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Sample records for fed raw soya

  1. Carcass, organ and organoleptic characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean and full fat soya bean

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    I.J. Onwumelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carcass, Organs andOrganoleptic Characteristics of broilers fed yeast treated raw soya bean (RSBand full fat soya bean (FFSB were studied using one hundred and eighty day oldchicks. Standard poultry management techniques were applied and experimenteddiets provided ad libitum. Fifteen diets consisting of various proportions ofFFSB, RSB and yeast were formulated for the starter phase (0- 28 days andfinisher phase (29-56 days, respectively. The diets in each phase wereformulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the starter dietscontaining approximately 2900 kcal/kg ME and 23% crude protein, and thefinisher diets containing approximately 3000 kcal/kg and 20% crude protein. Thecarcass and organs studied include weights after defeathering, cut- up partswhich include thighs drumstick, shanks, wings, neck, back, breast head, andorgans such as heart, liver, spleen and gizzard. The lengths of theproventriculus, small intestine, colon and caeca were also measured. The studyshowed that RSB at the levels fed with and without yeast inclusion had nolethal effect on broiler chickens. However, higher performance may be achievedwhen RSB is fed at 25 % with 6 g/kg yeast inclusion at starter phase and at 25% without yeast or 75 % with 12 g/kg yeast inclusion. The study therefore,further maintained that inclusion of RSB with or without yeast in the diets ofbroilers can equally produce broiler with good weight comparable with feedingFFSB or conventional diets; feeding 75 % FFSB + 25 % RSB without yeastinclusion is capable of increasing the proportion of the broilers’ head andshank; RSB inclusion in broiler diets cause increase in the weight of thegizzard, pancreas as well as on the abdominal fat, and feeding FFSB and RSBwith or without east inclusion do not exert any noticeable effect on theorganoleptic ualities tenderness, flavour and in general acceptability ofbroilers. However, RSB enhances the juiciness of broilers

  2. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p soya beans for EE (p soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected

  3. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

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    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  4. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

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    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p soya beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effects of long term feeding of raw soya bean flour on virus- induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kiril, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a diet enriched with 25% raw soya bean flour (RSF) on the pancreas and on the avian retrovirus Pts 56-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl were studied. It has been shown that prolonged RSF feeding of new-hatched virus-infected and uninfected guinea fowl-poults induced enl

  6. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

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    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  7. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

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    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  8. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

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    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  9. Growth of fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871 juveniles fed isoproteic diets substituting fish meal by soya bean meal

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    Manuel García-Ulloa Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters (standard length, weight, specific growth rate and daily weight gain of prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles fed 40% crude protein isoproteic diets substituting fish meal with soya bean meal at various levels (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were evaluated for 45 days under laboratory conditions. Experimental diets were compared with a 100% fish meal based diet. Total survival was recorded for all the treatments at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 for all the growth parameters among the dietary treatments. The initial mean weight (0.36 ± 0.10 g increased almost three times (1.00 ± 0.13 g after 45 days. The final specific growth fluctuated from 1.82% BW/d for the 60% soya bean meal inclusion diet, to 2.62% for the 100% fish meal diet. The mean final survival was 91.66%. Growth performance of M. tenellum juveniles was not affected by the dietary soya bean meal levels tested.Os parâmetros do crescimento (comprimento padrão, peso, taxa de crescimento específica e ganho diário do peso de juveniles do Macrobrachium tenellum alimentaram a 40% a proteína crua as dietas isoproteic que substituem a refeição de peixes com feijão de soya a refeição nos vários níveis (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% foi avaliada por 45 dias sob condições do laboratório. As dietas experimentais foram comparadas com uma dieta baseada da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência total foi gravada para todos os tratamentos no fim da experiência. Não havia nenhuma diferença significativa (p > 0.05 para todos os parâmetros do crescimento entre os tratamentos dietéticos. O peso médio inicial (0.36 ± 0.10 g aumentado quase três vezes (1.00 ± 0.13 g após 45 dias da cultura. O crescimento específico final flutuou de 1.82% BW/d para a dieta do inclusion da refeição do feijão de soya de 60%, a 2.62% obtidos para a dieta da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência final média foi de 91.66%. O

  10. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

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    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  11. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    While allergic reactions to soya are increasingly investigated, the normal immune response to ingested soya is scarcely described. In the present study, we wanted to characterise the soya-specific immune response in healthy mice ingesting soya protein. Mice fed a soya-containing diet (F0) and mice...... of the first (F1) and second (F2) offspring generation bred on a soya protein-free diet were used either directly or were transferred between the soya-containing and soya protein-free diet during pregnancy or neonatal life. The mice were compared as to levels of naturally occurring specific antibodies analysed...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  12. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

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    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Pcake did not cause appreciable changes in the production of volatile organic compounds in lamb meat.

  13. Effect of super dosing of phytase on growth performance, ileal digestibility and bone characteristics in broilers fed corn-soya-based diets.

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    Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S

    2016-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

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    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  15. Microbial fed-batch production of 1,3-propanediol using raw glycerol with suspended and immobilized Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    Jun, Sun-Ae; Moon, Chuloo; Kang, Cheol-Hee; Kong, Sean W; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2010-05-01

    The production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) was investigated with Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM 4799 using raw glycerol without purification obtained from a biodiesel production process. Fed-batch cultures with suspended cells revealed that 1,3-PD production was more effective when utilizing raw glycerol than pure glycerol (productivity after 47 h of fermentation, 0.84 g L(-1) 1 h(-1) versus 1.51 g L(-1) h(-1) with pure and raw glycerol,respectively). In addition, more than 80 g/L of 1,3-PD was produced using raw glycerol;this is the highest 1,3-PD concentration reported thus far for K. pneumoniae using raw glycerol. Repeated fed-batch fermentation with cell immobilization in a fixed-bed reactor was performed to enhance 1,3-PD production. Production of 1,3-PD increased with the cycle number (1.06 g L(-1) h(-1) versus 1.61 g L(-1) h(-1) at the first and fourth cycle, respectively)due to successful cell immobilization. During 46 cycles of fed-batch fermentation taking place over 1,460 h, a stable and reproducible 1,3-PD production performance was observed with both pure and raw glycerol. Based on our results, repeated fed batch with immobilized cells is an efficient fermentor configuration, and raw glycerol can be utilized to produce 1,3-PD without inhibitory effects caused by accumulated impurities.

  16. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

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    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P < 0.05). This trend was found for blood plasma and urine iodine concentration. Iodine supplementation had no significant effect on thyroidal hormones. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  17. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

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    Krön Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European and more sustainable protein sources for food and feed. The Danube Area is an area of large potential agricultural surpluses and Danube Soya promotes the idea of using these surpluses to replace a part of the imported soya. The goals of the association are to increase value-added in the rural economies of Central Eastern Europe, promote European cooperation as well as a production of constant and sustainable local soya sources. The Danube Soya Association runs a certification scheme that reaches from soya seeds all the way to final products, which can be labelled with the consumer label “Fed with Danube Soya” (for animal products and “Danube Soya” (for soya food products. Together with its partners, the Danube Soya Association implements and supports dissemination and research projects on different topics.

  18. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  19. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

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    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  20. Microbial communities of biomethanization digesters fed with raw and heat pre-treated microalgae biomasses.

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    Sanz, Jose Luis; Rojas, Patricia; Morato, Ana; Mendez, Lara; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae biomasses are considered promising feedstocks for biofuel and methane productions. Two Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR), fed with fresh (CSTR-C) and heat pre-treated (CSTR-T) Chlorella biomass were run in parallel in order to determine methane productions. The methane yield was 1.5 times higher in CSTR-T with regard to CSTR-C. Aiming to understand the microorganism roles within of the reactors, the sludge used as an inoculum (I), plus raw (CSTR-C) and heat pre-treated (CSTR-T) samples were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes. Spirochaetae and Actinobacteria were only detected in sample I. Proteobacteria, mainly Alfaproteobacteria, were by far the dominant phylum within of the CSTR-C bioreactor. Many of the sequences retrieved were related to bacteria present in activated sludge treatment plants and they were absent after thermal pre-treatment. Most of the sequences affiliated to the Bacteroidetes were related to uncultured groups. Anaerolineaceae was the sole family found of the Chloroflexi phylum. All of the genera identified of the Firmicutes phylum carried out macromolecule hydrolysis and by-product fermentation. The proteolytic bacteria were prevalent over the saccharolytic microbes. The percentage of the proteolytic genera increased from the inoculum to the CSTR-T sample in a parallel fashion with an available protein increase owing to the high protein content of Chlorella. To relate the taxa identified by high-throughput sequencing to their functional roles remains a future challenge.

  1. EFFECTS OF LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL RETENTION OF BROILER CHICKENS FED RAW BENNE SEED BASED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akanji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of raw benne seed (RBS, Sesamum indicum with or without lysine supplementation on the performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. One hundred and forty unsexed day old  broiler chicks (Marshall strain were used for the study. RBS was incorporated into the diets at 15% and 30% levels and  supplemented with  0%, 0.25% and 0.5% of lysine, respectively. Average  weekly feed intake in birds fed the control diet and 15% RBS based diet supplemented with 0.25 % and 0.5% lysine were not significantly different, but significantly (P<0.05 higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced in birds fed 30% RBS with or without lysine supplementation. At 0.25% and 0.5% lysine supplementation, significant (P<0.05 increases were obtained in the retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron in birds fed 15% RBS based diets, but markedly reduced in those fed 30% RBS  based diets. The reductions in the performance characteristics of the birds fed 30% RBS diets with or without lysine can be attributed to interactions in the toxic effects of the higher intakes anti-nutritional factors like tannin, oxalate and phytate.  In conclusion,  the response indices were better enhanced when 15% RBS supplemented with 0.5% lysine was fed to the birds.

  2. Nutrient digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites of Jersey heifers fed chitosan and whole raw soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chitosan and whole raw soybean on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, nitrogen utilization, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites, and energy balance of dairy heifers. Twelve Jersey heifers (6±0.5 months of age and 139.50±25.56 kg of live weight; mean ± standard deviation were randomly assigned to a replicated Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experimental period consisted of 14 days of adaptation to diets, six days of sampling, and five days of washout. The experimental diets were: control (CO; chitosan (CHI, inclusion of 2.0 g kg−1 DM of chitosan; whole raw soybean (WS, 163.0 g kg−1 of WS on diet DM basis; and chitosan + whole raw soybean (CHI+WS. Chitosan decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intakes; however, CHI increased DM total tract digestion. An interaction effect was observed on retained nitrogen, which increased when animals were fed CHI+WS compared with CO or CHI, but did not differ from that of animals fed WS. Chitosan decreased microbial nitrogen and crude protein flow of heifers. Energy balance was improved when heifers received diets containing WS. Efficiency of energy utilization was not affected by experimental diets. An interaction effect was observed for blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration, which increased with both dietary inclusion of CHI and WS compared with the other diets, and CHI provided the lowest value of HDL cholesterol. Chitosan and whole raw soybean do not alter nutrient intake and total tract digestion; however, they decrease nitrogen urinary excretion and increase blood HDL cholesterol of heifers.

  3. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  4. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...... on an actual DSR project....

  5. ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. EMENALOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

  6. Digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlad, J S; Mathers, J C

    1991-03-01

    The digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets was measured. In the four experimental diets, wheat was included at a constant 500 g/kg whilst peas contributed 0-300 g/kg and these were the only dietary sources of NSP. Separate estimates of digestibility for wheat and peas were obtained by using a multiple linear regression technique which also tested the possibility that the presence of peas might influence the digestibility of wheat NSP. There was little evidence of the latter and it was found that the digestibility of peas NSP (0.84) was considerably greater than that of wheat (0.65). The non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) had twofold greater digestibilities than had cellulose for both foods with essentially all the peas NCP being digested. Faecal alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid concentration increased with feeding of peas, suggesting stimulation of bacterial biomass production in the large intestine using the readily fermented peas NSP. All three major volatile fatty acids produced by large intestinal fermentation were detected in jugular blood and increased significantly with increasing peas inclusion rate in the diet.

  7. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirzadegan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15. A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05. Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05. Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05. According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities at week 6 (P<0.05, but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  8. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  9. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  10. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Castrellon, Pedro Gutierrez; Rivas, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Carlos Jimenez; Garcia, Luisa Diaz; Jimenez, Juliana Estevez; Anzo, Anahi; Hegar, Badriul; Alarcon, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.

  11. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  12. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  13. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  14. Effects of soya oligosaccharides and soya oligopeptides on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shali; Zhu, Jundong; Zhang, Yanqi; Shi, Kai; Shi, Yuangang; Ma, Xiao

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of soya oligosaccharides (SOS) and soya oligopeptides (SOP) on blood lipid levels, release of vasoactive substances, antioxidant activity and faecal bile acid (FBA) excretion in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were evenly divided into five groups according to diets as follows: regular diet (control), HFD, HFD enriched with 2 % of SOS (SOS), HFD enriched with 3 % of SOP (SOP) and HFD enriched with 2 % SOS and 3 % SOP (SOSP). The results showed that SOS and SOP significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased. Furthermore, SOS and SOP reduced plasma apoB, apoE and the apoB:apoAI ratio, whereas apoAI was significantly increased. Moreover, SOS and SOP also reduced plasma thromboxane A₂ (TXA₂) and the TXA₂:prostacyclin (PGI₂) ratio, whereas plasma PGI₂ and nitric oxide were significantly increased. In addition, SOS and SOP significantly reduced serum and liver malondialdehyde concentrations and increased FBA excretion. However, we did not observe obvious influences of SOS and SOP on superoxide dismutase activities in the liver of HFD-fed rats. The combination of 2 % SOS and 3 % SOP showed a more marked effect than SOS or SOP alone in improving the lipid profile, release of vasoactive substances and increasing FBA excretion (P < 0.05). In summary, SOS and SOP might help prevent atherosclerosis through improving abnormal blood lipid levels, regulating vasoactive substances and protecting against oxidative stress.

  15. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  16. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  17. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  18. Effect of Glutamine Supplementation on Abilities of Antioxidative and γ-glutamyl Transpeptidase Activities in Liver and Intestine of Piglets Fed Diets Containing Raw Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-min; GAO Zhen-chuan; WANG Lian-di; JIANG Yun-xia; ZHANG Qi

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen male piglets weaned at 28 days age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments(1% glutamate, 1% and 2 % glutamine supplementation). The basal diet contained 5 % raw soybean. The di-ets were calculated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. The level of plasma glutahione (GSH) increasedmarkedly in piglets fed glutamine, and the response was related to dose. In treatments Ⅰ and Ⅱ, the levels ofplasma GSH were significantly higher than that in the control at the 35 days age (P<0.05). The level of plas-ma GSH in treatment Ⅱ was significantly higher than that in the control at 42 days age (P<0.05). At 49days age, there was no significantly difference of the level of GSH in plasma, liver, spleen, intestine and mes-enteric lymph node. The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver and spleen was higher than that of thecontrol, however, the difference wasn't significant. Dietary glutamine supplementation decreased γ-glutamyltranspeptidase(γ-GT) activities in liver. The activities of γ-GT of liver protein in treatment Ⅱ were signifi-cantly lower than that in the control (P<0. 05). The activities of γ-GT of duodenum in treatments Ⅰ and Ⅱwere also significantly lower than that in the control (P<0.05). But there were no significant differences ofthe activities of γ-GT in jejunum and ileum. The results showed that dietary glutamine supplementation in-creased the level of plasma GSH, and decreased γ-GT activities.

  19. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Quality, safety, biofunctionality and fermentation control in soya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented soya foods play an important role in the diet and health of a large part of the world population. We will discuss the manufacture and properties of: soya sauce; semi-solid pastes such as miso, doujiang and doenjang; and solid fermented soya foods such as natto, kinema, tempe, sufu and douc

  1. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  2. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  3. Quality, safety, biofunctionality and fermentation control in soya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented soya foods play an important role in the diet and health of a large part of the world population. We will discuss the manufacture and properties of: soya sauce; semi-solid pastes such as miso, doujiang and doenjang; and solid fermented soya foods such as natto, kinema, tempe, sufu and

  4. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  5. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  6. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European...

  7. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    Krön Matthias; Bittner Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European...

  8. Highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial raw meat-based diet: health risks to animals and zoonotic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, Federica; Magarotto, Jacopo; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBD) to companion animals raises public health concerns for both animals and humans. While considerable attention has been paid to bacterial contamination of commercial pet food, few literature studies have investigated foodborne disease in companion animals. Salmonellosis is reported to be infrequent in cats but no known data or studies estimating feline salmonellosis are available or large-scale epidemiological studies assessing Salmonella risk fact...

  9. Effects of soya fatty acids on cassava ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongguang; Wu, Shuai; Zhu, Xudong; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol tolerance is a key trait of microbes in bioethanol production. Previous studies have shown that soya flour contributed to the increase of ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. In this paper, the mechanism of this ethanol tolerance improvement was investigated in cassava ethanol fermentation supplemented with soya flour or defatted soya flour, respectively. Experiment results showed that ethanol tolerance of cells from soya flour supplemented medium increased by 4-6% (v/v) than the control with defatted soya flour. Microscopic observation found that soya flour can retain the cell shape while dramatic elongations of cells were observed with the defatted soya flour supplemented medium. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) compositions of cell membrane were analyzed and the UFAs amounts increased significantly in all tested strains grown in soya flour supplemented medium. Growth study also showed that soya flour stimulated the cell growth rate by approximately tenfolds at 72-h fermentation. All these results suggested that soya fatty acids play an important role to protect yeast cells from ethanol stress during fermentation process.

  10. The boiler concept for combustion of large soya straw bales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladenovic, Rastko; Dakic, Dragoljub; Eric, Aleksandar; Mladenovic, Milica; Paprika, Milijana; Repic, Branislav [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2009-05-15

    In one of the largest agricultural companies in Serbia, with over 2000 ha of soya plantations, there are 4000 t/year of baled soya straw produced. Soya straw biomass is planned to be used as a renewable energy source for heating the greenhouses, with 5 ha in area. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop a technology for utilizing large bales of soya straw for energy production. In the first phase, a demo energy production facility-furnace was developed and built. The facility had been tested in order to examine the quality of combustion of large soya straw bales. Since experimental results of testing of this facility have proved to be very satisfactory, in the second phase of the development, a hot water boiler of similar characteristics (burning soya straw bales, with dimensions 0.7 x 1.2 x 2.7 m{sup 3}) has been designed. (author)

  11. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  12. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  14. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P Inulin decreased (P Inulin increased (P Inulin also decreased (P inulin and control and inulin increased (P inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  15. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  16. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  17. New polyurethane nanocomposites based on soya oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Issam Ahmed; Abd Khadir, Nurul Khizrien; Jaffar Al-Mulla, Emad Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared from a dispersion of 0 - 5% montmorillonite (MMT) clay with isocyanate and soya oil polyol that was synthesized via transesterification of triglycerides to reduce petroleum dependence. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix, whereas the exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical microscopy, mechanical and thermal analyses were done to investigate significant improvement of the nanocomposites. The results showed PU-3% nanoclay (NC) showed optimum results in mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength but the lowest in impact strength.

  18. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammatory markers in a randomised soya intervention among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Oum, Robert; Chaptman, Ann K; Ognjanovic, Simona

    2009-06-01

    The present analysis investigated the effect of soya foods on serum levels of six inflammatory markers, leptin, adiponectin, monocyte attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1b (MIP-1b), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and their relationship with BMI and lifetime soya intake. We randomised twenty-four men to a high- (two daily servings with 30-35 mg isoflavones per serving) or a low-soya diet for 3 months. After a 1-month washout period, the men crossed over to the other treatment. We used a multiplex bead immunoassay to measure leptin, adiponectin, MCP-1 and MIP-1b and ELISA assays for IL-6 and CRP. The statistical analysis applied mixed models that incorporated the four repeated measurements. The men had a mean age of 58.7 (sd 7.2) years and a mean BMI of 28.4 (sd 4.9) kg/m2. We observed no significant intervention effect of the soya treatment on any of the six markers. After adjustment for age and ethnicity, highly significant associations of BMI and body weight with leptin and MCP-1 emerged. Men with high soya intake early in life also had higher levels of leptin and MCP-1, whereas no association was seen for soya intake during adulthood. MIP-1b, adiponectin, IL-6 and CRP were not related to BMI, body weight or soya intake at any time in life. No intervention effect of soya foods on markers of inflammation was observed in this small study, but adiposity and early-life soya intake were related to higher leptin and MCP-1 levels.

  20. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  1. Changes in differently processed soya bean (Glycine max.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) with particular reference to their chemical composition and their mineral and some inherent anti-nutritional constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Ojo, O I

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 3 processing techniques: cooking, roasting and autoclaving on the proximate chemical composition, the mineral content and some inherent toxic factors of soya and lima beans were investigated. The processing techniques generally reduced the crude fibre levels and enhanced the extractable fat in the soya and lima beans. The coefficients of variability for crude fibre and ether extract due to the processing techniques of soya and lima beans were 20.9%, 16.0% and 22.3%, 38.1%, respectively. In parallel with decreased ash content in the cooked bean samples, there was a decrease in the K, Mg, Na and P levels relative to the raw bean and also relative to the other processing techniques. Mineral contents of the autoclaved bean samples were generally similar to those of the raw (unprocessed) samples. Under the processing conditions, roasting caused the highest reduction in thioglucoside content (59%) in soya bean while cooking caused the highest reduction in lima bean (78%). Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged between 0.59 mg/g sample in the cooked soya bean and 11.6 mg/g sample in the raw bean while the corresponding values for lima bean ranged between 0.59 and 6.3 mg/g sample. Cooking and roasting caused over 90% reduction of TIA, while autoclaving caused 64-69% reduction in both bean samples. Under the assay conditions, haemagglutinating activity was not detected in the cooked and autoclaved soya and lima beans. The need to prevent both functional and nutritional damage to food proteins and other nutrients, resulting from excessive heating, was discussed.

  2. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  3. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  4. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Soya Fasulyesinden Konsantre Protein Üretimi ve Soya Ürünlerinin Bileşim Unsurları

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Soya fasulyesi üretimi ülkemizde 1981 verilerine göre 15000 ton düzeyindedir. Ortalama verim 88 kg da olarak gerçekleşmektedir. Ülkemizde üretilen soya fasulyesinin büyük bir çoğunluğu hayvan yemi olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bileşimi çok zengin olan ve hayvansal proteine eşdeğer oranda protein içeren soya fasulyesi gereğince değerlendirilememektedir. Soya fasulyesinden proteince zengin değişik ürünler elde edilmektedir. Bunlar soya unu, konsantre soya proteini, soya izolatı, et analogu ve ferme...

  6. Soya Fasulyesinden Konsantre Protein Üretimi ve Soya Ürünlerinin Bileşim Unsurları

    OpenAIRE

    Artık, Nevzat

    1985-01-01

    Soya fasulyesi üretimi ülkemizde 1981 verilerine göre 15000 ton düzeyindedir. Ortalama verim 88 kg da olarak gerçekleşmektedir. Ülkemizde üretilen soya fasulyesinin büyük bir çoğunluğu hayvan yemi olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bileşimi çok zengin olan ve hayvansal proteine eşdeğer oranda protein içeren soya fasulyesi gereğince değerlendirilememektedir. Soya fasulyesinden proteince zengin değişik ürünler elde edilmektedir. Bunlar soya unu, konsantre soya proteini, soya izolatı, et analogu ve ferme...

  7. Development of Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt%凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐民民; 颜繁龙; 李岩

    2012-01-01

      Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt was made by using soy, raw milk and raspberry. In this paper, the opti⁃mum content of the soya-milk was obtained, while the optimization of technologic parameters for Set Raspber⁃ry Soya-yoghurt production were investigated by orthogonal test. Determined parameters for the production process were:fermentation temperature of 42℃, the starter inoculum of 3%and the addition quantity of Rasp⁃berry fruit of 5%. The Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt tastes delicious and thus has extensive application pros⁃pects.%  以大豆、牛乳、覆盆子为主要原料研制凝固型酸豆奶,确定了豆乳替代牛乳的最佳添加量;同时以发酵温度(A)、果汁添加量(B)、菌种接种量(C)为三因素,对凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的工艺参数进行了优化。试验结果表明,最优工艺优化参数:发酵温度为42℃,接种量为3%,覆盆子果汁添加量为5%。采用本工艺生产的凝固型酸豆奶不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。

  8. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  9. Soya--the medicine food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk.

  10. A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Martins, Isabel; Jeno, Paul; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2007-01-01

    In spite of being among the main foods responsible for allergic reactions worldwide, soybean (Glycine max)-derived products continue to be increasingly widespread in a variety of food products due to their well-documented health benefits. Soybean also continues to be one of the elected target crops for genetic modification. The aim of this study was to characterize the soya proteome and, specifically, IgE-reactive proteins as well as to compare the IgE response in soya-allergic individuals to genetically modified Roundup Ready soya versus its non-transgenic control. We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts from a 5% genetically modified Roundup Ready flour sample and its non-transgenic control followed by Western blotting with plasma from 5 soya-sensitive individuals. We used peptide tandem mass spectrometry to identify soya proteins (55 protein matches), specifically IgE-binding ones, and to evaluate differences between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. We identified 2 new potential soybean allergens--one is maturation associated and seems to be part of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins group and the other is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. None of the individuals tested reacted differentially to the transgenic versus non-transgenic samples under study. Soybean endogenous allergen expression does not seem to be altered after genetic modification. Proteomics should be considered a powerful tool for functional characterization of plants and for food safety assessment. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  12. Effects of soybean flour on the pancreas of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, E E; Morgan, R. G.; Wormsley, K G

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the growth-promoting and carcinogenic effects of feeding raw soya flour to rats. If the raw soya flour-containing diets are fed for more than a year, about 10% of the animals develop pancreatic cancer. In addition, feeding raw soya flour markedly potentiates the action of even subthreshold amounts of pancreatic carcinogens. The raw soya flour therefore acts as a potent promoter, as well as a weak carcinogen. In view of this promotion, the rat fed raw soya flour is a sensitive...

  13. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Artık, Nevzat

    1989-01-01

    Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.  

  14. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial

  15. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  16. Inability to detect significant absorption of immunoreactive soya protein in healthy adults may be relevant to its weak allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Cecilia M; Dirks, Christina G; Pedersen, Mona H

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soya and peanut are botanically closely related and share cross-reacting antigens, but compared to soya, peanut allergy has a higher prevalence with more severe allergic reactions. Furthermore, the threshold dose for eliciting reactions is higher for soya. A difference in undigested...... protein absorption between the two foods, might explain this diversity.In the current study the amount of soya protein absorbed after soya bean ingestion in healthy adults was estimated. Ten subjects ingested 100 grams of soya beans (40 grams of soya protein) and blood was drawn before and 1, 3 and 24...... hours after administration. Serum was analysed by ELISA and histamine release (HR). In all serum samples the soya protein concentration was below quantification limit (1.6 ng/ml which corresponds to 4.8 mug or 0.12 parts per million absorbed soya protein.We could not detect any significant absorption...

  17. Soya protein attenuates abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue from obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigolet, María E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2012-01-01

    Several metabolic disturbances during obesity are associated with adipose tissue-altered functions. Adipocytes contain the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates signalling pathways that control angiogenesis via Akt in an autocrine fashion. Soya protein (Soy) consumption modifies the gene expression pattern in adipose tissue, resulting in an improved adipocyte function. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study whether dietary Soy regulates the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes and its association with the phosphorylated state of Akt in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Animals were fed a 30 % Soy or casein (Cas) diet containing 5 or 25 % fat for 160 d. mRNA abundance was studied in the adipose tissue, and Akt phosphorylation and hormone release were measured in the primary adipocyte culture. The present results show that Soy treatment in comparison with Cas consumption induces lower angiotensin release and increased insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipocytes. Furthermore, Soy consumption varies the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes, which maintain cell size and vascularity in the adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis, which are frequently observed in dysfunctional adipose tissue, were avoided by consuming dietary Soy. Taken together, these findings suggest that Soy can be used as a dietary strategy to preserve adipocyte functionality and to prevent obesity abnormalities.

  18. Inverse association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Sakai, Tohru; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan. This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34-70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance. Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013. A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34-70 years. The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose-response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption. The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.

  19. Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Influence of source and micronization of soya bean meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and ileal mucosal morphology of Iberian piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, J D; Cámara, L; Rebollar, P G; Guzmán, P; Mateos, G G

    2014-04-01

    The effects of inclusion in the diet of different sources of soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of major dietary components and mucosal ileum morphology were studied in Iberian pigs weaned at 30 days of age. From 30 to 51 days of age (phase I), there was a control diet based on regular soya bean meal (R-SBM; 44% CP) of Argentina (ARG) origin and five extra diets in which a high-protein soya bean meal (HP-SBM; 49% CP) of the USA or ARG origin, either ground (990 μm) or micronized (60 μm), or a soya protein concentrate (SPC; 65% CP) substituted the R-SBM. From 51 to 61 days of age (phase II), all pigs were fed a common commercial diet in mash form. The following pre-planned orthogonal contrasts were conducted: (1) R-SBM v. all the other diets, (2) SPC v. all the HP-SBM diets, (3) micronized HP-SBM v. ground HP-SBM, (4) HP-SBM of ARG origin v. HP-SBM of US origin and (5) interaction between source and the degree of grinding of the HP-SBM. Dietary treatment did not affect growth performance of the pigs at any age but from 30 to 51 days of age, post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was higher (Psoya products (micronized SBM or SPC) in substitution of the R-SBM increased the TTAD of all nutrients and reduced PWD but had no advantage in terms of growth performance over the use of ground HP-SBM.

  1. Inhibition by soya isoflavones of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function: possible relevance for the beneficial effects of soya intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Serenella; Krauze-Brzósko, Katarzyna; Manarini, Stefano; Martelli, Nicola; Pecce, Romina; Evangelista, Virgilio; Benedetta Donati, Maria; Cerletti, Chiara

    2008-02-01

    Lower CVD incidence is reported in Asian populations consuming soya-containing food. As polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved in the risk of CVD, we investigated the modulatory effect of soya isoflavones on several PMN functions and their molecular mechanisms in vitro. PMN, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with 1 microm- n-formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for superoxide anion production (ferric cytochrome c reduction) and released elastase (chromogenic test). PMN homotypic aggregates stimulated by fMLP or P-selectin in dynamic conditions were detected by optical microscopy. PMN, mixed with thrombin-activated, washed platelets, formed cell aggregates, measured by flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion kinase, was studied by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Genistein, daidzein and equol inhibited superoxide anion production (IC50 0.25 (sem 0.1), 21.0 (sem 4.2) and 13.0 (sem 2.8) microm, respectively); the release of elastase was prevented by genistein (IC50 63 (sem 17) microm). PMN homotypic aggregates, stimulated by fMLP, were significantly reduced (24 (sem 12) and 51 (sem 14) % of control) by 100 microm genistein and equol. P-selectin-induced aggregates were reduced to 19 (sem 6), 44 (sem 10) and 28 (sem 9) % of control by 100 microm genistein, daidzein and equol, respectively. Genistein, daidzein and equol also significantly reduced mixed platelet-PMN aggregates (IC50 4.0 (sem 0.9), 57 (sem 6) and 66 (sem 23) microm, respectively). In PMN challenged by fMLP or P-selectin, activation of Pyk2 was prevented by isoflavones. The cardioprotective effect of soya-containing food might be linked to reduction of PMN activation and PMN-platelet interaction, novel targets for the biological effects of soya isoflavones.

  2. Desarrollo de variedades tropicales de soya para el consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Villalobos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron líneas de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. con semillas sin las lipoxigenasas 2 y 3 y con adaptación a condiciones tropicales fueron desarrolladas por el Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas, de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Estas líneas se obtuvieron del cruce de plantas F3 seleccionadas del cruce de ‘Kanto-101’ X ‘IAC- 8’ con plantas F2 seleccionadas del cruce de ‘Padre’ X ‘Duocrop’. Kanto-101 es una variedad japonesa que se usó como donadora de los genes lox2 y lox3, que inhiben la síntesis de las lipoxigenasas 2 y 3 en la semilla de soya. La eliminación de las lipoxigenasas 2 y 3 mejora considerablemente las características sensoriales de la leche de soya. La variedad Padre, se usó como donadora de los genes que retardan la floración en condiciones de día corto. Las líneas F11 CIGRAS-34, 47, 51 y 57 (lox2,lox3 derivadas del cruzamiento doble, mostraron un buen comportamiento agronómico cuando se compararon en tres localidades con las variedades CIGRAS-06 y 10 (Lox, previamente liberadas por su alta productividad. El uso del cultivar Padre, portador de los genes que retardan la floración en condiciones de día corto, en los programas de mejoramiento genético de la soya en el trópico, mostró su gran potencial al generar materiales tardíos y con buena adaptación. Los materiales sin lipoxigenasas en la semilla alcanzan un mejor precio en el mercado internacional y son una buena alternativa para la exportación a países donde la soya es parte importante de la dieta humana

  3. Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... In addition, the fed-batch culture using raw glycerol as the ... renewable carbon source for low-cost 1,3-PD production. ... medium. Fed-batch fermentation experiment ... Glucose was determined with immobilized glucose.

