circuits are subject to a dynamic variation induced by current redistribution on the superconducting cables. The Field Description of the LHC (FiDel) foresaw an increase of the decay at injection of tune (quadrupolar components) and chromaticity (sextupolar components) of about 50% with respect to LHC Run1 due to the higher operational current. This paper discusses the beam-based measurements of the decay during the injection plateau and the implementation and accuracy of the feed-forward corrections as present in 2015. Moreover, the observed tune shift proportional to the circulating beam intensity and it's foreseen feed-forward correction are covered.

  11. Identification of Success Criteria for Automated Function Using Feed and Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2013-01-01

    Since NPP has lots of functions and systems, operated procedure is much complicated and the chance of human error to operate the safety systems is quite high. In the case of large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) and station black out (SBO), the dependency of operator is very low. However, when many mitigation systems are still available, operators have several choices to mitigate the accident and the human error can be increased more. To reduce the operator's workload and perform the operation accurate after the accident, automated function for safe cooldown based on the feed and bleed (F and B) operation was suggested. The automated function can predict whether the plant will be safe after the automated function is initiated, and perform the safety functions automatically. To expect the success of cooldown, success criteria should be identified. To perform the operation accurately after the accident, the automated function for safe cooldown based on the F and B operation is suggested. To expect the success of cooldown, sequence of RCS situation when heat removal by secondary system fails is identified. Based on the sequence of RCS situation, four levels of necessity of F and B operation are classified. To obtain the boundary of levels, the TH analysis will be performed

  12. Operation of a TFTR ion source with a ground potential gas feed into the neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    TFTR long pulse ion sources have been operated with gas fed only into the neutralizer. Gas for the plasma generator entered through the accelerator rather than directly into the arc chamber. This modification has been proposed for tritium beam operation to locate control electronics at ground potential and to simplify tritium plumbing. Source operation with this configuration and with the nominal gas system that feeds gas into both the ion source and the center of the neutralizer are compared. Comparison is based upon accelerator grid currents, beam composition, and neutral power delivered to the calorimeter. Charge exchange in the accelerator can be a significant loss mechanism in both systems at high throughput. A suitable operating point with the proposed system was found that requires 30% less gas than used presently. The extracted D + , D + 2 , and D + 3 fractions of the beam were found to be a function of the gas throughput; at similar throughputs, the two gas feed systems produced similar extracted ion fractions. Operation at the proposed gas efficient point results in a small reduction (relative to the old high throughput mode) in the extracted D + fraction of the beam from 77% to 71%, with concomitant changes in the D + 2 fraction from 18% to 26%, and 6% to 3% for D + 3 . The injected power is unchanged, ∼2.2 MW at 95 kV

  13. Primary coolant feed and bleed operating regions for the Midland Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Operating regions for primary coolant feed and bleed cooling are developed for the Midland Plant using core decay heat, the high-pressure injection (HPI) system capacity, and flow rate relief through the power-operated relief valve (PORV). This mode of cooling is used for accident scenarios in which the normal core cooling means of a nuclear power plant is lost because of loss of water inventory in the steam generators. The HPI flow is based on the capacities of one and two pumps. Saturated steam, saturated water, and subcooled water are considered to be possible states of the fluid being relieved through the PORV. In estimating the PORV relief rate, flow equations are derived from the Electric Power Research Institute test data obtained from the same model and size valve that is used in the Midland Plant. For easy reference by operators, the operating region is displayed on a plane of reactor coolant system pressure and temperature. The technique developed for the Midland Plant provides a convenient method for examining the feed and bleed cooling capability for a nuclear power plant that employs a pressurized water reactor system

  14. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  15. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  16. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  17. Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Andra, Syam S.; Bach, Stephan B.H.; Datta, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N 2 O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N 2 O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N 2 O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N 2 O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 μg N 2 O mL -1 . Calculated dissolved N 2 O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems ( 2 O mL -1 ). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N 2 O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N 2 O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

  18. New design centrifugal contactor remotely controlled for solvent extraction operations for feed clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelieri, T.; Gerardi, A.; Petrigliano, G.; Siepe, V.

    1987-01-01

    The project concept of the nuclear facilities has gone through an important evolution in the past years in relation to the need of: garantiing the remote maintenance reducing workers exposure when operating in high-risk areas; making easier final decommissioning operations of the plants. In this way the ITREC pilot plant (built in 1970s') for its modular characteristic based on Rack Removal System (R.R.S.) was the first example of this new concept of project. A further development, in the field of remote maintenance and decommissioning operations, we can obtain associating to the R.R.S. concept that of projecting the single components (only for the critical ones) remotely demountable in their higher radioactive parts to consent the maintenance-substitution and/or decommissioning operations without interfering with remaining parts of the plant which it is connected. All of this helps in the realization of the aim making better plant operations reducing drastically work time and therefore non-functioning period of the plants. These principles have been applicated in the realization of two important components in reprocessing plant: the centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction and feed clarification centrifuge

  19. An Estimation of Operator's Diagnostic Time for Feed-And-Bleed Operation under Various Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    In order to assess realistic safety of plant, effects of interactions between components, operator, and plant condition are needed to be considered in the PSA model. One of the important issues to estimate the CDF is the estimation of human error probability (HEP). When an accident occurs, operators follow the emergency operating procedure and check various alarm, parameters, and signals. In the conventional Korean PSA model, the Korean standard HRA (K-HRA) method is used. In this method, the HEP is the sum of diagnosis error probability and execution error probability. A diagnosis error probability is expressed by the available time for diagnosis and adjusting performance shaping factors, and an execution error probability is a function of task type and stress level. Available time for diagnosis is very important factor of HEP. If the available time for diagnosis is short, the HEP becomes high. In order to obtain the realistic risk assessment results, we first focus on the estimation of HEP considering the plant dynamics under various scenarios. Target operation and scenarios are feed-and bleed operation (F and B operation) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident with/without loss of coolant accident (LOCA). One of the highest HEP is HEP of FnB operation. In additional, Scenarios, which are related to combination secondary heat removal failure and primary heat removal failure, are most critical core damage scenario of the combined accident except scenarios related to station black out (SBO). In these scenarios, the FnB operation is last resort to prevent core damage. To estimate available operator diagnosis time, we identify the relationship between accidents, mitigation function, and plant condition. Distribution of available time of diagnosis was estimated using the MOSAIQUE. The variables are break size, break timing, trip timing of RCP, and availability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump under the TLOFW accident with LOCA. For Type 1 accident

  20. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states

  1. Water feeding/condensating device and operation method in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention overcomes a problem in reactor water level control occurring upon operation of a water feeding/condensating system in a nuclear power plant. That is, the water feed system to a nuclear reactor is constituted with parallel circuit comprising a reactor feedwater pump driven by a steam turbine and a serial circuit composed of a reactor feedwater pump driven by an electrical motor and a pump adjusting valve for controlling the amount of feedwater at the exit of the motor driven feedwater pump. Further, a reactor feedwater control valve having a function of controlling the feedwater to the reactor is disposed to the bypass pipeway for bypassing the parallel circuit of feedwater pumps. In this constitution, water can be fed to the nuclear reactor by way of the reactor feedwater pump bypass control valve upon starting and stopping of a nuclear feedwater pump driven by electric motor upon starting and shutdown of the nuclear reactor. Accordingly, stable water level control can be conducted for the reactor core with no effect of rapid pressure fluctuation due to the starting and the stopping of the reactor feedwater pump driven by electric motor. (I.S.)

  2. Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided.

  3. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkle, Keith W.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Jones, Rena R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.; Wheeler, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2 km of a well (p trend nitrate concentration. Additionally, we found significant increases in log nitrate in the top quartiles for AFO spatial intensity, open AFO spatial intensity, and mixed AFO spatial intensity compared to the bottom quartile (0.171 log(mg/L), 0.319 log(mg/L), and 0.541 log(mg/L), respectively; all p nitrate-nitrogen in drinking wells and found significant spatial clustering of high-nitrate wells (> 5 mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤ 5 mg/L) wells (p = 0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types.

  4. Impact of operating experience on design of civil structures - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J H.K. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    During the past twenty years, Ontario Hydro has expanded its nuclear power to provide about one third of the electricity used in the province (coal and water powered stations provide the other two thirds). By 1992, the total installed capacity of nuclear generating stations in Ontario will further rise to over 14,000 MW. In common with other power plant design, the layout and structural design of civil facilities for a nuclear generating station are developed from consideration of functional, safety and operational requirements, as well as from past operating experience. Experience on structural performance in the sixteen units of Pickering and Bruce NGS's includes: piping and machinery vibrations, structural fatigue failures, and structural integrity due to extreme loadings not considered in the original design. The operating experience of Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations also indicates that civil structures are subjected to some degree of corrosion or degradation of certain elements similar to other mechanical components in a power station. This category of problems consists of concerns associated with thermal effects on concrete structures due to inoperative cooling system, cracking of concrete, and reliability of elastomeric seal materials at expansion joints of the containment envelop. This paper presents an overview of the operating problems and issues regarding changes in the licensing requirements related to civil structures and supporting systems of major mechanical components. The impact of these generic experience on the design of retrofits and new generating stations is also described in the paper.

  5. Impact of operating experience on design of civil structures - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    During the past twenty years, Ontario Hydro has expanded its nuclear power to provide about one third of the electricity used in the province (coal and water powered stations provide the other two thirds). By 1992, the total installed capacity of nuclear generating stations in Ontario will further rise to over 14,000 MW. In common with other power plant design, the layout and structural design of civil facilities for a nuclear generating station are developed from consideration of functional, safety and operational requirements, as well as from past operating experience. Experience on structural performance in the sixteen units of Pickering and Bruce NGS's includes: piping and machinery vibrations, structural fatigue failures, and structural integrity due to extreme loadings not considered in the original design. The operating experience of Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations also indicates that civil structures are subjected to some degree of corrosion or degradation of certain elements similar to other mechanical components in a power station. This category of problems consists of concerns associated with thermal effects on concrete structures due to inoperative cooling system, cracking of concrete, and reliability of elastomeric seal materials at expansion joints of the containment envelop. This paper presents an overview of the operating problems and issues regarding changes in the licensing requirements related to civil structures and supporting systems of major mechanical components. The impact of these generic experience on the design of retrofits and new generating stations is also described in the paper

  6. Influence of the feeding regime on the start-up and operation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was revealed that the feeding regime is an important factor in the successful start-up of the Anammox process. Nitrite concentration peaks at the beginning of a feeding period will lead to an unsuccessful start-up, while a slow input of nitrogen speeds up the process. Feeding regimes are less important in partial nitritation ...

  7. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future

  8. An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is supposed to be an important mechanism for addressing climate change. Up to now, the theoretical foundation of EU ETS has been widely acknowledged, but empirical research on its current situation has only been published recently or is forthcoming. Therefore, this paper is aimed to summarize the main arguments of empirical studies on the EU ETS, in terms of two aspects, i.e., the operating mechanism and economic effect of the EU ETS, which are two crucial topics and have been attached much attention. Based on the shortcomings of current research and future requirements of the EU ETS evolution, finally, we also present some further directions of the EU ETS research. Overall, the research overview here may be helpful to recognize the features of the EU ETS and its effect on others. (author)

  9. Sequence Tree Modeling for Combined Accident and Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2016-01-01

    In order to address this issue, this study suggests the sequence tree model to analyze accident sequence systematically. Using the sequence tree model, all possible scenarios which need a specific safety action to prevent the core damage can be identified and success conditions of safety action under complicated situation such as combined accident will be also identified. Sequence tree is branch model to divide plant condition considering the plant dynamics. Since sequence tree model can reflect the plant dynamics, arising from interaction of different accident timing and plant condition and from the interaction between the operator action, mitigation system, and the indicators for operation, sequence tree model can be used to develop the dynamic event tree model easily. Target safety action for this study is a feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation. A F and B operation directly cools down the reactor cooling system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. In this study, a TLOFW accident and a TLOFW accident with LOCA were the target accidents. Based on the conventional PSA model and indicators, the sequence tree model for a TLOFW accident was developed. If sampling analysis is performed, practical accident sequences can be identified based on the sequence analysis. If a realistic distribution for the variables can be obtained for sampling analysis, much more realistic accident sequences can be described. Moreover, if the initiating event frequency under a combined accident can be quantified, the sequence tree model can translate into a dynamic event tree model based on the sampling analysis results

  10. Sequence Tree Modeling for Combined Accident and Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    In order to address this issue, this study suggests the sequence tree model to analyze accident sequence systematically. Using the sequence tree model, all possible scenarios which need a specific safety action to prevent the core damage can be identified and success conditions of safety action under complicated situation such as combined accident will be also identified. Sequence tree is branch model to divide plant condition considering the plant dynamics. Since sequence tree model can reflect the plant dynamics, arising from interaction of different accident timing and plant condition and from the interaction between the operator action, mitigation system, and the indicators for operation, sequence tree model can be used to develop the dynamic event tree model easily. Target safety action for this study is a feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation. A F and B operation directly cools down the reactor cooling system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. In this study, a TLOFW accident and a TLOFW accident with LOCA were the target accidents. Based on the conventional PSA model and indicators, the sequence tree model for a TLOFW accident was developed. If sampling analysis is performed, practical accident sequences can be identified based on the sequence analysis. If a realistic distribution for the variables can be obtained for sampling analysis, much more realistic accident sequences can be described. Moreover, if the initiating event frequency under a combined accident can be quantified, the sequence tree model can translate into a dynamic event tree model based on the sampling analysis results.

  11. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  12. Motor-operated Valve Program at NPP Krsko (NEK) - Status and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, M; Jagodar, N.; Cerjak, J.; Butkovic, V.

    2002-01-01

    On the basics of US NRC Generic Letter 89-10 Safety-related Motor-operated Valve Testing and Surveillance and subsequent generic letters, Motor-operated Valve (MOV) Program at NEK has been developing. Namely, the holders of nuclear power plant operating licenses has to verify the design basis capability of safety-related e.g. important-to-safety MOVs, as well as to ensure the same for the life of the plant. In light of that, each plant should establish a program to address stressed issues for each program MOV (124 at NEK). Such comprehensive task requires significant effort in many aspects, and basically multidisciplinary skills. NEK MOV Program represents a blend of engineering and in-plant testing, comprised of three phases: Phase I Engineering, Phase II Field Implementation and Phase III Trending. Currently, the program is about the end of Phase I and II, as well as in development of engineering basis for launching Phase III. Overview of the major programmatic issues will be given in this paper along with ongoing activities: testing process, gear-ratio modification, pressure locking/thermal binding susceptibility screening and preventive maintenance. (author)

  13. Operational Space-Assisted Irrigation Advisory Services: Overview Of And Lessons Learned From The Project DEMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osann Jochum, M. A.; Demeter Partners

    2006-08-01

    The project DEMETER (DEMonstration of Earth observation TEchnologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) was dedicated to assessing and demonstrating improvements introduced by Earth observation (EO) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in farm and Irrigation Advisory Service (IAS) day-to-day operations. The DEMETER concept of near-real-time delivery of EO-based irrigation scheduling information to IAS and farmers has proven to be valid. The operationality of the space segment was demonstrated for Landsat 5-TM in the Barrax pilot zone during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation campaigns. Extra-fast image delivery and quality controlled operational processing make the EO-based crop coefficient maps available at the same speed and quality as ground-based data (point samples), while significantly extending the spatial coverage and reducing service cost. Leading-edge online analysis and visualization tools provide easy, intuitive access to the information and personalized service to users. First feedback of users at IAS and farmer level is encouraging. The paper gives an overview of the project and its main achievements.

  14. Taxing Feedlots in Alberta: Lethbridge County's Tax on Confined Feeding Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lethbridge County introduced a new business tax on confined feeding operations (CFO, notably feedlots, in 2016. It was expected to bring in $2.5 million for county road maintenance in 2017. However, the tax could have a detrimental impact on feedlot owners and is not the fairest way to amass revenue for road repairs. Four criteria can be used to evaluate a particular form of taxation. They are fairness, efficient resource allocation, compliance and administration costs, and revenue stability. This paper examines the potential impacts of the tax and proposes three alternative methods for financing Lethbridge County road maintenance that meet those criteria. These alternatives create less of an impact on feedlot owners and share the tax burden more equitably. They also reduce the potentially negative ripple effects that the CFO levy may have on feed producers, cattle producers, meat packers and consumers. The current tax is based on livestock storage capacity, rather than on production volume. It’s counter-productive in the long run because the feedlot’s fixed costs of production are increased, while its variable costs remain unaffected. This permanent increase in fixed costs, estimated to be as high as 20 per cent of the average operating margin per head of cattle, lowers the return on feedlot investments. Thus, the new tax could result in some feedlots being closed for lack of a high enough return on investment.A more equitable revenue source for road maintenance would be user fees imposed on the trucking industry. This system is already in use in Oregon and New Zealand. It uses GPS technology to track trucks on the roads and then charges the trucking companies a fee based on road use. It would certainly be worthwhile for the province to initiate a pilot program to test the system’s efficacy on Alberta roads. Lethbridge County could also implement a usage levy that would be based on how much it spends on roads, combined with a feedlot

  15. Performance and endurance of a PEMFC operated with synthetic reformate fuel feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sishtla, C; Koncar, G; Platon, R [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gamburzev, S; Appleby, A J [Texas Engineering Experimental Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; Velev, O A [AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, CA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    Widespread implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) powerplants for stationary and vehicular applications will be dependent in the near future on using readily available hydrocarbon fuels as the source of the hydrogen fuel. Methane and propane are ideal fuels for stationary applications, while methanol, gasoline, and diesel fuel are better suited for vehicular applications. Various means of fuel processing are possible to produce a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. CO is a known electrocatalyst poison and must be reduced to low (10`s) ppm levels and CO{sub 2} is said to cause additional polarization effects. Even with no CO in the feed gas a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas mixture will form some CO. Therefore, as a first step of developing a PEMFC that can operate for thousands of hours using a reformed fuel, we used an anode gas feed of 80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} to simulate the reforming of CH{sub 4}. To investigate the effect of reformate on cell performance and endurance, a single cell with an active area of 58 cm{sup 2} was assembled with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) furnished by Texas A and M University using IGT`s internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX{sup TM}) design configuration. The MEA consisted of a Nafion 112 membrane with anode and cathode Pt catalyst loadings of 0.26 and 1.46 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The cell was set to operate on a synthetic reformate - air at 60 C and 1 atm and demonstrated over 5000 h of endurance with a decay rate of less than 1%/1000 h of operation. The cell also underwent four successful thermal cycles with no appreciable loss in performance. The stable performance is attributed to a combination of the IGT IMHEX plate design with its inherent uniform gas flow distribution across the entire active area and MEA quality. The effects of temperature, gas composition, fuel utilization (stoics) and thermal cycle on cell performance are described. (orig.)