  4. Desempenho e características da carcaça de cordeiros confinados alimentados com grãos de soja Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed raw soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Shibata Urano

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de grãos de soja (GS no desempenho, características e rendimento de cortes de carcaça de cordeiros confinados. Sessenta e quatro cordeiros Santa Inês, com peso vivo inicial de 19,5±0,19 kg e 75±2 dias de idade, foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso de acordo com o peso vivo e a idade no início do experimento. Os GS participaram com 0, 7, 14 e 21% na matéria seca (MS das rações isonitrogenadas experimentais. O consumo de MS (1,1, 1,0, 0,9 e 0,9 kg por dia, proteína bruta (199,2, 181,5, 179,0 e 175,2 g por dia e o ganho de peso vivo (298, 275, 280 e 255 g por dia diminuíram linearmente, e o consumo de extrato etéreo (43,8, 49,7, 57,2 e 66,0 g por dia aumentou linearmente com o aumento da participação de GS nas rações. Não houve efeito na conversão alimentar, características e rendimento de cortes da carcaça. A inclusão de GS na ração com alto teor de concentrado proporciona desempenho satisfatório aos cordeiros em confinamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of raw soybean on lamb performance, carcass yield and lamb cuts. Raw soybean was added at 0, 7, 14 and 21% of the diet dry matter (isonitrogenous. Sixty-four Santa Inês lambs (initial body weight 19.5±0.19 kg and 75±2 days old were assigned to a complete randomized block design according to body weight and age at beginning of the trial. Dry matter intake (1.1, 1.0, 0.9 and 0.9 kg per day, crude protein intake (199.2, 181.5, 179.0 and 175.2 g per day and average daily gain (298, 275, 280, 255 g per day decreased linearly, and ether extract intake (43.8, 49.7, 57.2 and 66.0 g per day increased linearly, as levels of raw soybean increased. Feed conversion, carcass yield and lamb cuts were not affected by raw soybean inclusion in the diet. The inclusion of raw soybean in high concentrate diets provides satisfactory feedlot lamb performance.

  5. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting under...

  7. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  8. Levels of soya aeroallergens during dockside unloading as measured by personal and static sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Cruz, Maria-Jesus; Smith, Ian; Evans, Gareth; Simpson, Andrew; Baldwin, Peter; Smith, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Soya is an important worldwide agricultural product widely shipped and imported in bulk. It contains a number of recognised allergens and the use of soya products and its dockside unloading have been associated with occupational asthma and community episodes of asthma. Two recognised inhalation soya allergens, soya trypsin inhibitor (STI) and hydrophobic soya protein (HSP), were measured in personal and static air samples collected at a United Kingdom (UK) dock during 3 days of unloading three bulks of processed soya beans and soya pelletised husk. Static samples included task-related and those taken at the workplace perimeter and neighbouring sites. Soluble total protein (STP) and gravimetric dust analyses were also undertaken. While gravimetric dust results in personal air samples were below half of the current UK exposure limit of 10 mg m(-3) for grain dust, and generally less than 0.5 mg m(-3) for the static samples, airborne concentrations for STI and HSP ranged between 0-3,071 and 11-12,629 ng m(-3), respectively, while the correlation between the two specific allergen measurements was generally good (Rank Spearman coefficient 0.74). The data from this investigation suggest that HSP is a more sensitive indicator of soya exposure than STI, but only for soya husk, while STI may be equipotent in detecting exposure to both hull and bean derived soya products. Both assays appear sensitive techniques for investigating the control of exposure to allergenic soy material. The endotoxin level in the husk bulk was 15-60-fold that found in the two chipped bean bulks.

  9. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  10. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Desarrollo de variedades tropicales de soya para el consumo humano

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Se desarrollaron líneas de soya (Glycine max L. Merr.) con semillas sin las lipoxigenasas 2 y 3 y con adaptación a condiciones tropicales fueron desarrolladas por el Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas, de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Estas líneas se obtuvieron del cruce de plantas F3 seleccionadas del cruce de Kanto-101 X IAC- 8 con plantas F2 seleccionadas del cruce de Padre X Duocrop. Kanto-101 es una variedad japonesa que se usó como donadora de los gen...

  12. Desarrollo de variedades tropicales de soya para el consumo humano.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Se desarrollaron líneas de soya (Glycine max L. Merr.) con semillas sin las lipoxigenasas 2 y 3 y con adaptación a condiciones tropicales fueron desarrolladas por el Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas, de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Estas líneas se obtuvieron del cruce de plantas F3 seleccionadas del cruce de ‘Kanto-101’ X ‘IAC- 8’ con plantas F2 seleccionadas del cruce de ‘Padre’ X ‘Duocrop’. Kanto-101 es una variedad japonesa que se usó como donadora de los genes lox2 y lox3, ...

  13. Towards the development of a sustainable soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunwoo; Weier, Steven; Razvi, Fareha; Peña, Pamela A; Sims, Neil A; Lowell, Jennica; Hungate, Cory; Kissinger, Karma; Key, Gavin; Fraser, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Cahoon, Edgar B; Clemente, Tom E

    2017-02-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana). Communicated herein are aquafeed formulations with major reduction in marine ingredients that translates to more total Omega-3 fatty acids in harvested flesh. Building off of these findings, subsequent efforts were directed towards a genetic strategy that would translate to a prototype design of an optimal identity-preserved soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture, whereby a multigene stack approach for the targeted synthesis of two value-added output traits, eicosapentaenoic acid and the ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin, were introduced into the crop. To this end, the systematic introduction of seven transgenic cassettes into soya bean, and the molecular and phenotypic evaluation of the derived novel events are described. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers produced during microbial biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids from canola and soya bean oil in the rumen of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, J J; Bandara, A B P A; Herbein, J H

    2002-12-01

    Ruminal production of biohydrogenation intermediates in response to unsaturated oils was assessed using 24 Jersey cows fed a control diet or the control diet supplemented at 35 g/kg dry matter (DM) with canola, soya bean, or a mixture of equal amounts of canola plus soya bean oil for 4-weeks. Total fatty acid content averaged 63 or 35 g/kg DM for oil-supplemented diets or control. Oleic acid accounted for 6, 29, 21 or 12 g/kg DM in the control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil diet, respectively. Linoleic acid averaged 17, 19, 26, or 33 g/kg DM and linolenic acid 5, 5, 6 or 8 g/kg DM for control, canola, mixture, or soya bean oil. Concentrations of cis12-, trans11-, trans13+14, and trans15-18:1 were 0.81, 2.99, 2.24, and 0.73 mg/g rumen fluid, respectively, in response to soya bean oil and were 126, 90, 45, and 38% greater compared with other diets. Trans11cis15-, cis9trans11- and cis9 cis11-18:2 also were greater when soya bean oil (0.30, 0.34 and 0.01 mg/g, respectively) was fed compared with other treatments (0.12, 0.21 and 0.004 mg/g, respectively). Feeding canola oil resulted in greater concentrations of trans4-, trans5-, trans6+7+8-, trans9- and trans10-18:1 (0.20, 0.25, 0.87, 0.39 and 0.70 mg/g, respectively) compared with other diets (0.09, 0.15, 0.36, 0.20 and 0.46 mg/g, respectively). Trans10cis12-18:2 concentration did not differ as a result of diet and averaged 0.002 mg/g rumen contents. The pattern of 18:1 and 18:2 isomers formed during ruminal biohydrogenation depends greatly on dietary profile of unsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  16. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- ... values showed that birds fed CWM were most efficient followed by those fed ... moisture level below 13%, starch levels ... fats and 111111161315, these energy sources.

  17. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- ... utilization values showed that birds fed CWM were most efficient followed by those fed ... moisture level below 13%, starch levels ... fats and iminerals, these energy sources.

  18. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  19. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  20. Degradation assessment of natural weathering on low density polyethylene/thermoplastic soya spent powder blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.

    2015-07-01

    Soya spent powder was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) ranging from 5-25 wt%. Glycerol was added to soya spent powder (SSP) for preparation of thermoplastic soya spent powder (TSSP). Then, the blends were exposed to natural weathering for 6 months. The susceptibility of the LDPE/soya spent powder blends based on its tensile, morphological properties and structural changes was measured every three months. The tensile strength of LDPE/TSSP blends after 6 months of weathering was the lowest compared to the other blends whereas LDPE/SSP blends after 6 months of weathering demonstrated the lowest elongation at break (Eb). Large pore can be seen on the surface of 25 wt% of LDPE/SSP blends.

  1. [Influence of the phytoestrogen drug, SoyaVital, on climacteric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E; Stamenov, G; Davidkova, N

    2000-01-01

    The results of phytoestrogen drug SoyaVital on the climacteric symptoms are presented. The preparation consists of 35 mg isoflavones with high content of genistein in one capsule. A group of 26 patients having climacteric symptoms have been treated by one capsule per day for a period of 12 weeks. The evaluation of the symptoms by Kuppermann score decreased statistically significant by 30.06%. The authors recommend SoyaVital as an alternative to the hormonal replacement therapy.

  2. Effect of soya protein on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Xun, Peng-Cheng; He, Ka; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Observational studies have indicated that soya food consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure (BP). Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on the BP-lowering effects of soya protein intake is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of soya protein intake in lowering BP. The PubMed database was searched for published RCT in the English language through to April 2010, which compared a soya protein diet with a control diet. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis to examine the effects of soya protein on BP. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity among trials. Meta-analyses of twenty-seven RCT showed a mean decrease of 2·21 mmHg (95 % CI - 4·10, - 0·33; P = 0·021) for systolic BP (SBP) and 1·44 mmHg (95 % CI - 2·56, - 0·31; P = 0·012) for diastolic BP (DBP), comparing the participants in the soya protein group with those in the control group. Soya protein consumption significantly reduced SBP and DBP in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects, and the reductions were markedly greater in hypertensive subjects. Significant and greater BP reductions were also observed in trials using carbohydrate, but not milk products, as the control diet. Meta-regression analyses further revealed a significantly inverse association between pre-treatment BP and the level of BP reductions. In conclusion, soya protein intake, compared with a control diet, significantly reduces both SBP and DBP, but the BP reductions are related to pre-treatment BP levels of subjects and the type of control diet used as comparison.

  3. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  4. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  5. Soya products and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Onabanjo, Temilola A; Yansane, Alfa; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-28

    Soya proteins and isoflavones have been reported to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile. More recently, this claim is being challenged. The objective of this study was to comprehensively examine the effects of soya consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 2004 through February 2014), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register) and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of soya on the lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, thirty-five studies (fifty comparisons) were included in our analyses. Treatment duration ranged from 4 weeks to 1 year. Intake of soya products resulted in a significant reduction in serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, -4.83 (95% CI -7.34, -2.31) mg/dl, TAG, -4.92 (95% CI -7.79, -2.04) mg/dl, and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, -5.33 (95% CI -8.35, -2.30) mg/dl. There was also a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol concentration, 1.40 (95% CI 0.58, 2.23) mg/dl. The I² statistic ranged from 92 to 99%, indicating significant heterogeneity. LDL reductions were more marked in hypercholesterolaemic patients, -7.47 (95% CI -11.79, -3.16) mg/dl, than in healthy subjects, -2.96 (95% CI -5.28, -0.65) mg/dl. LDL reduction was stronger when whole soya products (soya milk, soyabeans and nuts) were used as the test regimen, -11.06 (95% CI -15.74, -6.37) mg/dl, as opposed to when 'processed' soya extracts, -3.17 (95% CI -5.75, -0.58) mg/dl, were used. These data are consistent with the beneficial effects of soya proteins on serum LDL, HDL, TAG and TC concentrations. The effect was stronger in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Whole soya foods appeared to be more beneficial than soya supplementation, whereas isoflavone supplementation had no effects on the lipid profile.

  6. Development of soya milk extender for semen cryopreservation of Karan Fries (crossbreed cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Singh, A K; Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2013-01-01

    Egg yolk based semen extenders are used widely, with the potential risk of xenobiotic contamination. This study was designed to develop a soya milk based extender to substitute egg yolk based extender for bovine semen cryopreservation. In the first experiment soya milk was prepared from fresh soya bean (Glycine max). Concentration of soya milk in tris based extender was standardized based on quality parameters of spermatozoa during liquid preservation at 5°C up to 72 h and compared with egg yolk tris (EYT) extender. Sperm in soya milk tris (SMT) extender with 25 percent soya milk showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences in all the quality parameters like motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, as compared to sperm in EYT extender up to 72h in liquid dilution. In the second experiment the Karan Fries semen was cryopreserved in SMT extender with 25 percent soya milk (selected from the first experiment) using different concentration of glycerol, as cryoprotectant, ranging from 6-7 percent with a difference of 0.2 percent to standardize optimum concentration based on post thaw motility of spermatozoa. Glycerol at a final concentration of 6.4 percent was found to be the best among all. Further, semen samples were split and cryopreserved in newly developed SMT extender containing 6.4 percent glycerol and compared with conventional EYT extender for post thaw sperm quality parameters and degree of cryocapacitation. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between sperm in EYT extender and SMT extender for post thaw motility, viability, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and cryocapacitation. In conclusion, the newly developed SMT extender maintained comparable semen quality as compared to EYT extender hence it can.

  7. The combined effects of soya isoflavones and resistant starch on equol production and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomised mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousen, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Matsumoto, Chiho; Nishide, Yoriko; Nagahata, Yuya; Kobayashi, Isao; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.

  8. Soya bean expansion in Mozambique : Exploring the inclusiveness and viability of soya business models as an alternative to the land grab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Matteo, F.; Otsuki, K.; Schoneveld, G.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the world, soya beans and seeds are typically cultivated in large plantations. The way plantations have been established are often discussed as what represent the ‘global land grab’. Little has been discussed, however, about how large plantations evolve as they interact with various actor

  9. Comparison of human IgE-binding soya bean allergenic protein Gly m I with the antigenicity profiles of calf anti-soya protein sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.; Bleeker, H.; Tsuji, H.; Ogawa, T.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the food, particularly the feed, industry, large quantities of soya bean protein products are used for the formulation of end-products destined for human or animal consumption. These basic ingredients and the final end products often have to fulfill specific requirements regarding the presence of

  10. Comparison of human IgE-binding soya bean allergenic protein Gly m I with the antigenicity profiles of calf anti-soya protein sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.; Bleeker, H.; Tsuji, H.; Ogawa, T.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the food, particularly the feed, industry, large quantities of soya bean protein products are used for the formulation of end-products destined for human or animal consumption. These basic ingredients and the final end products often have to fulfill specific requirements regarding the presence of

  11. Soya bean expansion in Mozambique : Exploring the inclusiveness and viability of soya business models as an alternative to the land grab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Matteo, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371570204; Otsuki, K.; Schoneveld, G.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the world, soya beans and seeds are typically cultivated in large plantations. The way plantations have been established are often discussed as what represent the ‘global land grab’. Little has been discussed, however, about how large plantations evolve as they interact with various

  12. Sticking power from soya beans : higher fossil fuel prices and concerns over formaldehyde in existing glue formulations have led to a resurgence in interest in soya-based adhesives, report

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wescott; Charles Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Soya beans have long been considered a miracle crop for their ease of growing; high concentration of vegetable oil and high protein content; and their ability to reintroduce nitrogen back into the soil. The origin of soya beans dates back to the early 11th century from the eastern half of China. They were introduced to Europe in 1712 and first...

  13. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  14. Development by extrusion of soyabari snack sticks: a nutritionally improved soya-maize product based on the Nigerian snack (kokoro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omueti, O; Morton, I D

    1996-01-01

    A nutritionally improved local snack compared to existing kokoro has been developed by extrusion cooking of different formulations of maize, soybean and condiments such as pepper, onion, salt, palm oil, plantain and banana. The improved snack was named as the 'soyabari snack stick'. The chemical composition of representative extruded products indicates a high level of crude protein, fat, energy, available lysine and improved in vitro digestibility compared to the usual maize-based products. The level of stachyose and raffinose were greatly reduced in the extruded products compared to raw soya. Formulations using various additives yielded products suitable for different consumers' preferences such as hot, sweet, bland, gritty or crispy and acceptable to taste assessors. Soyabari snack sticks were equally acceptable as Bombay mix, a product on the market in London. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences in the two products but the crude fibre content of Bombay mix was higher while the protein was slightly lower than for soyabari sticks. Local ingredients can produce acceptable extrudates.

  15. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines;Rendimiento de grano de 34 lineas mutantes de soya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Vicente Guerrero No. 81, Col. Centro, 40000 Iguala, Guerrero (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad, Colegio de Posgraduados, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco Km. 36.5, Montecillo, 56230 Texcoco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R{sub 4}M{sub 18}) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co{sup 60} gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L{sub 25} and L{sub 32} produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  16. The association between soya consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Messina, Mark; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-06-01

    Consumers may choose soya foods as healthful alternatives to animal products, but concern has arisen that eating large amounts of soya may adversely affect thyroid function. The present study aimed to examine the association between soya food consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in North American churchgoers belonging to the Seventh-day Adventist denomination that encourages vegetarianism. Participants completed six repeated 24 h dietary recalls within a 6-month period. Soya protein and soya isoflavone intakes were estimated, and their relationships to TSH concentrations measured at the end of 6 months were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2. Women (n 548) and men (n 295) who were not taking thyroid medications. In men, age and urinary iodine concentrations were associated with high serum TSH concentrations (>5 mIU/l), while among women White ethnicity was associated with high TSH. In multivariate models adjusted for age, ethnicity and urinary iodine, soya isoflavone and protein intakes were not associated with high TSH in men. In women higher soya isoflavone consumption was associated with higher TSH, with an adjusted odds ratio (highest v. lowest quintile) of 4·17 (95 % CI 1·73, 10·06). Likewise, women with high consumption of soya protein (midpoint of highest quintile, 11 g/d) v. low consumption (midpoint of lowest quintile, 0 g/d) carried increased odds of high TSH (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·30). In women high consumption of soya was associated with elevated TSH concentrations. No associations between soya intake and TSH were found in men.

  17. Effect of irrigation regime on yield and yield components of soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Branka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on seed yield and yield components of sprinkler-irrigated soya bean [(Glycine max (L. Merr.] under field conditions in 2006, 2007 and 2008 in Zemun Polje (Srem, Srbija. Four irrigation regimes: 80-85% (T1, 70-75% (T2, 60-65% (T3 of field capacity, and non-irrigated regime (T0 were evaluated each experimental year. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four replications on a Calcaric Chernozem. Water stress (drought during growing season in the non-irrigated treatment (T0 decreased plant physiological activity, vegetative growth, and productivity of soya bean. Irrigation treatments significantly (P < 0.01 influenced soya bean seed yield and yield components. The treatment T2 produced higher seed yield than T1 and T3. Irrigation regimes had statistically significant different effects on yield components such as the plant height at harvest, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, mass of pod with seeds per plant, 1,000 seed mass and hectoliter mass of soya bean seeds. Yield reduction was mainly due to a lower number of pods and seeds per plant and lower seed mass. The T1 treatment had the highest plant height of soya bean in all three growing years. The results have shown that under water scarcity, the treatment T3 is an acceptable irrigation strategy to stabilize and increase soya bean yield in Srem and neighboring countries in the region, provided that this practice is not prevented by economic constraints. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-43009: Nove tehnologije za monitoring i zaštitu životnog okruženja od štetnih hemijskih supstanci i radijacionog opterećenja i br. TR-31037: Integralni sistemi gajenja ratarskih useva: očuvanje biodiverziteta i plodnosti zemljišta

  18. Effect of soya lecithin on the enzymatic system of the white-rot fungi Anthracophyllum discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M; González, M E; Cartes, A; Diez, M C

    2011-01-01

    The present work optimized the initial pH of the medium and the incubation temperature for ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor. Additionally, the effect of soya lecithin on mycelial growth and the production of ligninolytic enzymes in static batch cultures were evaluated. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin was also studied by conductivity. The effects of the initial pH (3, 4, and 5) and incubation temperature (20, 25, and 30°C) on different enzymatic activities revealed that the optimum conditions to maximize ligninolytic activity were 26°C and pH 5.5 for laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) and 30°C and pH 5.5 for manganese-independent peroxidase (MiP). Under these culture conditions, the maximum enzyme production was 10.16, 484.46, and 112.50 U L(-1) for laccase, MnP, and manganese-independent peroxidase MiP, respectively. During the study of the effect of soya lecithin on A. discolor, we found that the increase in soya lecithin concentration from 0 to 10 g L(-1) caused an increase in mycelial growth. On the other hand, in the presence of soya lecithin, A. discolor produced mainly MnP, which reached a maximum concentration of 30.64 ± 4.61 U L(-1) after 25 days of incubation with 1 g L(-1) of the surfactant. The other enzymes were produced but to a lesser extent. The enzymatic activity of A. discolor was decreased when Tween 80 was used as a surfactant. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin calculated in our study was 0.61 g L(-1).

  19. Isoflavonas de soya y evidencias sobre la protección cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia González Cañete; Samuel Durán Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Las isoflavonas de soya son un grupo de compuestos bioactivos, no nutritivos, de naturaleza fenólica, no esteroidal, encontrados en la soya y alimentos derivados. Comparten con otros compuestos la capacidad de unión a los receptores estrogénicos de distintas células y tejidos, por lo que pueden actuar como fitoestrógenos. El interés actual sobre ellas deriva del reconocimiento de que poblaciones asiáticas con un alto consumo presentan menor prevalencia de cáncer y enfermedades cardiovasculare...

  20. Soya protein antibodies in man: their occurrence and possible relevance in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeney, M R; Goodwin, B J; Barratt, M E; Mike, N; Asquith, P

    1982-01-01

    Circulating antibodies to soya-derived protein antigens have been measured in patients with duodenitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease. Significantly raised antibody titres were found frequently in the coeliac group, particularly those patients showing a suboptimal response to a gluten-free diet, but rarely in subjects with other gastrointestinal diseases. Antisoya activity was not necessarily accompanied by antibodies to other common dietary antigens. We suggest that some coeliacs may have an associated dietary soya sensitivity which could adversely influence their response to gluten withdrawal. PMID:7040491

  1. Effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with blood meal (BM) on biochemical profile of pregnant pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abonyi, Festus Otaka; Machebe, Ndubuisi Samuel; Ezea, Michael Sunday; Eze, James I; Omeke, Benjamin Chigozie; Marire, Benjamin Nwabueze

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-four Large White × Landrace crossbreed primigravid pigs, aged 7.50 to 8.00 months weighing between 86.15 and 88.24 kg were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of soya bean meal (SBM) replaced blood meal (BM) diets on serum biochemical profile in gestating pigs. The pigs were randomly allotted to four finisher diets formulated such that BM replaced SBM at 0.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0 %, respectively. The diets were T1 (100.0 % SBM, 0.0 % BM), T2 (50.0 % SBM, 50.0 % BM), T3 (25.0 % SBM, 75.0 % BM) and T4 (0.0 % SBM, 100.0 % BM). Individual animal's daily ration of the test diets was 2.20, 2.00 and 2.50 kg at stages one, two and three of gestation. Blood sampling and analysis for the effects of the test diets on biochemical profile of the experimental animals were carried out prior to conception, at weeks 3, 7 and 11 of gestation, respectively. The result showed no significant (P ≥ 0.05) dietary treatment effects on total protein, albumin, globulin fraction, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea profile of the pigs fed with BM diets when compared to the control fed with 100.0 % SBM. There was however a significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in these biochemical indices in all the experimental groups at different stages of gestation. It was concluded that BM can replace 100.0 % of SBM in the diets of pregnant pigs in the tropical humid environment without any deleterious effect on their health.

  2. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  3. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels.

  5. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  6. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a struct

  7. Bioactive components of fermented soya beans effective against diarrhoea-associated bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tempe is a fermented food, obtained by fungal fermentation of soya beans. During the processing specific flavour, texture and nutritional properties are achieved. Previous research has indicated that tempe reduced the incidence and severity of diarrhoea. In this thesis the bioactive effects of tempe

  8. KAJIAN PENGARUH KADAR GULA DAN LAMA FERMENTASI TERHADAP KUALITAS NATA de SOYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurhayati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of sugar content, time length of fermentations and their interaction on the qualities of the Nata de Soya. The design of the experiment was factorial 3x2 and arranged by the Randomized Complete Design (RCD, with three replications. The first factor was sugar content. G1= 100 g sucrose/l waste of soya, G2= 150 g/l and G3= 200 g/l. The second factor was days of the fermentation F1= 7 days, F2= 14 days. The result showed that (i the adding of sugar content was not affected the weight, temperature, acidity, moisture content, fiber content and protein content of the Nata de Soya. (ii The days of fermentation were significant in affecting the weight of the Nata de Soya, but not significant for other parameters. The maximum weight (418,411g was reached at 7 days of the fermentations. (iii The interaction between sugar content and time length of fermentations influenced acidity.

  9. Elaboration and characterization of nanoliposome made of soya; rapeseed and salmon lecithins: application to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Tehrany, Elmira; Kahn, Cyril J F; Baravian, Christophe; Maherani, Behnoush; Belhaj, Nabila; Wang, Xiong; Linder, Michel

    2012-06-15

    Health benefits of unsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated over the last decades. Nanotechnology provided new process to produce particles such as liposomes and nanoliposomes made of pure phospholipids. These techniques are already used in pharmaceutics to augment the bioavailability and the bioefficiency of drugs. The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the potential of nanoliposomes made of three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) on cell culture in order to use them in the future as drug delivery systems for tissue engineering. We began to measure, with zetasizer, the radius size of liposomes particles which are 125.5, 136.7 and 130.3 nm respectively for rapeseed, soya and salmon lecithin. Simultaneously, solutions observed by TEM demonstrated the particles were made much of liposomes than droplet (emulsion). Finally, we found that the solutions of lecithins were enough stable over 5 days at 37 °C to be used in culture medium. We investigated the effect of soya, rapeseed and salmon lecithin liposome from 2mg/mL to 5.2 μg/mL on metabolic activity and cell proliferation on rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSC) during 14 days. The results showed that the three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) improve cell proliferation at different concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-substrate fermentation of soya beans to tempe : process innovations and product characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-substrate fermentations (SSF) are restricted by heat- and mass transfer limitations, which might result in unfavourable growth conditions. One way to prevent such conditions is by agitation of the substrate. In this study a Rotating Drum Reactor (RDR) was designed for the fermentation of soya

  11. Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change : II Application of climate change scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of climate change (for 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on soya bean growth and production at 3 sites in the EU have been calculated. These calculations have been done with both a simple growth model, SOYBEANW, and a comprehensive model, CROPGRO.

  12. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 bas

  13. Solid-substrate fermentation of soya beans to tempe - process innovations and product characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-substrate fermentations (SSF) are restricted by heat- and mass transfer limitations, which might result in unfavourable growth conditions. One way to prevent such conditions is by agitation of the substrate. In this study a Rotating Drum Reactor (RDR) was designed for the fermentation of soya

  14. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  15. Natural occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, M S; Barros, G G; Chulze, S N; Ramirez, M L

    2012-08-01

    The natural occurrence of alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in soya beans harvested in Argentina was evaluated. Both toxins were simultaneously detected by using HPLC analysis coupled with a solid phase extraction column clean-up. Characteristics of this in-house method such as accuracy, precision and detection and quantification limits were defined by means of recovery test with spiked soya bean samples. Out of 50 soya bean samples, 60% showed contamination with the mycotoxins analyzed; among them, 16% were only contaminated with AOH and 14% just with AME. Fifteen of the positive samples showed co-occurrence of both mycotoxins analyzed. AOH was detected in concentrations ranging from 25 to 211 ng/g, whereas AME was found in concentrations ranging from 62 to 1,153 ng/g. Although a limited number of samples were evaluated, this is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in soya beans and is relevant from the point of view of animal public health.

  16. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Beumer, R.R.; Meulen, van der J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and

  18. Biogas production enhancement by soya sludge amendment in cattle dung digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayan, Shanta; Ramakant; Shivayogi [WWT Division, NEERI, Nagpur 400 020 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Biogas energy production from cattle dung is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. But dependence only on cattle dung is a limiting factor. Rich nitrogen containing substrate addition to extra carbohydrate digester like cattle dung could improve the biogas production. Detailed performance of the digesters at different ratios of cattle dung and soya sludge has been discussed in this paper considering the cold countries climate. Soya sludge substrate not only has high nitrogen content of 4.0-4.8% but it also has high percentage of volatile solids content in the range of 97.8-98.8%. Soya sludge addition also improved the manurial value of the digested slurry and also improved the dewater-ability of the sludge. Results indicated an increment of 27.0% gas production at 25.0% amendment of soya sludge in non-homogenized cattle dung (NCD) digester. The amount of gas production increased to 46.4% in case of homogenized cattle dung (HCD) with respect to NCD feed at the same amendment. (author)

  19. Utilización de proteina de soya y carragenina en salchichas tipo Huacho con bajo tenor graso

    OpenAIRE

    Salvá Ruiz, Bettit Karim

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El presente trabajo de investigación consistió en determinar la influencia de la sustitución de grasa por la adición de hidrocoloides (proteina texturizada de soya, carragenina, concentrado funcional de soya), pellejo de cerdo y combinaciones de estas en las características de la salchicha tipo Huacho. Se emplearon concentraciones de 20, 30, 40 y 50% de proteína texturizada de soya, para reduci...

  20. A longitudinal cross-over study of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in rabbits fed on semipurified diets containing either casein or soybean protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.; Woodward, C.J.H.; West, C.E.; Boven, van H.G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Two groups, each of six rabbits, were fed on semi-purified diets containing either 400 g casein or 400 g soya-bean protein/kg for 20 d and then the diets of the two groups were crossed-over. 2. Just before the cross-over, the serum cholesterol concentration (mean ± SE) was 3068 ± 592 and 800 ± 14

  1. Xylanase production by Penicillium canescens on soya oil cake in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Assamoi Allah; Jacqueline, Destain; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for the organic residues from various sectors of agriculture and industries over the past few decades. Their application in the field of fermentation technology has resulted in the production of bulk chemicals and value-added products such as amino acid, enzymes, mushroom, organic acids, single-cell protein, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. (Ramachandran et al., Bioresource Technology 98:2000-2009, 2007). In this work, the production of extracellular xylanase by the fungus Penicillium canescens was investigated in solid-state fermentation using five agro-industrial substrates (soya oil cake, soya meal, wheat bran, whole wheat bran, and pulp beet). The best substrate was the soya oil cake. In order to optimize the production, the most effective cultivation conditions were investigated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in plastic bags with 5 and 100 g of soya oil cake, respectively. The initial moisture content, initial pH, and temperature of the culture affected the xylanase synthesis. The optimal fermentation medium was composed by soya oil cake crushed to 5 mm supplemented with 3% and 4% (w/w) of casein peptone and Na(2)HPO(4) x 2H(2)O. After 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C and under 80% of initial moisture, a xylanase production level of 18,895 +/- 778 U/g (Erlenmeyer flasks) and 9,300 +/- 589 U/g (plastic bags) was reached. The partially purified enzyme recovered by ammonium sulfate fractionation was completely stable at freezing and refrigeration temperatures up to 6 months and reasonably stable at room temperature for more than 3 months.

  2. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  3. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β‐carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R. Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic soya bean ( Glycine max ) plants overexpressing a seed‐specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g...

  4. Soya protein stimulates bile acid excretion by the liver and intestine through direct and indirect pathways influenced by the presence of dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Martínez, Gloria Leticia; Granados, Omar; Palacios-González, Berenice; Torres, Nimbe; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Tovar, Armando R

    2014-06-28

    Several studies using different animal models have demonstrated that the consumption of soya protein (SP) reduces serum cholesterol concentrations by increasing the excretion of bile acids (BA). However, the mechanism by which SP enhances BA excretion is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of SP regulates the expression of key enzymes involved in hepatic BA synthesis and the transporters involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) via fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and/or small heterodimer protein (SHP) in rats. To achieve this aim, four groups of rats were fed experimental diets containing 20 % casein (C) or SP with or without the addition of 0·2 % cholesterol and the expression of hepatic genes involved in BA synthesis and the ileal and hepatic RCT was measured. Rats fed the SP diet had higher concentrations of ileal FGF15 and hepatic FGF15 receptor (FGFR4) and increased expression of SHP and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1) than those fed the C diet; as a result, the excretion of faecal BA was greater. The addition of cholesterol to the diet repressed the protein abundance of FGF15 and FGFR4; however, SP increased the expression of SHP and LRH1 to a lesser extent. Nonetheless, the expression of ABCG5/8 was increased in the intestine of rats fed the SP diet, and the effect was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol to the diet. In conclusion, SP in the presence of cholesterol increases BA synthesis via the repressions of FGF15 and SHP and accelerates BA excretion to prevent cholesterol overload in the enterocytes by increasing RCT.