  16. Logistic indicators measurement in two assembly operations feeded by supply-chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Morais Menezes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the measurement of logistic indicators. The methodology was applied in two cases: a shoewear assembling manufacture and a air conditioning assembling operation, both feeded by supply-chains. The study of the assembling operation can be useful in synchronizing the supply-chain and reducing variability in order arrivals by forming an assembly buffer. The methodology applies quantitative and graphic analysis to evaluate leadtime, inventory, performance and buffer. The first case was an exploration of the model, testing and refine its quantitative part. The second case, more extended, studied, in quantitative and graphically modes, two serial processes: standard assembling of items delivered by a supply-chain and customized services. The case was discussed and the implications analyzed. With the so calculated indicators, we suggest inventory reduction in assembling and increase in customization, so the total leadtime can also be reduced. Key words:, Logistic indicators, Queues in manufacture, Manufacturing Control; Variability in Supply Chains, Supply Chain management.

  17. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, G; van Raamsdonk, L W D; Baeten, V; Murray, I; Berben, G; Brambilla, G; von Holst, C

    2003-04-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed. In addition, recently approved requirements, such as the ban of intra-species recycling (practice of feeding an animal species with proteins derived from the bodies, or parts of bodies, of the same species) are described. In principle, four different approaches are currently applied, i.e. microscopic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, immunoassay analysis and near infrared spectroscopy or microscopy. The principal performance characteristics of these methods are presented and compared, and their specific advantages and disadvantages described. Special emphasis is also placed on the impact of rendering conditions, particularly high temperatures and on the use of molecular biology techniques.

  19. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychowiak, M; Adnan, A; Alonso, A; Andreeva, T; Baldzuhn, J; Barbui, T; Beurskens, M; Biel, W; Biedermann, C; Blackwell, B D; Bosch, H S; Bozhenkov, S; Brakel, R; Bräuer, T; Brotas de Carvalho, B; Burhenn, R; Buttenschön, B; Cappa, A; Cseh, G; Czarnecka, A; Dinklage, A; Drews, P; Dzikowicka, A; Effenberg, F; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Estrada, T; Ford, O; Fornal, T; Frerichs, H; Fuchert, G; Geiger, J; Grulke, O; Harris, J H; Hartfuß, H J; Hartmann, D; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Höfel, U; Jabłoński, S; Jakubowski, M W; Kaczmarczyk, J; Klinger, T; Klose, S; Knauer, J; Kocsis, G; König, R; Kornejew, P; Krämer-Flecken, A; Krawczyk, N; Kremeyer, T; Książek, I; Kubkowska, M; Langenberg, A; Laqua, H P; Laux, M; Lazerson, S; Liang, Y; Liu, S C; Lorenz, A; Marchuk, A O; Marsen, S; Moncada, V; Naujoks, D; Neilson, H; Neubauer, O; Neuner, U; Niemann, H; Oosterbeek, J W; Otte, M; Pablant, N; Pasch, E; Sunn Pedersen, T; Pisano, F; Rahbarnia, K; Ryć, L; Schmitz, O; Schmuck, S; Schneider, W; Schröder, T; Schuhmacher, H; Schweer, B; Standley, B; Stange, T; Stephey, L; Svensson, J; Szabolics, T; Szepesi, T; Thomsen, H; Travere, J-M; Trimino Mora, H; Tsuchiya, H; Weir, G M; Wenzel, U; Werner, A; Wiegel, B; Windisch, T; Wolf, R; Wurden, G A; Zhang, D; Zimbal, A; Zoletnik, S

    2016-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered a MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. An overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.

  1. Updated Army Cook Staffing Model to Reflect Workloads Generated by Current Field Feeding Operations, Group Rations, and Kitchens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirejczyk, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    ...: the Unitized Group Ration-A (UGR-A) and the Unitized Group Ration-Heat/Serve (UGR-H/S). These fieldings were designed to increase the frequency and quality of group hot meals and reduce the cook workloads generated by field feeding operations...

  2. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs.The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor.There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  3. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadtaghi Rajabi Mashhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein          (hs-CRP, as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group.   Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction.   Conclusion:  The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding.

  4. How to Get Data from NOAA Environmental Satellites: An Overview of Operations, Products, Access and Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, N.; Graumann, A.; McNamara, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight access and availability of NOAA satellite data for near real time (NRT) and retrospective product users. The presentation includes an overview of the current fleet of NOAA satellites and methods of data distribution and access to hundreds of imagery and products offered by the Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In particular, emphasis on the various levels of services for current and past observations will be presented. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources. In special cases, users are authorized direct access to NESDIS data distribution systems for environmental satellite data and products. Other means of access include publicly available distribution services such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS), NOAA satellite direct broadcast services and various NOAA websites and ftp servers, including CLASS. CLASS is NOAA's information technology system designed to support long-term, secure preservation and standards-based access to environmental data collections and information. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is responsible for the ingest, quality control, stewardship, archival and access to data and science information. This work will also show the latest technology improvements, enterprise approach and future plans for distribution of exponentially increasing data volumes from future NOAA missions. A primer on access to NOAA operational satellite products and services is available at http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/About/access.html. Access to post-operational satellite data and assorted products is available at http://www.class.noaa.gov

  5. Dynamic emulation modelling for the optimal operation of water systems: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Galelli, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite sustained increase in computing power over recent decades, computational limitations remain a major barrier to the effective and systematic use of large-scale, process-based simulation models in rational environmental decision-making. Whereas complex models may provide clear advantages when the goal of the modelling exercise is to enhance our understanding of the natural processes, they introduce problems of model identifiability caused by over-parameterization and suffer from high computational burden when used in management and planning problems. As a result, increasing attention is now being devoted to emulation modelling (or model reduction) as a way of overcoming these limitations. An emulation model, or emulator, is a low-order approximation of the process-based model that can be substituted for it in order to solve high resource-demanding problems. In this talk, an overview of emulation modelling within the context of the optimal operation of water systems will be provided. Particular emphasis will be given to Dynamic Emulation Modelling (DEMo), a special type of model complexity reduction in which the dynamic nature of the original process-based model is preserved, with consequent advantages in a wide range of problems, particularly feedback control problems. This will be contrasted with traditional non-dynamic emulators (e.g. response surface and surrogate models) that have been studied extensively in recent years and are mainly used for planning purposes. A number of real world numerical experiences will be used to support the discussion ranging from multi-outlet water quality control in water reservoir through erosion/sedimentation rebalancing in the operation of run-off-river power plants to salinity control in lake and reservoirs.

  6. INCOME OVER FEED COST FOR SMALL- TO MEDIUM-SCALE BEEF CATTLE FATTENING OPERATIONS IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priyanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation was conducted of the returns to fattening cattle of small- and medium-scaleenterprises in East Java. The objective was to analyze income over feed costs (IOFC based on locallyavailable feedstuffs to increase liveweight gain. The study was conducted during July-September 2010and January-March 2011, representing relative dry and wet season. The breeds were PO and Limousinand Simmental crossed with PO (LimPO and SimPO. Small-scale farmers owning 1-2 bulls andmedium-scale farmers fattening 10-20 bulls in one period. Fattening period was 58 and 46 days,respectively for dry and wet season. Monthly measurements included liveweight, feed intake, input andoutput prices. Mean values of growth rates and IOFC were compared using t-tests. The results indicatedthat, for small-scale operations, SimPO bulls gave a significantly higher return than either PO or LimPObulls. Likewise, LimPO gave a higher IOFC than SimPO in medium-scale operations. Small-scalefarmers achieved equal or higher IOFC for European-cross than medium-scale farmers in both seasons.This reflects that cash outlays for feed were about two-thirds that of medium-scale operations whiledaily growth rates were similar. Small-scale fattening operations using European-cross can befinancially competitive with medium-scale operations in both wet and dry seasons.

  7. The GOES-R/JPSS Approach for Identifying Hazardous Low Clouds: Overview and Operational Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Corey; Pavolonis, Michael; Lindstrom, Scott; Gravelle, Chad; Terborg, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    transitioned to NOAA/NESDIS operations, which will ensure that users have long-term access to these products. This paper will provide an overview of the FLS products and illustrate how they are being used to improve transportation safety and efficiency.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  9. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  10. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012 Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. Methods This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN, designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. Results We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded, multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were

  11. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hana; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Durre Samin; Uddin, Shahadat; Dibley, Michael J; Abassi, Saleem; Shakeel, Amara; Kazmi, Narjis; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN), designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines) in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded), multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were the key actors in the government whereas UNICEF and

  12. Sexual Desire and Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. Introduction and Overview. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP Part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction.  Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal...... must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. Bitzer J, Giraldi A, and Pfaus J. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP part 1). J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  13. Experience feedback of an operation event during the experiment of feed-water pump switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shuhai; Li Huasheng; Zhang Hao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an event is summarized and analyzed, which caused the quit of the high-pressure heaters and the nuclear power rising, during the experiment of the driven feed-water pump switch. The good experience feedback on this event is brought out through gathering related information of domestic nuclear plants. (authors)

  14. Commissioning and First Operation of the Low-Beta Triplets and Their Electrical Feed Boxes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Feher, S; Ferlin, G; Kerby, J; Metral, L; Perin, A; Peterson, T; Prin, H; Rabehl, R; Vauthier, N; Wagner, U; van Weelderen, R

    2010-01-01

    The insertion regions located around the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are mainly composed of the low-b triplets, the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-b triplets are Nb-Ti superconductor quadrupole magnets, which operate at 215 T/m in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The commissioning and the first operation of these components have been performed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the low-b triplets and DFBX were studied. Cooling and control systems were tuned to optimize the cryogenic operation of the insertion regions. Hardware commissioning also permitted to test the system response. This paper summarizes the performance results and the lessons learned.

  15. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): R series hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gene; Criscione, Joseph C.; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) instrument is currently under development by the NASA GOES-R Project team within the framework of the GOES Program to fulfill the future needs and requirements of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Office. As part of the GOES-R instrument complement, HES will provide measurements of the traditional temperature and water vapor vertical profiles with higher accuracy and vertical resolution than obtained through current sounder technologies. HES will provide measurements of the properties of the shelf and coastal waters and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The HES team is forging the future of remote environmental monitoring with the development of an operational instrument with high temporal, spatial and spectral-resolution and broad hemispheric coverage. The HES development vision includes threshold and goal requirements that encompass potential system solutions. The HES team has defined tasks for the instrument(s) that include a threshold functional complement of Disk Sounding (DS), Severe Weather/Mesoscale Sounding (SW/M), and Shelf and Coastal Waters imaging (CW) and a goal functional complement of Open Ocean (OO) imaging, and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). To achieve the best-value procurement, the GOES-R Project has base-lined a two-phase procurement approach to the HES design and development; a Formulation/study phase and an instrument Implementation phase. During Formulation, currently slated for the FY04-05 timeframe, the developing team(s) will perform Systems Requirements Analysis and evaluation, System Trade and Requirements Baseline Studies, Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategy and complete a Preliminary Conceptual Design of the HES instrument. The results of the formulation phase will be leveraged to achieve an effective and efficient system solution during

  16. Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP.

  17. Corrosion in PWR steam generator tubes made of alloy 600TT: overview of operating experience, NDE and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curieres, I. de; Sollier, T.; Delaval, C.

    2015-01-01

    About 60 PWR plants worldwide are operating with steam generator tubes made of alloy 600TT, among which 27 are located in France. This alloy is susceptible to corrosion, both on the primary and secondary side in every fleet, though with different kinetics or extent. It is noteworthy that many of the primary side corrosion issues can be clearly explained by design or operating conditions. However, studies show that all the secondary side issues are much hardly explained by simple considerations. This paper will give an overview of the international operating experience of this alloy and indicate the associated controllability and safety-related issues. An emphasis will be put on the manufacturing, chemistry and specificities of the different fleets. The French situation will be reviewed in this frame. (authors)

  18. [Occurrence of quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics in swine and cattle manures from large-scale feeding operations of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection.

  19. Study of accelerated unit unloading mode initiated by turbine feed pump trip with TVSA fuel assemblies operation in WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysenko, V.I.; Kadenko, I.N.; Samoilenko, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the study results of accelerated unit unloading mode (AUU) initiated at WWER-1000 unit operated at 100 % power and its expediency in the event of single Turbo Feed Pump (TFP) failure. Modeling was performed using an advanced calculation code RELAP/SCDAPSIM/Mod3.4 and relevant model for KhNPP Unit No. 2. As the study shows, SCRAM cannot be prevented in case of failure of 3 main circulation pumps due to steam generators (SG) level drop. Based on the results obtained, it is reasonably justified to allow SCRAM signal instead of AUU activation in case of single TFP failure at power level more than 90 % of N n om. This will provide more sparing temperature modes for fuel assemblies and equipment, as well as prevent additional thermal cycling loads and violation of safe operation limits as SG water levels

  20. The training and qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel in Canada. A regulatory overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the history of training programmes for reactor operation personnel in Canada. With increased experience in reactor operation and awareness of reactor safety, more importance is given to the selection of a candidate and his training as control room operator or shift supervisor

  1. FUNGAL AND MICOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEEDS: EVALUATING RISK IN CATTLE INTENSIVE REARING OPERATIONS (FEEDLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaglieri LR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is the fourth global beef producer. Exposure to mycotoxins through contaminated feed is a major hazard for ruminants. In the present study we assess mycobiota, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, fumonisin B1 (FB1, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA levels in total mixed rations (TMRs during two consecutive years. Total fungal counts were evaluated and fungal species were identified. Also, ability of A. flavus isolates to produce AFB1 in vitro was tested. Natural contamination with AFB1 and FB1 was quantified by HPLC. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were analysed by immunochromatography and thinlayer chromatogra- phy (TLC, respectively. Fungal counts varied from not detectable (ND to 2.10 x 108 CFU g-1. The prevalent genera were Aspergillus spp (60 % and Fusarium spp (66.7 %, respectively The prevalent species was Aspergillus fumigatus. 50 % of A. flavus strains produced 75 to 112.5 μg g-1 AFB1. 46 % of 2007 samples were contaminated with 4 to 10 μg kg-1 AFB1. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 33.3 % of the samples (≥ 1. 25 μg g-1. Fumonisin B1 and ZEA were not detected. This study can be useful to estimate the mycotoxicological risk of cattle TMRs in this region and to compare results with studies from other beef-producing countries.

  2. On the effect of operating conditions in liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells: A multiphysics modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    A multiphysics model for liquid-feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells is presented. The model accounts for two-dimensional (2D) across-the-channel anisotropic mass and charge transport in the anode and cathode Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs), including the effect of GDL assembly compression and electrical contact resistances at the Bipolar Plate (BPP) and membrane interfaces. A one-dimensional (1D) across-the-membrane model is used to describe local species diffusion through the microporous layers, methanol/water crossover, proton transport, and electrochemical reactions, thereby coupling both GDL sub-models. The 2D/1D model is extended to the third dimension and supplemented with 1D descriptions of the flow channels to yield a 3D/1D + 1D model that is successfully validated. A parametric study is then conducted on the 2D/1D model to examine the effect of operating conditions on cell performance. The results show that an optimum methanol concentration exists that maximizes power output due to the trade-off between anode polarization and cathode mixed overpotential. For fixed methanol concentration, cell performance is largely affected by the oxygen supply rate, cell temperature, and liquid/gas saturation levels. There is also an optimal GDL compression due to the trade-off between ohmic and concentration losses, which strongly depends on BPP material and, more weakly, on the actual operating conditions. - Highlights: • A multiphysics model for liquid-feed DMFCs is presented. • GDL anisotropic transport, assembly compression, and ohmic contact resistances are considered. • The model is successfully validated against previous experimental data. • Optimum methanol concentrations, GDL compressions, and operating temperatures are reported. • Oxygen-starved conditions with spontaneous hydrogen evolution in the anode are also considered.

  3. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC): Overview of FRMAC operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Management Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is to explain the federal preparation for a radiological accident and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the boundaries of the monitoring which support the radiological accident site. In the event of a radiological accident, federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the accident scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the state(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all federal technical assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide these monitoring results in a working data center for immediate use by the state(s) and LFA decision makers. The federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibility

  4. A study on discrete event dynamic model for nuclear operations of main feed water pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J. C.; Choi, J. I.

    2000-01-01

    A major objective of the study is to propose a supervisory control algorithm based on the discrete event dynamic system (DEDS) model and apply it to the automation of nuclear operations. The study is motivated by the suitability of the DEDS model for simulation of man-made control action and the potential of the DEDS based supervisory control algorithm for enhanced licensibility, when implemented in nuclear plants, through design transparency due to strong analytic backgrounds. The DEDS model can analytically show the robust stability of the proposed supervisory controller providing design transparency for enhanced licensibility when implemented in nuclear operations

  5. The Department of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    trends. This report was designed to support the BEST’s and other operational components in planning and conducting outbound firearms smuggling...operations throughout the homeland and overseas through executing procurement, budget, logistics , and training functions. The Executive Information and...shooting and bombing rampage at two hotels , a railway station, hospital, Jewish Center, cafe, and cinema. 164 were killed. All of these attacks

  6. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  7. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  8. Overview of condition monitoring and operation control of electric power conversion systems in direct-drive wind turbines under faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoudao; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Jian; He, Yunze

    2017-09-01

    Electric power conversion system (EPCS), which consists of a generator and power converter, is one of the most important subsystems in a direct-drive wind turbine (DD-WT). However, this component accounts for the most failures (approximately 60% of the total number) in the entire DD-WT system according to statistical data. To improve the reliability of EPCSs and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of DD-WTs, numerous researchers have studied condition monitoring (CM) and fault diagnostics (FD). Numerous CM and FD techniques, which have respective advantages and disadvantages, have emerged. This paper provides an overview of the CM, FD, and operation control of EPCSs in DD-WTs under faults. After introducing the functional principle and structure of EPCS, this survey discusses the common failures in wind generators and power converters; briefly reviewed CM and FD methods and operation control of these generators and power converters under faults; and discussed the grid voltage faults related to EPCSs in DD-WTs. These theories and their related technical concepts are systematically discussed. Finally, predicted development trends are presented. The paper provides a valuable reference for developing service quality evaluation methods and fault operation control systems to achieve high-performance and high-intelligence DD-WTs.

  9. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  10. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model has been...

  11. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  12. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  13. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  14. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  15. Third-Generation Fatty Emulsions as Part of Parenteral Feeding in Operated Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lomidze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficacy of third- versus secondary-generation fatty emulsions as part of parenteral nutrition in patients operated on for gastric cancer. Subjects and methods. Envelope randomization was used to make up two groups, each comprising 10 patients, operated on for gastric cancer in the scope of gastrectomy. A control group received parenteral nutrition having the following components: Lipofundin MST/LST 20%, (500 ml daily + Nutriflex 48/150 (B. Braun (1000 ml daily, 1744 kcal/day. The study group patients were given Lipoplus 20% (500 ml daily + Nutriflex 48/150 (1000 ml daily, 1745 kcal/day. Parenteral nutrition was used on postoperative days 1 to 5. Results. Nutritional status evaluation revealed a significant increase in the concentration of total protein and albumin in the control and study group patients on postoperative day 6. The use of both second- and third-generation fatty emulsions caused a significant increase in the concentration of triglycerides on day 6 after surgery; no differences were found between the groups. On day 6 following surgery, there was a significant decrease in IL-4 in both groups (p<0.05. At the same time the Lipofundin MST/LST group showed a significantly lower concentration of IL-4 than did the study group (p<0.05. After termination of a parenteral nutrition course, the study and control groups showed a significant decrease in one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines — IL-6. Conclusion. In the study group, the serum anti-inflammatory activity of IL-4 was more evident than that in the control group and the proinflammatory activity (IL-6 concentration decreased, which can support that as compared with the second-generation fatty emulsions, third-generation ones with a balanced omega 3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio (1:2.7 had a normalizing effect on systemic inflammatory processes and cytokine balance with increased anti-inflammatory and reduced proinflammatory activities. Key words: third

  16. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  17. Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Morgan, Matthew J; Walsh, Tom; Wylie, Jason T; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2018-05-06

    The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the highly fatal disease, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, and estimated to cause 16 deaths per year in the United States alone. Colonisation of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) by the N. fowleri is a significant public health issue. Understanding the factors which enable this pathogen to colonise and thrive in DWDSs is critical for proper management. The microbial ecology within DWDSs may influence the ability of N. fowleri to colonise DWDSs by facilitating the availability of an appropriate food source. Using biofilm samples obtained from operational DWDSs, 16S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding was combined with genus-specific PCR and Sanger sequencing of intracellular associated bacteria from isolated amoeba and their parental biofilms to identify Meiothermus chliarophilus as a potential food source for N. fowleri. Meiothermus was confirmed as a food source for N. fowleri following successful serial culturing of axenic N. fowleri with M. chliarophilus or M. ruber as the sole food source. The ability to identify environmental and ecological conditions favourable to N. fowleri colonisation, including the detection of appropriate food sources such as Meiothermus, could provide water utilities with a predictive tool for managing N. fowleri colonisation within the DWDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.T.; Krenzien, S.K.; Geisinger, R.G.; Gordon, S.J.; Quinn, B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  19. Overview of steady-state tokamak operation and current drive experiments in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Hanada, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments aiming at 'day long operation at high performance' have been carried out. The record value of the discharge duration was updated to 5 h and 16 min. Steady-state tokamak operation (SSTO) is studied under the localized PWI conditions. The distributions of the heat load, the particle recycling flux and impurity source are investigated to understand the co-deposition and wall pumping. Formation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier ITB in enhanced current drive mode (ECD) has been investigated by controlling the lower hybrid driven current profile by changing the phase spectrum. An ITER relevant remote steering antenna for electron cyclotron wave ECW injection was installed and a relativistic Doppler resonance of the oblique propagating extraordinary wave with energetic electrons driven by lower hybrid waves was studied. (author)

  20. Parametrized overview of CO_2 power cycles for different operation conditions and configurations – An absolute and relative performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardemil, José M.; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of CO_2-based power cycles. • A multi-parameter analysis for different cycle configurations. • Performance comparison between CO_2 and four other fluids. • Detailed discussion considering optimized operational parameters (i.e., pressure, HX size). • Overview of the technical applicability of the CO_2. - Abstract: This thermodynamically based study focuses on the thermal performance of power cycles using CO_2 as the working fluid. The work considers numerous aspects that can influence the cycle's performance, such as the type of cycle (i.e., Rankine or Brayton), its configuration (i.e., with and without a recuperator), and different operational conditions (i.e., heat source temperature and the upper and lower operating pressures of the CO_2). To account for all possible scenarios, a thermodynamic routine was especially implemented and linked to a library that contained all the thermodynamics properties of CO_2. The results are mostly presented in terms of the absolute and relative 1st and 2nd Law efficiencies of CO_2 as well as the cycle's scale, here represented by the global conductance (UA) of the heat exchangers used within the cycle. For the relative performance assessment, four other working fluids, commonly used in energy conversion cycles, were considered (i.e., ethane, toluene, D4 siloxane and water). As expected, the absolute performance results indicate a strong dependence of the cycle's efficiencies on the operational conditions. As for the relative performance, the results suggest that while the CO_2's 1st Law efficiency might be lower than other fluids, its exergetic efficiency can be significantly higher. Furthermore, the calculations also indicate that the CO_2's needed global conductance is potentially lower than competing fluids (e.g., toluene) for certain operational conditions, which suggests that CO_2-based power plants can be more compact, since they might require smaller heat exchangers to produce

  1. The operative treatment of pressure sores in the pelvic region: A 10-year period overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jósvay, János; Klauber, András; Both, Béla; Kelemen, Péter B; Varga, Zsombor Z; Pesthy, Pál Cs

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic region pressure sores often develop following spinal cord injury. Surgery is often necessary for long standing, large-sized pressure sores not responding to conservative treatment. Authors analyze their results of a 10-year period, and identify factors contributing to the reduction of the recurrence rate. A total of 119 pressure sores were operated on 98 patients in two institutions during a 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). The encountered perioperative complications are summarized, and the recurrence rate is analyzed with a patient follow-up questionnaire. We experienced 15 perioperative complications (12.6%). All complications were fully resolved by conservative treatment. Fifty-eight returned patient replies were processed. The average follow-up time after surgery was 5.2 years. The recurrence rate was 5.47%. The strict adherence to surgical indications, full patient compliance, specialized pre- and post-operative patient care, our routinely used preferred surgical method, all contribute to a low post-operative complication rate, long-term flap survival, and an extended recurrence free period.

  2. Overview of plant life management for long term operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.S.; Vincze, P.; Bychkov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many IAEA member states have given high priority to licensing their nuclear power plants to operate for terms longer than the time frame originally anticipated (generally 40 years). The task of managing plant ageing is assigned in most member states to an engineering specialty called 'plant life management' (PLiM) applying a systematic analysis methodology to System Structure Components (SSCs) ageing. In many countries, the safety performance of nuclear power plants is periodically assessed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) process. Regulatory review and acceptance of PSRs constitutes for these countries the licensing requirement for continued operation of the plant to the following PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and in other countries operating US designed plants, instead of PSR process, a license renewal application (LRA) process is followed, which requires certain prerequisites such as ageing management programs, particularly for passive irreplaceable SSCs. Active components are normally addressed via the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. A third group of member states have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both the PSR process and selected LRA specific requirements, such as time limited ageing analysis. The article ends with some IAEA recommendations for the implementation of national PLiM programs

  3. Development of a feed-and-bleed operation strategy with hybrid-SIT under low pressure condition of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Seop, E-mail: jeoni@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Han, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shhan2@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 70 Daedeok-daero 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang Hee, E-mail: sanghee.kang@khnp.co.kr [NSSS Design Group, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Central Research Institute, 70, 1312-beongil, Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The novel F&B operation strategy with H-SIT and LPSI is developed. • The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermo-hydraulic simulations. • Success criteria considered for the new F&B operation strategy is identified. • A PSA model of APR+ reflecting the new F&B strategy with H-SIT is developed. • A risk analysis of the proposed F&B operation strategy is performed. - Abstract: While safety functions in current nuclear power plants are mainly provided by active safety systems, recently passive safety systems are being combined with the active systems to strengthen accident mitigation capability and therefore enhance overall plant safety. To this end, securing long-term cooling of the core is of particular importance. This study considers the hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT), a passive injection system, as a target component to develop a long-term cooling strategy using active and passive systems concurrently. In the feed-and-bleed (F&B) operation, one of the important long-term cooling strategies to maintain core safety in pressurized water reactors, low pressure safety injection (LPSI) pumps are typically considered inoperable as depressurization is first required, which leads to core dry-out before reaching LPSI operable pressure. This study investigates whether H-SITs, with the important design feature of passive coolant injection under any pressure condition of the primary coolant system, can make up the core during depressurization thereby allowing LPSI pumps to be used in F&B operation as an additional means of long-term cooling. The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermal-hydraulic simulations, and based on the results a novel F&B operation strategy with H-SITs and LPSI pumps is developed. A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model is then developed in order to assess the risk effect of the suggested strategy. PSA results demonstrate that the proposed strategy lowers core damage frequency in the target

  4. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  5. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  6. Operational experience, evolution and developments in water chemistry in Indian Nuclear Power Plants - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Lessons learnt from the experiences at nuclear power plants have enriched the understanding of corrosion behaviour in water systems. The need for proper water chemistry control not only during operation but also during fabrication and preoperational tests is clearly seen. It should not be construed that maintenance of proper water chemistry is a panacea for all corrosion and other associated problems. Unless adequate care is taken in selection of material and sound design and fabrication practices are followed, no regime of water chemistry can help in eliminating failure due to corrosion

  7. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  8. Operational Research Techniques Used for Addressing Biodiversity Objectives into Forest Management: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ezquerro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The integration of biodiversity into forest management has traditionally been a challenge for many researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we have provided a survey of forest management papers that use different Operations Research (OR methods in order to integrate biodiversity objectives into their planning models. One hundred and seventy-nine references appearing in the ISI Web of Science database in the last 30 years have been categorized and evaluated according to different attributes like model components, forest management elements, or biodiversity issues. The results show that many OR methods have been applied to deal with this challenging objective. Thus, up to 18 OR techniques, divided into four large groups, which have been employed in four or more articles, have been identified. However, it has been observed how the evolution of these papers in time apparently tended to increase only until 2008. Finally, two clear trends in this set of papers should be highlighted: the incorporation of spatial analysis tools into these operational research models and, second, the setting up of hybrid models, which combine different techniques to solve this type of problem.

  9. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  10. Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Overview, Operational Updates, and Coastal Ocean Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Kappus, Mary E.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) was built to measure in-water properties of complex coastal regions. HICO enables synoptic coverage; 100-meter spatial resolution for sampling the variability and spatial irregularity of coastal waters; and high spectral resolution to untangle the signals from chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments and varying bottom types. HICO was built by the Naval Research Laboratory, installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009, and operated for ONR for the first three years. In 2013, NASA assumed sponsorship of operations in order to leverage HICO's ability to address their Earth monitoring mission. This has opened up access of HICO data to the broad research community. Over 8000 images are now available on NASA's Ocean Color Website (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi/browse.pl?sen=hi). Oregon State University's HICO website (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu) remains the portal for researchers to request new collections and access their requested data. We will present updates on HICO's calibration and improvements in geolocation and show examples of the use of HICO data to address issues in the coastal ocean and Great Lakes.

  11. Legal environment and operation of general aviation aerodromes – the overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of general aviation aerodromes in Poland are regulated by more than 20 national and international legal acts. Knowledge about air law and its application ensures safe operations and flights at aerodromes and airfields. This paper summarizes source of law for general aviation and associated with its development strategies and reports. In the development of general aviation important role play small aerodromes, which are a “meeting point” for air transport sector and local economy, increase investments and tourism attractiveness of the region as well as are "meaningful way for the development of the region". Despite this, there is no legal act comprehensively regulating the issue of financial support for investment at important local aerodromes.

  12. An Overview of the Target Fabrication Operations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, R L; Bono, M J

    2005-01-01

    The Target Engineering team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) builds precision laser targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Omega Laser in Rochester, NY, and other experimental facilities. The physics requirements demand precision in these targets, which creates a constant need for innovative manufacturing processes. As experimental diagnostics improve, there is greater demand for precision in fabrication, assembly, metrology, and documentation of as-built targets. The team specializes in meso-scale fabrication with core competencies in diamond turning, assembly, and metrology. Figure 1 shows a typical diamond turning center. The team builds over 200 laser targets per year in batches of five to fifteen targets. Thus, all are small-lot custom builds, and most are novel designs requiring engineering and process development. Component materials are metals, polymers and low density aerogel foams. Custom fixturing is used to locate parts on the Diamond Turning Machines (DTM) and assembly stations. This ensures parts can be repeatably located during manufacturing operations. Most target builds involve a series of fabricating one surface with features and then relocating the components on another fixture to finish the opposite side of the component. These components are then assembled to complete multiple-component targets. These targets are typically built one at a time. Cost and efficiency are issues with production of targets, and the team is developing batch processing techniques to meet precision target specifications and cost goals. Three example target builds will highlight some of the fabrication and material issues faced at LLNL. A low temperature Rayleigh Taylor target shows how multiple precision targets can be fabricated out of a single large disk. The ignition double shell targets highlight the required manufacturing complexity. A low density aerogel target highlights some material handling and assembly issues. The metrology

  13. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Park, Y. S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C. H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K. L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, targets physics understanding needed for extrapolation to a steady-state ST Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, pilot plant, or DEMO. The unique ST operational space is leveraged to test physics theories for next-step tokamak operation, including ITER. Present research also examines implications for the coming device upgrade, NSTX-U. An energy confinement time, τE, scaling unified for varied wall conditions exhibits a strong improvement of BTτE with decreased electron collisionality, accentuated by lithium (Li) wall conditioning. This result is consistent with nonlinear microtearing simulations that match the experimental electron diffusivity quantitatively and predict reduced electron heat transport at lower collisionality. Beam-emission spectroscopy measurements in the steep gradient region of the pedestal indicate the poloidal correlation length of turbulence of about ten ion gyroradii increases at higher electron density gradient and lower Ti gradient, consistent with turbulence caused by trapped electron instabilities. Density fluctuations in the pedestal top region indicate ion-scale microturbulence compatible with ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning mode instabilities. Plasma characteristics change nearly continuously with increasing Li evaporation and edge localized modes (ELMs) stabilize due to edge density gradient alteration. Global mode stability studies show stabilizing resonant kinetic effects are enhanced at lower collisionality, but in stark contrast have almost no dependence on collisionality when the plasma is off-resonance. Combined resistive wall mode radial and poloidal field sensor feedback was used to control n = 1 perturbations and improve stability. The disruption probability due to unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) was surprisingly reduced at very high βN/li > 10 consistent with low frequency magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy measurements of mode stability. Greater

  14. Human and veterinary pharmaceutical abundance and transport in a rural central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Melody J; Smith, Lora; Frey, Jeff

    2013-02-15

    Previous research has documented the ubiquity of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwater, though their persistence and transport is relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the abundance and transport of human and veterinary PPCPs in a rural, central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Research objectives also aimed to identify mechanisms controlling abundance and transport. PPCP concentrations and stream physicochemical characteristics were measured monthly over one year at multiple sites along a 60 km reach. Overall, human PPCPs were more abundant and measured at higher concentrations than veterinary pharmaceuticals. Veterinary pharmaceutical concentrations (lincomycin, sulfamethazine) were greatest in stream reaches adjacent to CAFOs. No distinct spatial variation was observed for human PPCPs. However, caffeine and paraxanthine had significant temporal variation with higher concentrations in winter. In contrast, DEET had higher concentrations in summer. Pharmaceutical load (μg/s) ranged fromcaffeine are transported farther than triclosan though had lower loss velocities (loss relative to abundance). Loss rate of PPCPs was an order of magnitude lower than nitrate-N loss rate. Human PPCPs were more abundant than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this rural watershed influenced by CAFOs. Further, concentrations had significant temporal and spatial variation highlighting differential sources and fates. Thus, mechanisms driving PPCP retention and transport need to be identified to aid management of these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  16. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L"−"1 of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  17. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  19. Concentration, size, and density of total suspended particulates at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Lee, Jongmin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Liangcheng

    2015-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were seasonally collected at the air exhaust of 15 commercial concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs; including swine finishing, swine farrowing, swine gestation, laying hen, and tom turkey) in the U.S. Midwest. The measured TSP concentrations ranged from 0.38 ± 0.04 mg m⁻³ (swine gestation in summer) to 10.9 ± 3.9 mg m⁻³ (tom turkey in winter) and were significantly affected by animal species, housing facility type, feeder type (dry or wet), and season. The average particle size of collected TSP samples in terms of mass median equivalent spherical diameter ranged from 14.8 ± 0.5 µm (swine finishing in winter) to 30.5 ± 2.0 µm (tom turkey in summer) and showed a significant seasonal effect. This finding affirmed that particulate matter (PM) released from CAFOs contains a significant portion of large particles. The measured particle size distribution (PSD) and the density of deposited particles (on average 1.65 ± 0.13 g cm⁻³) were used to estimate the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 10 and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively) in the collected TSP. The results showed that the PM10 fractions ranged from 12.7 ± 5.1% (tom turkey) to 21.1 ± 3.2% (swine finishing), whereas the PM2.5 fractions ranged from 3.4 ± 1.9% (tom turkey) to 5.7 ± 3.2% (swine finishing) and were smaller than 9.0% at all visited CAFOs. This study applied a filter-based method for PSD measurement and deposited particles as a surrogate to estimate the TSP's particle density. The limitations, along with the assumptions adopted during the calculation of PM mass fractions, must be recognized when comparing the findings to other studies.

  20. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  2. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  3. Spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata link extract: the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance and product properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance (accumulation rate, product recovery, elutriation and thermal efficiency and product properties (moisture content, size distribution, flavonoid degradation and flow properties during spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata Link extract are evaluated. The parameters studied were the position of the atomizer system (top spray or bottom spray, the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150oC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 100%. Higher accumulation rate values were obtained with the atomizer placed at the bottom of the bed. In this configuration, the accumulation rate increases with the increase in the Ws/Wmax ratio. The best drying performance was obtained for the top spray configuration.

  4. The Role of Food Antioxidants, Benefits of Functional Foods, and Influence of Feeding Habits on the Health of the Older Person: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Douglas W.; Nash, Paul; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Griffiths, Keith; De Meester, Fabien; Horiuchi, Rie; Takahashi, Toru

    2017-01-01

    This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein. The importance of antioxidants for maintaining the physiological functions of liver, kidney, digestive system, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer has also been highlighted. Detailed discussion was focused on health promotion of the older person through the frequency and patterns of dietary intake, and a human ecology framework to estimate adverse risk factors for health. Finally, the role of the food industry, mass media, and apps were explored for today’s new older person generation. PMID:29143759

  5. The Role of Food Antioxidants, Benefits of Functional Foods, and Influence of Feeding Habits on the Health of the Older Person: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Douglas W; Nash, Paul; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Griffiths, Keith; Singh, Ram; De Meester, Fabien; Horiuchi, Rie; Takahashi, Toru

    2017-10-28

    This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein. The importance of antioxidants for maintaining the physiological functions of liver, kidney, digestive system, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer has also been highlighted. Detailed discussion was focused on health promotion of the older person through the frequency and patterns of dietary intake, and a human ecology framework to estimate adverse risk factors for health. Finally, the role of the food industry, mass media, and apps were explored for today's new older person generation.