  5. Soya beans and Maize : The effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Laar, van de, P.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid production) of soya bean and maize cell walls was analysed, both in situ and in vitro. This analysis revealed that the physical structure of the cell wall (particle size and cell wall thickness) influences cell...

  6. Use of Bacillus subtilis isolates from Tua-nao towards nutritional improvement of soya bean hull for monogastric feed application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongputtisin, P; Khanongnuch, C; Kongbuntad, W; Niamsup, P; Lumyong, S; Sarkar, P K

    2014-09-01

    Soya bean hull (SBH) is a cheap and high-fibre content feed ingredient that obtained after soya bean oil extraction. Microbial fermentation was expected to improve SBH qualities before applying to animals, especially monogastric animals. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis MR10 and TK8 that were isolated from Tua-nao, a traditional fermented soya bean in northern Thailand, were used for fermented soya bean hull (FSBH) production. Both could easily grow at 37°C in SBH as the sole substrate. MR10 produced the highest β-mannanase activity (400 U g(-1) SBH) on day 2, while TK8 produced the highest cellulase activity (14·5 U g(-1) SBH) on day 3. After fermentation, the nutritional quality of SBH was obviously improved by an increase in soluble sugars, soluble proteins, crude protein and crude lipid, and a decrease in the content of raffinose family oligosaccharides. Scavenging activity (%) of SBH against ABTS radical cation was also increased from 14 to 27 and 20% by MR10 and TK8 fermentation, respectively. According to the GRAS property of these both strains and various improvements of nutritional values, the fermented SBH proved to be a potential feed ingredient, especially for the monogastric animals. Normally, soya bean hull has been recognized as only a worthless by-product from soya bean oil production process because of its low utilizable nutrients. Our study introduced an alternative way to utilize this worthless residue using biotechnological knowledge. The nutritional quality of soya bean hull was improved by microbial fermentation. Fermented soya bean hull can be used as a cheap, safe and high-nutrient feed ingredient for livestock production, especially monogastric animals, to promote their growth performances, instead of using antibiotics in some regions of the world. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Engineering soya bean seeds as a scalable platform to produce cyanovirin-N, a non-ARV microbicide against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barry R; Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Ramessar, Koreen; Saucedo, Carrie J; Wilson, Jennifer; Buckheit, Karen W; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Araújo, Ana Claudia G; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Madeira, Luisa; McMahon, James B; Rech, Elibio L

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to provide effective anti-HIV microbicides to resource-poor areas worldwide. Some of the most promising microbicide candidates are biotherapeutics targeting viral entry. To provide biotherapeutics to poorer areas, it is vital to reduce the cost. Here, we report the production of biologically active recombinant cyanovirin-N (rCV-N), an antiviral protein, in genetically engineered soya bean seeds. Pure, biologically active rCV-N was isolated with a yield of 350 μg/g of dry seed weight. The observed amino acid sequence of rCV-N matched the expected sequence of native CV-N, as did the mass of rCV-N (11 009 Da). Purified rCV-N from soya is active in anti-HIV assays with an EC50 of 0.82-2.7 nM (compared to 0.45-1.8 nM for E. coli-produced CV-N). Standard industrial processing of soya bean seeds to harvest soya bean oil does not diminish the antiviral activity of recovered rCV-N, allowing the use of industrial soya bean processing to generate both soya bean oil and a recombinant protein for anti-HIV microbicide development. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Krungleviciute, Vita; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Maknickiene, Zita

    2015-04-01

    The ability of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce L(+) and D(-)-lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly L-lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (D/L ratio 0.38-0.42 and 0.35-0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (D/L ratio 0.82-0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS-producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non-producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts of raw art and outsider art were typical of a time when oppositional politics still infused artistic and academic discourses. But modernity seems to have ‘grown out’ of its adolescence, so to speak: out of politics of opposition and absolutes. Of course, it is neither desirable nor possible...... to return to the oppositional dynamics and binary divisions of yesterday, now that we have crossed this paradigmatic threshold. But the schizoanalytic stance may offer us another view of the emerging paradigm. It affords different tools of interpretation and suggests ways artists may grow out of modernity...

  10. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject to...

  12. Estudio del contenido de ácidos grasos superiores en veinte variedades tropicales de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kocelj Ramírez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muy poco se sabe acerca del contenido de ácidos grasos en las diferentes variedades tropicales de soya. En este trabajo se estudiaron veinte variedades tropicales de soya en lo referente a su contenido de aceite y en ácidos grasos. Se determinaros las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite que lo caracteizan como comestible. El contenido cualitativo y cuantitativo de ácidos grasos individuales se investigó utilizando la técnica de cromatografía de gases. Se analizaron los éteres correspondientes, obtenidos por esterificación catalítica completa con trifluoruro de Boro-metanol. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las propiedades de los aceites de las variedades estudiadas. Se identificaron los ácidos: palmítico, esteárico, linoleico y linolénico

  13. A highly efficient and thermostable α-amylase from soya bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Jaiswal, Nivedita

    2010-12-01

    The α-amylase from soya bean seeds was purified by affinity precipitation, resulting in approx. 20-fold purification with approx. 84% recovery. The purified α-amylase had an optimum pH of 5.5, optimum temperature of 75 °C, Arrhenius energy of activation of 6.03 kcal/mol (1 kcal≈4.184 kJ) and a Km of 2.427 mg/ml (starch substrate). The enzyme had maximum substrate specificity for starch. Among the various metal ions tested, Co2+ and Mn2+ were found to be strong activators. The effect of thiol group modifying agents showed that the thiols of soya bean α-amylase are not directly involved in catalysis. The thermostability of the enzyme makes it suitable for starch liquefaction and the detergent industry respectively.

  14. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  15. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  16. Study on Drying Edible Soya-bean Oil Using Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengyong; LIU Peng; SHEN Xiaozhen; XU Guizhuan; SU Chaojie; CAI Xianjie

    2010-01-01

    Soya-bean oil(bean dregs)was dried in a solar energy drying system.Characteristics of the process were measured and the corresponding curves were done.The practicability of this process has been discussed.The results showed that the solar drying system could completely meet technological requirements of drying soy-bean oil,and it was feasible in technology to use the solar drying system to dry the vegetable oil.

  17. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  18. Isoflavonas de soya y evidencias sobre la protección cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia González Cañete

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las isoflavonas de soya son un grupo de compuestos bioactivos, no nutritivos, de naturaleza fenólica, no esteroidal, encontrados en la soya y alimentos derivados. Comparten con otros compuestos la capacidad de unión a los receptores estrogénicos de distintas células y tejidos, por lo que pueden actuar como fitoestrógenos. El interés actual sobre ellas deriva del reconocimiento de que poblaciones asiáticas con un alto consumo presentan menor prevalencia de cáncer y enfermedades cardiovasculares, en comparación con poblaciones de países occidentales. Este beneficio cardiovascular no estaría dado sólo mediante modulación de los lípidos plasmáticos, mecanismo ampliamente estudiado. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia publicada acerca de los efectos benéficos de las isoflavonas de soya y las distintas vías de acción que beneficiarían la salud cardiovascular, mecanismos que trascienden los tradicionalmente abordados, como la modulación de los lípidos plasmáticos, y que involucran regulación de funciones a nivel celular y enzimático, en eventos como la inflamación, trombosis y progresión aterosclerótica.

  19. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  20. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  1. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Ferlay, A; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2014-03-01

    did not differ between protein sources. Urinary N output did not differ between forage types, but was lower for cows fed L diets than for cows fed SP diets, potentially resulting in lower ammonia emissions with L diets. Replacing soya bean meal plus beet pulp with dehydrated lucerne did not change CH4 production, but resulted in more N in faeces and less N in urine.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a delays flowering time in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yupeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xiujie; Guo, Chen; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Jiang, Bingjun; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2017-05-16

    Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soya bean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soya bean. The soya bean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis. T1-generation soya bean plants homozygous for null alleles of GmFT2a frameshift mutated by a 1-bp insertion or short deletion exhibited late flowering under natural conditions (summer) in Beijing, China (N39°58', E116°20'). We also found that the targeted mutagenesis was stably heritable in the following T2 generation, and the homozygous GmFT2a mutants exhibited late flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. We identified some 'transgene-clean' soya bean plants that were homozygous for null alleles of endogenous GmFT2a and without any transgenic element from the T1 and T2 generations. These 'transgene-clean' mutants of GmFT2a may provide materials for more in-depth research of GmFT2a functions and the molecular mechanism of photoperiod responses in soya bean. They will also contribute to soya bean breeding and regional introduction. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  4. Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water soaked and cooked velvet ... A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary raw and ... The second batch was soaked for 24 h, subdivided into four parts and ... of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio.

  5. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  6. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  7. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  8. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-02-22

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA.

  9. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  10. Novozym 435-catalysed transesterification of crude soya bean oils for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jing; Liu, De-hua

    2004-10-01

    When crude soya-bean oil was used as the source for biodiesel production, the yield of methyl ester was significantly lower than that from refined soya-bean oil. The major difference between refined and crude soya-bean oils was found to be due to the contents of phospholipids, free acid and water, which have varied influences on biodiesel production. Phospholipid content was the most influential factor; the higher the phospholipid content in the oil, the lower is the methyl ester yield. The optimal water activity was found to be in the range 0.12-0.44, and free acid included in crude soya-bean oils showed no negative effect on enzymic transesterification. During our study of three-step methanolysis of crude soya-bean oils for biodiesel production, we noted that the second-step methanolysis was much faster than the first-step reaction. On the basis of this finding, the proposal that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils contributes to improvement in enzyme activity has been put forward. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils could improve both the reaction rate and methyl ester yield significantly. A methyl ester yield of 94% could be achieved by immersing lipase in crude oils for 120 h and this was just as high as the yield for refined oils.

  11. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  12. Acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac formula or human breast milk in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C; Lerman, J; Endo, J

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the severity of the acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac infant formula, or human breast milk (HBM) in anesthetized rabbits. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient (A-aDO2) and dynamic compliance were measured before (baseline) and hourly for four hours after tracheal instillation of 0.8 ml x kg(-1) soya-based or Enfalac infant formula or HBM (all acidified to pH 1.8 with hydrochloric acid) or no fluid (control) in 24 anesthetized and tracheotomized adult rabbits. The A-aDO2, the difference between alveolar and arterial oxygen tensions, was corrected for barometric pressure and carbon dioxide tension. Dynamic compliance was the ratio of the expired tidal volume to the peak inspiratory airway pressure, normalized to body weight. Baseline A-aDO2 and dynamic compliance were similar among the four groups. In the control rabbits, A-aDO2 remained unchanged throughout the four hours, whereas mean A-aDO2 increased 180 mm Hg in the soya-based group (P soya > control (P soya > control.

  13. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  14. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  15. Producción y valor nutricional del forraje de soya en condiciones tropicales adversas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tob\\u00EDa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una parcela de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. var. ‘CIGRAS-06’ de 2,4 ha, cultivada en condiciones de alta precipitación y temperatura y en un suelo ácido (pH 4,78 con baja fertilidad, en La Virgen de Sarapiquí, produjo un promedio de 4,8 t ha-1 de materia seca, cuando la planta entera se cosechó para forraje en el estado de desarrollo R6 (semillas llenas. Esta productividad es baja, en comparación con la obtenida en Guanacaste y San Carlos, donde las condiciones de clima y suelo fueron favorables para la producción de esta especie. La composición química de la planta entera fue de 20,2% de proteína, 6,7% de grasa, 5,5% de cenizas, 42,2% de fibra detergente neutro y 25,4% de carbohidratos no fibrosos. La proporción del peso seco de las hojas: vainas+semillas:tallos+pecíolos de las plantas fue de 24:39:37, respectivamente. Un análisis económico de los resultados señala que la producción de forraje y de ensilaje tal como fue ofrecido tuvo un costo de 0,02 y 0,03 US $ kg-1, respectivamente. Se pone en evidencia que aún en las condiciones adversas de clima y suelo donde tuvo lugar esta investigación, es posible aprovechar las cualidades nutricionales de la soya en la alimentación del ganado lechero, a un costo relativamente bajo y sin los inconvenientes y la alta inversión en maquinaria y equipo que representa la producción de soya para semilla en el trópico húmedo.

  16. Phospholipase-mediated preparation of 1-ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine from soya and egg phosphatidylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeeta, T; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Karuna, M S L; Prasad, R B N

    2004-07-01

    1-Ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was prepared by incorporating ricinoleic acid completely in the sn-1 position of egg and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC) using immobilized phospholipase A(1) as the catalyst. The optimum reaction conditions for maximum incorporation of ricinoleic acid into PC through transesterification were 10% (w/w) immobilized enzyme (116 mg), a 1:5 mol ratio of PC (soya, 387 mg; egg, 384 mg) to methyl ricinoleate (780 mg) at 50 degrees C for 24 h in hexane.

  17. NIVELES DE UREIDOS EN PLANTAS DE SOYA CON DIFERENTES INOCULANTES Y SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Freixas Coutin; Walfredo Torres de la Noval; Inés M. Reynaldo Escobar; María C. Nápoles García

    2011-01-01

    La soya [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] establecesimbiosis con bacterias fijadoras del nitrógeno del grupo delos rizobios, específicamente del género Bradyrhizobium sp.El nitrógeno fijado en el nódulo es transferido hacia las hojasen forma de ureidos, los cuales incrementan en las hojas antecondiciones de sequía. De hecho, la fijación biológica delnitrógeno en la soya es muy sensible a la sequía y los ureidosparecen estar involucrados a través de un mecanismo de retroalimentación negativa desde las ...

  18. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess IF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Burgess IF, Kay K, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Med Devices (Auckl. 2011;4:35-42 In March 2011 we published a report of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of a shampoo for the treatment of head louse infestation.1 The report states that the shampoo used contained, as an active component, 1% soya oil. However, it has now come to light that this product may have a considerably different formulation, and possibly contained no soya oil at all. Read the original article

  19. 酸豆乳发酵工艺条件的优化%Study on Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Soya-yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 杜萍; 周荣锋; 许灿; 杨芳

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we studied the effect of the fermentation conditions on the acidity, viscosity and the viability of Lactobacillus of soya-yogurt using fresh soybean and finished milk as raw material. The results showed it was feasible to produce soya-yogurt from soy-bean milk using traditional yogurt starter. Experimental factors and levels were determined by single-factor experiments. The orthogonal experimental design was used to optimize the fermenta- tion conditions. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions were as followes : ratio of soy-bean milk to milk was 5: 5, fermentation time was 9h,inoculation volume of taming lactobacillus was 0.5 g//L. In these fermenta- tion conditions, products obtained good acidity value of more than 70°T and moderate viscosity value of 2025 mPa · s. The yoghurt had good texture and fermented flavor, and had no soybean pungent taste.%以新鲜大豆和成品牛乳为原料,研究了发酵工艺对酸豆乳酸度、黏度和乳酸菌活力等指标的影响。结果显示,以传统酸奶发酵剂乳酸菌为菌种,大豆浆液为主要原料,经发酵获得酸豆乳工艺可行。在单因素实验的基础上,经正交实验确定酸豆乳发酵的最佳工艺条件为:豆浆和牛奶体积比为5∶5,发酵9 h,按0.5 g/L发酵液添加驯化后乳酸菌液作为发酵剂,经发酵得到的产品酸度达到70°T以上,黏度2025 mPa.s,凝乳性较好,美兰褪色时间为50 min,乳酸菌活力提高,无豆腥味。

  20. Evaluación del efecto del grano de soya crudo (C.S.C. suministrado por 42-28 o 14 semanas a aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López G. Arnobio

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 144 middle weight Dekalb-Warren laying hens (28 to 70 weeks age, to evaluate the effects on feed consumption, % egg production, egg weight feed conversion per dozen and kilogram of egg produced, weight change, and pancreas size and weight due to the feeding of who le raw soybean (WRSB replacing soybean bean (SBM as a protein source in the diet in three feeding periods (42,28 and 14 weeks. There were no differences (P<0.05 due to protein sources used on egg weight, feed conversion per dozen and kilogram of egg produced and pancreas size. However, there were differences on egg production, weight change, feed consumption by hen per day and pancreas weight. Also there on differences (P < 0.05 due to feeding period on egg weight, feed conversion by dozen and kilograms of egg produced and pancreas weight, but there were differences (P<0.05 on egg production and pancreas size. In a similar way, there where no differences (P<0.05 to the interaction of protein sources feeding periods for any of the variables considerated.Un experimento se llevó a cabo con 144 gallinas Dekalb-Warren semipesadas en postura (28 a 70 semanas para evaluar los efectos de reemplazar la torta de soya por el grano de soya crudo (G.S.C suministrada por tres períodos de tiempo diferentes(42, 28 y 14 semanas. No hubo diferencias (P <0.05 por efecto de la fuente de proteína para las variables peso de huevo, eficiencia de conversión por docena y kilogramo de huevo producido y tamaño de pancreas. Sin embargo si hubo diferencias (P < 0.05 para el porcentaje de producción, cambio de peso en las aves, consumo de alimento por ave día y peso del páncreas. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 por efecto del período de tiempo de suministro para las variables cambio de peso en las aves, peso de huevo, eficiencia de conversión por docena y kilogramo de huevo producido y peso del páncreas. Pero si hubo diferencias (P< Q05 para las variables

  1. Participation of Taxifolin in the Protection of Soya Seeds from the Effects of Heavy Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuznetsova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A correlation was revealed between the specific activity of peroxidases and their multiple forms during the germination of soya seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill in the presence of heavy metal salts. It was shown that lead and cadmium sulfates cause emergence of new forms of the enzyme with high electrophoretic mobility, which indicates that the identified enzyme forms are involved in the molecular mechanism of adaptation to oxidative stress. Addition of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant, to the salts of heavy metals caused decrease in the specific activity of peroxidases and favored emergence of new forms of the enzyme, which were absent in the control samples.

  2. Diazepam submicron emulsions containing soya-bean oil and intended for oral or rectal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, M; Sznitowska, M; Janicki, S

    2001-03-01

    Physically stable diazepam submicron emulsions were prepared using soya-bean oil. Diazepam concentration 4 mg/ml, suitable for rectal or oral delivery, was achieved in 20% emulsions. Mixture of egg lecithin (1.2%) and poloxamer (2.0%) has been chosen as the most suitable emulsifying agent. Composition of the emulsion may be supplemented with alpha-tocopherol and parabens. However, the system was not stable when either phenylethanol or chlorhexidine gluconate was added. Taste masking agents commonly used as food additives decreased stability of the preparation and were not efficient in elimination of a bitter taste of the drug-loaded emulsions.

  3. Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Hansen, Anne Kristine; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-02-01

    Altered lipid metabolism has been shown in fish fed plant protein sources. The present study aimed to gain further insights into how intestinal and hepatic lipid absorption and metabolism are modulated by plant meal (PM) and soya-saponin (SA) inclusion in salmon feed. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 10 weeks one of four diets based on fishmeal or PM, with or without 10 g/kg SA. PM inclusion resulted in decreased growth performance, excessive lipid droplet accumulation in the pyloric caeca and liver, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression profiling revealed an up-regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein (LP) synthesis (apo, fatty acid transporters, microsomal TAG transfer protein, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, choline kinase and choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A), cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and associated transcription factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and PPARγ). SA inclusion resulted in reduced body pools of cholesterol and bile salts. The hepatic gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis (cytochrome P450 7A1 (cyp7a1)) as well as the transcription factor liver X receptor and the bile acid transporter abcb11 (ATP-binding cassette B11) was down-regulated by SA inclusion. A significant interaction was observed between PM inclusion and SA inclusion for plasma cholesterol levels. In conclusion, gene expression profiling suggested that the capacity for LP assembly and cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated by PM exposure, probably as a compensatory mechanism for excessive lipid droplet accumulation and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. SA inclusion had hypocholesterolaemic effects on Atlantic salmon, accompanied by decreased bile salt metabolism.

  4. Utilización del grano de soya crudo en la alimentación de cerdas primerizas, durante dos periodos consecutivos de gestación - lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo M. Isabel Cristina

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Con 21 cerdas primerizas cruzadas se evaluaron los efectos del suministro del grano de soya crudo en reemplazo de la soya integral cocida y de la torta de soya durante dos períodos consecutivos. No hubo diferencia al parto (P < 0.05 en las variables cambio de peso de la cerda, peso de lechones al nacimiento y a los 7 días, porcentaje de mortalidad a los 7, excepto para el número de lechones nacidos vivos. En lactancia, hubo diferencias (P<0.05 en consumo de alimento de las cerdas, más no en el cambio de peso y d fas de presentación del primer celo post-destete. No se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 en el rendimiento de las camadas durante la lactancia y el período post-destete. Por el efecto de partos sólo se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 al parto para el número de lechones al nacimiento y porcentaje de mortalidad a los 7 días, En lactancia se encontró diferencias (P<0.05 en las variables cambio de peso, consumo de alimento e intervalo destete-calor en las cerdas. En el rendimiento de las camadas a los 35 y 56 días sólo se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 para el peso del lechón a los 56 días Se observaron diferencias (P<0.05 para el efecto de la interacción fuentes de proteína por partos para el número de lechones nacidos vivos en el segundo parto.Crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effect in gestation-lactation due to feeding with raw soybean grain replacing cooked whole grain soybean and soybean meal during two consecutive periods. There were ne differences at farrowing (P<0.05 on the variables change of gilt's weight, pig weight at birth and at 7 days, mortality porcentage at days, except for number of pigs alive. During lactation there was a difference (P < O. O5 on the amount of food intake, but not on change of body weight and days of first heat post weaning appearance. No differences (P< 0.05 in the achievement of litters during lactation and the post-weaning period were recorded. Due to the effect of farrowing

  5. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  6. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  7. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  8. Producción de soya (Glycine max L. bajo tres sistemas de labranza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Palacio Hernán

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The goals of this consisted in economically analyzing the conventional pattern with regard to minimum tillage and non tillage; evaluating the influence of the tillage systems on the physical properties of the soil and on the soybean's growth and yield. The experiment was stablished on clay soil. The experimental design employed was that of hierarchy-arranged random blocks with three repetitions (9 experimental units. The conventional tillage permitts the improvement of the physical conditions of the soil, performs a better control on the weeds, gives the soybean plant a full growth and yield causing the highest profitability. The second treatment showing the best efficiency was the minimum tillage.

    Se evaluó la influencia de los sistemas de labranza convencional, mínima y no labranza sobre las propiedades físicas del suelo, en el desarrollo y producción de la soya. El experimento se estableció en suelo arcilloso. El diseño experimental fue el de bloques al azar jerarquizados con tres repeticiones (9 unidades experimentales. La labranza convencional mejora las condiciones físicas del suelo, ejerce mayor control sobre las malezas, confiere a la planta de soya apropiado desarrollo y producción ocasionando así la mayor rentabilidad. El segundo tratamiento en eficiencia fue el de la labranza mínima.

  9. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  10. Study the Effect of Hydrolysis Variables on the Production of Soya Proteins Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus H.Ahammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of concentration of hydrochloric acids, temperature, and time on the hydrolysis of soya proteins (defatted soya flour by determining the value of total protein nitrogen concentration, and amino nitrogen concentration of protein, peptides, and amino acids, and then calculated the hydrolysis rate of proteins.The variables of the conditions of hydrolysis process was achieved in this study with the following range value of tests parameter: •Concentration of HCl solution ranged between 1-7 N, •Hydrolysis temperature ranged between 35-95 C, and•The time of hydrolysis period ranged between 0.5-24 hr.Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design.The practical study has shown the possibility of decreasing the negative effect of the acid on the biological characteristics of the protein; then affecting the possibility of using the product for biological purposes (for medical and microbiological laboratories by:•Decreasing the acid concentration used in the process of hydrolysis, firstly, and •Decreasing the temperature of the hydrolysis process, secondly, and then •Increasing the period of the time of hydrolysis process, thirdly.

  11. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Dalmas, E; Nout, M J R; Abee, T

    2010-07-01

    Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml(-1) reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactivated B. cereus spores upon germination. Viability and membrane permeability assessments using fluorescence probes showed rapid inactivation and permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane confirming the bactericidal mode of action. Cooked beans and Rhizopus grown on different media did not show antibacterial activity, indicating the unique association of the antibacterial activity with tempe. Subsequent characterization of the antibacterial activity revealed that heat treatment and protease addition nullified the bactericidal effect, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the bioactive compound. During fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus, compounds are released with extensive antibacterial activity against B. cereus cells and spores. The results show the potential of producing natural antibacterial compounds that could be used as ingredients in food preservation and pathogen control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Multifamily determination of pesticide residues in soya-based nutraceutical products by GC/MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 μg/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 specific responses in blood and gut secretion of calves fed soyabean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréau, D; Lallès, J P; Salmon, H; Toullec, R

    1995-07-01

    Calves fed soya proteins may develop severe gastrointestinal disorders. Whether these are predominantly associated with particular Ig subclasses and (or) dietary proteins remains unclear. Therefore, antibody responses to soyabean protein were analysed by dot- and blot-immunobinding in plasma and intestinal mucous secretions. One-month-old calves were fed for 2.5 months liquid diets based on skim milk powder (SMP) or a mixture (2:3, protein basis) of whey and soyabean products including a low antigenic hydrolysed soya protein isolate (HSPI) and a highly antigenic heated soya flour (HSF). Specific antibodies (Abs) of the main isotypes (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2) were characterised by immunostaining of samples which had been previously incubated with nitrocellulose sheets coated with SMP, HSPI or HSF extracts. Plasma collected before feeding experimental diets showed very little specific Abs. By contrast, 2.5 months later, a three-fold increase (P IgA titres against HSF antigens was observed in calves fed HSF compared with those fed the control or HSPI diet. IgG1 immunoblotting revealed many protein bands from soya in the molecular range of 22-32 and 38-42 kDa. Immunorecognition of specific proteins from SMP and HSPI remained low and similar among animal groups. Specific IgM, IgA and IgG1 titres against HSF, and to a lesser extent HSPI, were significantly higher (P IgA and IgG1. By contrast, only weak bands were found for IgM and IgG2 in all groups of calves. Thus, calves fed antigenic HSF do present specific Abs including IgG1 and IgA isotypes, both systemically and locally. Therefore, IgG1 and (or) IgA rather than IgM and IgG2 Abs may be preferred for assessing the immunogenicity of soyabean products in calves. Interestingly, soyabean immunogenicity was drastically reduced by adequate proteolysis.

  14. Soya milk exerts different effects on plasma amino acid responses and incretin hormone secretion compared with cows' milk in healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Siow, Phei Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-10-01

    Apart from the well-known action of insulin, the mechanism by which soya and cows' milk improve postprandial glycaemia control was examined. In total, twelve healthy, young, Chinese men were studied on three separate occasions, in random order with isovolumetric (322 ml) control water, soya milk and cows' milk. Plasma total amino acid concentrations increased 30 min after test meals consumption and were higher after soya milk (230 %) and cow milk (240 %) consumption compared with water. Cows' milk ingestion induced higher branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) (40 %) than soya milk. Postprandial incretin concentrations increased after meal consumption. Cows' milk meal was accompanied by higher incremental AUC (iAUC) (170 %) for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) compared with soya milk and control (P=0·06). However, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations increased to significantly greater levels after soya milk consumption (iAUC 60 % higher) compared with cows' milk and control. Consumption of both soya and cows' milk with carbohydrates induced a similar reduction in glycaemic response through a different mechanism, beyond insulin action. Plasma amino acids (alanine and arginine), and incretins in particular (GIP was stimulated), may be involved in the hyperinsulinaemia after soya milk meals. However, BCAA and GLP-1 release may be responsible for the reduced glycaemia after cows' milk consumption by delaying gastric emptying. This could be the result of different milk protein/amino acid composition, but also differences in milk carbohydrate composition (i.e. lactose v. sucrose). It can be concluded that soya milk is a good alternative to cows' milk with regard to glycaemic regulation, with different mechanisms involved.

  15. The EU's dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Schreuder, R.; Stoddard, F.

    2014-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described an

  16. Soya beans and maize : the effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid prod

  17. Soya beans and maize : the effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid

  18. Association of intakes of fat, dietary fibre, soya isoflavones and alcohol with uterine fibroids in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Oba, Shino; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2009-05-01

    Certain dietary components which could affect oestrogen may have implications in the aetiology of uterine fibroids. We previously found that soya intake was inversely associated with a subsequent risk of hysterectomy, suggesting a potentially protective effect of soya against uterine fibroids, the major clinical indication for hysterectomy. We cross-sectionally assessed the associations of intakes of fat, soya foods, dietary fibre and alcohol with uterine fibroids. Study subjects were 285 premenopausal Japanese women participating in a health-check up programme, including gynaecological examinations, provided by a general hospital between October 2003 and March 2006. The presence of fibroids was confirmed by transvaginal sonogram. If women had undergone hysterectomy, self-report of fibroids was accepted. Each subject's usual diet, including alcohol, was determined with the use of a validated FFQ. Fifty-four women were identified as prevalent cases of fibroids or having had hysterectomy due to fibroids. The mean alcohol intake was statistically significantly higher among women with fibroids than among those without fibroids after controlling for known or suspected risk factors. For the highest compared with the lowest tertile of alcohol intake, the OR of uterine fibroids was 2.78 (95% CI 1.25, 6.20). There was no significant association of intake of fats, soya isoflavones or dietary fibre with uterine fibroids. The data suggest that higher alcohol intake is associated with a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids. Further studies on diet, especially phyto-oestrogens, and uterine fibroids are needed given the limited data currently available.