  6. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  7. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  8. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), Phase I: Sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M. C.; Montagna, P.; Roscigno, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of a three-phase study to evaluate the range of biological, biochemical and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities in the Gulf of Mexico associated with oil and gas exploration and production, was provided. The basic program comprises four activities stretching over a two-year period, and is designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out of each of three sites. Sampling design includes a radial pattern with stations at intervals up to 3000 meters distant from the platform. The design employs a dose-response model to test the hypothesis that biological, biochemical and chemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Detailed analysis of the contaminants includes analysis of sediments, pore waters and biological tissue, and assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  9. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  10. On the evaluation of feed requirements and costs analysis of preirradiated fuel cycle operations for uranium fuelled light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.; Yasso, K.A.; Abdel Salam, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    This work is a part of an integrated scheme for nuclear power cost evaluation. The paper gives a brief description of the different operations included to get enriched UO 2 in its final form. A Material Balance Sheet is developed to estimate quantitatively the input material reguirements to each fuel operation. An improved approach for fuel cost analysis is developed. The paper includes a complete FORTRAN listing for the computer program carried out for this purpose together with description of the program input data requirements and output facilities. Illustrative numerical results are provided

  11. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation and all manure, litter, and process wastewater generated by those animals or the production of... owned, rented, or leased, to which manure, litter or process wastewater from the production area is or... turkeys; (ix) 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; (x) 125,000...

  12. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Søren Michael

    2018-01-01

    community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1 ± 0...

  13. Integrated process status overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Gaudio, P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes findings to date with the IPSO, a large plant status overview currently under development at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. As part of a joint Halden and Combustion Engineering project, the overview is being tested in part to determine whether the large screen overview concept being entertained for use in the nuclear power plant (NPP) industry will facilitate operator performance. To this end an interactive simulation technique was used to establish a proof-of-principle test for the IPSO. Process control, operations, and human factors experts at Halden participated in the test and evaluation

  14. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  15. An Analysis of Effect of Break-up Timing on the Necessity of a Feed-and-Bleed Operation in the case of TLOFW with Local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    A Feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation is a process to cool the reactor by the primary side directly. If adequate residual heat removal through the secondary side is not available, the heat can be removed from the RCS by F and B operation. A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident is used to represent an accident involving the failure of cooling by the secondary cooling system. Even if the secondary cooling system fails, the RCS can be cooled by F and B transients when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with a TLOFW accident occurs. During an F and B transient, the RCS has a residual heat removal mechanism. If the break size is large, an F and B transient continuously occurs if the SIS is available. If the break size is small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the SIS cannot inject the coolant, causing the F and B transient to terminate. After the termination of the F and B transient, the residual heat cannot be removed, and the necessity of an F and B operation increases. The operators may hesitate to initiate F and B operation if a clear cue is not provided, since its initiation implies the radioactive coolant releases into the containment. Therefore, the necessity of F and B operation is needed to be identified. The factors affected the necessity of F and B operation are the availability of the safety injection system and safety depressurization system, water inventory in the primary and secondary cooling systems, break size in a loss-of-coolant accident, and time of accident occurrence. The necessity of F and B operation can be changed according to different timing of break-up despite same break size. Moreover, different timing of break-up makes the operators more complicated. To identify effect of timing of break-up, a thermohydraulic analysis was performed using the MARS code. This study is expected to provide a useful guideline to identify the necessity of an F and B operation under combined accident

  16. Overview of the role of pre-operative breast MRI in the absence of evidence on patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    The role of pre-operative breast MRI is outlined on the basis of the existing evidence in favor of a superior capability in comparison with mammography and sonography to detect ipsilateral and contralateral malignant lesions and to evaluate the disease extent, including the extensive intraductal component associated with invasive cancers. Patients with a potential higher anticipated benefit from pre-operative MRI can be identified as those: with mammographically dense breasts; with a unilateral multifocal/multicentric cancer or a synchronous bilateral cancer already diagnosed at mammography and sonography; with a lobular invasive cancer; at high-risk for breast cancer; with a cancer which shows a discrepancy in size of >1 cm between mammography and sonography; or under consideration for partial breast irradiation. More limited evidence exists in favor of MRI for evaluating candidates for total skin sparing mastectomy or for patients with Paget's disease. Irrespective of whether the clinical team routinely uses preoperative MRI or not: women newly diagnosed with breast cancer should always be informed of the potential risks and benefits of pre-operative MRI; results of pre-operative MRI should be interpreted taking into account clinical breast examination, mammography, sonography and verified by percutaneous biopsy; MRI-only detected lesions require MR-guidance for needle biopsy and pre-surgical localization, and these should be available or potentially accessible if pre-operative MRI is to be implemented; total therapy delay due to pre-operative MRI (including MRI-induced work-up) should not exceed one month; changes in therapy planning resulting from pre-operative MRI should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feed back of the parents and / or relatives witnessing a squint surgery of their ward in the operation theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know the response of the relatives attending the squint surgery of their ward. A trained secretary administered an eight item questionnaire by live / telephonic interview. Of the 44 attendees, two left the Operation Theater before completion of the surgery. Mean age of the patients was 7.2 years ± 7.8 and that of the attendees was 36.1 years ± 8.5. Forty patients had a surgery under general anesthesia and four under local anesthesia. Eleven (25% attendees experienced an increase in anxiety. Thirty-six (82% attendees reported increased transparency, 38 (86% reported increased confidence, and 43 (98% reported increased awareness. None found any disadvantage. Twenty-seven (61% recommended this practice for all and 16 (36% recommended the practice selectively. The internal validity of the questionnaire was fair (Cronbach′s Alpha = 0.6. It was concluded that the presence of relatives in the Operation Theater during the surgery could bring in more transparency, accountability, confidence, awareness, and trust.

  18. Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. Loss-of-feedwater transient with primary feed-and-bleed operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    An experiment TR-LF-07 was conducted on June 23, 1992 using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) in the Rig of Safety Assessment-IV (ROSA-IV) Program. The ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07 simulated a loss-of-feedwater transient in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under assumptions of primary feed-and-bleed operation and total failure of auxiliary feedwater system. A safety injection (SI) signal was generated when steam generator (SG) secondary-side collapsed liquid level decreased to 3 m. Primary depressurization was initiated by fully opening a power-operated relief valve (PORV) of pressurizer (PZR) 30 min after the SI signal. High pressure injection (HPI) system was started in loop with PZR 12 s after the SI signal, while it was initiated in loop without PZR when the primary pressure decreased to 10.7 MPa. The primary and SG secondary pressures were kept almost constant because of cycle opening of the PZR PORV and SG relief valves. The PZR liquid level began to drop steeply following the PORV full opening, which caused liquid level formation at the hot leg. The PZR and hot leg liquid levels recovered due to the HPI actuation in both loops. The primary pressure became lower than the SG secondary pressure, which resulted in the actuation of accumulator (ACC) system in both loops. The PZR and hot legs became full of liquid again after the ACC actuation. The primary feed-and-bleed operation by use of the PORV, HPI and ACC systems was effective to core cooling because of no core uncovery. The experiment was terminated when the continuous core cooling was confirmed due to the successive coolant injection from the HPI system even after the ACC termination. The obtained data would be useful to study operator actions and procedures in the PWR multiple fault events which behaviors in the PZR affect. This report summarizes the test procedures, conditions and major observation in the ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. (author)

  19. A comparative simulation of feed and bleed operation during the total loss of feedwater event by RELAP5/MOD3 and CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.M.; Ro, T.S.; Song, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, which are two-loop 2,825 MW(thermal) pressurized water reactors designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, adopted a safety depressurization system (SDS) to mitigate the beyond-design-basis event of a total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). A comparative simulation by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM and RELAP5/MOD3 computer codes for the TLOFW event without operator recovery and the TLOFW event with feed and bleed (F and B) operation is performed for Ulchin 3 and 4. In the analyses, the SDS bleed paths are modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer, where the analytical area of the bleed path is based on the Ulchin 3 and 4 SDS design flow capacity. An additional case, where the SDS piping and valves are modeled explicitly, is considered for the RELAP5 analysis. The predictions by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM of the transient two-phase system behavior show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those by the RELAP5 simulation. The RELAP5 case with explicit piping results in less repressurization and lower reactor coolant system pressure than that of the case without explicit SDS modeling. However, the two cases of RELAP5 analyses result in essentially the same transient scenarios for TLOFW with F and B operation. The results of the simulation demonstrate the validity of the Ulchin 3 and 4 design approach, which employs CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer code and SDS bleed paths modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer. The results also indicate that the decay heat removal and core inventory makeup function can be successfully accomplished by F and B operation by using the SDS for Ulchin 3 and 4

  20. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Soren M; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Duque, Anouk F; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2018-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The transition in feedstock resulted in an adaptation of the acidogenic community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1±0.5 and 1.7±0.7 gCOD/L, respectively). As for the PHA storing culture, the genera Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus were enriched with fermented molasses (average 89% of Bacteria). Later, fermented cheese whey fostered a higher diversity, including some less characterised PHA-storers such as the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. Although the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the feedstock shift, the acidogenic and PHA storing performance of the 3-stage system was very similar once a pseudo steady state was attained, showing that a reliable level of functional redundancy was attained in both mixed cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  2. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, A.; Serrano, A.; Borja, R.

    2017-01-01

    Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES) operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application. [es

  3. Overview of the SEU project for extended burnup at the Atucha-I NPP. Four years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.M.; Higa, M.; Perez, R.; Pineyro, J.; Sidelnik, J.; Casario, J.A.; Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    Atucha I is a 357 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German design located in Argentina. Fuelling is on-power and the plant was originally fuelled with natural uranium. To reduce fuel costs a program was initiated in August 1993 to introduce gradually slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel (0.85 w% U-235) with an associated burnup increase from 5900 MWd/tU to 11300 MWd/tU. The introduction of SEU fuel started in January 1995 and the program was divided in three Phases with an upper limit of SEU FA in the core: 12, 60 and 252 (full core) and licensing documentation was prepared for each Phase. This paper describes the most important aspects of the operating and project experience, and some factors limiting the burnup extension from an operation point of view. After four years of the program and with 181 SEU FA (71%) of the core, the operating experience has been good and without unfavourable effects due to the use of SEU fuel with the only exception of a small increase of the time to reach full power in plant startups or power cycling. In particular, the new criteria to prevent PCI failures in power ramps for higher burnup SEU fuel in refueling operations, plant startups or power cycling has been effective. The average discharge burnup of the SEU fuel taken out of the reactor in 1998 was 11263 MWd/tU. The average discharge burnup of the natural fuel in the same year was 6640 MWd/tU, with an increase of about 12% of the original value for a natural fuel core. The average number of fresh fuel assemblies per full power day was being reduced from 1.31 to 0.92 in 1998 and 0.83 in 1999. The fuel costs dropped gradually during the program from 9.38 (with natural uranium fuel) to 6.57 $/MWh in the first four months of 1999 (taking as reference the NU and SEU FA costs for 1999). Because of this the SEU program has been an important contribution to the reduction of Atucha I operating costs and to the competitiveness of nuclear power generation against

  4. A new atomic beam polarized ion source for the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory: overview, operating experience, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Lemieux, S.K.; Sayer, R.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Hooke, W.M.; Howell, C.R.; Lewis, H.W.; Lovette, A.W.; Pfutzner, H.J.; Sweeton, K.A.; Wilburn, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    A newly constructed source of polarized H ± and D ± ions is described. Atomic H or D beams from a dissociator with a cooled nozzle enter a system of two sextupole magnets and several radio-frequency transitions where they are focused and polarized. They enter a downstream electron-cyclotron-resonance-heated plasma ionizer from which positive ions are extracted. When negative ions are desired, they may be produced from the positive beam by charge-exchange in cesium vapor. Emerging beams are intense, have good polarization, low energy spread, and good optical quality. Descriptions are included for all major systems and for diagnostic procedures used to optimize both the intensity and the polarization of the output H ± or D ± beams obtained. Typical operating experience, performance figures, and a description of routine maintenance procedures are given. ((orig.))

  5. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), phase I : sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M.C.; Green, R.H.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment (GOOMEX) is a three-phase study to test and evaluate a range of biological, biochemical, and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities associated with oil and gas exploration and production. A chronic impact is defined as an effect on the biota caused by exposure to the long-term accumulation of chemicals in the environment. The basic program, comprising four field activities over a 2-yr period, was designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out from each site. Five test sites were evaluated and three selected as most appropriate for long-term study: MU-A85, MAI-686, and HI-A389. The sampling design included a radial pattern with stations at 30-50, 100, 200, 500, and 3000 m distance and employed a dose-response model to test the hypotheses that biological, chemical, and biochemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Study components included contaminant (trace metals and hydrocarbons) analysis in sediments, pore waters, and biological tissues; assemblage analysis of benthic meiofauna, infauna, and epifauna, assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies; and the induction of detoxification responses. (author). 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  6. The Operational MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Product: Overview of the Collection 6 Algorithm and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties (part of the archived products MOD06 and MYD06, for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) are currently being reprocessed along with other MODIS Atmosphere Team products. The latest "Collection 6" processing stream, which is expected to begin production by summer 2012, includes updates to the previous cloud retrieval algorithm along with new capabilities. The 1 km retrievals, based on well-known solar reflectance techniques, include cloud optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path, as well as thermodynamic phase derived from a combination of solar and infrared tests. Being both global and of high spatial resolution requires an algorithm that is computationally efficient and can perform over all surface types. Collection 6 additions and enhancements include: (i) absolute effective particle radius retrievals derived separately from the 1.6 and 3.7 !-lm bands (instead of differences relative to the standard 2.1 !-lm retrieval), (ii) comprehensive look-up tables for cloud reflectance and emissivity (no asymptotic theory) with a wind-speed interpolated Cox-Munk BRDF for ocean surfaces, (iii) retrievals for both liquid water and ice phases for each pixel, and a subsequent determination of the phase based, in part, on effective radius retrieval outcomes for the two phases, (iv) new ice cloud radiative models using roughened particles with a specified habit, (v) updated spatially-complete global spectral surface albedo maps derived from MODIS Collection 5, (vi) enhanced pixel-level uncertainty calculations incorporating additional radiative error sources including the MODIS L1 B uncertainty index for assessing band and scene-dependent radiometric uncertainties, (v) and use of a new 1 km cloud top pressure/temperature algorithm (also part of MOD06) for atmospheric corrections and low cloud non-unity emissivity temperature adjustments.

  7. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  8. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century – A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin

    2015-01-01

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations. - Highlights: • More emphasis was placed on pollutant emissions than indoor air quality. • Basic research dedicated to new pollutants, modeling, and baseline emissions. • Applied research focused on developing monitoring and mitigation technologies. • Field demonstrations combined with projects to evaluate new mitigation approaches. • Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. - Different scales of basic and applied research were conducted and 15 mitigation technologies were demonstrated. Future work is needed in many fundamental and applied research areas

  9. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—I. Operation in absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A pilot plant study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate reactant feeds is presented. The membrane consisted of a porous alumina tube activated by insertion into its pores of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The role of reactants concentration and of the feed flow rates were

  10. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  11. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  12. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  13. Vulvovaginitis - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000897.htm Vulvovaginitis - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vulvovaginitis or vaginitis is swelling or infection of the ...

  14. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed

  15. Overview of HTGR fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of HTGR fuel recycle is presented, with emphasis placed on reprocessing and fuel kernel refabrication. Overall recycle operations include (1) shipment and storage, (2) reprocessing, (3) refabrication, (4) waste handling, and (5) accountability and safeguards

  16. EPICS system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues

  17. Locating Shallow Groundwater Discharge to Streams Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Using Aerial Infrared Thermography: A Novel Potential Pollution Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, K. L.; Pricope, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fear River Basin (CFRB) has some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) in the United States (factoryfarmmap.org) and was recently named one of the country's most endangered rivers (americanrivers.org). There is high potential for CAFO land use to degrade stream water quality by introducing pollutants, primarily nitrates and fecal coliform, into sub-surface and surface waters. The regionally high water table in the Lower CFRB increases the risk of water quality degradation due to increased connectivity of ground- and surface water. The Lower CFRB is periodically subjected to frequent or intense hurricanes, which have been shown to exacerbate water quality issues associated with CAFOs. Additionally, the growing population in this region is placing more pressure on an already taxed water source and will continue to rely on the Cape Fear River for drinking water and wastewater discharge. While there are documented occurrences of groundwater contamination from CAFOs, we still have little understanding on how and where pollution may be entering streams by shallow sub-surface discharge. Shallow groundwater discharge to streams is becoming easier to detect using thermal infrared imaging cameras onboard unmanned aerial systems. The temperature differences between groundwater and stream water are easily distinguished in the resulting images. While this technology cannot directly measure water quality, it can locate areas of shallow groundwater discharge that can later be tested for pollutants using conventional methods. We will utilize a thermal infrared camera onboard a SenseFly eBee Plus to determine the feasibility of using this technology on a larger scale within the Lower CFRB as an inexpensive means of identifying sites of potential pollution input. Aerial surveys will be conducted in two sub-watersheds: one containing swine CAFO and a control that lacks swine CAFO. Information from this study can be integrated into

  18. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—II. Operation in presence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and

  19. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise s...

  20. Introductory Overviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and

  1. Conference overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It had 17 plenary talks and as a new feature it also had 8 short talks which ..... absence of black holes, long-term simulations are possible and quantitative .... [3] For a brief overview, see The Nag Memorial Lecture by Ashoke Sen at the Inst-.

  2. Impact of new WHO growth standards on the prevalence of acute malnutrition and operations of feeding programs - Darfur, Sudan, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    Acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months is a key indicator routinely used for describing the presence and magnitude of humanitarian emergencies. In the past, the prevalence of acute malnutrition and admissions to feeding programs has been determined using the growth reference developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). In 2006, WHO released new international growth standards and recommended their use in all nutrition programs. To evaluate the impact of transitioning to the new standards, CDC analyzed anthropometric data for children aged 6-59 months from Darfur, Sudan, collected during 2005-2007. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that use of the new standards would have increased the prevalence of global acute malnutrition on average by 14% and would have increased the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition on average by 100%. Admissions to feeding programs would have increased by 56% for moderately malnourished children and by 260% for severely malnourished children. For programs in Darfur, this would have resulted in approximately 23,200 more children eligible for therapeutic feeding programs. For the immediate future, the prevalence of acute malnutrition in children should be reported using both the old WHO/CDC/NCHS reference and the new WHO standards. More research is needed to better ascertain the validity of the admission criteria based on the new WHO standards in predicting malnutrition-related morbidity and mortality.

  3. A brief overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) database and campaign operation centre (ChOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Dulac, François; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Initiated in 2010 in the framework of the multidisciplinary research programme MISTRALS (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional and Local Scales; http:www.mistrals-home.org), the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at federating the scientific community for an updated assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project combines mid- and long-term monitoring, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data, and modelling studies. In this presentation we provide an overview of the campaign operation centre (http://choc.sedoo.fr/) and project database (http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx), at the end of the first experimental phase of the project that included a series of large campaigns based on airborne means (including balloons and various aircraft) and a network of surface stations. Those campaigns were performed mainly in the western Mediterranean basin in the summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014 with the help of the ChArMEx Operation Centre (ChOC), an open web site that has the objective to gather and display daily quick-looks from model forecasts and near-real time in situ and remote sensing observations of physical and chemical weather conditions relevant for the everyday campaign operation decisions. The ChOC is also useful for post campaign analyses and can be completed with a number of quick-looks of campaign results obtained later in order to offer an easy access to, and comprehensive view of all available data during the campaign period. The items included are selected according to the objectives and location of the given campaigns. The second experimental phase of ChArMEx from 2015 on is more focused on the eastern basin. In addition, the project operation centre is planned to be adapted for a joint MERMEX-ChArMEx oceanographic cruise (PEACETIME) for a study at

  4. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview ACS-AEI Consortium Quarterly ACS Chapter News Cancer ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation ...

  6. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  7. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the enteric methane production in cattle. The possibilities are discussed to influence methane production by feeding measures and the use of feed additives, and by management measures. The possibilities are discussed against the background of Dutch cattle

  8. PHOBOS Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, David J.; Phobos Collaboration; Bbback; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Kwoźniak; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-11-01

    A brief overview of the current results and conclusions from the PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. No evidence is found for non-monotonic behavior of observables measured by PHOBOS in the RHIC energy region. Convincing evidence is found that we have created a state of matter with high energy-density, that is nearly net-baryon free and is strongly interacting. The data are found to exhibit "simple" scaling behaviors, which include extended longitudinal scaling and scaling with the number of participating nucleons. The Au+Au collision charged particle data also exhibit a remarkable factorization of collision energy and geometry.

  9. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  10. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  11. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  14. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  15. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  16. Overview of Tokamak Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, Bernhard; Samm, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of recent results obtained in tokamak devices. We introduce basic confinement scenarios as L-mode, H-mode and plasmas with an internal transport barrier and discuss methods for profile control. Important findings in DT-experiments at JET as α-particle heating are described. Methods for power exhaust like plasma regimes with a radiating mantle and radiative divertor scenarios are discussed. The overall impact of plasma edge conditions on the general plasma performance in tokamaks is illustrated by describing the impact of wall conditions on confinement and the edge operational diagram of H-mode plasmas

  17. : an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul , Anne

    2005-01-01

    à paraître dans Intellectica; The (tentative) conclusion of this paper is that pragmatics needs both the notions of point of view and of theory of mind. Though linguistic communication may often enough proceed at a fairly low level of sophistication, relying on the pragmatic module and operating on the basis of naïve optimism, it at least occasionally involves fairly sophisticated processes which involve perspective taking and operate at more sophisticated or even very sophisticated level of ...

  18. RETRAN overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agee, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The RETRAN code has become the industry standard with respect to NSSS transient analysis. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of important RETRAN-related events since the second International meeting in April of 1982. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part addresses the current status of the code with emphasis on the design review of RETRAN-02 MOD002 and the goal of RETRAN-02 in the Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP). These activities are being undertaken to simplify the use of RETRAN for safety analysis and reload application which may be part of an NRC submittal. The second part of the paper describes significant applications of RETRAN. In the analysis section, special emphasis is placed on validation analyses which compare the code to actual plant data or experimental facilities. The third section briefly describes the pre-release version of RETRAN and the developmental goals for the next version of RETRAN. One major limitation of all state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic codes is the determination of the structure of the fluid. A brief description of research needs in this are indicated

  19. Panorama de prácticas de alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados Overview of feeding practices in school adolescents Panorama de práticas de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA REY MARÍA CONSUELO DEL PILAR

    2009-12-01

    los adolescentes participantes están en riesgo de desarrollo de trastornos de conductas alimentarias. El 45,8%de las familias de los adolescentes compra en supermercados de grandes superficies; la madre es quien con mayor regularidad compra los alimentos (58,2 % y los cocina (71,1%. El 78,6% de las familias de los adolescentes consume alimentos fuera de casa. La familia constituye la mayor influencia en la alimentación, según los adolescentes (80,1%, seguida de los medios de comunicación (10,9%, los amigos (5% y el colegio (4%. Conclusiones: los adolescentes presentan prácticas alimenticias que pueden constituirse en riesgo para la aparición de enfermedades debido a consumos inadecuados de alimentos, que se traducen en aportes deficitarios de energía, vitamina A, vitaminas del complejo B, calcio y hierro y aportes elevados de proteínas. Prácticas alimentarias: no hay una distribución adecuada de los alimentos durante el día. Las emociones afectan a los consumos de alimentos; la familia y los medios de comunicación ejercen gran influencia en la alimentación de los adolescentes.Feeding of adolescents constitutes a topic of interest for nursing due to the effect that health promotion and disease prevention actions have. Said actions can be carried out during this life phase and have impact on current and future health of young people. Objective: evaluate the practices and influences of food in school adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 201 adolescents, which were evaluated for food intake, risks of feeding conduct disorders, feeding circumstances, influence of family, friends, school and media. Results: food consumption: the highest daily consumption was: cereals (436,2±172g/day, soft drinks and sweetened drinks (225,9±152 g/day, meat (155,4±70 g/day, fruits (145,3±66 g/day and diary (123,3±95 g/day. Also found was lower consumption of: sugars, pastries and ice creams (60,6±30,5 g/day, leguminous (49,5±58,2 g

  20. Panorama de prácticas de alimentación de adolescentes escolarizados Panorama de práticas de alimentação de adolescentes escolarizados Overview of feeding practices in school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA OSORIO MURILLO

    adolescentes.Feeding of adolescents constitutes a topic of interest for nursing due to the effect that health promotion and disease prevention actions have. Said actions can be carried out during this life phase and have impact on current and future health of young people. Objective: evaluate the practices and influences of food in school adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 201 adolescents, which were evaluated for food intake, risks of feeding conduct disorders, feeding circumstances, influence of family, friends, school and media. Results: food consumption: the highest daily consumption was: cereals (436,2±172g/day, soft drinks and sweetened drinks (225,9±152 g/day, meat (155,4±70 g/day, fruits (145,3±66 g/day and diary (123,3±95 g/day. Also found was lower consumption of: sugars, pastries and ice creams (60,6±30,5 g/day, leguminous (49,5±58,2 g/day, oils and butters (45,8±19,4 g/day, vegetables (35,2±58,2 g/day, eggs (26,7±24 g/day, snacks (10,3±13,4 g/day and fast food (4±11 g/day. Men reported alcohol consumption. Intake of energy and nutrients: While protein intake was high (126,3% of the requirements, the intake of energy was deficient (88,7% of the requirements. Deficiencies were found in the consumption of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, calcium and iron. Food habits: 74,6% of adolescents skipped at least one of the main daily meals. 35,3% of adolescents reported that their emotional situations such as anguish, anxiety, sadness and boredom influenced the increase of food consumption, while for 46,8% these feelings led them to reduce their food intake. 76,6% of adolescents would regularly eat in company while 22,4% would do it alone. 11% of the adolescents that participate are at risk of developing feeding conduct disorders. 45,8% of the adolescents' families shop at big supermarket chains; the mother is who regularly buys the food (58,2 % and kooks it (71,1%. 78,6% of the adolescents´ families

  1. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  2. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  3. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Delcourt, Jules H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nuclear power plants for electricity supply is presently considered as an important factor to be considered in any energy matrix to ensure the diversification and availability criteria. Currently several countries resumed or started programs for the construction of nuclear power plants of new projects, with extremely improved security levels. Additionally, events and accidents in nuclear power plants have contributed substantially to the occurrence of design modifications and/or update the regulatory requirements to further enhance operational safety of these plants. Nowadays, one of the regulatory requirements necessary for the selection of a site for construction and operation of nuclear installations is the public hearing and discussion. The city of Angra dos Reis has two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction. There are also, plans for the construction of more nuclear power plants in the country, to meet the growing demand for electricity. The first nuclear power plant in Brazil went into operation in 1983 and the second in 2000. The selection of the site for construction of these plants was due to political, economic and strategic factors, present in Brazil, in the decade of 70. The licensing process in de 70's decade did not involve an extensive participation of the society as a whole and of the local population, such as the occurrence of public hearings and the wide possibility for discussion and debate about the acceptance of the location of the plant. In the initial years of operation of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, the level of knowledge of the local population was practically null, occurring mainly in local clarifications, made through seminars and lectures on special occasions, such as at the time of the annual exercises of the external emergency plan, specific information Programs or technical visits of educational institutions and the Government to Angra dos Reis Nuclear power plant. Since the

  4. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/CGRC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo Combustivel; Ribeiro, Katia Maria Bruno; Medice Junior, Fabio, E-mail: Katiapsi.67@gmail.com [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Delcourt, Jules H., E-mail: juleshd@gmail.com [Colegio Naval, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of nuclear power plants for electricity supply is presently considered as an important factor to be considered in any energy matrix to ensure the diversification and availability criteria. Currently several countries resumed or started programs for the construction of nuclear power plants of new projects, with extremely improved security levels. Additionally, events and accidents in nuclear power plants have contributed substantially to the occurrence of design modifications and/or update the regulatory requirements to further enhance operational safety of these plants. Nowadays, one of the regulatory requirements necessary for the selection of a site for construction and operation of nuclear installations is the public hearing and discussion. The city of Angra dos Reis has two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction. There are also, plans for the construction of more nuclear power plants in the country, to meet the growing demand for electricity. The first nuclear power plant in Brazil went into operation in 1983 and the second in 2000. The selection of the site for construction of these plants was due to political, economic and strategic factors, present in Brazil, in the decade of 70. The licensing process in de 70's decade did not involve an extensive participation of the society as a whole and of the local population, such as the occurrence of public hearings and the wide possibility for discussion and debate about the acceptance of the location of the plant. In the initial years of operation of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, the level of knowledge of the local population was practically null, occurring mainly in local clarifications, made through seminars and lectures on special occasions, such as at the time of the annual exercises of the external emergency plan, specific information Programs or technical visits of educational institutions and the Government to Angra dos Reis Nuclear power plant. Since the

  5. NSTX Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Ono; M. Bell; R.E. Bell; M. Bitter; C. Bourdelle; D. Darrow; D. Gates; J. Hosea; S.M. Kaye; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; D. Johnson; B. LeBlanc; S. Medley

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has had a very productive period of plasma operations since the last ST Workshop in Seattle, WA, in November 1999. A number of new research tools have become available and the plasma parameters have improved significantly. These advances are describe in this paper

  6. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  7. An Overview of Corrosion Issues for the Design and Operation of High-Temperature Lead- and Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Lim, Jeongyoun

    2004-01-01

    The viability of advanced Pb- or Pb-Bi-cooled fast reactor systems will depend on the development of classes of materials that can operate over the temperature range 650-1200 deg. C. We briefly review the current state of the technology concerning the interaction of Pb and Pb-Bi alloys with structural materials. We then identify the key challenges to successful use of materials in these systems and suggest a path forward to the development of new materials and operating methods to allow higher-temperature operation. Our focus is on the necessary trade-offs that must be considered and how these trade-offs influence R and D choices. Our analysis suggests that three classes of materials will be needed for successful deployment of a lead-alloy-cooled reactor system. A lower-temperature qualified material will be necessary for the pressure boundary. The structural and cladding materials will require 1000 deg. C- and 1200 deg. C-class materials. The 1000 deg. C-class material will be exposed to the 1000 deg. C coolant. The 1200 deg. C-class material will be required for the cladding and structural materials in the core region. The higher-temperature material will be required to accommodate anticipated temperature transients from potential accident scenarios, such as a loss of flow

  8. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  9. Water-quality data from ground- and surface-water sites near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and non-CAFOs in the Shenandoah Valley and eastern shore of Virginia, January-February, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Monti, Michele M.; Ettinger, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) result from the consolidation of small farms with animals into larger operations, leading to a higher density of animals per unit of land on CAFOs than on small farms. The density of animals and subsequent concentration of animal wastes potentially can cause contamination of nearby ground and surface waters. This report summarizes water-quality data collected from agricultural sites in the Shenandoah Valley and Eastern Shore of Virginia. Five sites, three non-CAFO and two dairy-operation CAFO sites, were sampled in the Shenandoah Valley. Four sites, one non-CAFO and three poultry-operation CAFO sites were sampled on the Eastern Shore. All samples were collected during January and February 2004. Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters and constituents: temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen; concentrations of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci; bacterial isolates of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp.; sensitivity to antibiotics of E. coli, enterococci, and Salmonella spp.; arsenic, cadmium, chromium3+, copper, nickel, and mercury; hardness, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ortho-phosphate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon; and 45 dissolved organic compounds, which included a suite of antibiotic compounds.Data are presented in tables 5-21 and results of analyses of replicate samples are presented in tables 22-28. A summary of the data in tables 5-8 and 18-21 is included in the report.

  10. Use of radioimmunoassay as a screen for antibiotics in confined animal feeding operations and confirmation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, J.L.; Daughtridge, J.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Hostetler, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of the 50 000000 lb of antibiotics produced in the USA are used in agriculture. Because of the intensive use of antibiotics in the management of confined livestock operations, the potential exists for the transport of these compounds and their metabolites into our nation's water resources. A commercially available radioimmunoassay method, developed as a screen for tetracycline antibiotics in serum, urine, milk, and tissue, was adapted to analyze water samples at a detection level of approximately 1.0 ppb and a semiquantitative analytical range of 1-20 ppb. Liquid waste samples were obtained from 13 hog lagoons in three states and 52 surface- and ground-water samples were obtained primarily from areas associated with intensive swine and poultry production in seven states. These samples were screened for the tetracycline antibiotics by using the modified radioimmunoassay screening method. The radioimmunoassay tests yielded positive results for tetracycline antibiotics in samples from all 13 of the hog lagoons. Dilutions of 10-100-fold of the hog lagoon samples indicated that tetracycline antibiotic concentrations ranged from approximately 5 to several hundred parts per billion in liquid hog lagoon waste. Of the 52 surface- and ground-water samples collected all but two tested negative and these two samples contained tetracycline antibiotic concentrations less than 1 ppb. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to confirm the radioimmunoassay results in 9 samples and also to identify the tetracycline antibiotics to which the radioimmunoassay test was responding. The new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method with online solid-phase extraction and a detection level of 0.5 ??g/l confirmed the presence of chlorotetracycline in the hog lagoon samples and in one of the surface-water samples. The concentrations calculated from the radioimmunoassay were a factor of 1-5 times less than those calculated by the liquid

  11. ITER overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  12. ITER Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  13. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  14. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program (Overview of the Evolution and Success Stories from MOD During the Space Shuttle program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. This paper provides specific examples that illustrate how MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. This paper will discuss specific examples for the Plan, Train, Fly, and Facilities aspects within MOD. This paper also provides a discussion of the joint civil servant/contractor environment and the relative badge-less society within MOD. Several Shuttle mission related examples have also been included that encompass all of the aforementioned MOD elements and attributes, and are used to show significant MOD successes within the Shuttle Program. These examples include the STS-49 Intelsat recovery and repair, the (post-Columbia accident) TPS inspection process and the associated R-Bar Pitch Maneuver for ISS missions, and the STS-400 rescue mission preparation efforts for the Hubble Space Telescope repair mission. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  19. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  20. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  3. DICOM Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Dinu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces preliminary results of our research on DICOM – JPEG 2000 coupling: DICOM standard. DICOM standard defines method for transferring digital images of various formats and associated data between devices manufactured by various vendors. PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System inside a hospital that can interface with other informational subsystems is based on this standard. DICOM standard is applicable to a network and/or to an off-line media environment. These features of DICOM standard manage communication between PACS in different hospitals. That means that if patient is transferred to another hospital his new physician can access patient’s medical records over the network. They also manage online accession to medical records from physician’s home. The standard supports operations that are based on other computer protocols (TCP/IP, ISO 9660, etc. Digital image and associated data are coupled in a single DICOM file. Image pixels are encapsulated inside this file. Format of image can be native DICOM format and/or some other lossless or lossy standard (jpeg, jpeg 2000, etc. At the end, development of PACS system of Hospital for chest-diseases which is based on DICOM standard is discussedi.

  4. TC overview

    CERN Multimedia

    Nessi, M

    In line with the decision taken by the September Collaboration Board, we started the process of reorganizing the technical co-ordination (TCn). The detector construction project has been subdivided into 8 activities, each one managed by an activity manager (AM). For some activities the mandate of TCn is to monitor the progress of the work, for other tasks the construction responsibility is direct. AMs, system and subsystem Project Leaders and Project engineers form a new technical management structure (TMB), which deals with the day-by-day problems. The TMB meets the day before the Executive Board (EB), takes decisions and reports to the EB for major changes. This new operation mode has been in place for 4 months and seems to work. In the last few months a big effort was made to re-baseline the various schedules and the detector parameters. Since March we have a new LHC schedule, which targets the start of the machine commissioning at the end of 2005. By that time the initial detector configuration must be i...

  5. School feeding, moving from practice to policy: reflections on building sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Espejo, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    To provide an overview of the status of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of school feeding across sub-Saharan Africa and to reflect on the experience on strengthening M&E systems to influence policy making in low-income countries. Literature review on the M&E of school feeding programmes as well as data from World Food Programme surveys. Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries implementing school feeding. Only two randomized controlled impact evaluations have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. Where M&E data collection is underway, the focus is on process and service delivery and not on child outcomes. M&E systems generally operate under the Ministry of Education, with other Ministries represented within technical steering groups supporting implementation. There is no internationally accepted standardized framework for the M&E of school feeding. There have been examples where evidence of programme performance has influenced policy: considering the popularity of school feeding these cases though are anecdotal, highlighting the opportunity for systemic changes. There is strong buy-in on school feeding from governments in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this demand, development partners have been harmonizing their support to strengthen national programmes, with a focus on M&E. However, policy processes are complex and can be influenced by a number of factors. A comprehensive but simple approach is needed where the first step is to ensure a valid mandate to intervene, legitimizing the interaction with key stakeholders, involving them in the problem definition and problem solving. This process has been facilitated through the provision of technical assistance and exposure to successful experiences through South–South cooperation and knowledge exchange.

  6. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  7. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  8. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  9. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package

  10. Waste Generation Overview Refresher, Course 21464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Refresher (COURSE 21464), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to- grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL.