  19. Soya beans and Maize : The effect of chemical and physical structure of cell wall polysaccharides on fermentation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between cell wall composition and fermentation of endosperm cell walls of soya beans and maize was approached from three different angles. Firstly, the fermentation (rate and extent of fermentation, the sugar degradation pattern, and volatile fatty acid production) o

  20. The EU's dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Schreuder, R.; Stoddard, F.

    2014-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described an

  1. The application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect melamine adulteration of soya bean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Simon A; Graham, Stewart F; Cancouët, Emmanuelle; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Soya bean products are used widely in the animal feed industry as a protein based feed ingredient and have been found to be adulterated with melamine. This was highlighted in the Chinese scandal of 2008. Dehulled soya (GM and non-GM), soya hulls and toasted soya were contaminated with melamine and spectra were generated using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). By applying chemometrics to the spectral data, excellent calibration models and prediction statistics were obtained. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were found to be 0.89-0.99 depending on the mathematical algorithm used, the data pre-processing applied and the sample type used. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration and prediction were found to be 0.081-0.276% and 0.134-0.368%, respectively, again depending on the chemometric treatment applied to the data and sample type. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA, it was possible to discriminate between the four samples types and also, by generation of Cooman's plots, possible to distinguish between adulterated and non-adulterated samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of indigenous bacterial strains for biocontrol of the frogeye leaf spot of soya bean caused by Cercospora sojina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, E; Carmona, M A; Scandiani, M M; García, A F; Luque, A G; Correa, O S; Balestrasse, K B

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of biological control of Cercospora sojina, causal agent of frogeye leaf spot (FLS) of soya bean, using three indigenous bacterial strains, BNM297 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), BNM340 and BNM122 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). From cultures of each bacterial strain, cell suspensions and cell-free supernatants were obtained and assayed to determine their antifungal activity against C. sojina. Both mycelial growth and spore germination in vitro were more strongly inhibited by bacterial cell suspensions than by cell-free supernatants. The Bacillus strains BNM122 and BNM340 inhibited the fungal growth to a similar degree (I ≈ 52-53%), while cells from P. fluorescens BNM297 caused a lesser reduction (I ≈ 32-34%) in the fungus colony diameter. The foliar application of the two Bacillus strains on soya bean seedlings, under greenhouse conditions, significantly reduced the disease severity with respect to control soya bean seedlings and those sprayed with BNM297. This last bacterial strain was not effective in controlling FLS in vivo. Our data demonstrate that the application of antagonistic bacteria may be a promising and environmentally friendly alternative to control the FLS of soya bean.   To our knowledge, this is the first report of biological control of C. sojina by using native Bacillus strains. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bohin, Maxime C; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-01-15

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method. The glyceollins I-III and glyceollidins I-II, belonging to the isoflavonoid subclass of the pterocarpans, were tentatively assigned. The formation of these prenylated pterocarpans was accompanied by that of other prenylated isoflavonoids of the subclasses of the isoflavones and the coumestans. It was estimated that approx. 40% of the total isoflavonoid content in Rhizopus-challenged soya bean seedlings were prenylated pterocarpans, whereas 7% comprised prenylated isoflavones and prenylated coumestans. The site of prenylation (A-ring or B-ring) of the prenylated isoflavones was tentatively annotated using positive-ion mode MS by comparing the (1,3) A(+) retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragments of prenylated and non-prenylated isoflavones. Furthermore, the fragmentation pathways of the five pterocarpans in negative-ion (NI) mode were proposed, which involved the cleavage of the C-ring and/or D-ring. The absence of the ring-closed prenyl (pyran or furan) gave exclusively -H(2) O(x,y) RDA fragments, whereas its presence gave predominantly the common RDA fragments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C. Two types of chocolate were produced: chocolate with 20% of powdered cow’s milk (R1 and chocolate with 20% of soya milk powder (R2. The quality of chocolate was followed by comparing nutritive composition, 23 polyphenol content, hardness of chocolate, solid triglyceride content (SFC and rheological parameters (Casson yield flow (Pa, Casson viscosity (Pas, the area of the thixotropic loop, elastic modulus and creep curves. The aim of this paper is determining changes caused by replacing cow’s milk with soya milk powder in respect of nutritive, rheological and sensory properties, as well as defining optimal parameters: precrystallization temperature and refining time of soya milk chocolate in order to obtain suitable sensory and physical properties identical to those of milk chocolate mass. The results show that replacing powdered cow’s milk with soya milk powder affects the increase in nutritive value of soya milk chocolate. R2 chocolate mass showed the increase in essential amino acids and fatty acids. This chocolate mass also showed the increase in total polyphenols by 28.1% comparing to R1 chocolate mass. By comparing viscosity, yield stress, shear stress and the area of the thixotropic loop, it can be observed that R1 chocolate mass represents a more organized and simpler system than the mass with soya milk (R2, as it shows lower values for all the above mentioned parameters, regardless of the refining time and pre-crystallization temperature

  6. Modeling Isosteric Heat of Soya Bean for Desorption Energy Estimation Using Neural Network Approach Modelación de Calor Isostérico de Soya para Estimación de Energía de Desorción usando Red neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amiri Chayjan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorption isotherm of soya bean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was obtained by the dynamic experimental method. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs were used for modeling soya bean equilibrium moisture content (EMC. Thermodynamic equations and trained ANN for prediction of two thermodynamic properties of net isosteric heat and entropy of soya bean were utilized. The ANN models were better compared with mathematical models. In this study, the isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were separately predicted by two power models as a EMC function. Predictive power of the models was high (R² ≈ 0.99. At the moisture content above 11% (dry basis, db, isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were smoothly decreased, while they were highest at moisture content about 8% (db. Isosteric heat and entropy would be useful in the storage simulation of dried soya bean. The ANN model predicts soya bean EMC more accurately than mathematical models. Hence, better equations could be developed for the prediction of heat of sorption and entropy based on data from the ANN model.La isoterma de desorción de soya (Glycine max (L. Merr. se obtuvo por el método experimental dinámico. Se usaron redes neuronales artificiales (ANN para modelación del contenido de humedad de equilibrio (EMC de soya. Se utilizaron ecuaciones termodinámicas y ANN dirigidas para predicción de dos propiedades termodinámicas, calor isostérico neto y entropía de soya. Los modelos ANN fueron mejores comparados con modelos matemáticos. En este estudio, el calor isostérico y entropía de absorción de soya fueron predichas separadamente por dos modelos de poder como una función de EMC. El poder predictivo de los modelos fue alto (R² ≈ 0.99. A un contenido de humedad superior a 11% (db, el calor isostérico y entropía de absorción de soya fueron ligeramente reducidos, y fueron las más altas a un contenido de 8% (db. El calor isostérico y entropía podrían ser útiles en

  7. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs of 5 mg/kg in soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg in sunflower seed, 0.05 mg/kg in rape seed and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg in lentils. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 5 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg on sunflower seed, the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.05 mg/kg on rape and mustard seed and 0.3 mg/kg on lentils. In the countries of origin the MRLs are set at 3 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.05 mg/kg on sunflower, rape and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg on lentils. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of imazapyr in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of imazapyr in soya bean, sunflower seed, rape seed, mustard seed and lentils will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  8. Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Guo, Kaiping; Chen, Chaogang; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Quan; Mei, Fang; Su, Yixiang

    2012-11-14

    Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG (-38·2 (95 % CI -70·4, -5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT (-4·9 (95 % CI -9·7, -0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes (-5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT (-16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.

  9. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  10. 野生大豆(Glycine soya)光合生理学研究进展%Advances in Studies on Photosynthetic Physiology of Wild Soybean (Glycine soya)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爽; 宗婷; 邵帅; 孟昭来; 周妍; 石连旋

    2012-01-01

    野生大豆是栽培大豆的近缘野生物种,具有较强的抗逆性和适应能力,可利用野生大豆资源拓宽大豆遗传基础、改良栽培大豆.近年来,国内外野生大豆研究已经取得了一定的进步.本文从光合生理学的角度,综述了近年来野生大豆的研究进展,旨为我国野生大豆科研和生产提供参考.%Wild soybean (Glycine soya), the wild relatives of cultivated soybean species with a strong resistance and adaptability, can be used to broaden the soybean genetic basis and improved cultivated soybean. After development for many years, researches on wild soybean have made some progress at home and abroad. The recent progress on the studies of wild soybean were reviewed from the perspective of photosynthetic physiology, which aims to provide a reference to research and production of wild soybean in China.

  11. SOYA VE ÜRÜNLERİNDE FENOLİK BİLEŞİKLER VE BESLENMEYİ KISITLAYICI FAKTÖRLER

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Protein bakımından zengin bir ürün olan soya fasulyesinin kullanım alanları hızla artmaktadır. Soya ve soya proteini ürünlerinin teknolojik açıdan çok iyi özellikleri olmasına rağmen, bazı istenmeyen renk ve koku karakteristikleri ile yapılarında bulunan beslenmeyi kısıtlayıcı faktörler kullanımını sınırlandırmaktadır. Bu derlemede, soya fasulyesi ve ürünlerindeki fenolik bileşikler ile beslenmeyi kısıtlayıcı faktörler ve bunların giderilmesi konusu üzerinde durulmuştur....

  12. Evaluation of biocompatible stabilised gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles as new hydrophobic reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, Ariane; Kirilov, Plamen; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Hadioui, Laila; Roques, Christine; Perez, Emile; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Based on the organogel concept, in which an oil is trapped in a network of low-molecular-mass organic gelator fibres creating a gel, a formulation of gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles was evaluated for its capacity to form biocompatible hydrophobic reservoirs. The aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (T° > Tgel) and cooling at room temperature in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The dispersions were stabilised by the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged amino groups of the PEI and the negatively charged carboxylates of the gelator fibres present at the surface of the particles. The aqueous dispersions were highly stable (several months) and the gelled particles were able to entrap a hydrophobic fluorescent model molecule (Nile red), allowing testing in cells. The gelled oil nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible with the tested cells (keratinocytes) and had the ability to become rapidly internalised. Thus, organogel-based nanoparticles are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system.

  13. Raw materials prices under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Heinz

    1984-01-01

    Since April 1984 there has been a general fall in world market prices for industrial raw materials following upon increases which, in some cases, had been quite considerable. What are the reasons for this development? What are the prospects for 1985?

  14. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  15. Sistemas de siembra para soya de invierno en Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Tosquy Valle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad de este trabajo fue determinar en el norte del estado de Veracruz, México, si la tecnología generada sobre sistemas de siembra de soya en temporal, puede adaptarse a las condiciones de riego. El experimento se estableció en Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz, México, mediante el diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones en factorial 2 x 3 x 2 y arreglo de surcos en franjas. Se evaluaron dos distancias entre surcos: 60 y 75 cm, tres densidades: 150.000, 250.000 y 350.000 plantas/ha y dos genotipos: la línea DM 301 y la variedad Huasteca 200. Aunque con el surcado a 60 cm se obtuvo una mayor altura y número de entrenudos por planta, el rendimiento fue similar con ambos distanciamientos. Con 150.000 plantas/ha se produjeron más vainas por planta, pero con densidades mayores, las plantas fueron más altas, con más entrenudos y tuvieron un rendimiento promedio superior en 571,7 kg/ha. Huasteca 200 tuvo un rendimiento de 3.268 kg/ha, superior en 21,8% al obtenido por DM 301. Se concluye que existe potencial para producir soya de riego en invierno en el centro de Veracruz. La mayor producción se obtuvo con la variedad Huasteca 200 a 250.000 plantas/ha, en surcos espaciados a 60 ó 75 cm

  16. [Efficacy of treatment-and-prophylactic diets including soya-based food in elderly patients with atherogenic dislipidemia and glucose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatylo, V B; Korkushko, O V; Borovs'kyĭ, V R; Anisimova, Iu M; Tarasenko, O B; Ivanova, A O

    2007-01-01

    47 elderly patients aged 60-74 with stable exertional angina of I-II functional classes and 2a type dislipidemia have been observed. The authors studied the efficacy of hypocholesteremic diet (HD) including soya-based food in comparison with the use of HD without soya-based food. Patients of the main group were prescribed HD, soya-based food (29 g of soya protein per day) and medications of a based therapy during four weeks. Patients of the control group were given HD and medications of a based therapy during the same period. The use of HD with soya-based food decreased considerably frequency and duration of exertional angina attack, increased the tolerance to physical activity resulted in more considerable decrease in concentration of blood serum common cholesterin and cholesterin of low density lipoprotein in comparison with indices of patients of the control group. Soya-based food together with HD in patients with disturbed tolerance to glucose normalized the tolerance test to glucose.

  17. Ability of Lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host α-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya α-galacto-oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesma Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soya and its derivatives represent nutritionally high quality food products whose major drawback is their high content of α-galacto-oligosaccharides. These are not digested in the small intestine due to the natural absence of tissular α-galactosidase in mammals. The passage of these carbohydrates to the large intestine makes them available for fermentation by gas-producing bacteria leading to intestinal flatulence. The aim of the work reported here was to assess the ability of α-galactosidase-producing lactobacilli to improve the digestibility of α-galacto-oligosaccharides in situ. Results Gnotobiotic rats were orally fed with soy milk and placed in respiratory chambers designed to monitor fermentative gas excretion. The validity of the animal model was first checked using gnotobiotic rats monoassociated with a Clostridium butyricum hydrogen (H2-producing strain. Ingestion of native soy milk by these rats caused significant H2 emission while ingestion of α-galacto-oligosaccharide-free soy milk did not, thus validating the experimental system. When native soy milk was fermented using the α-galactosidase-producing Lactobacillus fermentum CRL722 strain, the resulting product failed to induce H2 emission in rats thus validating the bacterial model. When L. fermentum CRL722 was coadministered with native soy milk, a significant reduction (50 %, P = 0.019 in H2 emission was observed, showing that α-galactosidase from L. fermentum CRL722 remained active in situ, in the gastrointestinal tract of rats monoassociated with C. butyricum. In human-microbiota associated rats, L. fermentum CRL722 also induced a significant reduction of H2 emission (70 %, P = 0.004. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that L. fermentum α-galactosidase is able to partially alleviate α-galactosidase deficiency in rats. This offers interesting perspectives in various applications in which lactic acid bacteria could be used as a vector for

  18. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  19. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  20. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  1. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs o...

  2. INFLUENCE OF WAYS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER SOYA BEANS ON CHANGE OF AGROPHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

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    Makarenko S. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were cited the results of researches for 2010-2012 obtained in the stationary experiment of the chair of general and irrigated land management of Kuban State Agrarian University on the study of influence of the system of main soil processing under soya beans on the dynamics of main agrophysical indexes of leached black soil: on density of composition, solidity, general porosity, coefficient of structural properties in the article. There was stated that in the beginning of vegetation on the background of direct sowing of soya beans, the soil layer in 0-30 cm was characterized by values of density and solidity and in the result of it we observed the weak development of the root system. The worsening of air regime led to the decrease of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it negatively affected on the growth and development of a cultivar. Agrophysical indexes brought nearer to optimal on variants with disposal tip on 20-22 cm and disk-shaped hulling on 8-10 cm. The worsening of investigated agrophysical soil indexes has been happened since the phase of florescence – soya bean formation till the harvesting. But the variant with disposal tip where we observed the high content of agronomically valuable fraction at the coefficient of structural property 2,42 was the closest to optimal ones. The minimization of soil treatment and especially the denial from its implementation significantly made worse the main agrophysical indexes of soil on variants with direct sowing to critical values for soya beans

  3. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

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    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not changeessentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  4. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not change essentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LAS BEBIDAS CON PROTEÍNA DE SOYA CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRINKS WITH SOYBEAN PROTEIN

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    Luz Stella Vanegas Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la soya desde el punto de vista bromatológico, nutricional y funcional, igualmente se desarrollan los aspectos asociados a los beneficios para la salud que han obtenido diversos autores mediante estudios clínicos, identificando los componentes responsables de esta acción. Posteriormente se desarrollan las características de funcionalidad fisicoquímica de la proteína de soya y su incidencia en los atributos sensoriales de las bebidas con soya, incluyendo las deficiencias que ésta presenta, para finalmente señalar los aspectos que logran mitigar este tipo de defectos mediante el uso de ingredientes complementarios.Soy is described since its bromatologic, nutritional and functional aspects, as well as, developed associated matters to nutritional benefits carried by means of clinical studies from different authors, for the identification of the responsible components. Subsequently, physical and chemical soy protein functionality characteristics, and their impact on soy beverages sensorial are evaluated; soy protein deficiencies, are also discussed. Finally, aspects that get mitigate the soy limitations, are pointed out with a through analysis of complementary ingredients use.

  6. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  7. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    , or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  9. Elaboración de un sucedáneo de café (Coffea arabica L. a base de soya (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Otálora Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consistió en la preparación, caracterización fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial de un sucedáneo de café empleando soya (variedad Soyica P-34. Se establecieron tres tipos de tostión (tostión baja 211 ºC - 550 s, media 216 ºC - 600 s; y alta 222 ºC - 640 s. Se preparó una bebida y se realizó análisis sensorial cualitativo del color aroma y sabor, y evaluación sensorial cuantitativa descriptiva de ocho características. La soya tostada y molida presentó disminución en los contenidos de proteína bruta, lípidos totales y carbohidratos en relación a la soya sin tostar (2,42 %; 3,78 % y 5,24 %, respectivamente. El tamaño de partícula del polvo de soya tostado y molido tuvo un promedio de 0,5 mm de diámetro medio, correspondiente a una molienda media. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la bebida preparada con el polvo de granos de soya obtenido de la tostión media (216 ºC - 600 s y el patrón (p > 0,05. Se presentaron claros indicios que la bebida sustituta de café en base a soya tostada que presentó mayor aceptación fue la que se elaboró con polvo de soya obtenido del proceso de tostión media. El producto obtenido representa una alternativa de consumo en sustitución del café tradicional, con valor nutricional, agradables atributos sensoriales y beneficios para la salud.

  10. Elaboración de un sucedáneo de café (Coffea arabica L. a base de soya (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Otálora Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consistió en la preparación, caracterización fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial de un sucedáneo de café empleando soya (variedad Soyica P-34. Se establecieron tres tipos de tostión (tostión baja 211 ºC - 550 s, media 216 ºC - 600 s; y alta 222 ºC - 640 s. Se preparó una bebida y se realizó análisis sensorial cualitativo del color aroma y sabor, y evaluación sensorial cuantitativa descriptiva de ocho características. La soya tostada y molida presentó disminución en los contenidos de proteína bruta, lípidos totales y carbohidratos en relación a la soya sin tostar (2,42 %; 3,78 % y 5,24 %, respectivamente. El tamaño de partícula del polvo de soya tostado y molido tuvo un promedio de 0,5 mm de diámetro medio, correspondiente a una molienda media. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la bebida preparada con el polvo de granos de soya obtenido de la tostión media (216 ºC - 600 s y el patrón (p > 0,05. Se presentaron claros indicios que la bebida sustituta de café en base a soya tostada que presentó mayor aceptación fue la que se elaboró con polvo de soya obtenido del proceso de tostión media. El producto obtenido representa una alternativa de consumo en sustitución del café tradicional, con valor nutricional, agradables atributos sensoriales y beneficios para la salud.

  11. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  12. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  14. Rheology and microstructure of gluten and soya-based o/w emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengoechea, Carlos; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Highly concentrated oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion stabilised by means of gluten and soya protein isolate (SPI) at low pH have been characterized by means of linear dynamic viscoelasticity and droplet size distribution analysis (DSD). The microstructure of these emulsions has been characterized at a colloidal level by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and light microscopy (LM). These emulsions always exhibited a behaviour characteristic of highly flocculated emulsions with a mechanical spectrum showing a well-developed plateau region. DSD results generally showed log normal bimodal profiles. Microstructure images revealed occurrence of a close packing of droplets with a broad distribution of sizes participating in the formation of a three dimensional flocculated network. The Mason model of elasticity of compressed emulsions has been used to correlate viscoelastic and microstructural parameters giving adequate fitting but underestimating the elastic properties obtained for the highest concentration of gluten. These deviations may be explained in terms of an enhancement of the elastic network formed in the aqueous phase in which the glutenin fraction must play an important role. (orig.)

  15. Soya phospholipid complex of mangiferin enhances its hepatoprotectivity by improving its bioavailability and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Ahmmed, Sk Milan; Saha, Bishnu Pada; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-05-01

    Mangiferin is a xanthonoid present in Mangifera indica. It has been reported for a variety of pharmacological activities, including hepatoprotection. However, the major disadvantage of mangiferin is its reduced biological activity due to poor absorption, low bioavailability and rapid elimination from the body after administration. The aim of this study was to prepare a phospholipid complex of mangiferin to overcome these limitations and to investigate the impact of the complex on hepatoprotective activity and bioavailability. The results showed that the complex has an enhanced hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activity as compared to pure mangiferin at the same dose level (30 and 60 mg kg⁻¹). The complex restored the levels of serum hepatic marker enzymes and liver antioxidant enzymes with respect to carbon tetrachloride-treated animals. The complex also increased the bioavailability of mangiferin in rat serum by 9.75-fold compared to pure mangiferin at the same dose level and enhanced the elimination half-life (t(1/2 el)) from 1.71 ± 0.12 h⁻¹ to 3.52 ± 0.27 h⁻¹. The results suggested that the complexation of mangiferin with soya phospholipid enhanced the hepatoprotection and in vivo antioxidant activity, which may be due to the improved bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of mangiferin in rat serum. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  17. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Wang, Xiufang

    2010-10-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature ( TB) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  18. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  19. Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Aurora

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

  20. Preprocessing of raw metabonomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettukattil, Riyas

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in metabolic profiling techniques allow global profiling of metabolites in cells, tissues, or organisms, using a wide range of analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The raw data acquired from these instruments are abundant with technical and structural complexity, which makes it statistically difficult to extract meaningful information. Preprocessing involves various computational procedures where data from the instruments (gas chromatography (GC)/liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, NMR spectra) are converted into a usable form for further analysis and biological interpretation. This chapter covers the common data preprocessing techniques used in metabonomics and is primarily focused on baseline correction, normalization, scaling, peak alignment, detection, and quantification. Recent years have witnessed development of several software tools for data preprocessing, and an overview of the frequently used tools in data preprocessing pipeline is covered.

  1. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  2. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  3. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  4. Method validation for the analysis of 169 pesticides in soya grain, without clean up, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, André; Zanella, Renato; Adaime, Martha B; Hiemstra, Maurice; Wickert, Cristine; Prestes, Osmar D

    2007-02-23

    Part of a comprehensive study on the comparison of different extraction methods, GC-MS(/MS) and LC-MS/MS detection methods and modes, for the analysis of soya samples is described in this paper. The validation of an acetone-based extraction method for analysis of 169 pesticides in soya, using LC-MS/MS positive and negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, is reported. Samples (5 g) were soaked with 10 g water and subsequently extracted with 100 mL of a mixture of acetone, dichloromethane and light petroleum (1:1:1), in the presence of 15 g anhydrous sodium sulphate. After centrifugation, aliquots of the extract were evaporated and reconstituted in 1.0 mL of methanol, before direct injection of the final extract (corresponding with 0.05 g soya mL(-1)) into the LC-MS/MS system. Linearity, r(2) of calibration curves, instrument limit of detection/quantitation (LOD/LOQ) and matrix effect were evaluated, based on seven concentrations measured in 6-fold. Good linearity (at least r(2)> or =0.99) of the calibration curves was obtained over the range from 0.1 or 0.25 to 10.0 ng mL(-1), corresponding with pesticide concentrations in soya bean extract of 2 or 5-200 microg kg(-1). Instrument LOD values generally were 0.1 or 0.25 ng mL(-1). Matrix effects were negligible for approximately 90% of the pesticides. The accuracy, precision and method LOQ were determined via recovery experiments, spiking soya at 10, 50, 100 microg kg(-1), six replicates per level. In both ESI modes, method LOQ values were mostly 10 or 50 microg kg(-1) and more than 70% of pesticides analysed by each mode met the acceptability criteria of recovery (70-120%) and RSD (soya, without cleanup.

  5. The Fed's Year of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  6. Photoshop CS3 RAW Transforming your RAW data into works of art

    CERN Document Server

    Aaland, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Because RAW files remain virtually untouched by in-camera processing, working with them has given digital photographers greater flexibility and control during the editing process -- for those who are familiar enough with the format. Camera RAW, the plug in for Adobe Photoshop CS3, has emerged as one of the best and most familiar tools for editing RAW images, and the best way to master this workflow is with Photoshop CS3 RAW. Award-winning author Mikkel Aaland explores the entire RAW process, from the practical reasons to shoot RAW, to managing the images with the new features of Bridge 2.0 n

  7. Effects of consumption of oat milk, soya milk, or cow's milk on plasma lipids and antioxidative capacity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onning, G; Akesson, B; Oste, R; Lundquist, I

    1998-01-01

    A drink based on oats has been developed with new technology. In this study the effects of this oat milk, soya milk and cow's milk on plasma lipid, glucose, insulin, and antioxidant status (measured as the ability of serum to suppress the formation of the radical cation ABTS*+) were compared in 24 healthy men and women. Half of the subjects (group A) consumed 0.75-1 liters/day of oat milk and soya milk for 4 weeks each, and the other half (group B) consumed oat milk and cow's milk for two 4-week periods. In the combined groups A plus B the oat milk regimen resulted in decreased plasma cholesterol (4%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (9%) levels as compared with baseline, but no changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride values were observed. Also soya milk consumption resulted in decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations. The only significant plasma lipid change observed during consumption of cow's milk was an increase in HDL cholesterol. No consistent changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and antioxidant status occurred after consumption of any milk regimen. A significant correlation between baseline antioxidant status and total plasma cholesterol was found (r = -0.56). It is proposed that the high content of beta-glucans in oat milk was responsible for the decreased plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but the effect could also be due to a replacement of saturated fat in the customary diet by unsaturated fat. It is concluded that oat milk can be used as an alternative to other milk drinks by subjects who would benefit from reduced LDL cholesterol values.

  8. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in Oat and Soya Drinks by Enterocin AS-48 in Combination with Other Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, María José Grande; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas

    2015-09-01

    The presence of toxicogenic Staphylococcus aureus in foods and the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the food chain are matters of concern. In the present study, the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48, applied singly or in combination with phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and citral) or with 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NPOH), was investigated in the control of a cocktail made from 1 methicillin-sensitive and 1 MRSA strains inoculated on commercial oat and soya drinks. Enterocin AS-48 exhibited low bactericidal activity against staphylococci in the drinks investigated when applied singly. The combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) and phenolic compounds or 2NPOH caused complete inactivation of staphylococci in the drinks within 24 h of incubation at 22 °C. When tested in oat and soya drinks stored for 7 d at 10 °C, enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) in combination with 2NPOH (5.5 mM) reduced viable counts rapidly in the case of oat drink (4.2 log cycles after 12 h) or slowly in soya drink (3.8 log cycles after 3 d). The same combined treatment applied on drinks stored at 22 °C achieved a fast inactivation of staphylococci within 12 to 24 h in both drinks, and no viable staphylococci were detected for up to 7 d of storage. Results from the study highlight the potential of enterocin AS-48 in combination with 2NPOH for inactivation of staphylococci. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. INFLUENCIA DE LA SEQUÍA SOBRE EL METABOLISMO DEL NITRÓGENO FIJADO DURANTE LA SIMBIOSIS Bradyrhizobium-SOYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Freixas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La soya (Glycine max L. Merr. establece simbiosis con bacterias fijadoras del nitrógeno de la familia de los rizobios; específicamente con bacterias del género Bradyrhizobium. Los rizobios secretan moléculas específicas denominadas factores Nod, que juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo del nódulo radicular. En el nódulo, los rizobios son diferenciados en bacteroides, donde ocurre la fijación biológica del nitrógeno (BNF y se produce amonio. La mayor parte del amonio es asimilado en glutamina, que participa indirectamente en la síntesis de ureidos. La soya se considera una de las plantas leguminosas más sensibles al estrés por sequía, con una disminución significativa en la BNF. Los ureidos se acumulan en plantas de soya sensibles a la sequía durante el déficit hídrico, mientras que las plantas tolerantes presentan bajas concentraciones de ureidos que pueden reducir el estrés sobre la BNF. Se han realizado investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar la BNF en condiciones de estrés por sequía. La fertilización con manganeso en condiciones moderadas de déficit hídrico incrementa la degradación de los ureidos y la BNF. La enzima ACC desaminasa en los rizobios degrada el ACC, precursor inmediato del etileno en las plantas, y disminuye los efectos inhibitorios del etileno en la nodulación. La inducción de los genes de la nodulación en Bradyrhizobium sp. ha mostrado efectos positivos en el crecimiento de la soya en condiciones moderadas de sequía. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica está dirigido a relacionar nuevos blancos moleculares que permitan incrementar la BNF en condiciones de estrés por sequía.

  10. HUASTECA 400, NUEVA VARIEDAD DE SOYA PARA EL SUR DE TAMAULIPAS, ORIENTE DE SAN LUIS POTOSÍ Y NORTE DE VERACRUZ

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    México debe incrementar la superficie y producción de soya, con el fin de reducir la dependencia en la importación del grano. Una nueva variedad fue desarrollada para las aéreas tropicales de los estados de Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí y Veracruz. La variedad Huasteca 400 es resistente a las diferentes plagas y enfermedades presentes en la región, con buena adaptación al fotoperiodo del trópico húmedo. La validación experimental de la variedad Huasteca 400 mostró que en promedio supera 14% al ...

  11. Mercado y medio ambiente: el caso de la soya en la Amazonía brasileña

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El actual proceso de mundialización pone en competencia directa a todos los países en el mercado internacional, colocando así la competitividad como el principal desafío de las regiones productoras de commodities y externalizando los costos ambientales y sociales. En el caso del mercado de la soya, Brasil ha iniciado un proceso de gran envergadura para ocupar tierras amazónicas ya que estas presentan condiciones favorables a la expansión del agribusiness (¿negocio agrícola¿). Los numerosos im...

  12. Valoración de opciones de compra y venta del quintal de soya en el mercado ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla las diferentes herramientas financieras llamadas “Los Instrumentos Derivados Financieros” en especial las Opciones. El sector productivo en el Ecuador está expuesto a diferentes tipos de riesgos. El presente trabajo está enfocado a mejorar la comercialización y asegurar el precio de compra y venta del quintal de soya en el Ecuador. El riesgo de variación en el precio de materias primas que tiene un productor o consumidor y la variación de precios de los product...

  13. INFLUENCIA DE LA SEQUÍA SOBRE EL METABOLISMO DEL NITRÓGENO FIJADO DURANTE LA SIMBIOSIS Bradyrhizobium-SOYA

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Freixas; Inés M. Reynaldo; María C. Nápoles

    2010-01-01

    La soya (Glycine max L. Merr.) establece simbiosis con bacterias fijadoras del nitrógeno de la familia de los rizobios; específicamente con bacterias del género Bradyrhizobium. Los rizobios secretan moléculas específicas denominadas factores Nod, que juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo del nódulo radicular. En el nódulo, los rizobios son diferenciados en bacteroides, donde ocurre la fijación biológica del nitrógeno (BNF) y se produce amonio. La mayor parte del amonio es asimilado en g...

  14. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  15. Valoración de opciones de compra y venta del quintal de soya en el mercado ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano Chávez, Washington Xavier; Sandoya Sánchez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla las diferentes herramientas financieras llamadas “Los Instrumentos Derivados Financieros” en especial las Opciones. El sector productivo en el Ecuador está expuesto a diferentes tipos de riesgos. El presente trabajo está enfocado a mejorar la comercialización y asegurar el precio de compra y venta del quintal de soya en el Ecuador. El riesgo de variación en el precio de materias primas que tiene un productor o consumidor y la variación de precios de los product...

  16. [Efficiency of unsaponifiable compounds of soya beans and avocado in health care personnel with osteoarthrosis in Volgograd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborovskiĭ, A B; Akhverdian, Iu R; Sivordova, L E; Simakova, E S; Zavodovskiĭ, B V

    2013-01-01

    The authors used immunoenzyme method to assess level of oxydated low density lipoproteins (o-LDL) in 130 patients with osteoarthrosis. High serum level of o-LDL was seen in 60% of the patients with osteoarthrosis. 40 patients with osteoarthrosis were treated by unsaponifiable compounds of soya beans and avocado (Piaskledin, Expanscience, France)--dose of 300 mg daily, over 3 months. The treatment resulted in good effect in the patients with high level of o-LDL (over 168 ng/ml).

  17. Efecto antinociceptivo de estriol y Glicina max l. (soya en ratas ovariectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Ángeles-Palacios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demostrar el efecto protector del estriol y Glicina max L. (soya frente al dolor nociceptivo, en ratas ovariectomizadas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Bioterio de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Ratas hembras albinas Holtzman de 2,5 a 3 meses de edad. Métodos: Las 29 ratas fueron agrupadas aleatoriamente: grupo 1 (n=8, no ovariectomizadas, tratadas con solución salina (0,1 mL/kg; grupo 2 (n=7, ovariectomizadas y tratadas con solución salina (0,1 mL/kg; grupo 3 (n=7, ovariectomizadas y tratadas con estriol (0,2 mg/kg; grupo 4 (n=7, ovariectomizadas y tratadas con Glycine max L. (60 mg/kg. Se realizó una prueba basal de dolor térmico en el hornillo a todos los animales, así como tres días después del tratamiento farmacológico. Principales medidas de resultados: Se usó el porcentaje de eficiencia antinociceptiva máxima (%EAM. Resultados: Se encontró que el %EAM fue mayor en el grupo de ratas no ovariectomizadas (1,6% que en el grupo de las ovariectomizadas (0,8%. Por otro lado, el %EAM en ratas ovariectomizadas con solución salina (0,8% fue menor al compararlo con el grupo de las tratadas con estriol (5,8%; así también, el %EAM del grupo de ovariectomizadas tratadas con Glicina max L. (4,2% fue superior al grupo de ovariectomizadas tratadas con solución salina (0,8%, pero esta no fue superior a las del grupo tratadas con estriol. Conclusiones: El estriol y la Glicina max L. ejercieron un papel protector frente al dolor nociceptivo térmico en ratas ovariectomizadas.

  18. Characteristics of the cold-water belt formed off Soya Warm Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Miho; Kitade, Yujiro; Matsuyama, Masaji

    2008-12-01

    We examined the data obtained by acoustic Doppler current profiler, conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, and expendable bathythermograph observations, which were collected in the summers of 2000, 2001, and 2002, to clarify the characteristics of the cold-water belt (CWB), i.e., lower-temperature water than the surrounding water extending from the southwest coast of Sakhalin along the offshore side of Soya Warm Current (SWC) and to confirm one of the formation mechanisms of the CWB as suggested by our previous study, i.e., the upwelling due to the convergence of bottom Ekman transport off the SWC region. The CWB was observed at about 30 km off the coast, having a thickness of 14 m and a minimum temperature of 12°C at the sea surface. The CWB does not have the specific water mass, but is constituted of three representative water types off the northeast coast of Hokkaido in summer, i.e., SWC water, Fresh Surface Okhotsk Sea Water, and Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water. In a comparison of the horizontal distributions of current and temperature, the CWB region is found to be advected to the southeast at an average of 40 ± 29% of the maximum current velocity of the SWC. The pumping speed due to the convergence of the bottom Ekman transport is estimated as (1.5-3.0) × 10-4 m s-1. We examined the mixing ratio of the CWB, and the results implied that the water mass of the CWB is advected southeastward and mixes with a water mass upwelling in a different region off SWC.