  11. Machining refractory alloys: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nontraditional machining is a generic term for those material removal processes that differ drastically from the historic operations such as turning, milling, drilling, tapping, and grinding. The use of primary energy modes other than mechanical, such as thermal, electrical, and chemical, sets these operations apart and reinforces their nontraditional label. Several of these newer processes have been very successful in machining close tolerance parts from refractory materials. This paper provides a general overview of both traditional and nontraditional aspects of machining refractory materials. 11 figures, 7 tables

  12. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  13. An overview of MEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical user interface to the EPICS control system and has also been used for other control systems. MEDM has two modes of operation, EDIT and EXECUTE. In its EDIT mode it provides the drawing tools needed to design control screens for operator interfaces. In its EXECUTE mode it manages those screens to communicate with the control system. MEDM provides a set of interface objects that falls into three main categories: (1) Monitors, such as text, meters, and plots; (2) Controllers, such as buttons, menus, and sliders; and (3) Drawing Objects, such as lines, rectangles, and images. Each of these objects has many options, allowing for the development of screens ranging from simple to quite sophisticated. MEDM has been developed over the last decade, primarily at Argonne National Laboratory, and is a large, well tested, extensively used program. It runs on most flavors of UNIX, VMS, and Windows 95/98/NT. It has been used to design thousands of control screens, such as the one shown in Fig. 1, at the Advanced Photon Source and other sites around the world. This paper presents an overview of MEDM and its features

  14. Operating system verification—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that did not fully address customer needs, or at worst were useless. ..... dangerous are the relationships between the informal and formal parts. .... provides translation from virtual to physical addresses and other management functions like.

  15. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  16. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  17. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  18. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  19. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  20. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  1. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  5. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Templates All Chronic Surveillance Systems Communications Center Social Media Press Room Press Release Archives Multimedia Communication Campaigns Publications Chronic Disease Overview 2016–2017 At A ...

  6. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  7. Development, prevention, and treatment of feeding tube dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; de Winter, J Peter; Kindermann, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    Enteral nutrition is effective in ensuring nutritional requirements and growth. However, when tube feeding lasts for a longer period, it can lead to tube dependency in the absence of medical reasons for continuation of tube feeding. Tube-dependent children are unable or refuse to start oral activities and they lack oral skills. Tube dependency has health-, psychosocial-, and economy-related consequences. Therefore, the transition to oral feeding is of great importance. However, this transition can be very difficult and needs a multidisciplinary approach. Most studies for treatment of tube dependency are based on behavioral interventions, such as family therapy, individual behavior therapy, neuro-linguistic programming, and parental anxiety reduction. Furthermore, oral motor therapy and nutritional adjustments can be helpful in tube weaning. The use of medication has been described in the literature. Although mostly chosen as the last resort, hunger-inducing methods, such as the Graz-model and the Dutch clinical hunger provocation program, are also successful in weaning children off tube feeding. The transition from tube to oral feeding is important in tube-dependent children but can be difficult. We present an overview for the prevention and treatment of tube dependency. What is known: • Longer periods of tube feeding can lead to tube dependency. • Tube weaning can be very difficult. What is new: • Weaning as soon as possible and therefore referral to a multidisciplinary team are recommended. • An overview of treatment options for tube dependency is presented in this article.

  8. Design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake East Toe berm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, B.R.; Martens, S.N.; Meyer, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Syncrude surface mining oil sand operation is located near Fort McMurray, Alberta, and produces an average of 470 tonnes of oil sand feed daily, which, after undergoing a bitumen extraction phase, generates 360,000 tonnes of tailings solids. This production yields approximately 83 million barrels of Syncrude Sweet Blend annually, being 13% of Canada's oil production. Tailings from the extraction process are used to hydraulically construct containment dikes and supporting beaches of the storage facilities, while the process water is returned to the extraction process. Since the start of the operation in 1978, the Mildred Lake Settling Basin has been Syncrude's primary tailings storage facility, and many design changes have occurred over 20 years which have optimized sand storage at the facility. An overview is included of the final design and preliminary performance of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm currently being constructed along Cells 20 to 25 of Syncrude's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. The main point of constructing the East Toe Berm is to provide storage for 20 million cubic m or more of tailings over the period of March 1998 to July 1999. Following this period, a permanent tailings storage will be available in-pit. The key features of the Mildred Lake East Toe Berm described include the planning, design, and construction aspects, of which an additional benefit is an added storage capacity to the existing Mildred Lake Settling Basin. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Feeding and eating disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.

  10. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  11. NASA CYGNSS Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gleason, S.; McKague, D. S.; O'Brien, A.

    2017-12-01

    The CYGNSS constellation of eight satellites was successfully launched on 15 December 2016 into a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit. Each satellite carries a four-channel bi-static radar receiver that measures GPS signals scattered by the ocean, from which ocean surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux are estimated. The measurements are unique in several respects, most notably in their ability to penetrate through all levels of precipitation, made possible by the low frequency at which GPS operates, and in the frequent sampling of tropical cyclone intensification and of the diurnal cycle of winds, made possible by the large number of satellites. Engineering commissioning of the constellation was successfully completed in March 2017 and the mission is currently in the early phase of science operations. Level 2 science data products have been developed for near surface (10 m referenced) ocean wind speed, ocean surface roughness (mean square slope) and latent heat flux. Level 3 gridded versions of the L2 products have also been developed. A set of Level 4 products have also been developed specifically for direct tropical cyclone overpasses. These include the storm intensity (peak sustained winds) and size (radius of maximum winds), its extent (34, 50 and 64 knot wind radii), and its integrated kinetic energy. Assimilation of CYGNSS L2 wind speed data into the HWRF hurricane weather prediction model has also been developed. An overview and the current status of the mission will be presented, together with highlights of early on-orbit performance and scientific results.

  12. Modelación energética y operacional del sistema de agua de alimentar caldera de una central termoeléctrica; Modeling energetic and operational of the boiler feed water system of a power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Miguel Solís Alemán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo combinado basado en la implementación paralela de dos aproximadores funcionales, utilizando una red neuronal del tipo (MLP y una regresión estadística, para la obtención de las características energéticas y de operación actual del Sistema de Agua de Alimentar Caldera (SAAC en una Central Termoeléctrica (CTE, en la cual se regula el flujo de agua a la caldera por variación de velocidad. La respuesta del modelo combinado se obtiene a partir de la suma ponderada de cada aproximador funcional. Dicho modelo es utilizado para relacionar el consumo de corriente y la posición del variador de velocidad, en función de la presión de descarga y el flujo entregado por cada bomba del SAAC. Para el ajuste de los modelos se utilizan mediciones almacenadas en el archivo histórico del sistema SCADA, donde se aplica un método de procesamiento de datos para eliminar ruidos que pueden afectar el ajuste de los modelos propuestos.Is proposed a combined model based on the parallel implementation of two functional approximators, using a neural network of the type (MLP and a statistical regression to obtain the actual energetic and operation characteristics of the Boiler Feed Water System (BFWS in a Power Plant, in which the water flow to the boiler is controlled by variation speed. The response of the combined model is obtained from the weighted sum of each functional approximator. This model is used to relate the current consumption and the position of the speed variator, in function of the discharge pressure and flow delivered by each pump of the BFWS. For the fit of the models is used save measurements of the historical file of the SCADA system, where is applied a data processing method to eliminating noise that can affect the fit of the models proposed.

  13. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  14. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  15. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  6. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  7. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  8. Fast reactor physics - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the basic features of fast neutron reactors is made, highlighting the differences from the more conventional thermal neutron reactors. A discussion of important feedback reactivity mechanisms is given. Then an overview is presented of the methods of fast reactor physics, which play an important role in the successful design and operation of fast reactors. The methods are based on three main elements, namely (i) nuclear data bases, (ii) numerical methods and computer codes, and (iii) critical experiments. These elements are reviewed and the present status and future trends are summarized. (author)

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  10. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  11. Fims, forestry information management system: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This geographic information system has been developed as part of Forestry Canada's Eastern Quebec Forestry Program for woodlot owners in eastern Quebec. The goal was to provide private woodlot operators with a management system that uses the most advanced technology available. This booklet provides an overview of this system, explaining how the system can be used.

  12. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  13. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  15. Research Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEER logo Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center home about peer news events research products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links research Research Program Overview Tall Buildings Initiative Transportation Research Program Lifelines Program Concrete Grand

  16. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  17. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  18. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  19. HAMMLAB 2000 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalem, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the form of a collection of overheads, this is an overview of HAMMLAB 2000. It also covers project organization, advisory groups, research agenda, status of simulators, status of software systems, VR Centre, Petro Hammlab and physical planning

  20. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  1. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  2. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  3. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  4. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  5. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  6. Development of new processing technology for ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Zainun Said; Alias Saidali; Erwan Md Ariff

    2002-01-01

    The technology for production ruminant feed from agriculture by-product remains scare despite plentiful availability of feeding materials worldwide. Factors that prohibit the process technology development suggested that their peculiar physical make up, high cost of production and inferior product quality compared to established raw material, had consequently impeding the effort. In Malaysia, only two pilot plants exist; they demonstrate utilization of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) into feed. In the case of OPF in situ utilization as feed, farmers use chipper machine or shredder to process it. Other by-products have not been successfully exploited, except for Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) that already in commercial operation. In view of the by-product availability as feeding material in ruminant feeding system and availability of new chipper and shredder machines, the prospect of processing agriculture by-products into feed is expected to be a promising business venture. This paper describes the technology for production of new feed from oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB). It elaborates on Sterifeed Plant Operation based on plant capacity of 0.5 ton/day production. The operation aspects discuss raw materials handling and processing as well as transforming the products into marketable forms. In this process EFB is initially predigested by fungi in solid state fermentation process into feed materials; the product is ready to be fed in fresh form to animal. The operation exercise has established actual process flow, identified problems and process drawbacks. Based on this experience, availability of localized raw materials EFB at the palm oil mill and rapid development of processing machinery, it is very likely that a commercially viable feed processing plant can be established in the near future. In addition, establishing more data on product quality by further test and characterization of the new feed may contribute to success of the project. (Author)

  7. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  8. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  9. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  10. Applying precision feeding techniques in growing-finishing pig operations Técnicas de alimentação de precisão em operações de suínos em crescimento-terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Pomar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of feed ingredients, the use of non-renewable sources of phosphate and the dramatic increase in the environmental load resulting from the excessive land application of manure are major challenges for the livestock industry. Precision feeding is proposed as an essential approach to improve the utilization of dietary nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and thus reduce feeding costs and nutrient excretion. Precision feeding requires accurate knowledge of the nutritional value of feedstuffs and animal nutrient requirements, the formulation of diets in accordance with environmental constraints, and the gradual adjustment of the dietary nutrient supply to match the requirements of the animals. After the nutritional potential of feed ingredients has been precisely determined and has been improved by the addition of enzymes (e.g. phytases or feed treatments, the addition of environmental objectives to the traditional feed formulation algorithms can promote the sustainability of the swine industry by reducing nutrient excretion in swine operations with small increases in feeding costs. Increasing the number of feeding phases can also contribute to significant reductions in nutrient excretion and feeding costs. However, the use of precision feeding techniques in which pigs are fed individually with daily tailored diets can further improve the efficiency with which pigs utilize dietary nutrients. Precision feeding involves the use of feeding techniques that allow the provision of the right amount of feed with the right composition at the right time to each pig in the herd. Using this approach, it has been estimated that feeding costs can be reduced by more than 4.6%, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion can both be reduced by more than 38%. Moreover, the integration of precision feeding techniques into large-group production systems can provide real-time off-farm monitoring of feed and animals for optimal slaughter and production

  11. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy: also a simple technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Foster, J; Rosemurgy, A S; Carey, L C

    1992-01-01

    Placement of feeding tubes is a common procedure for general surgeons. While the advent of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has changed and improved surgical practice, this technique is contraindicated in many circumstances. In some patients placement of feeding tubes in the stomach may be contraindicated due to the risks of aspiration, gastric paresis, or gastric dysmotility. We describe a technique of laparoscopic jejunostomy tube placement which is easy and effective. It is noteworthy that this method may be used in patients who have had previous abdominal operations, and it has the added advantage of a direct peritoneal view of the viscera. We suggest that qualified laparoscopic surgeons learn the technique of laparoscopic jejunostomy.

  13. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  14. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...... for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...

  15. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  16. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  18. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  19. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  1. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  2. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  3. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  5. Developing and verifying design and operational criteria for the active sludge process involving staggered feed with the elimination of nitrogen; Desarrollo y verificacion de criterios de diseno y oporacion para el proceso de fangos activos de alimentacion escalonada con eliminacion de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrea, L.; Larrea, A.; Ayesa, E.; Rodrigo, J. C.

    2000-07-01

    This study focused on the staggered feed process with three denitrification-nitrification reactor phases. In the first place, criteria for the optimum selection of design parameters were developed using simulations based on mathematical models of the process and efficient operational strategies were suggested. The results of the simulation were then verified by means of tests in a pilot plant. In regard to the design parameters, the simulation studies showed that the optimum in-flow to the three anoxic reactors lies within the range 40-40-20% to 33-33-34%, depending on the characteristics of the waste water and the requirements of the effluent. These latter two conditions and, therefore, the distribution of the inflow, determine the volumes of the aerobic and anoxic reactors. The operating strategy proposed consists in reducing the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the first two aerobic reactors and using optional areas in the last D-N stage of the process. The experimental results obtained confirmed the validity of the design and operational criteria that had been developed. Finally, it was found that if IWA model no. 1 is appropriately calibrated, it has a great capacity for predicting the behaviour of the staggered feed process. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. Physics Survey Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole

  7. Biogas partner - commonly feeding. Feed-in of biogas in Germany and Europe. Market, technology and actors; Biogaspartner - gemeinsam einspeisen. Biogaseinspeisung in Deutschland und Europa. Markt, Technik und Akteure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Michael; Lermen, Alexandra; Rostek, Sandra (comps.)

    2010-05-15

    One of the most promising applications of biomass is the production of biogas. In the middle of 2010, nearly 4,350 plants exist in Germany according to the production of biogas by fermentation of biomass. The brochure under consideration gives an overview of the production and application of bio methane as well as an overview of the market tendency and framework conditions to the feed-in of biogas in Germany. The substantial advantages of the feed-in of biogas feed are presented.

  8. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Reliance Cell Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Reliance Cell Operator. Reliance was the only bidder for cellular licences for Assam and NE. Services allowed only in Guwahati and Shillong due to “security reasons”. Only major cities in the country with only one operator.

  10. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  11. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk

  12. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-07-02

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk.

  13. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  14. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  15. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  16. Mechanisms for Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feedplants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued...

  17. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  18. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  19. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  20. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  1. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  2. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  3. ISAF Overview Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Eager Afghans NEW PA STUDENTS NATO / ISAF UNCLASSIFIED NATO / ISAF UNCLASSIFIED ISAF Overview Brief, MHS Conference 2011 – Attrition, Leader deficit...doctors (male/fem), 2 nurses, 2 midwives. 100k-300k XRAY, surgery, OB, physiotherapy , pediatrician, pharmacist, dentist. 10k-15k An extension of the BHC

  4. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  5. Pentaquarks. An experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, D.

    2005-01-01

    Since the recent observation of a pentaquark (Θ + = qqqqq-bar) state (see Nakano et al. (LEPS Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett.91 (2003) 012002-1) several positive and negative experimental results have emerged. These results are overviewed, with a trial to find common features among them. (author)

  6. Cascade annealing: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Schiffgens, J.O.

    1976-04-01

    Concepts and an overview of radiation displacement damage modeling and annealing kinetics are presented. Short-term annealing methodology is described and results of annealing simulations performed on damage cascades generated using the Marlowe and Cascade programs are included. Observations concerning the inconsistencies and inadequacies of current methods are presented along with simulation of high energy cascades and simulation of longer-term annealing

  7. THX Experiment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark; Wroblewski, Adam; Locke, Randy; Georgiadis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of experiments conducted at NASA GRC to provide turbulent flow measurements needed for new turbulence model development and validation. The experiments include particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire measurements of mean flow velocity and temperature fields, as well as fluctuating components.

  8. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  9. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  10. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  11. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  12. Design scheme of automatic feeding equipment of domestic uranium chemical concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jinming; Wang Chao; Peng Jinhui; Zhang Libo

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems by artificial feeding mode with low work efficiency, large intensity manual labor and environmental pollution in domestic uranium concentrate purification process, the design scheme of automatic feeding device was set up, including work flow sheet, composition of automatic equipment and operation. By application of automatic feeding equipment, the feeding speed can be greatly increased, labor force can be reduced, and harm to workman health can be decreased. (authors)

  13. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkan, Kerem; Uslu, Fazıl E.; Chang, Brain; Mani, Karthick; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Holzman, Roi

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larv...

  14. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O and M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis

  15. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    . Sci. & Technol. Vol. 18 (2) 2010 The most essential and major operational input in successful aquaculture is the feed and hence cheap and nutritionally balanced effective artificial feeds need to be developed. From historical times, carrageen..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  16. Distribution Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems in Germany – Implications on Grid Planning and Grid Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic is the most dispersed renewable energy source in Germany, typically interconnected to low and medium voltage systems. In recent years, cost-intensive grid reinforcements had to be undertaken all across Germany’s distribution grids in order to increase their hosting capacity for these photovoltaic installations. This paper presents an overview on research results which show that photovoltaic itself can provide ancillary services to reduce its cost of interconnection. Especially the provision of reactive power turned out to be a technically effective and economically efficient method to increase a grid’s hosting capacity for photovoltaic capacity. Different reactive power control methods were investigated, revealing significant differences with regards to their grid operation implications. Business cases for residential-scale photovoltaic applications have shifted from feed-in-tariff based active power feed-in to self-consumption. However, increasing the photovoltaic self-consumption by additional battery-storage systems is still not economically reliable in Germany. (author)

  17. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  18. DIII-D research operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D. (ed.)

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R D; and collaborative efforts.

  19. DIII-D research operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R ampersand D; and collaborative efforts

  20. Smart Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, Joshua; Chung, Ching-Yen; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-02-19

    WINSmartEV™ is a smart electric vehicle charging system that has been built and is currently in operation. It is a software and network based EV charging system designed and built around the ideas of intelligent charge scheduling, multiplexing (connecting multiple vehicles to each circuit) and flexibility. This paper gives an overview of this smart charging system with an eye toward its unique features and capabilities.

  1. Russian Environmental Law - an Overview For Business.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratsiborinskaya, Daria

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstractRussia has carried out major environmental policy reforms during its transition period since the early 1990s, including with respect to global issues such as climate change, loss of biodiversity and ozone layer depletion. In view of these changes, this chapter provides a brief overview of current (and forthcoming) Russian environmental law as applicable to businesses operating in Russia. By touching upon the main difficulties that investors may face, e.g., environmental charge...

  2. An overview of US refinery configurations and operations (within western Canada supply orbit) : Who currently uses bitumen and SCO? Just how much heavy oil/bitumen is it possible to accept?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    A list of US refiners, names and locations that take relatively major heavy crude oil and synthetic crude oil (SCO) volumes from Western Canada was provided. It was suggested that in the near future, production of Canadian heavy crude will not be constrained by supply limits but rather by refinery process capabilities. An overview of refining capacity and heavy oil processing capacity by PADD in kbpsd was presented. The Northern Tier US States (PADD II, PADD IV and Washington/Oregon in PADD V) constitute a total of 4.4 million bpcd refining capacity at 95 per cent utilization. Of this, about 3.4 million bpcd is in PADD II. Montana in PADD IV is the only area dependent solely on Canadian heavy crude supplies. Main competition for Canadian heavy crude comes from Alaska, Mexico, and Venezuela. 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Environmental taxation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Vincent; Duboucher, Peggy; Ben Maid, Atika; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Calvet, Melanie; Poupard, Christophe; Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Vicard, Augustin; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    This official publication proposes a detailed overview of the situation of environmental taxation in France. It first gives a general overview by discussing some key figures, by recalling the chronology of the main environmental taxation arrangements, and by discussing lessons learned from French and foreign experiments for an efficient, acceptable and consistent taxation. The second part proposes a detailed presentation of environmental taxation by distinguishing its main themes and objectives: struggle against climate change, reduction of air pollution and water pollution, and wastes, preservations and development of resources from biodiversity (soil artificialization, sustainable management of fauna and flora), efficient use of non renewable resources and of water (water resources, energetic and mineral raw materials). For each of these themes, the report presents the environmental problematic, and the existing arrangements, and proposes some elements of international comparison. The last part proposes a list of all environmental taxes

  4. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  5. BIOMIMICRY – AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanić, Kasandra-Zorica; Tadić, Zoran; Omazić, Mislav Ante

    2015-01-01

    Biomimicry implies the creative implementation of biological concepts into products. This paper provides a broad overview of the field of biomimicry, and has described the conversion of physiological and organizational solutions from nature into products and services. Implementation and economic efficiency is shown through selected examples. Four examples of successful implementation of nature solutions are the following: Velcro, lotus-effect, structural coloration and tubercles on the fins o...

  6. Overview of TCV results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alberti, S.; Amorim, P.; Arnoux, G.; Asp, E.; Behn, R.; Bernard, M.; Blanchard, P.; Bortolon, A.; Bottino, A.; Camenen, Y.; Coda, S.; Curchod, L.; Duval, B.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Fundameski, W.; Furno, I.; Garcia, E.O.; Gnesin, S.; Goodman, T.; Graves, J.; Gudozhnik, A.; Gulejova, B.; Henderson, M.; Hogge, J. Ph.; Horáček, Jan; Joye, B.; Karpushov, A.; Klimanov, I.; Laqua, H.; Lister, J. B.; Llobet, X.; Madeira, T.; Marinoni, A.; Marki, J.; Martin, Y.; Maslov, M.; Moret, J.-M.; Mueck, A.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Pavlov, I.; Piffl, Vojtěch; Pitts, R.A.; Pitzschke, A.; Pochelon, A.; Porte, L.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Sauter, O.; Scarabosio, A.; Shidara, H.; Schlatter, C.; Sushkov, A.; Tonetti, G.; Tran, M. Q.; Turri, G.; Udintsev, V.; V´eres, G.; Volpe, F.; Weisen, H.; Zabolotsky, A.; Zuchkova, A.; Zucca, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2008), s. 1-10 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : overview highlights * tokamak TCV * energy and momentum transport * edge physics * H-mode physics * electron cyclotron heating * electron cyclotron current drive physics * density peaking * density peaking Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.730, year: 2008 http://stacks.iop.org/NF/48/034001

  7. Overview of CSR codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, G.; Agoh, T.; Dohlus, M.; Giannessi, L.; Hajima, R.; Kabel, A.; Limberg, T.; Quattromini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects play an important role in accelerator physics. CSR effects can be negative (emittance growth in bunch compressors and microbunching instability) or positive (production of CSR in a controlled way). Moreover, CSR is of interest in other fields such as astrophysics. Only a few simple models have been solved analytically. This motivates the development of numerical procedures. In this review article we overview different numerical methods to study CSR effects

  8. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  9. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  10. Microwave solidification project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  11. Microwave solidification project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included

  12. Radiation Diffusion: An Overview of Physical and Numerical Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, F R

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the physical and mathematical foundations of radiation transport is given. Emphasis is placed on how the diffusion approximation and its transport corrections arise. An overview of the numerical handling of radiation diffusion coupled to matter is also given. Discussions center on partial temperature and grey methods with comments concerning fully implicit methods. In addition finite difference, finite element and Pert representations of the div-grad operator is also discussed

  13. Effects of feed process variables on Hanford Vitrification Plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Wagner, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of nuclear defense activities, high-level liquid radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site for over 40 yr. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being proposed to immobilize these wastes in a waste form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. Prior to vitrification, the waste will undergo several conditioning steps before being fed to the melter. The effect of certain process variables on the resultant waste slurry properties must be known to assure processability of the waste slurry during feed preparation. Of particular interest are the rheological properties, which include the yield stress and apparent viscosity. Identification of the rheological properties of the slurry is required to adequately design the process equipment used for feed preparation (agitators, mixing tanks, concentrators, etc.). Knowledge of the slurry rheological properties is also necessary to establish processing conditions and operational limits for maximum plant efficiency and reliability. A multivariable study was performed on simulated HWVP feed to identify the feed process variables that have a significant impact on rheology during processing. Two process variables were evaluated in this study: (a) the amount of formic acid added to the feed and (b) the degree of shear encountered by the feed during processing. The feed was physically and rheologically characterized at various stages during feed processing

  14. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  15. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  17. Genetically modified organisms in food and feed : annual report 2010 of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT - Institue of Food Safety). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2010. In 2010 RIKILT participated in one ring trial for inter laboratory validation

  18. Genetically modified organisms in food and feed : annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2011. In 2011 both RIKILT and the Routine Field Laboratory of the Netherlands Food

  19. Genetically modified organisms in food and feed : annual report 2012 of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Molenaar, B.; Zaaijer, S.; Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Dutch Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (RIKILT Wageningen UR). The report gives an overview of the NRL activities carried out in 2012. In 2012 the two Dutch Official Laboratories participated in several proficiency tests with good

  20. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  1. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  2. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  3. Fatigue and fracture: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview of the status of the fatigue and fracture programs is given. The programs involve the development of appropriate analytic material behavior models for cyclic stress-strain-temperature-time/cyclic crack initiation, and cyclic crack propagation. The underlying thrust of these programs is the development and verification of workable engineering methods for the calculation, in advance of service, of the local cyclic stress-strain response at the critical life governing location in hot section compounds, and the resultant crack initiation and crack growth lifetimes.

  4. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Pathological gambling: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  6. Theory overview on spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A theoretical overview of the exotic spectroscopy in the charm and beauty quark sector is presented. These states are unexpected harvest from the e + e - and hadron colliders and a permanent abode for the majority of them has yet to be found. We argue that some of these states, in particular the Y b (10890) and the recently discovered states Z b (10610) and Z b (10650), discovered by the Belle collaboration are excellent candidates for tetraquark states [bq][ anti b anti q], with q=u,d light quarks. Theoretical analyses of the Belle data carried out in the tetraquark context is reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Economic Sanctions Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sanctions Seminar held on November 19 was organized by LexisNexis Russia in cooperation with ANO Pericles.The Seminar theme was ‘Economic Sanctions Overview: Due Diligence and AML Procedures.’ In the course of the seminar, practicing lawyers, compliance and AML professionals had the opportunity to interact on the scope of US A and EU Sanctions and their impact on global business transaction, as well as get a better understanding of the due diligence procedures necessary in order to comply with a such complex environment.

  8. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Li, Mingzhong; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Malek, Nazneen; Davies, Angela; Trappitt, Gary

    2011-10-31

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are emerging as a new class of solid drugs with improved physicochemical properties, which has attracted increased interests from both industrial and academic researchers. In this paper a brief and systematic overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals is provided, with particular focus on cocrystal design strategies, formation methods, physicochemical property studies, characterisation techniques, and recent theoretical developments in cocrystal screening and mechanisms of cocrystal formations. Examples of pharmaceutical cocrystals are also summarised in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the situation in particle physics and a prognosis of its future: ideas which have been tested or will soon be tested (standard model and the light Higgs particle), ideas whose time has not yet come (supersymmetry, supersymmetry and N=1 supergravity, right-left symmetry and preons, unification of gravity with other forces, anomaly-free supergravities, supersymmetry strings, string theory as the ''Theory of Everything'' (T.O.E.); passive and non accelerator experiments. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  11. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  12. Overview on pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Biplab

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the exotic pentaquark states is provided, from early searches in $KN$ scattering experiments in the 1970’s to the now-debunked $\\Theta^+(1540)$ in the early 2000’s, to the discovery two resonances consistent with pentaquark states by LHCb in 2015. We review the full angular analysis of $\\Lambda^0_b \\to J/ \\psi K^-p$ that led to affirmation of the resonant nature of the $P^+_c (4450)$ and $P^+_c (4380)$ pentaquark candidates. We summarize the latest results, ongoing work and future prospects for other pentaquark searches at LHCb.

  13. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  14. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  15. Feed water control device in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent substantial fluctuations of the water level in a nuclear reactor and always keep a constant standard level under any operation condition. Constitution: When the causes for fluctuating the reactor water level is resulted, a certain amount of correction signal is added to a level deviation signal for the difference between the reactor standard level and the actual reactor water level to control the flow rate of the feed water pump depending on the addition signal. If reactor scram should occur, for instance, a level correction signal changing stepwise depending on a scram signal is outputted and added to the level deviation signal. As the result, the flow rate of feed water sent into the reactor just after the scram is increased, whereby the lowering in the reactor water level upon scram can be decreased as compared with the case where no such level compensation signal is inputted. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  17. Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    1987-01-01

    In the past five years, distributed operating systems research has gone through a consolidation phase. On a large number of design issues there is now considerable consensus between different research groups. In this paper, an overview of recent research in distributed systems is given. In turn, the

  18. Optimizing Dam Operations for Power and for Fish: an Overview of the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers ADvanced Turbine Development R&D. A Pre-Conference Workshop at HydroVision 2006, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon July 31, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-08-01

    This booklet contains abstracts of presentations made at a preconference workshop on the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers hydroturbine programs. The workshop was held in conjunction with Hydrovision 2006 July 31, 2006 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland Oregon. The workshop was organized by the Corps of Engineers, PNNL, and the DOE Wind and Hydropower Program. Presenters gave overviews of the Corps' Turbine Survival Program and the history of the DOE Advanced Turbine Development Program. They also spoke on physical hydraulic models, biocriteria for safe fish passage, pressure investigations using the Sensor Fish Device, blade strike models, optimization of power plant operations, bioindex testing of turbine performance, approaches to measuring fish survival, a systems view of turbine performance, and the Turbine Survival Program design approach.

  19. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  20. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  1. Overview of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, G.; Malerba, L.

    2005-12-01

    In this report an overview on interatomic potentials is given. This overview is by no means complete and it has merely the intention to give the reader an idea of where interatomic potentials come from, as well as to provide the basic ideas behind some commonly used methods for deriving interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics applications. We start by giving a short introduction about the concept of interatomic potential in the framework of quantum mechanics, followed by a short description of commonly used methods for deriving semi-empirical interatomic potentials. After some short theoretical notions on each method, some practical parameterizations of commonly used potentials are given, including very recent ones. An effort has been made to classify existing approaches within a rational and consequent scheme, which is believed to be of use for a thorough comprehension of the topic. Although these approaches can be used in a variety of different materials, we will only discuss the practical cases of metals. Following this, some widespread ad hoc modification of the general methods are discussed. The report is concluded by a generalization of the methods to multi-component materials, in particular metallic alloys. (author)

  2. Overview of the US Strategic National Stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.

    2009-01-01

    The CBMTS community last received an overview of the United States Strategic National Stockpile in Dubrovnik during the Spring of 2001. The events that occurred later that year and the ensuing response have resulted in a dramatic expansion of both the scope and complexity of the Strategic National Stockpile. These changes are seen not only in the scope of the Materiel holdings which have grown by several orders of magnitude, but in the increasingly complex operational designs which can rapidly bring the materiel to bear in a clinically relevant time frame. Mr. Adams, Deputy Director of the program from the time of its 1999 inception, will provide a detailed overview of the current program highlighting many of the changes and evolutions which have occurred during the past 8 years.(author)

  3. Taxing Pennsylvania: A Family-Focused Overview of Pennsylvania Taxes. State Fiscal Analysis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    Noting that a state's tax policies have direct impact on a family's ability to feed, clothe, house, educate, and care for its children, this report presents an overview of taxes in the state of Pennsylvania. The report is presented in five sections. Section 1 presents the argument that it is necessary to understand the rule driving the revenue…

  4. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  5. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  6. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  7. An Overview of Biofield Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehsam, David; Chevalier, Gaétan; Barsotti, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biophysics, biology, functional genomics, neuroscience, psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and other fields suggest the existence of a subtle system of “biofield” interactions that organize biological processes from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, and organismic to the interpersonal and cosmic levels. Biofield interactions may bring about regulation of biochemical, cellular, and neurological processes through means related to electromagnetism, quantum fields, and perhaps other means of modulating biological activity and information flow. The biofield paradigm, in contrast to a reductionist, chemistry-centered viewpoint, emphasizes the informational content of biological processes; biofield interactions are thought to operate in part via low-energy or “subtle” processes such as weak, nonthermal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or processes potentially related to consciousness and nonlocality. Biofield interactions may also operate through or be reflected in more well-understood informational processes found in electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Recent advances have led to the development of a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic biofield devices, defined as physical instruments best understood from the viewpoint of a biofield paradigm. Here, we provide a broad overview of biofield devices, with emphasis on those devices for which solid, peer-reviewed evidence exists. A subset of these devices, such as those based upon EEG- and ECG-based heart rate variability, function via mechanisms that are well understood and are widely employed in clinical settings. Other device modalities, such a gas discharge visualization and biophoton emission, appear to operate through incompletely understood mechanisms and have unclear clinical significance. Device modes of operation include EMF-light, EMF-heat, EMF-nonthermal, electrical current, vibration and sound, physical and mechanical, intentionality and nonlocality

  8. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  9. WFIRST: Project Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jeffrey; WFIRST Formulation Science Working Group, WFIRST Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will be the next Astrophysics flagship mission to follow JWST. The observatory payload consists of a Hubble-size telescope aperture with a wide-field NIR instrument and a coronagraph operating at visible wavelengths and employing state-of-the-art wavefront sensing and control. The Wide-field instrument is optimized for large area NIR imaging and spectroscopic surveys, with performance requirements driven by programs to study cosmology and exoplanet detection via gravitational microlensing. All data will be public immediately, and a substantial guest observer program will be supported.The WFIRST Project is presently in Phase A, with a transition to Phase B expected in early to mid 2018. Candidate observing programs are under detailed study in order to inform the mission design, but the actual science investigations will not be selected until much closer to launch. We will present an overview of the present mission design and expected performance, a summary of Project status, and plans for selecting the observing programs.

  10. Crew factors in flight operations II : psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report is the second in a series on the physiological and psychological effects of flight operations on flight crews, and on the operational significance of these effects. This overview presents a comprehensive review and interpretation of the m...

  11. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  12. Concept Overview & Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is an opportunity for wide-scale use of hydrogen as an intermediate that carries energy from various production options to multiple uses. It is based on identifying and developing opportunities for low-cost hydrogen production and investigating opportunities for using that hydrogen across the electricity, industrial, and transportation sectors. One of the key production opportunities is use of low-cost electricity that may be generated under high penetrations of variable renewable generators such as wind and solar photovoltaics. The technical potential demand for hydrogen across the sectors is 60 million metric tons per year. The U.S. has sufficient domestic renewable resources so that each could meet that demand and could readily meet the demand using a portfolio of generation options. This presentation provides an overview of the concept and the technical potential demand and resources. It also motivates analysis and research on H2@Scale.

  13. Overview of LLRF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liepe, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades accelerator controls and feedback systems have changed dramatically. While in the past relative simple analog systems where used, present systems are highly complex, and all accelerators in planning or under construction heavily relay on advanced feedback and feedforward control schemes. The Low-Level-Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system not only stabilizes the field in the RF cavities, but also has to provide among other things frequency control, exception handling, extensive diagnostic, and performance and machine availability maximization. As manifold as the tasks are for the LLRF system, so are the challenges. Linac driven light sources require highest field stability, while pulsed machines or low beta linacs bring their own challenges for the LLRF system. This presentation reviews the challenges and demands on present and future LLRF systems, gives an overview of state-of-the-art solutions, and an introduction into a very active and exciting field of accelerator physics.

  14. Retrievability: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using available information from the published literature and material obtained from a network of contacts, a short introductory overview of international developments in the field of retrievability of emplaced nuclear waste was produced for the Swedish National Siting Coordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal. This examined the issue in terms of a number of basic questions: Definition, Need, Design Implications, Safeguards for Fissile Material, Public Acceptability and Safety Assessment. The report was submitted in February 1999, and acted as a catalyst for the organisation of an international seminar by KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (these proceedings). This paper describes the report contents, and points to the invited papers at the seminar which expand on and update the limited descriptions in the original report. (author)

  15. Roboethics a navigating overview

    CERN Document Server

    Tzafestas, Spyros G

    2016-01-01

    This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action. It examines how ethical and moral theories can and must be applied to address the complex and critical issues of the application of these intelligent robots in society. Coverage first presents fundamental concepts and provides a general overview of ethics, artificial intelligence and robotics. Next, the book studies all principal ethical applications of robots, namely medical, assistive, socialized and war roboethics. It looks at such issues as robotic surgery, children-robot and elderly-robot therapeutical/social interactions and the use of robots, especially autonomous lethal ones, in warfare. In addition, a chapter also considers Japanese roboethics as well as key intercultural and robot legislation issues. Overall, readers are provided with a thorough investigation into the moral responsibility (if any) of autonomous ro...

  16. Energy research 2003 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2003. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed

  17. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  18. An overview of BMIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Research in BMIs has grown rapidly in the last few years. However, little attention has been paid to the overall system behavior, most published work being focused on the signal classification (i.e., translation) stage. More recently an increasing amount of work has been centred around the feature selection stage that precedes translation. The emphasis in feature selection and translation has stemmed from the large number of researchers with a machine learning or pattern recognition background who have recently joined the field. While there is an important contribution to BMIs, two crucial elements have not been sufficiently explored: the selection of suitable mental tasks and feedback protocols. This review presents an overview of BMIs and its main elements, with a focus on why each stage is important for the overall performance of such systems.