  19. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  20. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk...... samples (n = 101) were kindly provided by the Milk Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Presumptive arcobacters were identified by previously described genus-specific and species-specific PCR assays. Arcobacter spp. were found to be common...... contaminants of retail raw meats and raw milk in Northern Ireland. Poultry meat (62%) had the highest prevalence, but frequent isolations were made from pork (35%), beef (34%), and raw milk (46%). Arcobacter butzleri was the predominant species isolated from retail raw meats and was the only species isolated...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  2. EFECTO DE DIFERENTES INOCULANTES SOBRE LA NODULACIÓN DE LA SOYA CULTIVADA EN CONDICIONES DE ESTRÉS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Nápoles García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La soya es un cultivo que se asocia naturalmente con bacterias del género Bradyrhizobium , a través de una simbiosis en la que la planta garantiza fuente de nutrientes y energía al microorganismo y este le aporta nitrógeno que fija de la atmósfera. Además de múltiples señales moleculares que rigen la interacción entre la planta y el microorganismo, las condiciones del suelo influyen sobre el éxito o el fracaso en la nodulación. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes inoculantes a base de Bradyrhizobium japonicum sobre la nodulación de la soya, variedad Pioneer 94M30, ante condiciones adversas como bajas temperaturas, acidez y exceso de agua. Se observó que el empleo de inoculantes inducidos influyó positivamente sobre los parámetros de nodulación evaluados en las condiciones de estrés impuestas, así como que el efecto de diferentes dosis del inoculante depende del tipo de estrés y de su intensidad. Estos resultados, aunque preliminares, mostraron un posible efecto antiestrés de los inoculantes inducidos ante tales condiciones ambientales.

  3. Morus alba o Hibiscus rosa-sinensis como sustituto parcial de soya en dietas integrales para conejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conejos pueden aprovechar los nutrientes contenidos en los forrajes y subproductos agrícolas eficientemente gracias a la fermentación cecal y a la cecotrofía. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la tasa de crecimiento y el rendimiento de la canal en conejos alimentados con minibloques de harina de morera (Morus alba o tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en sustitución parcial de pasta de soya; y determinar el consumo y digestibilidad de la dieta. Para esto, se utilizaron 18 conejos de 30 días de edad, distribuidos al azar en tres dietas experimentales (n=6, ac (alimento convencional, mbm (minibloque con 30% de morera y, mbt (minibloque con 27% de tulipán, durante nueve semanas. La ganancia diaria y el rendimiento en canal fue mejor (p0.10 en los tres grupos. Es factible sustituir parcialmente la proteína de la soya por harina de hojas de morera o tulipán, aunque presentan una menor respuesta productiva con respecto a la alimentación convencional.

  4. Soya bean Gα proteins with distinct biochemical properties exhibit differential ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Wang, Yuqi; Pandey, Sona

    2014-07-01

    Signalling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins are common to all eukaryotes. Plants have a limited number of each of the G-protein subunits, with the most elaborate G-protein network discovered so far in soya bean (Glycine max, also known as soybean) which has four Gα, four Gβ and ten Gγ proteins. Biochemical characterization of Gα proteins from plants suggests significant variation in their properties compared with the well-characterized non-plant proteins. Furthermore, the four soya bean Gα (GmGα) proteins exhibit distinct biochemical activities among themselves, but the extent to which such biochemical differences contribute to their in vivo function is also not known. We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo model to evaluate the effect of distinct biochemical activities of GmGα proteins. We showed that specific GmGα proteins can be activated during pheromone-dependent receptor-mediated signalling in yeast and they display different strengths towards complementation of yeast gpa1 phenotypes. We also identified amino acids that are responsible for differential complementation abilities of specific Gα proteins. These data establish that specific plant Gα proteins are functional in the receptor-mediated pheromone-response pathway in yeast and that the subtle biochemical differences in their activity are physiologically relevant.

  5. Increase in plasma lipid peroxide in cats fed a fish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoi, Y; Goto, Y; Tanide, K; Takahashi, N; Watari, T; Yamazo, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kudo, T

    2001-12-01

    Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.

  6. Mejoramiento genético de la soya (Glycine max [L.] Merril para su cultivo en la altillanura colombiana: una visión conceptual prospectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Ruben

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La soya es materia prima esencial para la elaboración de concentrados
    balanceados para la alimentación animal, en particular
    para la cadena avícola y porcícola. En cuanto a su cultivo, constituye
    una alternativa de rotación en el trópico bajo. La producción
    nacional de soya cubre un bajo porcentaje de la demanda
    nacional, lo cual implica altos volúmenes de importación. En
    Colombia la producción nacional depende en su mayoría de
    la variedad Soyica P-34, la superación de cuyas limitaciones
    de producción hace necesario generar nuevas alternativas que
    ofrezcan ventajas comparativas. La Altillanura colombiana,
    caracterizada por tener suelos ácidos saturados en aluminio,
    presenta un alto potencial para la producción competitiva de
    soya. Por ello, los programas de mejoramiento genético de este
    grano deben hacer énfasis en su calidad, adaptación específica,
    tolerancia a enfermedades y alto rendimiento. En este contexto,
    el presente trabajo desarrolla una visión prospectiva de los
    principales avances en el mejoramiento genético de la soya para
    la altillanura colombiana.

  7. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill, Chiang Mai 60 variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1 control (no fertiliser, 2 animal manure of cattle (AM, 3 compost (CP, 4 azolla (AZ, 5 AM + CP, 6 AM + AZ, 7 CP + AZ and 8 AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were planted without rhizobial inoculation in December 2011, four months after the application of organic fertilisers. Nodule weight, total shoot nitrogen accumulation and relative ureide index at various growth stages were recorded as the indices of nitrogen fixation. Results of the study demonstrate that the residues from the application the organic fertilisers of narrow C/N ratios during the land preparation for rice cropping four months before soya cultivation promoted nitrogen fixation by native rhizobia.

  8. Desarrollo de un proceso a escala de laboratorio para la obtención de harina y un producto alimenticio a base de ocara de soya

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández González, Juliana; Zapata Narváez, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    La producción de leche de soya genera como subproducto la ocara, un material insoluble compuesto básicamente de proteína, fibra y carbohidratos. Este producto es utilizado en la industria de alimentos para animales por su valor proteínico.

  9. Evaluation of biohydrogenation rate of canola vs. soya bean seeds as unsaturated fatty acids sources for ruminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Ghoorchi, T; Yamchi, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study disappearance of C14 to C18 fatty acids, lag times and biohydrogenation (BH) rates of C18 fatty acids of ground soya bean and canola seeds in situ. Three ruminally fistulated Dallagh sheep were used to determine ruminal BH of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Differences in the disappearance of fatty acids through the bags and lag times were observed between the oilseeds. We saw that the longer the incubation time of the oilseeds in the rumen, the lower the content of C18:2 and C18:3. Significantly higher lag times for both C18:2 and C18:3 were observed in ground canola compared to ground soya bean. BH rates of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids in soya bean were three times higher than those of canola. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of fat source can affect the BH of UFAs by rumen micro-organisms. So that UFAs of canola had higher ability to escape from ruminal BH. It seems that fatty acid profile of ruminant products is more affected by canola seed compared to soya bean seed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Influencia del color y forma del colector solar en el secado de semillas de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Domínguez Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, con el objetivo de determinar la inÀuencia del color y la forma del colector solar en el proceso de secado de semillas de soya, empleándose un secador solar artesanal, para lo cual se plantearon las bases teórico-metodológicas y se utilizaron tres tipos de colectores solares para el desarrollo de la investigación, obteniéndose como principales resultados que el colector de mayor e¿ciencia fue el colector I (transparente-simple dado que para una velocidad de extracción promedio de 4,27 m/s, este absorbió una energía total de 9,32 kW, reduciéndose el contenido de humedad de 15,58% hasta 11,17% en un período de cuatro horas, con una tasa de reducción de humedad de 1,10%/ h, apreciándose que de una masa inicial de semillas de 130 kg se removieron 4,4 kg de agua. Otro resultado obtenido fue la temperatura en la super¿cie y el fondo de la capa de granos en el interior de la cámara de secado, la cual fue superior a la temperatura ambiente durante todo el proceso de secado en 5 y 1 ºC respectivamente, también se determinó la inÀuencia de estos colectores en el porciento de germinación de la semilla, observándose que con el empleo del colector I se alcanza un 5% menos respecto al colector II (negro-simple que es el que menos afecta esta propiedad; económicamente resulta factible el empleo del colector (I dado que con el empleo de este se alcanzó un costo especí¿co de 83,3 peso/t, siendo inferior al costo especí¿co de los otros colectores empleados.

  11. Radiosensibilidad de semillas de soya a los rayos gamma 60Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de la Fé

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se desarrolló en las instalaciones del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, con el objetivo de evaluar la radiosensibilidad de semillas de soya a los rayos gamma 60Co. Para su ejecución, se seleccionaron e irradiaron muestras de 50 semillas de la variedad Cubasoy-23, las que fueron sembradas en condiciones semicontroladas (macetas en la campaña de primavera, 1997. Las dosis de radiación fueron desde los 50 hasta los 480 Gy, con incrementos de 50 Gy entre las dosis de 50 y 200 Gy e incrementos de 40 Gy entre esta última y la dosis de 480 Gy. Las evaluaciones realizadas consistieron en porcentaje de semillas germinadas a los tres, seis y nueve días de la siembra, altura de las plantas a los 10, 20 y 50 días y número de pares de hojas emitidas a los 10 y 20 días de la siembra. El estudio realizado evidenció la ocurrencia de un efecto fuerte de las dosis aplicadas en el porcentaje de semillas germinadas, resultando las dosis próximas a los 280 Gy las de mayor efecto radioestimulador de la germinación. Desde el punto de vista de la altura de las plantas, el efecto de las dosis aplicadas se correspondió con el descrito para otros materiales biológicos irradiados, caracterizándose este por un aumento a dosis bajas seguido por una reducción cada vez mayor a medida que las dosis aplicadas se incrementaron. Por su parte, la emisión de hojas por las plantas mantuvo un comportamiento en correspondencia con la altura de las plantas. Los resultados del estudio permiten sugerir la aplicación de dosis próximas a los 360 Gy en los trabajos dirigidos a la creación de variabilidad genética en programas de mejora por inducción de mutaciones

  12. Polymers based on renewable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic raw materials for the chemical industry, which also means for polymer production, are mineral oil and natural gas. Mineral oil and natural gas resources are limited so that sooner or later they will be consumed. For this reason alternative, renewable raw materials for the chemical industry have become the object of intensive investigation all over the world. Some of the results of these investigations concerning renewable raw materials for the production of polymer materials are presented in this paper.

  13. Paleoenvironmental Change in the Holocene Sediments of Lake Maruwan Ooike on the Rundvagshetta, Soya Coast, Antarctica-The history of the Regression of the Ice Sheet and Uplift of Soya Coast-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, K.; Imura, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Miura, H.

    2002-12-01

    Holocene marine sediments including the marine molluscan fossils are distributed on the ice-free area of Soya Coast, Antarctica. These sediments are exposed around the freshwater Lake Maruwan Ooike on the Rundvagshetta area. Therefore, we can easily estimate the period of marine environment in the history of this lake. To clarify the paleoenvironmental change in Lake Maruwan Ooike, we carried out the coring used by 2m hand-pushing piston corer. We were able to get the good core. Coring site is located at the north part of lake, which the water depth is 9.8m. Core of 187cm is recovered at this site. The purpose of this study is to clarify the paleoenvironmental change of Lake Maruwan Ooike, and to discuss about the history of the regression of the ice sheet and uplift of Soya Coast. Sediment core (Mw-4 core) is divided to 4 sedimentary unit based on sediment facies. Unit I (0-60cm) consist of laminated silt with cyanobacteria and moss. Unit II (60-68cm) consist of laminated cyanobacterial deposits. In this unit, total organic carbon content (10-15%) is higher than other unit. Unit III (68-150cm) is massive diatomaceous mud including marine benthic foraminifer. Unit IV (150-187cm) is laminated diatomaceous mud. The 14C AMS dating performed using by the organic carbon in sediment at 6 horizon. Calculating from the sedimentation rate and the 14C AMS dating, the boundary age between Unit I and II is estimated with 2900 yr.B.P., and II and III is estimated with 3650 yr.B.P. Unit III and IV show marine environment from the occurrence of benthic foraminifera, Trochammina antarctica and so on. Unit II is estimated the salt lake condition from cyanobacterial flora and high total sulfur content. Unit I is the fresh water lake condition with cyanobacteria and moss flora. Inflow of melt water of ice sheet started from the upper part of unit II, and two-layer structure is formed to salt lake during this unit. The age of change from marine to fresh water environment is estimated

  14. Proteína de soya: alternativa no farmacológica para el tratamiento de niños con hipercolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gladys Aráuz-Hernández

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la hipercolesterolemia primaria (HCP se basa en una dieta reducida en grasa saturada y en colesterol, con la cual se puede disminuir entre 10 y 20% del colesterol total (CT. La proteína de soya tiene el potencial de reducir el CT, cuando sustituye parcial o totalmente a la proteína animal. El presente estudio reporta los resultados del efecto de una dieta baja en grasa saturada, colesterol y con proteína de soya, sobre el colesterolligado a lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDLC en niños costarricenses con HCP. En un ensayo clínico paralelo de asignación aleatoria, 20 niños, entre los 7 y 14 años de edad fueron asignados a uno de los dos tratamientos dietéticos según los criterios de inclusión -grupo experimental: dieta etapa 1 recomendada por el NCEP, más 25 gramos de proteína de soya diarios y, -grupo control: dieta etapa 1 NCEP, sin proteína de soya. Después de un período de homogenización de diez días, se inició la intervención por ocho semanas. Tanto los niños del grupo experimental como los del grupo control, redujeron el colesterol total y el LDL-C (p< 0,05. Sin embargo, a pesar que no hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos, se notó una mayor reducción en el LDL-C del grupo experimental (10,5 % vs. 3,9%. Los que consumieron más de 20 gramos de proteína de soya diaria, tuvieron mayor reducción en el LDL-C y un efecto negativo menor en el HDL-C.

  15. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  16. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  17. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  18. Study on the preparation of soya peptone%大豆胨制备工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐奇; 刘河涛; 杨文君; 王银; 余建强

    2015-01-01

    Soybean protein isolate(SPI)was prepared from defatted soybean meal by alkali extraction and acid precipitation. The optimum condition was obtained by orthogonal experiment,and the alkali solution temperature was 50 ℃,alkali-soluble pH 8 ,acid precipitation pH 4 . 0 . Soya peptone was prepared from SPI and the preparation techniques were optimized. The result showed that the optimal technical conditions were as follows:reaction temperature 55 ℃,pH value 7 . 5 ,substrate concentration 5% and E/S 16 g/kg. All physical and chemical indexes of the obtained soya peptone were similar to the pur-chased standards. The soya peptone was abundant in essential amino acids with complete varieties and was suitable for culture medium in the preparation of microorganism.%以脱脂豆粕为原料,通过“碱提酸沉”法制备大豆分离蛋白,经正交实验确定的最适条件是碱液萃取温度为50℃、碱液萃取pH值为8、酸沉淀pH值为4.0。以所得的大豆分离蛋白为反应底物制备大豆胨并优化其制备工艺。结果表明,反应的最佳条件为:酶解温度为55℃,酶解pH值为7.5,底物浓度为5%,E/S为16 g/kg。将按照此工艺条件制备出的大豆胨的各项理化指标与所购标准品相比,差异不大。氨基酸分析结果表明,大豆胨中必需氨基酸种类丰富齐全,可为微生物的生长提供丰富的营养。

  19. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorab, H. Y.; Rizk, M.; Ibrahim, B.; Allam, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grai...

  20. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  1. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Š. Vilamová; P. Besta; R. Kozel; K. Janovská; M. Piecha; Levit, A; Straka, M.; Šanda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly differ...

  2. The complete raw workflow guide how to get the most from your raw images in Adobe Camera Raw, Lightroom, Photoshop, and Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important technologies a photographer can master is shooting and working with raw images. However, figuring out the best way to work with raw files can be confusing and overwhelming. What's the advantage to working in raw? How do you manage, organize, and store raw files? What's the best way to process your files to meet your photographic needs? How do Photoshop, Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw work together? Is it possible to keep your photos in the raw format and still enhance them extensively? Philip Andrews answers these questions and more in his all-new essential raw workfl

  3. Effects of diets with soybean meal on the growth, digestibility, Phosphorus and Nitrogen excretion of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Efectos de dietas con harina de soya en el crecimiento, digestibilidad, excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno de juveniles de trucha arco iris Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agustín Cruz Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the inclusion of high levels of soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile rainbowtrout and determine the phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Fishmeal was replaced with soybean meal at levels of 50,75 and 100 % with an inclusion of 0.8 g of phytase per kg of diet (g kg-1, whereas a diet with 100% substitution was used without phytase. A commercial diet and one with 100% of fishmeal were used as controls. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, mean + standard deviation for a period of 50 days, and growth performance, P and N excretion and protein digestibility were determined at the end of this period. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The results showed that fish growth decreased when 100% of substitution was used, but diet with 75% of soybean meal did not affect growth. In addition, excretion values of P and N at this level of substitution were lowerthan those of the fish fed the control diets. The data suggest that diet with 75% soybean meal and 25% fishmeal might be used under practical conditions, as the growth performance observed on the juveniles fed such diet was similarto those offish fed the commercial diet and the nutrient loading was reduced.Se realizó una prueba de alimentación para evaluar la inclusión de altos niveles de harina de soya como sustituto de la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles de trucha arco iris y determinar la excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno. La harina de pescado se sustituyó en niveles de 50, 75 y 100% con la inclusión de 0.8 g de fitasa por kg de dieta (g kg-1, así como una dieta con 100% de sustitución sin fitasa fue utilizada. Una dieta comercial y una con 100% de harina de pescado se utilizaron como controles. Las dietas se ofrecieron a grupos de juveniles portriplicado de juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, promedio + desviación estándar por un periodo de 50 días. Al finalizar este periodo, se determinó el

  4. 基于干旱区的大豆高效节水灌溉制度制定%Formulation of High-efficiency Water Saving Irrigation System for Soya Bean in Dry Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由剑波; 陈志东; 高兴民

    2012-01-01

    Soya bean belongs to a dry crop requiring much water and has a strict demand for soil moisture.The soil moisture has a great impact on the growth of soya bean in different developmental stages and soya bean yields.The water-saving irrigation system of soya bean in dry area is formulated according to soil moisture in different developmental stages in the study.%大豆属于需水较多的旱作物,对土壤水分的要求比较严格,土壤水分充足与否,对大豆各生育阶段的发育及产量形成,都有较大的影响。文章对大豆不同生育期的土壤水分,制定出干旱区大豆的节水灌溉制度。

  5. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  6. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  7. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  8. Effects of isoflavone-containing soya protein on ex vivo cholesterol efflux, vascular function and blood markers of CVD risk in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a dose-response randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Fleming, Jennifer A; Link, Christina J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Emerging CVD risk factors (e.g. HDL function and central haemodynamics) may account for residual CVD risk experienced by individuals who meet LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) targets. Recent evidence suggests that these emerging risk factors can be modified by polyphenol-rich interventions such as soya, but additional research is needed. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an isoflavone-containing soya protein isolate (delivering 25 and 50 g/d soya protein) on HDL function (i.e. ex vivo cholesterol efflux), macrovascular function and blood markers of CVD risk. Middle-aged adults (n 20; mean age=51·6 (sem 6·6) years) with moderately elevated brachial BP (mean systolic BP=129 (sem 9) mmHg; mean diastolic BP=82·5 (sem 8·4) mmHg) consumed 0 (control), 25 and 50 g/d soya protein in a randomised cross-over design. Soya and control powders were consumed for 6 weeks each with a 2-week compliance break between treatment periods. Blood samples and vascular function measures were obtained at baseline and following each supplementation period. Supplementation with 50 g/d soya protein significantly reduced brachial diastolic BP (-2·3 mmHg) compared with 25 g/d soya protein (Tukey-adjusted P=0·03) but not the control. Soya supplementation did not improve ex vivo cholesterol efflux, macrovascular function or other blood markers of CVD risk compared with the carbohydrate-matched control. Additional research is needed to clarify whether effects on these CVD risk factors depend on the relative health of participants and/or equol producing capacity.

  9. Teleseismic SKS splitting beneath East Antarctica using broad-band stations around Soya Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.

    2006-12-01

    We observed shear wave splitting of SKS waves from digital seismographs that are recorded at 5 stations around Soya Coast in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Their recording systems are composed of a three-component broadband seismometer (CMG-40T), a digital recording unit and a solar power battery supply. The events used were selected from 1999 to 2004 and phase arrival times were calculated using the IASPEI91 earth model (Kennet, 1995). In general, we chose the data from earthquakes with m>6.0 and a distance range 85° < Δ < 130° for the most prominent SKS waves We used the methods of Silver and Chan (1991) for the inversion of anisotropy parameters and estimated the splitting parameters φ (fast polarization direction) and δt (delay time between split waves) assuming a single layer of hexagonal symmetry with a horizontal symmetry axis. The weighted averages of all splitting parameters (φ, δt) for each station are AKR (30±4, 1.30±0.2), LNG (58±6, 1.27±0.2), SKL (67±10, 0.94±0.2), SKV (40±6, 1.28±0.3) and TOT (52±8, 1.26±0.3), where the weights are inversely proportional to the standard deviations for each solution. As compared to typical delay times of SKS waves which show 1.2s (Silver and Chan 1991; Vinnik et al., 1992), the result shows generally the same value. In previous study, Kubo and Hiramatsu (1998) estimate the splitting parameter for Syowa station (SYO), where is located near our using stations in East Antarctica, and the results are (49±3, 0.70±0.1). Although it is consistent with our results for fast polarization direction, δt for our results are large relatively to those of SYO. The difference may be due to either different incident angle or more complex anisotropic structure. We found that fast polarization direction is systematically parallel to coast line in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, which is consistent with NE-SW paleo compressional stress. The absolute plate motion based on the HS2-NUVEL1 (Gripp and Gordon

  10. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 大豆磷脂中溶剂正己烷残留检测%Detection of residual hexane in soya lecithin by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞水秀; 汪勇; 李小林; 陈梅花

    2015-01-01

    溶剂残留是磷脂产品食品安全重要指标。鉴于国家标准指定的检测方法检测磷脂产品存在缺陷,该文建立适合磷脂产品的气相色谱测定大豆磷脂中残留溶剂正己烷含量的方法。通过以大豆油为溶剂与大豆磷脂以4∶1(大豆油∶大豆磷脂)的比例混合,保证磷脂样品具有较好流动性。使用毛细管色谱柱(30 m×250μm×0.25μm),FID检测器,以氮气为载气,顶空进样,采用外标法计算残留溶剂的含量。磷脂正己烷溶剂残留在0~270 mg/kg线性范围中(即每个顶空瓶正己烷含量0~1.35 mg之间)线性关系良好(0.9984),加标回收率在95%~101%之间。该方法具有简单、快速、准确特点。%Residual solvent is an important food safety specification of soya lecithin. Because of the defect of the detection of national standard,the study developed a method of detecting the residual hexane in soya lecithin by GC. To make sure the flowability of soya lecithin,we mixed the soya lecithin with soya oil by ratio of 1 to 4. A capillary column(30 m×250μm×0.25μm)was adopted with nitrogen as carrier gas and soya oil as solvent by headspace sampling. The residual solvent was calculated according to the external standard method. There was good linear relationship(r=0.999 6) at the rang from 0~270 mg/kg. The average recoveries were from 95% to 101% with the relative standard deviation less than 5%. The method was simple,rapid and accurate.

  12. Biodisponibilidad de lisina en dos pastas de soya con diferente nivel de actividad ureásica en pollos de engorda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Cortes Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la biodisponi bilidad de lisina para pollos de dos pastas de soya (PSA y PSB, con diferente actividad ureásica (AU 0.11 y 0.17 unidades de incremento de pH, se realizó el presente experimento. Se utili zaron 210 pollitos Ross de 1 a 21 días de edad, los cuales se distribuyeron al azar en 7 tratamientos con tres repetici ones. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 dieta basal sorgo-soya-ajonjolí (deficiente en lisina, 2 dieta basal + 0.0 5% de L-lisina, 3 dieta basal+0.10% de L-lisina, 4 dieta basal+0.05% de lisina a partir de PSA, 5 dieta basal+0.10% de lisina a partir de PSA, 6 dieta basal+0.05% de lisina a partir de PSB y 7 dieta basal+0.10% de lisina a partir de PSB. Los resultados de crecimiento, se explicaron mediante la ecuación de regresión lineal múltiple, con los datos de ganancia de peso, consumos de lisina sintética o consumos de lisina a partir de las pastas de soya fue Y= 375 .419 + 0.0378 X1 + 0.0366 X2 + 0.0376 X3; en donde X1 correspondió a la complementación con L-lisina, X2 con la PS A (con adición de cascarilla cruda y X3 con la PSB (con adición de cascarilla cocida. Al comparar la pendiente de la pasta de soya A o B, con la obtenida con L-lisina (100%, se tuvieron biodisponibilidades de lisina de 97 y 99 % p ara las pastas de soya A y B respectivamente. Estos resultados indican que la AU de la pasta de soya afecta la biod isponibilidad de lis ina; a mayor actividad ureásica, menor es la disponibilidad.

  13. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of four raw meat diets using domestic cats, captive exotic felids, and cecectomized roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Beloshapka, A N; Morris, C L; Parsons, C M; Burke, S L; Utterback, P L; Swanson, K S

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate raw meat diets for captive exotic and domestic carnivores containing traditional and alternative raw meat sources, specifically, beef trimmings, bison trimmings, elk muscle meat, and horse trimmings. We aimed to examine diet composition and protein quality; apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility in domestic cats, African wildcats, jaguars, and Malayan tigers; and ME and fecal fermentative end-products in domestic cats. Because of variation in the meat sources, dietary proximate, AA, and long-chain fatty acid composition were variable. Our analyses indicated that all diets had essential fatty acid deficiencies, and the elk diet (i.e., trimmed muscle meat) was deficient in total fat. Standardized AA digestibilities measured using the cecectomized rooster assay were high (>87%). Using the NRC minimum requirements for the growth of kittens, the first limiting AA of all diets was the combined requirement of Met and Cys (AA score: 81 to 95; protein digestibility corrected AA score: 75 to 90). All diets were highly digestible (88 to 89% OM digestibility). There was no effect of diet or felid species on DM (85 to 87%), OM, and GE (90 to 91%) digestibilities. Apparent CP digestibility was greater (P≤0.05) in cats fed elk (97%) compared with those fed bison (96%), and greater (P≤0.05) in wildcats (97%) and domestic cats (97%) compared with tigers (95%). The diet and species interaction (P≤0.05) was observed for apparent fat digestibility. In domestic cats, the fresh fecal pH and proportions of acetate and butyrate were altered (P≤0.05) due to diet. Diet also affected (P≤0.05) fresh fecal concentrations of total branched-chain fatty acids, valerate, and Lactobacillus genus. In conclusion, although the raw meat diets were highly digestible, because of variation in raw meat sources the nutrient composition of the diets was variable. Thus, compositional analysis of raw meat sources is necessary for proper diet

  15. Tylosin production by Streptomyces fradiae using raw cornmeal in airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dubok; Choi, On You; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Chung, Dong-Ok; Shin, Dae-Yewn

    2007-07-01

    Using a 50-l airlift bioreactor, for the effective production of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae TM-224 using raw cornmeal as the energy source, various environmental factors were studied in flask cultures. The maximum tylosin concentration was obtained at 32 degrees C and pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When seed was inoculated after 24 h of culture, the maximum tylosin concentration, 5.7 g/l, was obtained after 4 days of culture. Various concentrations of raw cornmeal were tested to investigate the optimum initial concentration for the tylosin production. An initial raw cornmeal concentration of 80 g/l gave the highest tylosin concentration, 5.8 g/l, after 5 days of culture. Of the various nitrogen sources, soybean meal and fish meal were found to be the most effective for the production of tylosin. In particular, with the optimal mixing ratio, 12 g/l of soybean meal to 14 g/l of fish meal, 7.2 g/l of tylosin was obtained after 5 days of culture. To compare raw cornmeal and glucose for the production oftylosin in the 50-1 airlift bioreactor for 10 days, fed-batch cultures were carried out under the optimum culture conditions. When raw corn meal was used as the energy source, the tylosin production increased with increasing culture time. The maximum tylosin concentration after 10 days of culture was 13.5 g/l, with a product yield from raw cornmeal of 0.123 g/g of consumed carbon source, which was about 7.2 times higher than that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source.

  16. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB...

  17. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  18. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  19. Cyclone furnace for intensive reprocessing or burning of dispersed mineral raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.; Jankowski, S.; Kurdowski, W.; Parda, A.; Zamojdo, R.

    1982-10-30

    In order to reduce emission of solid (or liquid) microparticles of reprocessed or burned dispersed mineral raw material, a separation furnace is proposed which has the appearance of a horizontally lying drum of a steam boiler. The raw material to be reprocessed is fed into the furnace chamber through two cylindrical pipelines arranged in its upper part in the opposite ends, and in the middle between them in the upper part there is a gas line for removal of exhaust gases arranged at a 55/sup 0/ angle to the horizontal. In the lower part there is a device for discharging the accumulated solid microparticles or fluid arranged at a 30/sup 0/ angle to the base plane.

  20. Lesiones macroscópicas gastrointestinales y renales en pollos de engorda, criados con niveles altos de proteína de soya en la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    René Morales López; Teresa Casaubon Huguenin; Ernesto Ávila González

    2001-01-01

    Para evaluar posibles lesiones gastrointestinales en pollos y su relación con un síndrome caracterizado por baja ganancia de peso, eliminación de alimento semidigerido en heces y moco de color naranja, que en México ha representado pérdidas para la industria, se desarrolló un estudio con pollos de engorda utilizando dietas altas en proteína sorgo más soya (T3:26% y T4:30%), en relación con dos dietas testigo adecuadas en proteína, una con sorgo más soya (T2:22%) y otra con sorgo, girasol y gl...

  1. Control químico de la roya asiática de la soya en el Planalto Medio, RS., Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garc\\u00E9s-Fiallos

    2011-01-01

    asiática de la soya. El experimento fue conducido en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Agronomía y Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad de Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, en la época de verano 2009/2010. Se cuantifi có la incidencia y número de uredos/cm2 transformado después a severidad (%. Se aplicó tebuconazol y la mezcla de epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina, en siete estadios de desarrollo. Aplicaciones realizadas antes del cerramiento del espacio entre líneas del cultivo resultaron en un mejor control, pues permitieron distribuir el fungicida en la parte inferior de la planta, y al inicio de la enfermedad. La mezcla de traizol + estrobirulina fue más efectiva que el triazol utilizado sólo, en el control de la roya asiática de la soya.

  2. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  3. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. Analysis of peanuts and soya irradiated: is it possible to identify them?; Amendoim e soja irradiados: e possivel identifica-los?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Alexandre S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br; Vieira, Ionara F.R.; Tambourgi, Elias B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: elias@desq.feq.unicamp.br; ionarafernanda@terra.com.br; Krambrock, Klaus [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br; Prado, Guilherme [ Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Vigilancia Sanitaria]. E-mail: gui@funed.mg.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we present the results of the electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of peanuts and soya treated by gamma-irradiation. The dose employed varying from 1 to 30 kGy. The results obtained confirm that the EPR method is efficient to detect if the products were irradiated. In general, the EPR signal intensity increases according to the dose until saturation is reached making it possible to determine the dose level. (author)

  5. INFLUENCIA DE LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE MELAZA Y EXTRACTO ACUOSO DE SOYA SOBRE LA VELOCIDAD ESPECÍFICA DE CRECIMIENTO DE Bradyrhizobium elkanii ICA 8001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretel Gómez

    2008-01-01

    celular. La influencia de las concentraciones de melaza y extracto acuoso de soya sobre la velocidad específica de crecimiento µ (h-1 de la cepa se estimó, variando las concentraciones de melaza en el medio Bradyfact de 3 a 20 g.L-1 y del extracto acuoso de soya de 5 a 20 g.L-1. Se obtuvieron las dinámicas de crecimiento para cada variante y se calculó la µ. Los resultados evidenciaron que concentraciones de melaza y extracto acuoso de soya superiores a 10,0 y 12,5 g.L-1, respectivamente, inhiben el crecimiento de Bradyrhizobium elkanii ICA 8001. Este fenómeno pudo ser explicado matemática y fisiológicamente mediante dos nuevos modelos cinéticos. Este trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la fisiología de Bradyrhizobium, pues evidencia la relación entre la composición del medio de cultivo y los requerimientos nutricionales del microorganismo, así como el diseño del medio de cultivo puede garantizar la obtención de inoculantes más efectivos que contengan elevadas concentraciones celulares.

  6. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansah E., K. Preko, L. K. Amekudzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel, B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene, B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene, B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene, B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene and B0 (pure kerosene. The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  7. Impact of a Traditional Dietary Supplement with Coconut Milk and Soya Milk on the Lipid Profile in Normal Free Living Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. I. Ekanayaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effects of coconut fat and soya fat on serum lipids are controversial. This study was designed to investigate the lipid effects of coconut milk and soya milk supplementation on the lipid profile of free living healthy subjects. Methods. Sixty (60 healthy volunteers aged 18–57 years were given coconut milk porridge (CMP for 5 days of the week for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period, subsequent to which they received isoenergetic soya milk porridge (SMP for 8 weeks. Results. The LDL (low density lipoprotein levels decreased with CMP and reached statistical significance in the total study population and in the >130 baseline LDL group. The HDL (high density lipoprotein levels rose significantly with CMP supplementation (P=0.000. Conclusions. We conclude that coconut fat in the form of CM does not cause a detrimental effect on the lipid profile in the general population and in fact is beneficial due to the decrease in LDL and rise in HDL. SMP will be of benefit only in those whose baseline LDL levels are elevated.

  8. Therapeutic effect of centchroman alone and in combination with glycine soya on 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced breast tumor in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajeev; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Bhadauria, Smrati; Mishra, Jyoti; Murthy, P K; Murthy, P S R

    2010-06-01

    Centchroman is a non-steroidal oral contraceptive and has been found to be a candidate drug for breast cancer exhibiting partial to complete remission of lesions in 40.5% of breast cancer patients. The therapeutic efficacy of centchroman was monitored alone and together with glycine soya on growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced breast tumor in rat. The tumor regression was monitored at different doses of centchroman alone ranging from 0 to 10 mg kg(-1) and with glycine soya from 1x10(4) to 5x10(4) mg kg(-1) per day until 5weeks treatment. An optimum tumor treatment opus was established with varying treatment parameters including doses of therapeutic agents and treatment period. The tumors were found to be static with a strong anti-estrogenic effect. Overall our study shows that both centchroman and glycine soya alone and jointly combat with breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First performance assessment of blends of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean biodiesel with kerosene as fuel for domestic purposes in rural-Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quansah, E.; Preko, K.; Amekudzi, L.K. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah, University of Science and Technology (KNUST), University Post Office, PMB Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Performance assessments of jatropha, palm oil and soya bean based biodiesel were carried out to investigate their potential use as conventional substitute for kerosene for domestic purposes in rural- Ghana. The assessments were done by comparing some of the combustion characteristics of blends of the biodiesel with kerosene. The blends were categorised as B100 (100% biodiesel), B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% kerosene), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% kerosene), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% kerosene), B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% kerosene) and B0 (pure kerosene). The results showed that the calorific values of the B100s were less than that of the B0 and decreasing in the order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. The wick wastage results for both the B100s and B0, revealed higher rates in the WTL than the BB even though the BB recorded low fuel consumption rates than the WTL for both B100s and B0. Similarly, the luminous intensity test with the B100s showed low values in WTL than the BB in a decreasing order of jatropha, soya bean and palm oil. However, B0 recorded higher luminous intensity values that were quite comparable in both WTL and BB.

  10. Determinación de la calidad nutricional del forraje de soya (Glycine max L. Merr, previamente conservado mediante ensilaje y henificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olave B. M. del Pilar

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Con miras a la implementación de un paquete tecnológico para la doble producción de soya se realizaron 2 experimentos: ensilaje y henificación del forraje de las variedades 50- yica P-32 y "Forrajera "de Proacol. El ensilaje se realizó en bolsas de plástico grueso y se le adicionaron 3 dosis de ácido fórmico, 3 dosis de formaldehído y las combinaciones resultantes (16 tratamientos que se replica ron 3 veces. La henificación se hizo en fardos, con pesos entre 5 y 10 kg. Aunque se demostró la posibilidad de emplear la henificación y el ensilaje del forraje de soya para su conservación, no se encontraron diferencias entre los aditivos estudiados.To look up the implementation of a technologic package for the soya 's double production we did two experiments: silage and hay of the forrage of the varieties Soyica P-32 and Proacol's "Forrajera". Silage was did in heavy plastic bags and added 3 doses of formic acid, 3 doses of formaldehyde and the final combinations of both additives (16 treatments that was applied 3 times. Hay was did in bales that weighted between 5-10 kg. AI though it demonstrated the possibility to use the hay and silage of soja's forrage for conservation, no differences was found between additives studied on the silage.

  11. Testování Fed modelu

    OpenAIRE

    Hříbalová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Diploma Thesis focuses on Fed Model testing and its credibility on market data. The research is based on Gordon Model and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), it explains, what the basic features of the Fed Model are and describes its derivation from Gordon Model. The Thesis shows possible Fed Model limitation. It uses the US market, Great Britain and Germany 1979 -- 2011 data to demonstrate validity of the model. Eventually possible reasons of Fed Model development in period 2002 -- 2011 are ...

  12. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  13. Synthetic Raw Materials for Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIGan; YUEWeidong

    2001-01-01

    The development and status of synthetic raw materials for refractories in China are reviewed,including magne-site-based materials,alumina ,ullite,calcium alumi-nate cement ,ultrafine powder,spinel,silicon carbide and cordierite.The research work on calcium zirconate and sialon materials are also introduced.

  14. Low complexity efficient raw SAR data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Shantanu; Boufounos, Petros; Vetro, Anthony; Okada, Yu

    2011-06-01

    We present a low-complexity method for compression of raw Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Raw SAR data is typically acquired using a satellite or airborne platform without sufficient computational capabilities to process the data and generate a SAR image on-board. Hence, the raw data needs to be compressed and transmitted to the ground station, where SAR image formation can be carried out. To perform low-complexity compression, our method uses 1-dimensional transforms, followed by quantization and entropy coding. In contrast to previous approaches, which send uncompressed or Huffman-coded bits, we achieve more efficient entropy coding using an arithmetic coder that responds to a continuously updated probability distribution. We present experimental results on compression of raw Ku-SAR data. In those we evaluate the effect of the length of the transform on compression performance and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework over a state-of-the-art low complexity scheme called Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ).

  15. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  16. Producción de maíz y soya forrajera para ensilaje y venta parcial de la cosecha de elotes o chilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jim\\u00E9nez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investigó el efecto de tres diferentes formas de siembra conjunta de maíz y soya: a asociados (un surco maíz-un surco soya, b alternos (cuatro surcos máiz-cuatro surcos soya y c monocultivo y tres formas de cosecha de chilotes o elotes para venta antes de ensilar: a remoción del 50% de los chilotes (a inicio de floración, b remoción del 50% de los elotes (en estado de leche y c sin cosecha. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la variedad de maíz blanco localmente adaptado, HS-5G de la casa Cristiani Burkard y la variedad de soya CIGRAS 10 para grano y forraje, desarrollada por el Centro de Investigación en Granos y Semillas de la Universidad de Costa Rica y probada con éxito en la regi ón. La cosecha para ensilaje, se realizó en los estados fenol ógicos de inicio de indentación en el maíz y R6 en la soya (semilla formada de consistencia semidura. La remoción del 50% del chilote resultó en $164,06 de ingreso bruto, cubriendo el 44,23 % de los gastos de cultivo, cosecha y almacenamiento en un silo de montón. Sin embargo, se observó una reducci ón desde 5,99 a 4,77 t MS /ha, representando un 20,3 %. La cosecha de elotes también redujo los rendimientos en un 24,4 %, pero permitió recuperar un 89,45 % de los gastos, que equivalieron a $331,75 de ingreso. Al mover los elotes, recupera casi todos los costos, no obstante, hay una reducción en tonelaje y casi de seguro en materia seca digestible. Bajo mejores condiciones de clima, un ingreso bruto mayor sería posible con el consecuente superavit monetario y el ensilaje gratis.

  17. Accurate determination of selected pesticides in soya beans by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Pérez, J F; Sejerøe-Olsen, B; Fernández Alba, A R; Schimmel, H; Dabrio, M

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive, accurate and simple liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method for the determination of 10 selected pesticides in soya beans has been developed and validated. The method is intended for use during the characterization of selected pesticides in a reference material. In this process, high accuracy and appropriate uncertainty levels associated to the analytical measurements are of utmost importance. The analytical procedure is based on sample extraction by the use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction and subsequent clean-up of the extract with C18, PSA and Florisil. Analytes were separated on a C18 column using gradient elution with water-methanol/2.5 mM ammonium acetate mobile phase, and finally identified and quantified by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Reliable and accurate quantification of the analytes was achieved by means of stable isotope-labelled analogues employed as internal standards (IS) and calibration with pure substance solutions containing both, the isotopically labelled and native compounds. Exceptions were made for thiodicarb and malaoxon where the isotopically labelled congeners were not commercially available at the time of analysis. For the quantification of those compounds methomyl-(13)C2(15)N and malathion-D10 were used respectively. The method was validated according to the general principles covered by DG SANCO guidelines. However, validation criteria were set more stringently. Mean recoveries were in the range of 86-103% with RSDs lower than 8.1%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were in the range of 3.9-7.6% and 1.9-8.7% respectively. LODs were theoretically estimated and experimentally confirmed to be in the range 0.001-0.005 mg kg(-1) in the matrix, while LOQs established as the lowest spiking mass fractionation level were in the range 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1). The method reliably identifies and quantifies the

  18. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10(6) PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10(6) PFU/g) concentrations significantly (P foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10(7) PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  19. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  20. Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, L J

    2011-01-01

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is still found on raw poultry. Expert committees have repeatedly emphasized the importance of controlling risk, but information about Salmonella in poultry is often limited to prevalence, with inadequate information about testing methods or strains of Salmonella that are detected by these methods and no information about any impact on the degree of risk. This review examines some assumptions behind the discussion of Salmonella in poultry: the relationships between sampling and cultural methodology, prevalence and numbers of cells, and the implications of serotype and subtype issues. Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically.

  1. Statistical optimisation of culture conditions for biocellulose production by Komagataeibacter sp. PAP1 using soya bean whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjai Ochaikul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost medium based on soya bean whey (SBW was prepared as a by-product from agriculture and optimised for biocellulose (BC production by Komagataeibacter sp. PAP1. The optimal conditions for BC production are: pH 6.21, 1.61% ethanol concentration (v/v and 28.4C. The use of optimised medium based on SBW increased BC production 3.6 fold compared to standard Hestrin-Schramm (HS medium. The BC film produced from the optimised medium was stronger and more impermeable to water vapour and oxygen compared to the one produced from the standard HS medium. These properties allow SBW film to be developed into eco-friendly food packaging for oxygen-sensitive products. Its high water absorption capacity allows its use in biomedical application such as wound dressing. Our results demonstrate that SBW can be used as an alternative low-cost substrate for BC production on commercial scale.

  2. Use of {gamma}-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Le, T.C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S.F.; Mateescu, M.A.; Patterson, G

    2002-03-01

    {gamma}-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. {gamma}-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein, or hydro......The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein......, or hydrolysed soya-bean protein at a level of 9.1 g/kg BW per d. The diets, which were isoenergetic with the same carbohydrate: fat ratio, were given as a continuous intragastric infusion for at least 4 d. During the last 19 h 15N-glycine (a primed continuous infusion) was given intragastrically and 15N...... proteins was reflected in plasma amino acid composition and this is suggested to be responsible for the different effect on protein turnover. Preliminary results from this study have previously been published in abstract form (Nielsen et al. 1991)....

  4. Use of /γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Le, T. C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S. F.; Mateescu, M. A.; Patterson, G.

    2002-03-01

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. Extraction and Purification of Soya Isoflavones%大豆异黄酮的提取及精制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史宣明; 岳琳; 武丽荣

    2001-01-01

    This Paper introduces chemical composition、physico- chemical property and several methods for the extraction and purification of soy a isoflavones which can be applied to industry. The solvents of extr acting isoflavones are usually ethanol containing water and alkaline aqueous sol ution. The soya isoflavones are purified with adsorbent resin、ultrafiltration c ombined with adsorbent resin、adsorbent resin followed by solvent extracion and so on.%简要介绍了大豆异黄酮的组成及其物理和化学性质,并着重介绍了几种适用于工业化生产的提取、精制大豆异黄酮的生产工艺。大豆异黄酮的提取常用乙醇水和弱碱性水溶液提取。其精制则用吸附树脂法、超滤膜与吸附树脂结合的方法以及吸附与溶剂萃取相结合等多种方法。

  6. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The EU’s dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Visser Cornelis Leonardus Maria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described and underline the need for change. The EIP Agri process resulted in the assessment of the present-day yield gap of protein crops using an approach based on the market values of the protein, starch and plant oil components. Oil-based protein crops seemed to be overall better positioned than starch based protein crops because the price of oil levels is higher than that of starch. Alfalfa was identified as being interesting for regions where drying cost are low. The process also resulted in the identification of opportunities and constraints to be encountered by the innovation process, combining the knowledge and physical infrastructure, market structure, co-operation and interaction and the influence of culturally determined values and beliefs. Therefore, the recommendation is to develop a comprehensive approach to meet the challenge of substantially increasing the EU’s protein crop production.

  8. Green synthesis of soya bean sprouts-mediated superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Shikuo; Wang Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were first synthesized via soya bean sprouts (SBS) templates under ambient temperature and normal atmosphere. The reaction process was simple, eco-friendly, and convenient to handle. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanoparticles were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The effect of SBS template on the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8 nm simultaneously formed on the epidermal surface and the interior stem wall of SBS. The SBS are responsible for size and morphology control during the whole formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. In addition, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) results indicate the products are superparamagnetic at room temperature, with blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of 150 K and saturation magnetization of 37.1 emu/g.

  9. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  10. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  11. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  12. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    OpenAIRE

    Z Noori; SH Saadati; A. Mirsalehian; SH Shoeibi; N Rahimifard; Mehrangiz Mehdizadeh; M Pirali- Hamedani

    2009-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Bro...

  14. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  15. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  16. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Binga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3 with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally, there was significant increase (p4 and control. The result supports the suggestion that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce fish meal.

  17. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  19. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  20. Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an Ethiopian traditional ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... A study of village-level processing techniques and raw materials used for the ...

  1. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk ...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one of the optional forms of shrimp specified in paragraph (c) of this section with safe and suitable...

  3. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  4. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA CONCENTRACIÓN MÍNIMA LETAL DE GLUFOSINATO DE AMONIO PARA SELECCIONAR EMBRIONES SOMÁTICOS TRANSFORMADOS DE SOYA CULTIVAR INCASOY-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Pérez-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de un programa de transformación genética de plantas requiere de un sistema de selección in vitro de los tejidos transformados. En el género Glycine existen pocas referencias que emplean el Glufosinato de amonio como agente selectivo de embriones somáticos transformados. Por ello, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la concentración mínima letal del herbicida Glufosinato de amonio en embriones somáticos de soya cultivar cubano INCASoy-27, para usarlo como agente selectivo en programas de transformación genética. Los embriones somáticos fueron colocados en medio de cultivo de multiplicación con 20 mg L -1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético y diferentes concentraciones de Glufosinato de amonio (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0 mg L -1 . Todas las concentraciones del agente selectivo causaron necrosis en embriones somáticos no transformados de soya. El incremento de la concentración del agente selectivo y el tiempo de cultivo, aumentó la necrosis de los embriones somáticos. Finalmente se determinó la concentración mínima letal de Glufosinato de amonio 6,0 mg L -1 , en medio de cultivo semisólido, requerida para su empleo como agente selectivo en la transformación genética de embriones somáticos de soya cultivar INCASoy-27

  5. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  7. El uso de granos secos de destilería con solubles (DDGS en dietas sorgo-soya para pollos de engorda y gallinas de postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Cortes Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el comportamiento productivo en pollos y gallinas con dietas adicionadass con granos secos de destilería con solubles (DDGS, se realizaron dos experimentos. En el primero se emplearon 704 pollos Ross de 1 a 49 días de edad, distribuidos en cuatro tratamientos con ocho repeticiones de 22 pollos cada uno. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 dieta basal sorgo-soya, T2 como 1+7% DDGS, T3 como 1+14% de DDGS, T4 como 1+21% de DDGS. En el segundo experimento, se utilizaron 288 gallinas Bovans White de 35 semanas de edad, alojadas en jaulas durante 56 días de experimentación. Se usó un diseño completamente al azar de cuatro tratamientos con tres repeticiones de 12 gallinas cada una. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 dieta basal sorgo-soya, 2 como 1+3% DDGS, 3 como 1+6 % de DDGS, 4 como 1+9% de DDGS. Los resultados del Exp 1, indicaron que la adición del 7% de DDGS, no afectó el comportamiento productivo y de la canal (P>0.05. Los resultados en el Exp 2, mostraron que el empleo de 3, 6 y 9 % de DDGS no afectó el comportamiento productivo (P>0.05. Hubo un efecto benéfico (P<0.05 en la pigmentación de la yema del huevo, siendo mayor en los tratamientos con DDGS. Con los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, se puede concluir que la adición de DDGS en dietas sorgo-soya de hasta el 7 % en pollos de engorda y hasta 9 % en gallinas de postura, es una fuente alternativa de proteína y energía.

  8. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  9. Utilización de harina de yuca y soya integral cocida en dietas con dos formas de presentación para lechones de prelevante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaruro Maria Liliana

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available En lechones de prelevante (35 días 20kg se evaluó al reemplazo de 50 y 100% del maíz por harina de yuca en combinación con torta de soya y soya integral cocida (SIC. Presentada en forma de harina y peletizada. En ensayo tuvo un arreglo factorial de 2 x 2 x 2 + 1 ,5 replicaciones. Las unidades experimentales o camadas estuvieron constituidas por lo menos por 6 lechones puros o cruzados de las razas Yorkshire, Landrace y Duroc. No hubo diferencias (P<0.05 en consumo de alimento, aumento de peso, conversión alimenticia y edad para alcanzar 20 kg de peso debidas al reemplazo del maíz en la dieta. Hubo diferencias (P<0.01 en aumento de peso a tribuidas a la fuente de proteína de la dieta, produciendo mejores rendimientos la torta de soya + aceite que el grano cocido. Hubo diferencias (P < 0.01 en el consumo de alimento debidas a la forma de presentación del alimento. Las dietas en harina produjeron mejores rendimientos en consumo de alimento y aumento de peso, mientras que la conversión alimenticia fue mejor en las dietas peletizadas. Económicamente la mejor alternativa constituye la dieta con 100010 harina de yuca + torta de soya.In postweaning pigs (35 days, 20 kg was evaluated the replacement 50 % and 100 % of corn by cassava meal, using soybean meal (SBM and whole coocked soybean in a meal or pelleted diet. The experiment was conducte with a complete random design and a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 x 2 + 1 and 5 replications. Each experimental unit was constitutive for a Iitter with a minimum of 6 piglets, pure and (or crossbred (Yorkshire, Duroc, Landrace. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements followed by NRC (1979, except energy requirements (3600 Kcal M.E. /kg. Were no differences (P< 0.05 in feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion and days to reach 20kg live wight in pigs due to the replacement of 50 % and 100 % of corn by cassava meal, there were differences(P<0.05 in weight gain due to the protein source

  10. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Rosales; María de Lourdes Angeles; Ericka Ramírez Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN) en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY). En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 %) combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.8...

  11. Effect of several strains of rizobium in soybean and dry bean Efecto de varios inoculos de leguminosas sobre soya y fríjol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Hennio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA of Palmira between the second semester of 1987 and second of 1989 with the objetive to see of nodulation form and the response of soybean and beans to seven strains of Rizobium of soybean, beans, mungobean, caupí, peanuts, crotalaria and Desmodium. All of especies nodulated after 15 days of emergence also, the nodules lasted in all of especies up to 60 days after emergence except in beans which deteriorated nodules were evident after flowering. The position of nodules were in the main root and secundaries except for beans that only presented nodules in secundary roots; besides, all species presented global shapes nodules except for Crotalaria which showed oval, astragal and baton shape. The size was small in all especies, however, soybean presented big nodules so as 5 mm of diameter. The soybean nodulated specifically with its strain; however, beans presented effective nodulation with other strains suggesting gesting a wide types strains for this legume and permitting more studies about it.El estudio se realizó en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA en Palmira, durante los semestres 87B y 89B. Todas las especies nodularon a partir de los primeros 15 días después de emergencia, exceptuando Cassia tora. El resto de materiales presentaron nódulos efectivos. La posición de los nódulos fue en toda la raíz menos en las variedades de fríjol que sólo los presentaron en las raíces secundarias. La forma fue globosa excepto en Crotalaria (ovales, astragaloides yen forma de bastón y el tamaño fue pequeño (hasta 2.5 mm de diámetro excepto en soya (5 mm. En otro ensayo se probaron en soya y fríjol las cepas aisladas de Rizobios de soya, frijol, maní, frijolillo, Desmodium, Crotalaria y mungo. La soya únicamente noduló con su cepa especifica, mientras que el fríjol hizo con todas las cepas, por lo cual se recomienda que se hagan evaluaciones de fijación de nitr

  12. Evaluación de la fermentación de bebida de soya con un cultivo láctico

    OpenAIRE

    Quicazán, Martha Cecilia; Sandoval, Angélica; Padilla, Germán

    2011-01-01

    La leche o bebida de soya, extracto acuoso de las proteínas de este grano, elaborada mediante un proceso previamente validado en el Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (ICTA), fue fermentada con un cultivo láctico termófilo, constituido por L delbrueckii ss. bulgaricus, L delbrueckii ss. laciis y S.salivarius ss. thermophilus. La composición de la bebida fue estandarizada, antes de la fermentación, en cuanto al contenido de sólidos y de proteína, utilizando como variable de proceso...

  13. RESPUESTA PRODUCTIVA Y PERFIL LIPÍDICO DE LA LECHE DE CABRAS ALIMENTADAS EN CONFINAMIENTO ADICIONANDO ACEITE DE SOYA EN LA DIETA

    OpenAIRE

    MEJÍA URIBE, LUIS ALBERTO

    2016-01-01

    La leche de cabra y sus productos (queso, yogurt) son una importante fuente de nutrientes tales como lípidos, proteínas, vitaminas y minerales, que pueden ser considerados como parte de la dieta de los humanos, sobre todo para personas intolerantes a ciertos componentes (lactosa) de la leche de vaca. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de aceite de soya (6% BS) sobre la producción, composición y perfil de ácidos grasos (AG) de la leche de cabras Saanen...

  14. Cuantificación de polifenoles, flavonoides totales e isoflavonas en arepas elaboradas con adición parcial de harina desgrasada de soya (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La arepa aunque es un producto de consumo masivo en Venezuela, es un alimento con limitaciones desde el punto de vista nutricional. En este sentido, se evaluó el efecto de la incorporación de la harina que se obtiene como subproducto de la extracción mecánica del aceite de soya, sobre el enriquecimiento en componentes bioactivos (polifenoles y flavonoides) de una harina de maíz empleada en la elaboración de arepas. Se hicieron arepas utilizando harina de maíz precocida (HMP) comercial como co...

  15. LA DINÁMICA DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN MATO GROSSO: ASPECTOS ECONÓMICOS DEL CULTIVO DE ARROZ, SOYA Y PASTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilamar Dallemole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de arroz siempre estuvo presente en el rol de culturas practicadas en el cerrado brasileño, en especial, en el Mato-grossense. Dado a esa particularidad, éste estudio busca comprender mejor las relaciones existentes entre la producción de arroz con las áreas plantadas de soya, y, propiamente, con la área plantada de arroz en Mato Grosso, en el período de 1979 a 2007. Debido a la gran extensión territorial del estado, el cultivo de arroz fue siendo realizado a lo largo de los años como frontera agrícola, para apertura de nuevas áreas, con variedades adecuadas a tierras, inicialmente, con baja fertilidad. Con el desarrollo tecnológico y la posibilidad de nuevas actividades productivas, esa realidad viene se alterando y la área plantada de arroz disminuyó a lo largo de los años, perdiendo espacio para la soya y pastos. Como instrumento metodológico, se empleó un modelo de regresión múltiple, estimada por el Método de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MQO, en que los resultados apuntan las correlaciones existentes entre las categorías mencionadas, lo que permite analizar con más propiedad lo que está ocurriendo con el segmento. Las principales conclusiones obtenidas confirman la influencia positiva de la producción de arroz con relación a suya área plantada, sin embargo, negativa para las áreas plantadas de soya, pastos y arroz en Mato Grosso. Aunque venga perdiendo espacio para soya y pastos, el cultivo de arroz, mismo con menor productividad y calidad inferior del grano, aún es practicado debido a su capacidad de adaptación en nuevas áreas, o mismo, en áreas degradadas

  16. El uso de granos secos de destilería con solubles (DDGS) en dietas sorgo-soya para pollos de engorda y gallinas de postura

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Cortes Cuevas; César A. Esparza Carrillo; Gonzalo Sanabria Elizalde; Jorge Miguel Iriarte; Manuel Ornelas Roac; Ernesto Ávila González

    2012-01-01

    Para estudiar el comportamiento productivo en pollos y gallinas con dietas adicionadass con granos secos de destilería con solubles (DDGS), se realizaron dos experimentos. En el primero se emplearon 704 pollos Ross de 1 a 49 días de edad, distribuidos en cuatro tratamientos con ocho repeticiones de 22 pollos cada uno. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) dieta basal sorgo-soya, T2) como 1+7% DDGS, T3) como 1+14% de DDGS, T4) como 1+21% de DDGS. En el segundo ...

  17. Evaluation of stable isotope labelling strategies for the quantitation of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, Mireia Fernandez [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Mireia.FernandezOcana@pfizer.com; Fraser, Paul D. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Patel, Raj K.P.; Halket, John M. [Specialist Bioanalytical Services Ltd., Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Bramley, Peter M. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops into the market has raised a general alertness relating to the control and safety of foods. The applicability of protein separation hyphenated to mass spectrometry to identify the bacterial enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein expressed in GM crops has been previously reported [M.F. Ocana, P.D. Fraser, R.K.P. Patel, J.M. Halket, P.M. Bramley, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 319.]. Herein, we investigate the suitability of two strategies that employ heavy stable isotopes, i.e. AQUA and iTRAQ, to quantify different levels of CP4 EPSPS in up to four GM preparations. Both quantification strategies showed potential to determine whether the presence of GM material is above the limits established by the European Union. The AQUA quantification procedure involved protein solubilisation/fractionation and subsequent separation using SDS-PAGE. A segment of the gel in which the protein of interest was located was excised, the stable isotope labeled peptide added at a known concentration and proteolytic digestion initiated. Following recovery of the peptides, on-line separation and detection using LC-MS was carried out. A similar approach was used for the iTRAQ workflow with the exception that proteins were digested in solution and generated tryptic peptides were chemically tagged. Both procedures demonstrated the potential for quantitative detection at 0.5% (w/w) GM soya which is a level below the current European Union's threshold for food-labelling. In this context, a comparison between the two procedures is provided within the present study.

  18. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  20. Ruminal fermentation response and nitrogen retention from sheep fed rumen undegradable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rumen undegradable protein, could increase supply of amino acids in small intestine to meet host protein requirement. To increase the utilization of feed protein, feed protein source which is highly degradable should be protected from degradation in the rumen. The objective of the study was to increase nitrogen retention through substitution of fish meal protein with soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice observed from rumen fermentation activities. The study used 18 late pregnant Sumatera Composite breed ewes. Rations consisted of fresh chopped elephant grass, supplemented with a commercial concentrate and mineral block in the form of Comin plus and different types of protein supplement as treatment diets. The type of protein supplements were: soya bean meal (RK, soy bean meal protected with banana stem juice (RKT and fish meal (RTI. Treatment diets were offered during late pregnancy (from two months before to two months after partus, two weeks adaptation period was carried out before data recording. Design of the study used randomized complete block design. Results of the study show that rumen ammonia concentration in sheep fed on RKT was not significantly different either from RTI or from RK, however, the nitrogen retention was significantly (P 0.05, however, proportion of C2 and nC4 was significantly different between diet treatment. Methane emission was higher (70.3 mM or 37.2% higher from total energy VFA in diet RKT which is indicated that fermentation system was not efficient. It can be concluded the higher rumen ammonia concentration and lower nitrogen retention in protected soy bean meal supplement indicated that soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice in the ration was not able to substitute fish meal protein which is resistance from degradation in the rumen.

  1. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  2. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg RE.kg- 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg RE.kg- 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg RE.kg- 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg RE.kg- 1.

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE LA TOLERANCIA A LA SALINIDAD BAJO CONDICIONES CONTROLADAS DE NUEVE CULTIVARES CUBANOS DE SOYA (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniet Hernández Avera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La salinidad es una amenaza creciente para la productividad de cultivares de soya ( Glycine max (L. Merril. Diferentes estrategias se han adoptado para superar el problema de la baja productividad. El empleo de genotipos tolerantes a la salinidad es una buena opción para obtener rendimientos económicos en estas áreas. Por esta razón, es importante disponer de métodos rápidos para evaluar la tolerancia a este estrés sobre todo en las primeras etapas de su crecimiento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la tolerancia a la salinidad en nueve genotipos de soya. Los experimentos se desarrollaron en casas verdes bajo condiciones controladas. El índice de tolerancia a la salinidad de germinación (IG, longitud de los brotes (ILB, longitud de la raíz (ILR, materia seca de brotes (IMSB y de la raíz (IMSR, así como la lesión de la membrana celular se midieron en todos los genotipos tratados con NaCl en concentraciones de 0 y 150 mM. Los resultados, a partir de los criterios fisiológicos, permitieron identificar a los cultivares AT22 e INCASoy36 como los más tolerantes en comparación con el resto de los genotipos, por lo que pueden considerarse como prometedores para elevar la productividad en las zonas afectadas por la sal.

  4. Use of waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as potential adsorbents for the removal of Amaranth from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Alok; Kurup Krishnan, Lisha; Gupta, Vinod K

    2005-01-31

    Bottom Ash, a power plan t waste material and De-Oiled Soya, an agriculture waste product were successfully utilized in removing trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulphonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulphonate--a water-soluble hazardous azo dye (Amaranth). The paper incorporates thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the adsorption of the dye on these two waste materials as adsorbents. Characterization of each adsorbent was carried out by I.R. and D.T.A. curves. Batch adsorption studies were made by measuring effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature etc. Specific rate constants for the processes were calculated by kinetic measurements and a first order adsorption kinetics was observed in each case. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to calculate thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption on Bottom Ash takes place via film diffusion process at lower concentrations and via particle diffusion process at higher concentrations, while in the case of De-Oiled Soya process only particle diffusion takes place in the entire concentration range.

  5. Exploration of Success Mode of Chain Operation of Yonghe Soya-bean Milk%永和豆浆连锁经营成功模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志文

    2014-01-01

    In the process of moving towards internationalization, the key to success for yonghe soya-bean milk is the real business, and is able to meet the needs of the consumers, learn more technology and management experience, continuously construct to achieve the standardization of the varieties of yonghe soya-bean milk varieties, factorization of production, chain large-scale of the management and scientifization of management, creat brand vitality.%永和豆浆在迈向国际化发展进程中,成功的关键是实实在在的经营,能够满足消费者的需求,汲取应用更多的科技手段和管理经验,持续性地建设永和豆浆品种的标准化、生产的工厂化、经营的连锁规模化和管理的科学化,创造品牌生命力。

  6. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  7. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India)]. E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in; Mittal, Jyoti [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Kurup, Lisha [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Singh, A.K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University Institute of Technology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India)

    2006-11-02

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered.

  8. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.

  9. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

  10. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Khomutov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia and CSIR-NGRI (India, we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  11. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, Sergey Y.; Mandrikova, Oksana V.; Budilova, Ekaterina A.; Arora, Kusumita; Manjula, Lingala

    2017-09-01

    In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET) still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia) and CSIR-NGRI (India), we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  12. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk.

  13. From Raw Data to Physics Results

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start by defining some simple physics variables of interest, then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The process of calibration and alignment is surveyed, with emphasis on getting "reasonable" results in the absence of formally complete information. Finally, the role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. Throughout, we emphasize how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve.

  14. From raw data to physics results

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    This series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start by defining some simple physics variables of interest, then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in racking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The process of calibration and alignment is surveyed, with emphasis on getting "reasonable" results in the absence of formally complete information. Finally, the role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. Throughout, we emphasize how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve.

  15. From Raw Data to Physics Results course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    It would be helpful for students to know: a) How measurements are made in physical detectors, for example how a tracking chamber "sees" a charged particle or how a calorimeter measures energy. b) That physics processes result in photons, leptons, etc., which we then want to detect and analyze. These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start with an example analysis to show the kinds of information needed. We then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. We discuss how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve. Th...

  16. CREATION OF COLLAGEN PRODUCTS FISH RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposeful use of proteins of connecting fabrics is based first of all on structural and mechanical and physical and chemical properties of collagen, his physiology to a human body. Traditional source of collagen is the split of skins of the cattle, but in view of the objective reasons (spongy encephalopathy, reduction of a livestock of cattle, there was a need for search of alternative sources. The particular interest and popularity represent collagenic proteins in biomedical technologies, when receiving surgical sutural materials, wound healing means, prolongator of medicines, artificial organs and fabrics, implatant. New data on use the collagen containing of sources are directly connected with expansion of a source of raw materials of processing industries of agrarian and industrial complex on the basis of deep processing of biological resources and their maximum involvement in the main and special production with significant growth in an exit of useful products from raw materials unit. In this regard, researches of a microstructure of skins and fractional composition of proteins of objects of research are conducted; data on the general chemical composition and the content of collagen in them are received. Experimental data showed that the most perspective source of collagen from the studied fishes of internal reservoirs is the skin of a silver carp that is caused by the high content of target substance collagen, the low content of fat. The technology of receiving collagenic substances with the high technical characteristics allowing to apply them in production of medical materials is proved and realized in vitro. The comparative analysis showed that substances from a split of skins of cattle and a silver carp have an identical set of amino acids, but are characterized by the different content of separate amino acid s.

  17. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Nikola; Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-10-23

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L(-1) was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth.

  18. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  20. Catalytic Pretreatment and Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hakola, Maija

    2013-01-01

    There is nowadays a strong concern about decreasing oil supplies and global warming leading to ever increasing interest in biobased fuels and chemical production. The utilization of lignocellulosic raw materials for liquid biofuels and chemicals is a challenging task due to raw materials rigid structure which is resistant towards any actions to break it. Thus the raw materials should be pretreated to reach an economically vital process. Catalytic and alkaline oxidation presented here ar...

  1. Liver and muscle proteolytic activity in field bean (Vicia faba L.) fed birds. Effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián, S; Rodríguez, M L; Larralde, J

    1987-09-01

    Liver and muscle proteolytic activities (cathepsin A and D) were measured in growing male chickens fed ad libitum over periods of 30 and 60 days on 20% protein diets containing either heated soybean (HSB, control) or raw field bean (RFB, Vicia faba L.) as the main sources of protein. Vitamin E (250 mg/100 g diet) was added or not to the RFB diet. It has been found that in comparison to control HSB-fed animals, RFB-fed birds showed a significant reduction in the rate of growth, together with a significant increase in the activities of both cathepsins A and D in liver and muscle. The addition of vitamin E to the RFB diet had no significant effect on either weight gain or liver and muscle proteolytic activities. The possible nature of these effects is discussed.

  2. Effect of feeding management and seasonal variation on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Gíl Romo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding management and seasonal variation (summer and winter 2007 on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese. Four groups were formed. During the summer, group A grazed on a natural semiarid rangeland. group B was kept in confinement, fed with concentrate grains and lucerne hay. Through the winter group C grazed on the same rangeland with supplementation and group D was fed as the group B. Thereafter, four kinds of cheeses were manufactured from milk of each animal group: grazed-summer (GS, indoor- summer (IS, grazed-winter (GW and indoor-winter (IW. Results of this study indicated that fat content in cheese was affected by season. Moreover, during the summer period, pasture-based regime increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations; however, winter season could diminish the cheese desirable fatty acid profile.

  3. Usefulness of raw bagasse for oil absorption: a comparison of raw and acylated bagasse and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abd El-Aziz A; Ludwick, Adriane G; Aglan, Heshmat A

    2009-04-01

    Raw bagasse or sugar cane cellulosic residues were modified using acylation grafting with fatty acid. The capability of the grafted bagasse to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the raw bagasse. It was found that the grafted material was significantly more hydrophobic than the raw bagasse. This grafted bagasse had little affinity for water and good affinity for oil. It was also found that bleaching of raw bagasse did not enhance its oil absorptivity. The grafted raw bagasse would be most suitable for applications where oil is to be removed from an aqueous environment. For oil absorbing applications in the absence of water, the raw bagasse was an excellent material.

  4. Effects of dietary milk- and soya-phospholipids on lipid-parameters and other risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases in overweight or obese men - two double-blind, randomised, controlled, clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Anne; Bub, Achim; Barth, Stephan W; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Pfeuffer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of milk phospholipids (milk-PL) on lipid metabolism and on other risk factors for CVD, in comparison with milk fat (control) or soya phospholipids (soya-PL), respectively. Two double-blind parallel-group intervention trials were conducted in overweight or obese male subjects. In the first trial (trial 1), sixty-two men consumed milk enriched with either 2 g milk-PL or 2 g milk fat (control) for 8 weeks. In trial 2, fifty-seven men consumed milk enriched with either 3 g milk-PL or 2·8 g soya-PL for 7 weeks. In trial 1, milk-PL as compared with control reduced waist circumference but did not affect plasma lipids (total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG, phospholipids), apoB, apoA1, glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity index, C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule and total homocysteine (tHcy). Serum activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were not changed. Activity of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of fatty liver, increased in the control but not in the milk-PL group, with a significant intervention effect. In trial 2, milk-PL as compared with soya-PL did not affect the above-mentioned parameters, but decreased GGT. Subjects with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations CT and TT had 11 % (P < 0·05) higher baseline tHcy concentrations than those with the wild-type CC. However, genotype did not modulate the phospholipid intervention effect on tHcy. In conclusion, supplementation with milk-PL as compared with control fat reduced waist circumference and, as compared with both control fat and soya-PL, GGT activity.

  5. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats (n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  6. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab, H. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  7. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  8. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Noori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Broth medium and subsequently"ntransferred to Campylobacter selective Agar containing defibrinated sheep blood and antibiotics. The biochemical tests were"nused for identification of isolated bacteria at species level."nResults: Three poultry samples were positive for C. jejuni."nConclusion: Alimentary tract of chickens contain high numbers of C. jejuni therefore, this bacterium can be easily found in"ntheir feces. It is recommended to use chlorinated water in birds’ feed and to perform slaughtering, skinning and evisceration"nunder aseptic conditions to prevent campylobacteriosis in human from poultry meat. None of the beef samples yielded any"nCampylobacter, this may be due to limited number of samples of beef meat analyzed in this study.

  9. Interaction of sodium diclofenac with freeze-dried soya phosphatidylcholine and unilamellar liposomes Interação do diclofenaco com fosfatidilcolina de soja e lipossomas unilamelares liofilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Biagini Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids are widely used as structural amphiphilic compounds in liposome formulations. In this study, we have analyzed the interaction the sodium diclofenac (SD with soya phosphaditylcholine (PC and soya phosphatidylcholine from lyophilized small unilamellar liposomes (SUV. The changes in the properties of the co-lyophilized drug/PC from SUV liposomes, lyophilized PC from SUV liposomes, and lyophilized soya phosphatidylcholine, were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The DSC data showed that the previous organization of phospholipids molecules to form liposome affects intensely the thermal behavior of PC when compared to non-lipossomal PC. SD modified the thermal properties of PC from liposomes. It was verified that SD affects intensely the located group peaks in the regions of 120-140 ºC and in the higher temperature region of 240-260 ºC. The results of this work demonstrated that the presence of the drug modified the DSC behavior for both liposomal and non-liposomal PC and that these modifications can be easily monitored by DSC analysis.Fosfolipídios são freqüentemente usados como compostos anfifílicos estruturais em formulações de lipossomas. Neste estudo foi analisada a interação do diclofenaco sódico (SD com a fosfatidilcolina de soja liofilizada e a fosfatidilcolina de soja (PC obtida de lipossomas unilamelares pequenos liofilizados (SUV. As modificações nas propriedades da mistura fármaco/PC co-liofilizados a partir de SUV pré-formados, lipossomas de PC vazios e PC liofilizada foram estudadas por Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura (DSC. Os resultados de DSC mostraram que a organização prévia das moléculas PC para formar lipossomas interfere significativamente no perfil de DSC da PC, quando comparada ao perfil de DSC da PC não-lipossômica. Verificou-se que o SD afeta intensamente o grupo de picos situados nas regiões de 120-140ºC e na região de mais alta temperatura (240-260ºC. Os resultados

  10. Productividad del agua en maíz, soya y sorgo en suelo Ferralítico Rojo del sur de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita González Robaina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las funciones agua rendimiento y su uso dentro de la planificación del agua es una vía estratégica importante para lograr el incremento de la productividad. Utilizando datos de 25 experimentos realizados en la Estación Experimental del Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje (IIRD y con ayuda de herramientas de análisis de regresión en este trabajo se calcula l a productividad del agua aplicada por riego (WP I y agua total (WP T y el factor de respuesta del rendimiento (Kr en los cultivos maíz, soya y sorgo para las condiciones de la región occidental de Cuba. En el maíz la WP I fue superior al resto de los cultivos, de 16,43 kg/m³ para un agua aplicada de 266,8 m³, para la soya fue de 2,96 kg/m³ con 600 m³ y el sorgo 4,23 kg/m³ con 800 m³. El intervalo para la productividad del agua total WP T del maíz varió entre 0,86 y 2,9 kg/m³, para la soya entre 0,28 y 0,81 kg/m³, mientras que para el sorgo entre 0,49 y 0,96 kg/m³. La pendiente Kr en la función de producción encontrada para el maíz en el invierno fue de 1,67 y en verano de 2,31, mientras que los valores de Kr calculados para el sorgo en las dos épocas estudiadas se ubicaron en el grupo I. El maíz fue el único cultivo que en las dos épocas la pérdida relativa de rendimiento resultó más que proporcional al déficit hídrico. Para u n déficit hídrico planificado de un 20% en el maíz en invierno se puede esperar una pérdida relativa de rendimiento de un 33,4%, mientras que en verano será de 46,2%.

  11. Nutritional value of raw and extruded chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for growing chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes, A.; Viveros, A.; Centeno, C.; Arija, I.; Marzo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1) of raw and extruded chickpeas on performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein and fat digestibilities were studied in one experiment with growing broiler chickens (0 to 21 days of age). Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of chickpea with or without extrusion. A corn-soybean based diet was used as a positive control. Increasing chickpea content in the diet did not affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratio. Relative pancreas and liver weights, and relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum and ceca were significantly (P<0.05) increased in response to increasing chickpea concentration in the diet. The inclusion of graded concentrations of chickpea increased (P<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and apparent excreta digestibility (AED) of crude fat (CF) only in the case of the intermediate level of chickpea used (200 g kg-1). Extrusion improved weight gain and lowered relative pancreas weight (P< 0.05) respect to birds fed raw chickpea-based diets. AID of CP and AED of CF were improved (P<0.001) by extrusion. We concluded that the inclusion of up to 300 g kg-1 chickpea in chicken diets did not affect performance, and caused a negative effect on the relative weight of some digestive organs. (Author) 45 refs.

  12. The citric acid production from raw glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast and its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Lunina, Julia N

    2013-08-01

    The optimal cultivation conditions ensuring the maximal rate of citric acid (CA) biosynthesis by glycerol-grown mutant Yarrowia lipolytica NG40/UV7 were found to be as follows: growth limitation by inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur), 28 °C, pH 5.0, dissolved oxygen concentration (pO₂) of 50 % (of air saturation), and pulsed addition of glycerol from 20 to 80 g L⁻¹ depending on the rate of medium titration. Under optimal conditions of fed-batch cultivation, in the medium with pure glycerol, strain Y. lipolytica NG40/UV7 produced 115 g L⁻¹ of CA with the mass yield coefficient of 0.64 g g⁻¹ and isocitric acid (ICA) amounted to 4.6 g L⁻¹; in the medium with raw glycerol, CA production was 112 g L⁻¹ with the mass yield coefficient of 0.90 g g⁻¹ and ICA amounted to 5.3 g L⁻¹. Based on the activities of enzymes involved in the initial stages of raw glycerol assimilation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle, the mechanism of increased CA yield from glycerol-containing substrates in Y. lipolytica yeast was explained.

  13. Scoping Future Policy Dynamics in Raw Materials Through Scenarios Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vitor; Keane, Christopher; Sturm, Flavius; Schimpf, Sven; Bodo, Balazs

    2017-04-01

    The International Raw Materials Observatory (INTRAW) project is working towards a sustainable future for the European Union in access to raw materials, from an availability, economical, and environmental framework. One of the major exercises for the INTRAW project is the evaluation of potential future scenarios for 2050 to frame economic, research, and environmental policy towards a sustainable raw materials supply. The INTRAW consortium developed three possible future scenarios that encompass defined regimes of political, economic, and technological norms. The first scenario, "Unlimited Trade," reflects a world in which free trade continues to dominate the global political and economic environment, with expectations of a growing demand for raw materials from widely distributed global growth. The "National Walls" scenario reflects a world where nationalism and economic protectionism begins to dominate, leading to stagnating economic growth and uneven dynamics in raw materials supply and demand. The final scenario, "Sustainability Alliance," examines the dynamics of a global political and economic climate that is focused on environmental and economic sustainability, leading towards increasingly towards a circular raw materials economy. These scenarios were reviewed, tested, and provided simulations of impacts with members of the Consortium and a panel of global experts on international raw materials issues which led to expected end conditions for 2050. Given the current uncertainty in global politics, these scenarios are informative to identifying likely opportunities and crises. The details of these simulations and expected responses to the research demand, technology investments, and economic components of raw materials system will be discussed.

  14. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  15. Development and Capacity Forecast of China Rubber Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The "1 lth Five-Year Plan" period is the most glorious period in the history of China raw materials such as NR and SR. During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, the rubber raw materials will enter an important period of great development in technology, product and output.

  16. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  17. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liana Claudia Salanţă; Maria Tofană; Sonia Socaci; Cristina Barta; Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    ...; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products...

  18. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  19. Photoelectric Measurement of the Fineness of Raw Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-chun FEI

    2010-01-01

    In order to precisely measure the diameters for obtaining the fineness of rolling raw silk, the physical features of raw silk are analyzed. By means of Fresnel principle, diffractions caused by different transparent raw silk filaments are analyzed and simulated. Image data of raw silk filament measured by digital CMOS camera are analyzed and processed for obtaining the precise diameters of the filament with the relative error of less than 1%. On the assumption of appropriate elliptic cross-section of the filament, the cross-section area is calculated as the fineness of the filament. Measurement experiments are carried out. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for photoelectric measuring the fineness of raw silk.

  20. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  1. TRANSMISSÃO DA VARIAÇÃO DA TAXA DE CÂMBIO PARA OS PREÇOS DE EXPORTAÇÃO DA SOJA EM GRÃO: ANÁLISE DOS MERCADOS DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, DO BRASIL E DA ARGENTINA/TRANSMISSION OF EXCHANGE RATES FOR SOYA EXPORT PRICES: USA, BRAZIL AND ARGENTINA MARKET ANALYSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Sangoi Copetti; Kelmara Mendes Vieira; Daniel Arruda Coronel

    2013-01-01

      Current research deals with an analysis on the relationship between exchange variations and export prices of soya beans in the USA, Brazil and Argentina, known as pass-through of the exchange rate...

  2. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DIANA C CHAPARRO; REMIGIO Y PISMAG; ANA DE DIOS ELIZALDE C

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron los cambios en la cantidad de hierro y calcio durante el proceso germinativo en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), guandul (Cajanus cajan) y soya (Glycine maxy...

  3. A fully defined, fed-batch, recombinant NS0 culture process for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Paul A; Castro, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    To manufacture a glycoprotein, mammalian cells expressing the desired protein are often grown in fed-batch mode. Feeding an undefined, nonanimal hydrolysate helps the cells receive sufficient nutrition, but makes systems difficult to optimize. Even different lots of the same hydrolysate may have significant variability; furthermore, individual components may actually be detrimental to the cells. Switching to fully defined feeds could eliminate these issues. For monoclonal antibody (mAb) production by fed-batch NS0 cells, this article describes the replacement of a hydrolysate-based feed with a fully defined, animal-component-free feed system. The defined feed initially had 67 components, but additional experiments allowed a reduction to 25 components. The mAb titer is approximately 20% higher than in the undefined system, and the feed volume is circa 20% lower. The two systems generated antibodies with similar glycosylation profiles. Other benefits of the defined feed system include lower raw material costs, the ability to optimize key nutrient concentrations, greater confidence in raw material quality, and the elimination of potential, hydrolysate-associated endotoxin issues.

  4. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Materials and methods: Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diest were- control diet (with 0% inclusion level boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal i.e., 100% soybean meal, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion level (total replacement of soya bean meal. The feeds were fed to C. gariepinus juveniles at 5% of their body weight for 84 days in an indoor partial flow through system. Weight and standard length of C. gariepinus juveniles were taken every fortnight and water quality parameters were monitored weekly. Results: Experimental fish fed diets with 0 and 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal gave the best results in terms of Mean Weight Gain (MWG (20.22 and 19.79 g, respectively, Specific Growth Rate (1.82 and 1.83 respectively, Protein Efficiency Ratio (2.75 and 2.00, respectively and the Lowest Feed Conversion Ratio (1.29 and 1.39 respectively. The lowest growth and feed utilization were observed in fish fed 100% inclusion level. The weight gain of fish decreased with increase in replacement level above 25%. There was no significant difference between control diet 0 and 25% inclusion level (P and #8805;0.05. Conclusion: Boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal is a nutritive source of plant protein and a good replacement for soybean meal at 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal in formulating catfish feed for C. gariepinus juveniles without any deleterious effect. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 345-352

  5. Proteína de soya: alternativa no farmacológica para el tratamiento de niños con hipercolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gladys Aráuz-Hernández

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la hipercolesterolemia primaria (HCP se basa en una dieta reducida en grasa saturada y en colesterol, con la cual se puede disminuir entre 10 y 20% del colesterol total (CT. La proteína de soya tiene el potencial de reducir el CT, cuando sustituye parcial o totalmente a la proteína animal. El presente estudio reporta los resultados del efecto de una dieta baja en grasa saturada, colesterol y con proteína de soya, sobre el colesterolligado a lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDLC en niños costarricenses con HCP. En un ensayo clínico paralelo de asignación aleatoria, 20 niños, entre los 7 y 14 años de edad fueron asignados a uno de los dos tratamientos dietéticos según los criterios de inclusión -grupo experimental: dieta etapa 1 recomendada por el NCEP, más 25 gramos de proteína de soya diarios y, -grupo control: dieta etapa 1 NCEP, sin proteína de soya. Después de un período de homogenización de diez días, se inició la intervención por ocho semanas. Tanto los niños del grupo experimental como los del grupo control, redujeron el colesterol total y el LDL-C (pPrimary hypercholesterolemia treatment (PHT is based on a reduced diet in saturated fat and cholesterol, which can diminish between 10 and 20% of serum cholesterol (CT. Soybean protein has the potential to reduce CT, when it substitutes partial or totally animal protein. The present study shows the results of the effect of a low saturated fat, cholesterol and soybean protein diet on LDL-C in Costa Rican children with primary hypercholesterolemia. Twenty children, between the ages of 7 and 14, were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary treatments at home. The experimental group received: Stage 1 NCEP diet, it consisted of 25 more grams of soybean protein and the control group received: Stage 1 NCEP diet without soybean protein. After a homogenization period of ten days, the intervention began for eight weeks. Both groups reduced their total

  6. Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

    2013-09-01

    The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine.

  7. Molecular approaches to analysing the microbial composition of raw milk and raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    The availability and application of culture-independent tools that enable a detailed investigation of the microbiota and microbial biodiversity of food systems has had a major impact on food microbiology. This review focuses on the application of DNA-based technologies, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE), single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and others, to investigate the diversity, dynamics and identity of microbes in dairy products from raw milk. Here, we will highlight the benefits associated with culture-independent methods which include enhanced sensitivity, rapidity and the detection of microorganisms not previously associated with such products.

  8. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the lower villous height and crypt depth observed in this study. However, direct effects of pectin also are possible, and thus further study is warranted. Feeding pigs high insoluble fiber diets improved gut morphology by increasing villi length and increased mucosal enzyme activity when compared with pigs fed pectin-containing diets. The mucin content as determined by staining characteristics suggests that pigs fed high insoluble fiber diets might be better protected against pathogenic bacteria than pigs fed diets high in soluble fiber.

  9. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY. En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 % combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.85 y 0.95 %. En el Exp 2, seis hembras y seis machos, de 28 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 72 pollos fueron asignados, por sexo, a dos dietas (PSOY o PCAN como único ingrediente proteico combinadas con tres niveles de energía (3.0, 3.1 y 3.2 Mcal de EM/kg de alimento. Cada experimento duró dos semanas y al final todos los pollos fueron sacrificados. En el Exp 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticas en la productividad o retención de proteína y energía en la canal entre niveles de PCAN (P>0.05. En el Exp 2, el consumo de alimento, proteína y energía y la deposición de grasa fueron mayores (P<0.05 con PSOY, pero la ganancia de peso, eficiencia alimenticia y retención de proteína y energía en la canal fueron similares entre dietas. Los resultados indican que es factible sustituir parcial o totalmente la pasta de soya por pasta de canola en la dieta de pollos de engorda en crecimiento.

  10. Factores que influyen en el contenido de escualeno, fitoesteroles totales y esterificados en el subproducto ácidos grasos destilados de soya para su potencial aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Una necesidad actual de la industria de extracción y refinación de aceite vegetal es la reducción y/o explotación de sus subproductos. Uno de estos, conocido como Ácidos Grasos Destilados de Aceite de Soya (AGDAS, resulta potencialmente valioso para las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética por la presencia de compuestos con actividad biológica favorable, como los fitoesteroles y el escualeno, los primeros como agentes hipocolesterolemiantes y el escualeno como emoliente y humectante. En este trabajo, mediante cromatografía de gases se determinó el contenido de escualeno y fitoesteroles libres y esterificados para evaluar la viabilidad de aprovechamiento de AGDAS como fuente de dichos compuestos y establecer si la procedencia del grano de soya (americano o nacional, la condición de cultivo (Sequía o Normal, años 2011 y 2012 respectivamente y el grado de calidad del aceite (Genérico o Premium son factores determinantes en el contenido de dichos compuestos en el subproducto. En conclusión AGDAS representa una fuente viable de fitoesteroles totales con 14.92% p/p, no así de escualeno con 1.75% p/p. La concentración de escualeno está influenciada por la procedencia del grano y la condición de cultivo, mientras que la de fitoesteroles esterificados por el grado de calidad y condición de cultivo. Ninguno de los factores influyó en el contenido de fitoesteroles totales. Esto permite establecer que la composición del subproducto AGDAS no es constante y se justifican protocolos como el de este estudio para su caracterización con fines de aprovechamiento.

  11. Transcriptomic profiling of spleen in grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two type...

  12. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  13. Effect of Supplement of Soya Lecithine on Mucosal Anti-Oxidation and Heat Shock Protein 70 Content in Intrauterine Growth Retardation Piglets%大豆卵磷脂对子宫内发育迟缓仔猪肠道抗氧化和热休克蛋白70表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远孝; 张莉莉; 周根来; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究大豆卵磷脂(soya lecithine,SL)对子宫内发育迟缓(intrauterine growth retardation,IUGR)猪肠道生长、黏膜氧化应激(oxidative stress,OS)和热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein,HSP70)表达的影响.[方法]试验共选用12头7d IUGR仔猪和6头正常体重(NBW)仔猪,所有IUGR仔猪随机分成两组(n=6),分别饲喂基础人工乳(IUGR组)和添加1.5%SL的人工乳(IUGR+SL组),所有NBW仔猪饲喂基础人工乳(NBW组,n=6),试验期7d.[结果]IUGR显著降低14d仔猪空肠及其非黏膜绝对重量(P<0.05),降低空肠黏膜总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)活性(P<0.05),升高MDA水平(P<0.05),黏膜HSP70的ELISA和免疫印迹法检测结果均显著升高(P<0.05).IUGR猪补充SL后,空肠肠段、黏膜和非黏膜绝对和相对重量均显著升高(P<0.05);空肠黏膜T-AOC、GPx和SOD显著升高(P<0.05),而MDA显著下降(P<0.05);ELISA检测结果显示HSP70蛋白水平显著降低(P<0.05),且与SL添加水平呈显著负相关(P<0.05).[结论]补充SL对恢复IUGR导致的仔猪肠道组织生长缓慢、HSP70表达升高和OS损伤有很好的效果.%[Objective] The effects of supplement of soya lecithine (SL) on intestinal growth, mucosal heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and oxidation stress (OS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) piglets were studied. [Method] Twelve IUGR piglets and six piglets with normal birth weight were selected. All piglets were weaned on 7th d of age, and assigned equally to three groups: six NBW and six IUGR piglets were fed with control diet (IUGR), and six IUGR piglets were fed with diet supplemented with 1.5% SL (IUGR+SL) for 7 days. [ Result ] IUGR decreased (P<0.05) the absolute weigh of jejunal segment and non-mucosa. reduced (P<0.05) the mucosal capacity of total anti-oxidation (T-AOC), as well as the activity of GR and GPx, and elevated (P<0.05) the content of MDA. The mucosal HSP70 contents

  14. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  15. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  16. VERAM - Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Vashev, Boris

    2017-04-01

    The overall objective of VERAM project is to produce a Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials in 2050 based on raw materials research and innovation (R&I) coordination. Two leading European Technology Platforms (ETPs): ETP SMR (Sustainable Minerals Resources) and FTP (Forest Technology Platform) are joining forces to develop a common vison and roadmap with the support of ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), represented by UNIVPM, SusChem (ETP for Sustainable Chemistry), represented by Cefic, EuMaT (Advanced Materials ETP), represented by VITO, ERAMIN 2, represented by Research Centre JUELICH and WoodWisdom Network Plus represented by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). This partnership provides VERAM with expertise from downstream applications and additional knowledge on non-biotic and biotic raw materials. The project encourages capacity building as well as transfer of knowledge. It expects to provide an innovation reference point for the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials (formerly the KIC Raw MatTERS), to coordinate the network involved in the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials Commitments and relevant proposals funded under Horizon 2020. It provides a platform for identifying gaps and complementarities and enables their bridging. VERAM will be able to advise the European Commission and Member States on future research needs and policies to stimulate innovation and assist in overcoming fragmentation in the implementing the EIP Raw Materials Strategic Implementation Plan. VERAM looks for mutually beneficial information exchange, encourages cross-fertilization between actions undertaken by different raw material industries, and expects to accelerate exploitation of breakthrough innovations. One of the main outcomes of the project is the presentation of a common long term 2050 Vision and Roadmap for relevant raw materials including metals, industrial minerals and aggregates and wood. The

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  18. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  19. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  20. Effect of raw material source, processing systems, and processing temperatures on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate amino acid digestibility of 32 commercial meat and bone meals (MBM) varying in raw material source and produced in seven different commercial cooking systems and at two processing temperatures (low vs high) that differed by 15 to 20 C. Raw material sources included all beef, all pork, mixed species, and high bone MBM. True digestibilities of amino acids were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of six MBM varying greatly in amino acid digestibility was determined with chicks fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the sole source of dietary protein. The 32 MBM samples averaged 53.2% CP, 2.73% Lys, 0.6% Cys, and 0.75% Met on a DM basis. True digestibility averaged 82% for Lys, 87% for Met, and 47% for Cys. True digestibilities of amino acids varied substantially among processing systems and temperatures, particularly for Lys and Cys. For example, Lys and Cys digestibility ranged from 68 to 92% and from 20 to 71%, respectively, among different MBM. The higher processing temperature generally yielded lower amino acid digestibility than did the low processing temperature. A smaller, less consistent, effect was observed for raw material source. The PER values of the six selected MBM varied from 0.97 to 2.68 and were highly correlated with amino acid digestibility. These results indicated that very high amino acid digestibility MBM can be produced in commercial rendering systems. However, differences in processing systems and temperatures can cause substantial variability in amino acid digestibilities.

  1. The influence of raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. seeds on growth performance and biochemical and haematological parameters in the blood of grower-finisher pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. WINIARSKA-MIECZAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of raw seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. in feed mixtures for grower-finisher pigs on growth performance, and biochemical and haematological parameters in their blood, as well as on the weight of the liver and the kidney. The experiment was performed on 96 grower-finisher pigs of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White × Pietrain, weighing from 25 to ca. 100 kg. The pigs were divided into four diet groups. The feed compound of the control group contained extracted soybean meal. In experimental groups soybean meal protein was replaced by raw grass pea seeds in quantities of 50% in grower and/or finisher diet, and 100% in both fattening period. The use of raw grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feeds in finisher diet did not result in lower growth performance in comparison to the control group. However, the fatteners fed grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feedstuffs in both fattening periods revealed the highest feed and energy intake per kg of live weight gain, compared to the group feed grass pea only in the second phase of the fattening period. A higher share of grass pea seeds in the mixture led to weaker growth performance and carcass characteristics. Hypertrophy of kidney and liver was noted in the animals which were fed with raw seeds of grass pea amounting to 100% of protein feeds. Also, hyperactivity of ALAT, ASAT and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the animals’ serum. No negative influence of applying raw seeds of grass pea amounting up to 50% of protein feeds in grower and/or finisher periods on the parameters examined was noted.;

  2. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  3. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data from Satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit format due to...

  4. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas A&M University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear...

  5. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semak Bohdan B

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a chemical-balance calculation to determine work from brake-specific fuel consumption and fuel... involve a laminar flow element or a thermal-mass meter. Note that your overall system for measuring raw...

  7. Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared periwinkles from brackish water earthen pond Buguma, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ...

  8. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  9. FedEX Sponsors China's Badminton Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reigning world champion team joins hands with the express delivery service to greet the coming Olympics Starting this year, Olympic badminton champion Zhang Ning and world badminton champion Lin Dan will be wearing clothing with the FedEx logo on it.

  10. Wideband electromagnetically coupled coaxial probe fed slot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... and low gain that limits its application in practice (Bahl et al, 1980 and Balanis, ... distribution in upper and lower patches at both the resonance frequencies is .... The equivalent circuit of rectangular patch stacked with U-slot loaded fed patch ...

  11. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  12. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  13. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yang; Weidong Yu; Shichao Zheng; Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first t...

  14. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    OpenAIRE

    Pernar, E.; Dosen-Sver, D.; Bujevic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline,...

  15. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.

  16. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  17. La historia del uso de la soya en México, su valor nutricional y su efecto en la salud The importance of soy in Mexico, its nutritional value and effect on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbe Torres y Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La proteína de soya se ha utilizado en algunos países latinoamericanos, incluido México, en diversos programas de alimentación; el propósito ha sido el de mejorar el estado nutricional de la población debido a su elevado valor nutricio y su costo relativamente bajo que mantuvo por algún tiempo. En este trabajo se describen los usos y la investigación que se ha llevado a cabo sobre la soya en México desde 1970. Además, se revisan los efectos de los diferentes componentes de la soya, en particular de su proteína y las isoflavonas, sobre la salud, su mecanismo de acción en la reducción del colesterol y los triglicéridos y la disminución de la secreción de insulina, así como su respuesta glucémica; por último, se delinean las recomendaciones del consumo de la proteína de soya parar obtener un beneficio en la salud.Soy protein has been used in several Latin-American countries including Mexico in various food programs with the purpose to improve the nutritional status of the population due to the high nutritional value and its relatively low cost that was maintained for some time. In the present work, the use and research on soy in Mexico since 1970 is described. In addition, this review shows the effects of the different components of soy, in particular its protein and the isoflavones on health, the mechanism of action of soy protein to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides, and insulin secretion, as well as its glycemic response, and finally, the recommendations of soy protein consumption to obtain a health benefit.

  18. 蒸鱼豉油专用YE产品开发及应用研究%Product Development and Application Research of the Special Yeast Extract Used in Seasoned Soya Sauce for Seafood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建; 李沛; 唐冠群

    2013-01-01

    Yeast Extract (YE) is a kind of nutritional-type multifunctional umami agent and flavor enhancer,which has the characteristics of rich umami,mellow taste,natural nutrition,etc.Seasoned soya sauce for seafood is the special soy sauce for steamed fish; taste and flavor are the important indicators for the quality evaluation.The research and development and the application evaluation for seasoned soya sauce for seafood are carried out.The results show that the special yeast extract used in seasoned soya sauce for seafood can increase the taste of sauce and coordinate the delicious flavor of sauce.It can enhance the overall flavor of seasoned soya sauce for seafood products.%酵母抽提物(Yeast Extract,YE)是一种营养型多功能鲜味剂和风味增强剂,具有鲜味丰富,口感醇厚,天然营养的特点.蒸鱼豉油是蒸鱼特制的酱油,口感和风味是评价其品质的重要指标.文章针对蒸鱼豉油专用YE进行了研究开发,并对其进行应用评价.结果表明:蒸鱼豉油专用型YE能增加蒸鱼豉油产品的厚实口感,协调产品鲜美风味,对蒸鱼豉油产品整体风味的提升具有很好的效果.

  19. Intakes and sources of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans, coumestrol and soya-containing foods in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk), from 7 d food diaries, using a newly updated database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Lentjes, Marleen A H; van Scheltinga, Veronica; Powell, Natasha A; McTaggart, Alison; Bhaniani, Amit; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-08-01

    A diet rich in phyto-oestrogens has been suggested to protect against a variety of common diseases but UK intake data on phyto-oestrogens or their food sources are sparse. The present study estimates the average intakes of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans and coumestrol from 7 d food diaries and provides data on total isoflavone, lignan and phyto-oestrogen consumption by food group. Development of a food composition database for twelve phyto-oestrogens and analysis of soya food and phyto-oestrogen consumption in a populationbased study. Men and women, aged 40–79 years, from the general population participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) between 1993 and 1997, with nutrient and food data from 7 d food diaries. A subset of 20 437 participants. The median daily phyto-oestrogen intake for all men was 1199 mg (interquartile range 934–1537mg; mean 1504mg, SD 1502mg) and 888mg for all women (interquartile range 710–1135 mg; mean 1205 mg, SD 1701mg). In soya consumers, median daily intakes were higher: 2861 mg in men (interquartile range 1304–7269mg; mean 5051mg, SD 5031mg) and 3142 mg in women (interquartile range 1089–7327mg; mean 5396 mg, SD 6092 mg). In both men and women, bread made the greatest contribution to phyto-oestrogen intake – 40?8% and 35?6%, respectively. In soya consumers, vegetable dishes and soya/goat’s/sheep’s milks were the main contributors – 45?7% and 21?3% in men and 38?4% and 33?7% in women, respectively. The ability to estimate phyto-oestrogen intake in Western populations more accurately will aid investigations into their suggested effects on health.

  20. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  2. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  3. Bioenergy production for CO2-mitigation and rural development via valorisation of low value crop residues and their upgrade into energy carriers: a challenge for sunflower and soya residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, A; Kantarelis, E; Skoulou, V; Chatziavgoustis, Th

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns the energetic valorization of sunflower and soya residues by air fixed-bed gasification. The main process parameters that have been investigated were the temperature and air equivalence ratio. Experimental results indicated that the high temperature and air had a positive effect in gas yield for both residues by ensuring mild oxidative conditions. Gasification gas composition showed different trends of H(2)/CO ratio for the two residues at low equivalence ratios. The LHV of the produced gas from both residues varied from 6.84 to 12 MJ/Nm(3). The energy recovery achieved via gasification could reach 0.07 and 0.02 per acre of cultivated area for the sunflower and soya residues, respectively, in terms of tons of oil equivalent. Sunflower shown higher oil production and energy recovery than soya did. The results of the present study indicate the viability of alternative energy production from agricultural biomass by gasification. Such residues could comprise an attractive renewable source of energy for covering additional energy demands in agricultural regions through exploitation in small gasification systems.

  4. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  5. Influencia del tipo e intensidad de luz en la formación y multiplicación de embriones somáticos de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liusvert Pérez Pérez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Influence of light type and intensity on induction and proliferation of somatic embryos in soybean Resumen: La embriogénesis somática representa una alternativa para la regeneración de plantas, sobre la cual influyen diversos factores durante el cultivo in vitro. Entre estos, las condiciones de iluminación durante la formación de embriones somáticos es determinante. Sin embargo, no existen trabajos que refieran el efecto de la luz solar en la formación de embriones somáticos de soya. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del tipo e intensidad de luz en la formación y multiplicación de embriones somáticos de soya cultivar INCASoy-27. Para ello, cotiledones inmaduros de 3,0-4,0 mm de longitud fueron colocados en medio de cultivo con 40 mg.l-1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, sacarosa 3% y pH 7,0 en cámaras de crecimiento con luz artificial e intensidades luminosas de 5-10 µmol.m-2.s-1 y 68-73 µmol.m-2.s-1, y en cámaras de crecimiento con luz solar con 50-65µmol.m-2.s-1. El mayor número de cotiledones embriogénicos (95,31 se obtuvo en condiciones de luz artificial con alta intensidad luminosa. La mayor formación de embriones somáticos se obtuvo en luz artificial (9,65 y luz solar (8,45 respectivamente con alta intensidad luminosa. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la multiplicación de los embriones somáticos, al emplear ambas fuente de luz con alta intensidad luminosa. Esta es la primera referencia sobre formación y multiplicación de embriones somáticos de soya con empleo de luz solar. Palabras clave: Cultivo de tejido; embriogénesis somática; fotoperíodo; Glycine max. Abstract: The somatic embryogenesis represents an alternative for the regeneration of plants, in which influence diverse factors during the cultivation. Among these factors, the conditions of illumination during the induction of somatic embryos are determinant. However, works not exist that refer the effect

  6. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  7. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  8. Modelagem e validação da hidratação de grãos de soja Modeling and validation of soya bean hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ronobo Coutinho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho desenvolveu-se um modelo fenomenológico de parâmetros concentrados para a hidratação de grãos de soja, obtido a partir de um balanço de massa em regime transiente nos grãos, levando em consideração a variação do diâmetro destes ao longo do processo. Os resultados das simulações deste modelo foram comparados com as previsões de modelos empíricos encontrados em literatura. Tanto o modelo fenomenológico quanto os modelos empíricos foram validados frente a dados experimentais de hidratação de grãos de soja, obtidos neste trabalho nas temperaturas de 10, 20, 30, 42 e 49°C. Todos os modelos representaram as principais tendências do processo de hidratação, a partir do ajuste dos seus parâmetros para cada temperatura. Entretanto, o modelo fenomenológico foi o que apresentou menores desvios em relação aos dados experimentais. Adicionalmente, foi proposto um modelo fenomenológico generalizado.A first principle model with lumped parameters was developed for the hydration of soya beans. A transient mass balance was applied to the soya beans taking into consideration the variation of the bean diameters during the process. Simulation results were compared to the empirical models available in the literature and with experimental data. Both the first principle and empirical models were validated by the experimental data that were obtained for the temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 30, 42 and 49°C. All models were able to represent the main data trends of the hydration process, after adjustment of their parameters for each temperature. However, the first principle model has the smallest deviations in relation to the experimental data. In addition, a generalized first principle model was proposed.

  9. Efecto de algunos fungicidas sobre la interacción Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn-Micorriza vesículo arbuscular en soya, Glycine max Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Prager Marina

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo se dispuso de dos preparaciones de suelo: natural y desinfectado químicamente (Ditrapex-CE y en el invernadero de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Se utilizaron los fungicidas Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax-300. Se contó con la flora micorrizógena natural y una cepa introducida, Glomus manihotis. R. solani disminuyó en un 50 % la emergencia de la soya, comportándose más agresivo en suelo desinfectado. En los primeros 15 días su ataque se incrementó y redujo el desarrollo de MVA en suelo natural. Al avanzar la edad de la planta decreció su infección. Con relación a la MVA la tendencia es contraria. La presencia de la MVA, incluyendo G. manihotis no incrementó significativamente la materia seca y el rendimiento de la soya. Al desinfectar el suelo los fungicidas afectaron negativamente la infección micorrizógena, mientras que en suelo natural no sucedió este fenómeno, al contrario SN-84364 incrementó su presencia. Este producto es el que menos afecta la simbiosis en el suelo desinfectado. Los fungicidas SN-84364 y PCNB mostraron gran especificidad contra R. solani y Vitavax-300 mayor espectro de acción.With the object to evaluate in the soybeans crop behavior in the interaction of Rhizoctonia solani, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM and fungicides used to treatment of seed, two different soil preparations were used in the field trials: natural and chemically disinfected (Ditrapex-CE and under greenhouse: using vapor- sterilized. Was utilized the fungicides Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax- 300. Be had into account the natural mycorrhizal flora and a source of Glomus manihotis introduced. R. solani reduced the emergence of soybean by 50%, the above-metioned pathogen was more agressive in disinfected soil. In the 15 days first the attack increased and reduced the VAM development in the natural soil. With the age of the plant the pathogen infection decreased. With relation by VAM is contrary the tendency

  10. Evaluación de algunos factores que inciden en la perdida de germinación de la semilla de soya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Carlos

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación del lCA en Palmira se realizó un estudio durante 1989, con el fin de evaluar algunos factores que inciden en la pérdida del vigor y germinación de la semilla de soya (Glycine max; se observó la incidencia de la época de cosecha y el manejo en los diferentes períodos de almacenamiento. La semilla de soya provino de dos fuentes: la primera se obtuvo de campos del Cl Palmira perteneciente a semilla básica de las variedades SOYlCA P - 33, SOYlCA P -32, lCA TUNlA y ARlARI - 1 con las cuales se evaluaron cinco épocas de cosecha. La segunda fuente provino de cuatro casas productoras, dos variedades (SOYICA P-33 e ICA TUNIA con dos sistemas de beneficio (acondicionada y sin acondicionar evaluándose los efectos de los daños mecánicos en el almacenamiento. La época óptima para cosecha de la semilla con la más alta calidad fisiológica se obtuvo en el segundo período de cosecha a los 112 días después de la siembra, y la variedad que mejor comportamiento presentó fue lCA TUNIA. En las semillas no acondicionadas se encontró mejor comportamiento en la variedad ICA TUNIA. Además, presentó mejor germinación.A study was carried out during 1989 in the Centro Nacional de Investigación Palmira with the objective to search the incidence of factors in the lost of vigor and germination of soybean seed during several harvesting time and conditioning. The first experiment consisted of collecting seed from physiological maturity up to 28 days after, using the varieties SOYICA p. 33, SOYICA P-32, ICA TUNIA and SOYICA ARIARI-1; the information included 5 harvesting times (one each week. The second experiment included seeds conditioned and non conditioned of the varieties SOYICA P-33 and ICA TUNIA from the commercial seed companies. The research concluded that the second harvest after physiological maturity was the best for seed quality and the quality decreased with the time of harvest; also, the variety SOYICA P-33

  11. 酸豆乳发酵菌种的驯化研究%Study on taming of the starter in soya-yogurt production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雨萌; 陈洁; 傅学彪; 杨芳

    2012-01-01

    驯化菌种有助于乳酸菌更好适应豆乳的环境,增强乳酸菌活力,从而提高酸豆乳产品质量。采用逐步提高豆浆在牛乳比例、传代驯化以及添加大豆肽酶解液驯化的方法对酸豆乳发酵菌种乳酸菌进行驯化,并以酸度值、驯化乳pH、关兰还原褪色时间以及发酵乳粘度为指标,研究经驯化后乳酸菌在酸豆乳中的活力及生长状态。结果表明,三种驯化方法对乳酸菌在酸豆乳中的生长均有促进作用,且添加大豆肽酶解液的驯化方法效果最佳,驯化后酸度可以达到70°T,美兰褪色时间也由驯化前的不少于200min缩短到40min。%Taming ractobacillus is conducive to its better adjustment in soymilk.We aimed at producing soya-yogurt by using soybean as original material and lactobacillus as starter.Different taming methods were used in the thesis such as increasing the concerntration of soya-bean milk,subculturing and adding the enzymatic hydrolysates of soy peptide.Through a series of indicators, such as, absorbance titration acidity, pH, meilan reduction bleaching time and viscosity,the effects of three methods on the growth and acid production of lactobacillus were compared. The results showed that the three methods had great promotion effect on the growth of lactobacillus in soyayogurt,and the effect of adding the enzymatic hydrolysates soy peptide showed most significant.The acidity after taming reached to 70°T and Meilan reduction bleaching time was shorten from more than 200min to 40min.

  12. Cuantificación de polifenoles, flavonoides totales e isoflavonas en arepas elaboradas con adición parcial de harina desgrasada de soya (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Beatriz Navas H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La arepa aunque es un producto de consumo masivo en Venezuela, es un alimento con limitaciones desde el punto de vista nutricional. En este sentido, se evaluó el efecto de la incorporación de la harina que se obtiene como subproducto de la extracción mecánica del aceite de soya, sobre el enriquecimiento en componentes bioactivos (polifenoles y flavonoides de una harina de maíz empleada en la elaboración de arepas. Se hicieron arepas utilizando harina de maíz precocida (HMP comercial como control (100 % y mezclas con adición parcial de 7, 10 y 15 %, empleando harina de la torta residual desgrasada de soya (HTRDS. Se efectuaron las siguientes determinaciones analíticas a las harinas: humedad, grasa, almidón, y absorción de agua, asimismo se determinó proteína en las harinas, lisina disponible, polifenoles, flavonoides e isoflavonas (genisteína y daidzeína tanto a las harinas como a las arepas elaboradas, estas últimas fueron evaluadas sensorialmente por un grupo de 12 catadores previamente entrenados en Análisis Descriptivo Cuantitativo y constituido por personas que son consumidores frecuentes de este alimento. Los resultados mostraron que la HTRDS es una fuente importante de componentes bioactivos, con concentraciones de polifenoles y de flavonoides totales de 2079,7 μg ácido cafeico/g y de 1295,2 μg quercetina/g, respectivamente. La incorporación de 7 % de HTRDS produjo arepas con 130,0 μg ácido cafeico/g y 82,0 μg quercetina/g de polifenoles y flavonoides totales, respectivamente; y para las isoflavonas 103,0 μg/kg y 124,7 μg/kg de genisteína y daidzeína, respectivamente. La evaluación sensorial mostró que esta proporción de HTDRS fue la preferida en todos los atributos sensoriales, luego de la muestra control.

  13. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  14. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  15. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...... on a 40 kW laboratory model connected to the utility-grid, where the DFIG is supplied by a back-to-back 3-level NPC-converter....

  16. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semak Bohdan B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained information for the needs of development of this raw material market and products manufactured on its basis. It was established in the result of the conducted study that the process of marketing management should be built on the basis of a deep study of needs of textile raw material and manufactured on its basis products consumers and is a key factor of successful development of the market of ecological textile in Ukraine. The article shows the role and justifies a necessity of introduction of ecological standardisation as a necessary prerequisite of formation of the system of textile raw material quality and ecological security management for manufacturing ecological textile. Further studies should be carried out in spheres of development of systems of control over the textile raw material quality and ecological security level for ensuring its correspondence with domestic and international regulatory documents.

  17. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  18. Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in Raw Cow Milk in Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alonzo, Alessia; Senese, Matteo; Fabbri, Ilaria; Cirri, Cristina; Milioni, Carla; Valenza, Valeria; Tolli, Rita; Campeis, Francesca; Fischetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9%) were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed. PMID:27800320

  19. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  20. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  1. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernar, E.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline, extraction by organic solvents and freezing. The different methods for wastewater purification after scouring in use are: settling/floculation, biological treatment, adsorptionand catalytic oxidation. In this work, wastewater treatments after improved raw wool scouring with enzymes and EDTA have been investigated. Isothermal adsorption on zeolite A, active carbon and a natural and H+ type of bentonite for removal of the obtained wastewater impurities was used. The results were determined by means of different physical-chemical test methods.

  2. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scan patterns and accuracy of a Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuxian; Beh, Beng; Moore, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    The Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS) was proposed as a complement to laser wind sensors, allowing coverage in cloudy regions excluded from laser coverage. Previous University of Kansas studies showed the feasibility of the wind measurement at various levels in the atmosphere and indicated that RAWS can also measure rain rates and ocean-surface winds. Here we discuss measurement of the wind vector in terms of the scan patterns for a conically scanned antenna. By using many measurements from cells about 66 km square and 132 km square, a least-squares algorithm gives results that are reasonable for insertion into global atmospheric models. For RAWS to be used successfully as a complement to a laser wind sensor, the design of the two sensors should be integrated and radial velocity measurements in a given atmospheric cell should be combined to get the most accurate results.

  4. 2011 China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium Held in Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ On April 20-22,2011,China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium,co-sponsored by Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and China Henan Refractory Industry Association,was held successfully in Zhengzhou,Henan Province.Over 150 delegates from 100 refractory raw materials and products enterprises,testing equipment manufacturers,raw materials trade companies,institutes,universities,testing institutions,and industrial organizations attended the symposium.Wang Shouye,secretary-general of Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and vice president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.,made the address of welcome.Zhang Yazhong,vice chairman of Henan Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and honorary chairman of China Henan Refractory Industry Association,gave a speech.

  5. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITY OF INDUSTRIAL LAUNDRY RAW WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Dąbkowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial laundries are one of the largest consumers of water, which is associated with significant generation of laundry wastewater. Water is one of the most important technological factors in the laundry industry. The amount of laundry wastewater generated is the result of the quantity of textile laundered and is roughly equal to the amount of technological water used to reduce the losses caused by evaporation. The quality of raw laundry wastewater depends on the quantity of impurities removed during the textile washing process and on the amount and quality of detergents added to the washing bath. The aim of the research was to conduct a determination analysis of raw laundry wastewater from industrial laundry located in Nowe Czarnowo. The subject of the study was raw laundry wastewater cleaned mechanically from a 500 ml autosampler tank to obtain a representative test sample. Raw wastewater quality designations were made using photometric methods Hach Lange's cuvette tests. The following determinations were made: anionic detergents, nonionic detergents, COD, BOD5, chlorides, total phosphate, total nitrogen and total organic carbon. The pH was also determined. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that industrial laundry wastewater contains organic compounds at the level of 126 to 153 mg/dm3. In addition, the analyzed raw wastewater is characterized by the presence of surfactants such as anionic and nonionic detergents ranging from 11.0 to 54.6 mg/dm3. The increased content of surfactants is closely related to the specific characteristics of industrial laundries. According to the literature, the values of individual indicators of raw laundry wastewater do not deviate from the values found in other types of industrial laundry.

  7. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation.

  8. Gene expression profiles and physiological data from mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Lee, Heui-Kwan; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying lifespan extension by resveratrol remains widely discussed. To help study this mechanism, we previously created resveratrol-enriched rice, DJ526, by transferring the resveratrol biosynthesis gene into Dongjin rice. DJ526 accumulates 1.4–1.9 μg g−1 of resveratrol in its grain and can ameliorates age-related deterioration in mice, as compared to control animals, based on assessments of motor coordination, physical strength and cutaneous tissue aging. Here, we present raw data sets, deposited in public repositories, from microarray analysis and physiological data of mice fed with DJ526 and Dongjin rice and treated with resveratrol. We also provide a method to analyze blood serum at micron levels. These data sets may help other researchers find new clues regarding the etiology of the anti-aging process and signaling pathways induced by resveratrol, rice, or DJ526. PMID:27996975

  9. DESIGN ON THE PROCESS OF SOYA BEAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT%豆制品生产工艺废水处理工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海军; 郑重; 刘会成; 周沛婕; 金赞芳

    2012-01-01

    According to the soya bean process wastewater characteristics, the MIC-A2/O-advanced treatment method was used for processing wastewater treatment The operation of MIC-A2/O-advanced treatrnent showed that the process was steady and reliable. The result showed that COD concentration was reduced from 6 000 mg/L to 300 mg/L and the treated water can meet the requirement of the wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers (CJ43-2010) part B emission standard. At the same time, marsh gas produced can be reclaimed, which can bring good economic and environmental benefits.%针对豆制品生产工艺废水水质特征,采用MIC+ A2/O+深度处理工艺处理豆制品废水.结果表明,该工艺处理效果稳定可靠.废水COD由6000 mg/L下降到300 mg/L左右,出水水质达到污水排入城镇下水道水质标准(CJ343-2010)中B等级标准,同时,产生的沼气可回收利用,具有较好的经济效益和环境效益.

  10. Monitoreo de arroz, soya y maíz comercializados en Nicaragua para detección de material transgénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Gómez-Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EL CULTIVO DE ORGANISMOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS –conocidos como transgénicos–ha ido en aumento desde su aprobación comercial en 1994. Nicaragua no tiene restricciones de importación de estas semillas y alimentos. Sin embargo, dado el intercambio comercial con países productores de transgénicos, se ha especulado que no se han respetado las normas de importación establecidas. El Centro de Biología Molecular de la UCA, a través de un muestreo al azar, se propuso investigar la presencia de material transgénico en arroz, soya y maíz importado y disponible en los principales puestos de venta del país. Analizamos las muestras mediante dos métodos comúnmente usados en laboratorios de diagnóstico molecular: pruebas inmunológicas y detección a nivel de ADN del promotor 35S y el terminador NOS. Aquí presentamos los resultados del trabajo y reportamos que en el período comprendido en este estudio no se detectaron semillas transgénicas en Nicaragua.

  11. Assessment of strobilurin fungicides' content in soya-based drinks by liquid micro-extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Natalia; Iniesta, María Jesús; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Seven strobilurin fungicides were pre-concentrated from soya-based drinks using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with a prior protein precipitation step in acid medium. The enriched phase was analysed by liquid chromatography (LC) with dual detection, using diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS). After selecting 1-undecanol and methanol as the extractant and disperser solvents, respectively, for DLLME, the Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design, was applied to select the optimal solvent volumes and salt concentration in the aqueous phase. The matrix effect was evaluated and quantification was carried out using external aqueous calibration for DAD and matrix-matched calibration method for MS/MS. Detection limits in the 4-130 and 0.8-4.5 ng g(-1) ranges were obtained for DAD and MS/MS, respectively. The DLLME-LC-DAD-MS method was applied to the analysis of 10 different samples, none of which was found to contain residues of the studied fungicides.

  12. N- and S-doped high surface area carbon derived from soya chunks as scalable and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Moumita; Arora, Gunjan; Gautam, Ujjal K.

    2015-02-01

    Highly stable, cost-effective electrocatalysts facilitating oxygen reduction are crucial for the commercialization of membrane-based fuel cell and battery technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that protein-rich soya chunks with a high content of N, S and P atoms are an excellent precursor for heteroatom-doped highly graphitized carbon materials. The materials are nanoporous, with a surface area exceeding 1000 m2 g-1, and they are tunable in doping quantities. These materials exhibit highly efficient catalytic performance toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with an onset potential of -0.045 V and a half-wave potential of -0.211 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode) in a basic medium, which is comparable to commercial Pt catalysts and is better than other recently developed metal-free carbon-based catalysts. These exhibit complete methanol tolerance and a performance degradation of merely ˜5% as compared to ˜14% for a commercial Pt/C catalyst after continuous use for 3000 s at the highest reduction current. We found that the fraction of graphitic N increases at a higher graphitization temperature, leading to the near complete reduction of oxygen. It is believed that due to the easy availability of the precursor and the possibility of genetic engineering to homogeneously control the heteroatom distribution, the synthetic strategy is easily scalable, with further improvement in performance.

  13. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p 8 among the diets and that these differences are better reflected in terms of DMI, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility, but not in rumen pH. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Recent advances in microbial raw starch degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhao, Pingjuan; Ge, Xiangyang; Xia, Yongjun; Hao, Zhikui; Liu, Jianwen; Peng, Ming

    2010-02-01

    Raw starch degrading enzymes (RSDE) refer to enzymes that can directly degrade raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. These promising enzymes can significantly reduce energy and simplify the process in starch industry. RSDE are ubiquitous and produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, microbial sources are the most preferred one for large-scale production. During the past few decades, RSDE have been studied extensively. This paper reviews the recent development in the production, purification, properties, and application of microbial RSDE. This is the first review on microbial RSDE to date.

  15. Dawn Vesta Raw Gravity Science V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, D. R.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Asmar, S. W.

    2014-10-01

    This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in orbit around the asteroid Vesta. The radio observations were carried out using the Dawn spacecraft and Earth-based receiving stations of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The data set was designed primarily to support generation of high-resolution gravity field models for Vesta. Of most interest are likely to be the Orbit Data Files in the ODF directory, which provided the raw input to gravity investigations, as well as the ionospheric and tropospheric media calibration files in the ION and TRO directories, respectively.

  16. 红曲霉色素流加培养的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Fed-batch Culture of Monascus Pigments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭; 曹岚; 李旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The optimization methods of monascus pigments with submerged fermentation are studied.The level of fermentation is improved and the products contain a high concentration of monascus pigments.Methods:L8 (27) orthogonal experiment and fed-batch fermentation method of monaseus purpureus liquid are designed to select the most efficient fermentation medium for monaseus purpureus,reduce inhibition caused by over-rich nutrients and improve the fermentation concentration and level through different batch fermentation modes.Conclusion:Optimized shake flask fermentation medium with maltose of 8°Bx,soluble starch of 3%,soya bean protein powder of 4%,NaCl of 0.5%,magnesium sulfate of 0.05% and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate of 0.1%.The optimum fed-batch mode is obtained by fed-batch fermentation for 2 L batch tank,the best feeding submerged fermentation starts feeding after 60 h,filling every 20 min,completes after 12 h.Compared with batch fermentation,the valence of fed-batch fermented monascus pigment increases by 57%.%目的:研究红曲霉液体深层发酵的优化方法,提高其发酵水平,生产出含有较高红曲霉色素的产品.方法:采用L8(27)正交实验法和红曲霉液体流加发酵方法,通过不同的补料发酵方式,降低营养物质过浓而产生的阻碍作用,提高发酵浓度和水平.结果:优化后的培养基为饴糖8°Bx,可溶淀粉3%,大豆蛋白粉4%,氯化钠0.5%,硫酸镁0.05%,磷酸氢二钾0.1%.通过对2L发酵罐的补料发酵得出最佳的补料方式:液体深层发酵60 h以后开始补料,每20 min补1次,12 h补完,同分批发酵相比,流加发酵红曲色素的效价提高57%.

  17. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  18. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  19. Occurrence of an Affinity Site apart from the Active Site on the Raw-Starch-Digesting but Non-Raw-Starch-Adsorbable Bacillus subtilis 65 α-Amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji; Inoue, Takehiro; MITSUIKI, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    α-Cyclodextrin specifically inhibited raw starch digestion by Bacillus subtilis 65 α-amylase. The raw starch digestibility and α-cyclodextrin-Sepharose 6B adsorbability of this α-amylase were simultaneously lost when the specific domain corresponding to the affinity site essential for raw starch digestion was deleted by proteolysis. Occurrence of the affinity site on raw-starch-digesting enzymes was proven also with bacterial amylase.

  20. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Grajek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most important innovations in boethanol production in the last decade were: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes (SSF, high gravity fermentation, the use of new enzyme preparation able to hydrolyse native granular starch and construction of genetically modified strains of microorganisms able to carry out simultaneous production of hydrolytic enzymes and fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of ethanol fermentation using new type of amylolytic enzymes able to hydrolyse native corn starch in a SSF process. Material and methods. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn flour by fed-batch processes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Red Star Ethanol Red and Stargen 001 enzyme preparation was performed. As experimental variable were investigated: fermentation temperature (35-37-40°C, rate of mash stirring (100 and 200 rpm, fermentation time (0-92 h and dosage of corn flour (different portion and different time. Results. It was found that optimal temperature for fed-batch SSF process was 37°C at initial pH of 5.0. However, the yeast intensively fermented the saccharides also at 40°C. The fermentation stirring rate has significant effect on starch utilization and fermentation production. The prolongation of fermentation time over 72 h has no substantiation in additional ethanol production. In all experimental fermentations the level of produced organic acids was very low, significantly below toxic concentration for the yeast. Conclusions. It was stated that the use of new method of starch raw material preparation resulted in satisfied fermentation yield and allowed to reduce energy requirements for starch liquefaction.  

  1. Faecal Excretion of Glycosphingolipids of Breast-fed and Formula-fed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, G.; Falk, P; Hynsjö, L.; Midtvedt, A. -C.; Midtvedt, T

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples of six healthy breast-fed, or formula-fed, infants were collected at intervals up to 9 mth of age and analysed for their contents of sphingolipids. Comparisons were made with faecal samples of one older child and one adult. The mean faccal content of sphingolipids during the first 9 mth of life (8.2 μmol sphingosine/g dry stool) was significantly less than that of meconium samples (23.3 μmol/gj but higher than that of adult stools (1.2 μmol/g). Sphingomyelin excretion ...

  2. “In bacteria land”: the battle over raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Beginning at around 1893, America’s initial raw milk wars pitted proponents of pasteurized milk against advocates of a complex scheme for “certifying” clean, uncontaminated raw milk. The certification program, unsuited to modern commercial economies of scale, soon faded into obscurity. When a new version of the raw milk movement began gathering strength in the 1970s, scarcely anyone remembered the terms on which a certain amount of rational debate had once taken place. Part of the reason is that over the course of the twentieth century, the scale and structure of the fluid milk industry had undergone drastic changes that turned a highly variable, fragile product into a nearly featureless one poorly understood by consumers, regulators, or polemicists. Meanwhile, new dairying and processing practices had begun creating hospitable conditions for pathogens that were unknown during the first controversies but that urgently need to be considered today. Unfortunately, discussion of the raw milk question is now almost wholly dictated by intolerant ideologues on both sides, in an atmosphere of profound historical amnesia. Given the great complexity of the issues involved and the serious implications for public health, the general tone of debate is at best counterproductive.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROTOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCI IN MEAT RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bataeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to renew the safety criteria for meat raw material used in production of fermented sausages was determined. The presence of the enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in meat raw material was established. The method was mastered and the PCR approaches to identification and screenings of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in meat raw material were proposed. In order to identify enterotoxigenicity of detected staphylococci, the conservative regions of the S. aureus target gene sequences responsible for production of different types of enterotoxins (A, B, Е, С, D were found and studied. In addition, short fragments of a nuclear acid (primers corresponding to these revealed genes were constructed. As a result of identification, it was established that two isolated strains of S. аureus were enterotoxigenic. One of them produced type А and Е toxins (strain NG1 and another produced type С and Е toxins (strain NG2. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR method allowed not only identification of pure cultures but also screening of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in a product. The use of this method in the production control for the presence of the enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus in meat raw material used in fermented sausage manufacture was recommended.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN RAW MATERIALS EXPORTING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a methodology for assessing the strategy of export-raw material orientation of the Russian economy, from the point of impact on the social sphere, directly to the person. The dynamics of oil production in Russia, dynamics of export of Russian oil, the price of oil on the world market and the dynamics of the social sphere in Russia were analyzed using data for 1990–2012.The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of raw material export-oriented strategy of Russia. Possibility raw export-oriented strategy was evaluated dependence of the social sphere - the index GINI, the average wage of household savings from the development of fuel – energy complex. Finding the functional dependence of each of these indicators of social sphere both of oil production and oil exports from Russia plus the price of oil on the world market were tasks.Empirical estimates show the ability of the raw material export-oriented strategy of the Russian economy to ensure the development of the social sphere of the country under condition increasing in the growth rate of energy consumption. Resource-rich countries should pursue a policy of reducing their exports and thus increase their domestic consumption.

  5. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  6. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  7. Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and differentially ... as a source of protein in the diets of both human beings and animals, but their production is ... under-utilized food legume, sword bean (SB) (Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) ...

  8. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Fadaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. coli. Results: Out of 300 samples of raw milk, contamination with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus was observed in 237 (79%, 207 (69% and 125 (41.66% samples, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was in the samples from southwest region with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus were present in 30 (100%, 29 (96.66%, and19 (63.33% samples, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusions: Considering the high rate of raw milk contamination with S. aureus, E. Coli, and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting, transporting, and storage especially in the summer season is recommended.

  9. Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-05

    Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products.  Created: 3/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/5/2012.

  10. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situations back to top Raw Foods Can Also Affect Human Health Consumers also run the risk of getting sick if ... Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report ... FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices ...

  11. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materials range from 2.6 to 93.2, 1.3 to 172.8 and 6.3 to 997 Bq/kg, respectively with higher activity concentrations in pozzolan and lower in gypsum. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (excluding some materials from Songwe deposits in Mbeya region are comparative with the worldwide average concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the cements are 46, 28 and 228 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated values of radiological indices are below 60% of the upper recommended values for building materials. The average annual effective dose to an occupant from use of these materials equals to 0.45 mSv. Average activity concentrations of the mentioned radionuclides in Tanzania cements are in the middle of the variability interval of the national averages.

  12. Raw milk quality control - European and Croatian experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Kalit; Jasmina Havranek

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Milk is a raw material used in the fabrication of a very large range of products. The modalities of payment are designed to orientate milk production according to technological needs and hygiene and food security requirements. The processors seek milk witch is adapted for all types of processing ( Beguin, 1994 ).

  13. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  14. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  15. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  16. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  17. China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.

  18. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  19. Behavior of foodborne pathogens in Teewurst raw spreadable sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teewurst is a traditional raw spreadable sausage of Germanic origin that is widely consumed in different countries worldwide including the United States. According to the USDA/FSIS Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book teewurst is an uncooked product processed with or without curing that is cold s...

  20. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.