  19. Overview of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1986-02-01

    An overview of the situation of particle physics at the end of 1985 is given. It includes the following topics: ideas which have been tested or will soon be tested such as the standard model based on the symmetry group SUsub(C)(3)xSUsub(L)(2)xU(1), light Higgs and preons; theoretical ideas whose time has not yet come (basically because no accelerators are being constructed to test them) such as N=1 supersymmetry and N=1 supergravity right-handed weak currents, extended supergravities and superstring models; ideas for which non-accelerator and passive experiments have been mounted such as proton decay, nn-bar oscillations, neutrino masses and oscillations, monopoles and dark matter

  20. Monadologies:An historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Jeremy; Phemister, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This introductory overview comprises (i) a brief account of Leibniz's own monadology; (ii) a discussion of the reception of his philosophy up to Kant; and (iii) a short overview of the monadologies developed after Kant's first Critique, made via a summary of key points raised in this guest issue, highlighting recurrent themes, which include questions of historiography.

  1. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  2. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  3. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  4. Innovated feed water distributing system of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Sousek, P.; Simo, T.; Lehota, M.; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.

    2000-01-01

    Defects in feed water distributing system due to corrosion-erosion effects have been observed at many VVER 440 steam generators (SG). Therefore analysis of defects origin and consequently design development and testing of a new feed water distributing system were performed. System tests in-situ supported by calculations and comparison of measured and calculated data were focused on demonstration of long term reliable operation, definition of water flow and water chemical characteristics at the SG secondary side and their measurements and study of dynamic characteristics needed for the innovated feed water distributing system seismic features approval. The innovated feed water distributing system was installed in the SGs of two VVER units already. (author)

  5. Fluid coking : a competitive option for heavy feed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.G.; Feinberg, A.S.; McCaffrey, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid coking is a proven thermal conversion process for converting heavy hydrocarbon feeds to lighter products. Fluid coking was commercialized by Exxon over 40 years ago. A total of 13 units have been built with over 330 years of cumulative operating experience. Fluid coking can process many different feeds at once and is usually insensitive to feed contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen and metals. New developments in coke utilization and flue gas desulfurization/departiculation have prompted new economic studies. Fluid coking is competitive and is the most attractive option compared to delayed coking, particularly for very heavy feed stocks such as deasphalter bottoms. Viewgraphs describe the fluid coking process, its advantages, utilization, and commercial viability. 7 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  8. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  9. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  10. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  11. Feed-forward general-purpose computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H; Yoshioka, Y; Nakamura, T; Shigei, Y

    1983-08-01

    The feed forward machine (FFM) proposed by the authors has a CPU composed of many fixed arithmetic units and registers. Many features of the FFM which are compatible with concurrent operating and reduce the instruction requirement for store are reported. In order to evaluate the FFM, the minimum execution time of instructions is discussed by using the Petri Net model. From this it is predicted that the execution time will be 0.46-0.6 times the real execution time. Furthermore, it is concluded that the program for the FFM will be reduced in size with respect to the program for the Von Neumann computers. 12 references.

  12. Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.; Saadawy, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient K w is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient K s from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18 deg.. C to 45 deg.. C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate. (author)

  13. Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM): Concept Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.; Graff, Thomas J.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Carreno, Victor; Kibler, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is an Interval Management (IM) concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable the implementation of airborne pairwise spacing capabilities in oceanic regions. The goal of PTM is to use airborne surveillance and tools to manage an "at or greater than" inter-aircraft spacing. Due to the precision of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information and the use of airborne spacing guidance, the PTM minimum spacing distance will be less than distances a controller can support with current automation systems that support oceanic operations. Ground tools assist the controller in evaluating the traffic picture and determining appropriate PTM clearances to be issued. Avionics systems provide guidance information that allows the flight crew to conform to the PTM clearance issued by the controller. The combination of a reduced minimum distance and airborne spacing management will increase the capacity and efficiency of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace. This paper provides an overview of the proposed application, description of a few key scenarios, high level discussion of expected air and ground equipment and procedure changes, overview of a potential flight crew human-machine interface that would support PTM operations and some initial PTM benefits results.

  14. Mars Exploration Rover: surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. K.; Adler, M.; Crisp, J.; Mishkin, A.; Welch, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned mission, and also focus on the different operations challenges inherent in operating these two very off road vehicles, and the solutions adopted to enable the best utilization of their capabilities for high science return and responsiveness to scientific discovery.

  15. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  16. The planned Alaska SAR Facility - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Weeks, Wilford

    1987-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) is described in an overview fashion. The facility consists of three major components, a Receiving Ground System, a SAR Processing System and an Analysis and Archiving System; the ASF Program also has a Science Working Team and the requisite management and operations systems. The ASF is now an approved and fully funded activity; detailed requirements and science background are presented for the facility to be implemented for data from the European ERS-1, the Japanese ERS-1 and Radarsat.

  17. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  18. Overview of the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D.E.; Crosbie, E.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source planned for construction at Argonne National Laboratory is based on a low-emittance storage-ring operated at 7 GeV and capable of providing tunable undulator radiation from 4 to 40 keV (using the first and the third harmonics). A technical description of the accelerator facility and the storage ring is presented in this overview, along with a brief summary of the characteristics of radiation that will be available from the insertion devices. Various plans for user access to this national user facility are also given

  19. Overview of the OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is an international network dedicated to enhancing the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. The project operates under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and aims at addressing and resolving issues relevant to safety as they emerge in the nuclear community. This paper gives a concise presentation of the project's goals and of its technical infrastructure. The paper also contains a brief overview of results from the ongoing programme and of the main issues contemplated for the next three-year programme period (2000-2002). (author)

  20. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  1. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  2. Naval Research Laboratory Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Electronics Science & Tech Biomolecular Science & Engineering Ocean and Atmospheric Science & Technology Dr. E. Franchi Acoustics Remote...Operational Global Atmospheric Model 1982 NQR detection for explosives & narcotics 1992 Clementine Spacecraft 1991-1994 Timation - GPS 1964-1977

  3. Overview of Barth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users and prospective users. Cookies help us collect important business and technical statistics. The information in the cookies ... of Information Protection Practices -- Periodically, our operations and ... security, confidentiality and quality of our information. Employee Access, ...

  4. Philosophy and overview of the INEL waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Whitsett, J.B.; Hamric, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The INEL philosophy of ''get the job done; do it right--the first time'' is described as it applies to all phases of waste management activities. In addition, an overview of INEL's waste management programs and projects--low-level waste management operations and technology development; transuranic waste management operations and technology development; high-level waste management operations and technology development; spent fuel storage operations and equipment/technology development; transportation operations, technology development, and prototype cask procurements--are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the application of the INEL philosophy to the successful initiation and continuation of INEL waste management activities

  5. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  6. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  8. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  9. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  10. Warehouse operations planning model for Bausch & Lomb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atilgan, Ceren

    2009-01-01

    Operations planning is a major part of the Sales& Operations Planning (S&OP) process. It provides an overview on the operations capacity requirements by considering the supply and demand plan. However, Bausch& Lomb does not have a structured operations planning process for their warehouse

  11. Handling and feeding of biomass to pressurized reactors: safety engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, Carl; Rautalin, Aimo (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology)

    1993-01-01

    There are rather few literature references to or experience of the feed of biomass into a pressurized space. Alternatives given in the literature usually concern handling and feeding technology for coal. Some screw- or piston-operated plug feeders and coal and concrete pump equipment have, however, also been tested with biomasses. Explosion characteristics of fuels and their susceptibility to spontaneous ignition have been studied at both atmospheric and elevated pressures. The maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise, being critical factors in the process design and in the choice of safety equipment, have been determined under these conditions. In pressurized processes, the maintenance of sufficient inertization in fuel-feed systems is an especially critical factor. Peat, bark, and forest residues were used as biofuels, and lignite was used as reference fuel. The results obtained with a dynamic method for spontaneous ignition were compared with experience obtained from the operation of a commercial pressurized peat gasifier of 140 MW. (author)

  12. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  13. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  14. An Overview of Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ana M; Dos Anjos Pires, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic principles of teratology, beginning with its definition, the critical point for teratogenesis to occur and the most evident etiological agents to improve the understanding of this science.Teratology is a recent science that began in the early twentieth century, and has greatly improved over the recent years with the advancements in molecular biology, toxicology, animal laboratory science, and genetics, as well as the improvement on the knowledge of the environmental influences.Nevertheless, more work is required to reduce the influence of hazardous products that could be deleterious during pregnancy, thus reducing teratogenic defects in the newborn. While some teratogenic defects are attributed to their agents with certainty, the same for a lot of other such defects is lacking, necessitating consistent studies to decipher the influence of various teratogenic agents on their corresponding teratogenic defects. It is here that the laboratory animal science is of great importance both in the present and in the future.

  15. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sarga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing is gaining acclaim as a cost-effective alternative to acquiring processing resources for corporations, scientific applications and individuals, various challenges are rapidly coming to the fore. While academia struggles to procure a concise definition, corporations are more interested in competitive advantages it may generate and individuals view it as a way of speeding up data access times or a convenient backup solution. Properties of the cloud architecture largely preclude usage of existing practices while achieving end-users’ and companies’ compliance requires considering multiple infrastructural as well as commercial factors, such as sustainability in case of cloud-side interruptions, identity management and off-site corporate data handling policies. The article overviews recent attempts at formal definitions of cloud computing, summarizes and critically evaluates proposed delimitations, and specifies challenges associated with its further proliferation. Based on the conclusions, future directions in the field of cloud computing are also briefly hypothesized to include deeper focus on community clouds and bolstering innovative cloud-enabled platforms and devices such as tablets, smart phones, as well as entertainment applications.

  16. Overview of SAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinney, R.

    1995-01-01

    The overview of the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) was presented, with particular emphasis given to the applied model (versus the theoretical model) and to the involvement of plant management. Discussion included the benefits and advantages of applied SAT compared to the conventional approach, (which likely was not systematic in nature). For example, formal structured on-the-job training (OJT) was compared to the traditional ''Come, I show you'' form of OJT. Each of the five phases of SAT - analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation - was presented and with a focus on two aspects of SAT. First, SAT is a dynamic continuous not discrete model; and second, two phases are critical to the overall success of SAT implementation - analysis (especially needs analysis) and evaluation (especially feedback). These two phases are absolutely essential to ensure the ''self-correcting'' attribute of the SAT model. Finally, examples of problems that could occur if the SAT model fails or weakens; for instance, if OJT becomes unstructured, or if training materials are not kept current

  17. Overview of spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, π-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible πp resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy

  18. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  19. Continuous solvent extraction feed adjustment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. Interim development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, L.J.

    1978-06-01

    The two-cycle Acid-Thorex solvent extraction process requires that the feed stream to each thorium cycle be processed to reduce its nitric acid concentration (feed adjustment). This interim development report presents the results of bench-scale and pilot-plant-scale feed adjustment experiments using a continuous mode of operation. An examination of formic acid denitration and fluoride ion volatilization is also included

  20. Overview of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the responsibility for development of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) except in the case of PAGs for food, the responsibility is shared with FDA. EPA participated in the development of the recommendations on PAGs for food and animal feed that FDA published in 1982. FDA is now in the process of revising their 1982 recommendations and we want to make every effort to assure that when their revisions are complete, we can concur and publish them in the PAG manual as EPA recommendations. Since USDA and States have the major role in the implementation of PAGs for water and food, we plan to closely coordinate the development process with them. This Workshop is designed as a forum for those who have experience in planning for and responding to ingestion exposure scenarios. The objective is to identify and discuss all of the issues, problems, relevant experiences, and needed or ongoing research that should be considered in the development of PAGs for water and food. Although the Federal agencies will not be able to resolve all of the identified issues and problems to everyone's satisfaction, it is expected that they will have at least considered them carefully and will be prepared to explain why they chose a particular approach or solution. This process should significantly reduce the need for changes to drafts of the guidance based on reviewer comments

  1. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  2. Overview of environmental materials degradation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Wu, P.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides a brief overview of analyses and conclusions reported in published literature regarding environmentally induced degradation of materials in operating light-water reactors. It is intended to provide a synopsis of subjects of concern rather than to address a licensing basis for any newly discovered problems related to reactor materials

  3. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Overview of the JHP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hironobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The new Research Organization (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization; KEK) started its activity on 1 April, 1997. The new KEK is now responsible for JHP. The present plan of JHP is overviewed. (author)

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  16. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  17. An Energy Overview of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is India. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  18. An Energy Overview of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Slovenia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit

  19. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  20. An Energy Overview of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Romania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  1. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  2. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  3. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  4. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Finger, Gert; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lagadec, Eric; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Moerchen, Margaret; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Silber, Armin; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli; Yegorova, Irina

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As Aquarius detector array (Raytheon) which has demonstrated very good performance (sensitivity, stability) in the laboratory IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a userdefined constraint on water vapour. Improved pipelines based on the ESO Reflex concept will provide better support to astronomers. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes. The intervention on VISIR and installation of hardware has been completed in July and commissioning will take place during July and August. VISIR is scheduled to be available to the users starting Oct 2012.

  5. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  6. Overview and status of ITER Cryostat manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil K., E-mail: anil.bhardwaj@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Gupta, Girish; Prajapati, Rajnikant; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gourav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish; Shukla, Dileep [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Iyer, Ganesh; Jadhav, Pandurang; Goyal, Dipesh; Desai, Anish [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India); Sekachev, I.; Vitupier, Guillaume [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing status of one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world (ITER Cryostat). • Overview of manufacturing stages and its segmentation. • Overview of manufacturing procedures and assembly and installation. - Abstract: One of ITER-India's commitments to the ITER Organization is procurement of the ITER Cryostat. It is a large vacuum vessel (∼29 m dia. and ∼29 m height), which is made up of 304/304 L dual marked stainless steel and has a total mass over 3500 t. The thickness of the vessel wall varies from 50 mm to 190 mm. It is one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world which provides vacuum thermal insulation for the superconducting magnets operating at 4.5 K and for the thermal shield operating at 80 K. It also mechanically supports the magnet system along with the vacuum vessel (VV). The cryostat is designed and constructed according to ASME Section-VIII Division-2 with additional ITER Vacuum Handbook requirements and it is classified as protection important component (PIC-2). Manufacturing of cryostat segments is ongoing in India; sub-assembly of four major sections of the cryostat from the segments will be done at the ITER site in a temporary workshop building and the final assembly will be done in the pit of the tokamak building, the final location. The cryostat manufacturing contract has been awarded to Larsen and Toubro Limited in August 2012 after completion of design [4] and signing of Procurement Arrangement [1] with ITER Organization. Manufacturing of the cryostat was started in January 2014 after approval of the manufacturing drawings and procedures. The temporary workshop of 44 m × 110 m × 26 m in height has been completed in November 2014 at the ITER site with a 200 t crane installed. This paper gives an overview and the status of the cryostat manufacturing.

  7. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  8. Feeding a fierce demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlontinov, D.

    2008-09-15

    Wolverine is a metallurgical coal mining project located in British Columbia (BC). The Wolverine project is owned by Western, who is currently expanding the project by developing an open pit mine property with a reserve of 18 million tonnes located close to its current mine. The company has purchased several new trucks, front shovel loaders, and blasthole drills, and is now shifting over 65,000 bank cubic meters (BCM) per day. Western is also planning to develop an underground mine in the region. The company has formed contracts and business relationships with several smaller companies in order to allow for more rapid startups of its mining operations. However, the company's expansion has been impeded by shortages in qualified mining personnel. The Wolverine project had been engaged in long-term contracts with the Japanese steel industry. Western has now established a number of relationships with clients in Europe, China, and South Korea. 3 figs.

  9. Overview of MAST results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapman, I.T.; Adámek, Jiří; Akers, R.J.; Allan, S.; Appel, L.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Ben Ayed, N.; Bigelow, T.; Boeglin, W.; Bradley, J.; Brünner, J.; Cahyna, Pavel; Carr, M.; Caughman, J.; Cecconelo, M.; Challis, C.; Chapman, S.; Chorley, J.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N.; Cooper, W.A.; Cox, M.; Crocker, N.; Crowley, B.J.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darrow, D.; Dendy, R.; Diallo, A.; Dickinson, D.; Diem, S.; Dorland, W.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Field, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fox, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Freethy, S.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y.C.; Gibson, K.; Graves, J.; Gurl, C.; Guttenfelder, W.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Havlickova, E.; Hawke, J.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.; Henderson, S.; Highcock, E.; Hillesheim, J.; Hnat, B.; Holgate, J.; Horáček, Jan; Howard, J.; Huang, B.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaye, S.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Kocan, M.; Leggate, H.; Lilley, M.; Lipschutz, B.; Lisgo, S.; Liu, Y.Q.; Lloyd, B.; Lomanowski, B.; Lupelli, I.; Maddison, G.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G.; McClements, K.; McMillan, B.; Meakins, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Milnes, J.; Morris, A.W.; Motojima, G.; Muir, D.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A.; O’Brien, M.; O’Gorman, T.; Ono, Y.; Oliver, H.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Parra, F.; Patel, A.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Perez, R.; Pinches, S.; Piron, L.; Podesta, M.; Price, M.; Reinke, M.; Ren, Y.; Roach, C.; Robinson, J.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Schekochihin, A.; Sharapov, S.; Sharples, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Silburn, S.; Simpson, J.; Storrs, J.; Takase, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, D.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Valovic, M.; Vann, R.; Walkden, N.; Wilson, H.; Wyk, L.V.; Yamada, T.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2015), s. 104008-104008 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference 2014 (FEC) /25./. St Petersburg, 13.10.2014-18.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : numerical model * MAST * high confinement operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  10. AREVA group overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  11. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rear, M.G.; Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) [formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)] comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site

  12. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  13. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  14. Improvements to feed water system of vapor generators of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byerlex, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a feed water system related to the steam generators for nuclear power stations and which have a water feed ring around their upper part. This water intake system enables water hammer to be avoided even during operation under low load [fr

  15. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelo, María Del Carmen Suárez; Movilla-Fernández, María Jesús; Pita-García, Paula; Novío, Silvia

    2018-04-22

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women ( n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI 95% = 0.735⁻0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  16. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Suárez Cotelo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297 were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain. Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75, which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948, showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  17. Cognitive Radio RF: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tam Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio system (CRS is a radio system which is aware of its operational and geographical environment, established policies, and its internal state. It is able to dynamically and autonomously adapt its operational parameters and protocols and to learn from its previous experience. Based on software-defined radio (SDR, CRS provides additional flexibility and offers improved efficiency to overall spectrum use. CRS is a disruptive technology targeting very high spectral efficiency. This paper presents an overview and challenges of CRS with focus on radio frequency (RF section. We summarize the status of the related regulation and standardization activities which are very important for the success of any emerging technology. We point out some key research challenges, especially implementation challenges of cognitive radio (CR. A particular focus is on RF front-end, transceiver, and analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog interfaces which are still a key bottleneck in CRS development.

  18. Overview of the TIBER II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    The TIBER II Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. This overview attempts to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER II can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition to 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling

  19. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. McCarthy DO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation, pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation.

  20. Laser fusion overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages