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  1. Clinical characteristics of children with febrile seizure.

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    Shrestha, D; Dhakal, A K; Shakya, H; Shakya, A; Shah, S C; Mehata, S

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure is common in children below five years of age. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile of children presenting with febrile seizure in a teaching hospital. This was a descriptive retrospective study among children presenting with febrile seizure in a teaching hospital from July 2009 to June 2013. Children between six months to six years were included in the study while patients with prior episodes of afebrile seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment and not meeting the age criteria were excluded. Patient's demographic and clinical data were collected from the in-patients records and analyzed. This study included 103 children with febrile seizure. Out of which 67% were male. Simple febrile seizure and complex febrile seizure were observed in 76.7% and 23.3% of patients respectively. Majority of children (71.8%)had generalized tonic clonic seizure followed by tonic seizures. Most of children (72.8%) who developed first episode of seizure were below 24 months of age with the mean age of 20.7 (±12.1) months. Overall 33% of patients developed recurrence of febrile seizure and first episode of febrile seizure at age one year or below was associated with the seizure recurrence. Upper respiratory tract infections were the commonest cause of fever in these children. Febrile seizure was observed predominantly in children below age of two years and simple febrile seizure was the ommonest variety. Recurrence of febrile seizure was common and significantly associated with the first episode of febrile seizure at the age of one year or below.

  2. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

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    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion.

  3. Recurrence Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children.

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    Agrawal, J; Poudel, P; Shah, G S; Yadav, S; Chaudhary, S; Kafle, S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying children with febrile seizure who are at risk for recurrence is important so that special attention can be given to them. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures in children. This prospective hospital based study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2014 'among children of 6 months to 6 years of age at Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. Children meeting the selection criteria were enrolled in study. Clinical, investigation, treatment and outcome parameters were analyzed. A total of 92 children with febrile seizure were enrolled in study. Males accounted for 70% and females 30%. Simple febrile seizure was present in 48% and complex febrile seizures were seen in 52%. Recurrence of seizure was seen in one third of cases. Loss of consciousness was most common post-ictal phenomenon followed by confusion and lethargy. Upper respiratory infection was the most common precipitating factor. Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizure was the most common seizure type present in 79% of cases. Significant risk factors for recurrence occurred in males (p=0.088), age less than 1 year (p=0.003). Most of the recurrence occurred within one year of first seizure. Febrile Seizure is common in males. Almost one third of children with febrile seizure are at risk for recurrence. The significant risk factors for recurrences are male gender and age <1year.

  4. Children Experiencing First-Time or Prolonged Febrile Seizure Are Prone to Stress Hyperglycemia.

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    Lee, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Jung-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Rae; Lee, Jong-Seung; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2016-03-01

    The risk factors and clinical implications of stress hyperglycemia in children with febrile seizure remain uncertain. Among 479 children with febrile seizure, the prevalence of the stress hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration ≥ 150 mg/dL) was 10.0%. Stress hyperglycemia group included larger proportion of first-time febrile seizure, prolonged febrile seizure, and smaller proportion of short febrile seizure in comparison with the non-stress hyperglycemia group. Stress hyperglycemia group demonstrated a lower pH and higher lactate levels than the non-stress hyperglycemia group. Multivariate analysis revealed that first-time febrile seizure (aOR = 3.741, P = .004) and prolonged febrile seizure (aOR = 12.855, P febrile seizure recurrence in the emergency department was not different between the groups. These findings suggest that children experiencing first-time or prolonged febrile seizure are prone to stress hyperglycemia, and this can be related to febrile seizure severity. However, stress hyperglycemia is not predictive of early febrile seizure recurrence in the emergency department. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Is temperature regulation different in children susceptible to febrile seizures?

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    Gordon, Kevin E; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen P; Bethune, Peggy

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence and magnitude of fever and susceptibility to febrile seizures, defined as a known family history of febrile seizures. Reanalysis of a case-control study dataset (Am J Dis Child. 1993; 147: 35-39). The magnitude of presenting fever was examined between the incident febrile seizure group (N = 75) and febrile control group (N = 150) for a family history of febrile seizures. The presence of fever was examined between the febrile control group (N = 150) and the afebrile control group (N = 150) for a family history of febrile seizures. Children with incident febrile seizures had a higher temperature in the emergency department than febrile controls (39.3 degrees C vs 39.0 degrees C, p = .004). Febrile control children with a known family history of febrile seizures had higher temperatures than those without a known family history (39.5 degrees C vs 38.9 degrees C, p = .04). A model of fever magnitude within the febrile group (seizures and controls) suggested that most of this relationship was on the basis of family history of febrile seizures rather than seizure or control status, with a possibility of interaction. Within the control children (febrile and afebrile), a known family history of febrile seizures was associated with fever (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1,10.7). Children susceptible to febrile seizures through a known family history of febrile seizures appear more likely to present to emergency departments with fever, and when compared to their febrile counterparts, a fever of higher magnitude. This data supports Rantala's assertion "It may be that regulation of temperature is different in children susceptible to febrile seizures".

  6. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

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    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  7. Febrile Children in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFever in children is a common symptom. Frequently,the underlying illness is self-limiting and medical intervention is seldom needed. However, general practitioners need to be alert on those children who are at risk for serious infections. In this thesis, we studied the natural course

  8. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications

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    Jones, Tonia; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the latest knowledge and understanding of childhood febrile seizures. This review also discusses childhood febrile seizure occurrence, health services utilization and treatment costs. Parental reactions associated with its occurrence and how healthcare providers can assist parents with dealing effectively with this potentially frightening and anxiety-producing event are also discussed. PMID:17479160

  9. Serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia

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    Eylem Kiral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33 and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33 and also with healthy children (n=24. The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both. No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05. Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  10. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

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    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition.

  11. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia.

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    Kiral, Eylem; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-03-17

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (Pfebrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  12. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

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    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  13. SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE SEIZURE

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    A Mahyar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children and a variety of causes are considered to be responsible for it. There are some reports that zinc may have a role in febrile seizure. The aim of this study was to compare the serum zinc level in children with and without febrile seizure. In this case-control study, 52 children with febrile seizure compared with 52 healthy children based on serum zinc level. Both groups were matched for age, sex, weight, height, and head circumference. The age range of children was 9 months to 5 years. Serum zinc level was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Of 52 children in case group, 30 (57.7% were male and 22 (42.3% female and among the control group, there was 31 (59.9% males and 21 (40.4% females. The mean age of children in case group was 27.13 ± 15.72 and in control group 28.49 ± 16.5 months. The mean zinc level in case group was 62.84 ± 18.40 mg/dl and in control group 85.70 ± 16.76 (P < 0.05. This study revealed that the serum zinc level in children afflicted with their first febrile seizure is lower than in healthy children and the difference is statistically significant. It seems that the zinc deficiency may play a role in febrile seizure.

  14. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

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    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  15. Febrile neutropenia in children treated for malignancy.

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    Barton, Chris D; Waugh, Lucy K; Nielsen, Maryke J; Paulus, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) in children treated for malignancy is a common and direct sequela of chemotherapy. Episodes of FN can be life-threatening, and demand prompt recognition, assessment and treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. While in the majority of episodes no causal infection is identified, 10-20% are secondary to a bloodstream infection (BSI). A reduction in episodes of BSI could be achieved through robust infection prevention strategies, such as CVL care bundles. Alongside good antimicrobial stewardship, these strategies could reduce the risk of emergent, multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections. Emerging bacterial pathogens in BSI include Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) and Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella spp. which are known for their ability to carry MDR genes. There is also increased recognition of the role of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in FN, in particular with Aspergillus spp. Novel diagnostics, including multiplex blood and respiratory polymerase chain reaction assays can identify infections early in FN, facilitating targeted therapy, and reducing unnecessary antimicrobial exposure. Given appropriate, and sensitive rapid diagnostics, potential also exists to safely inform the risk assessment of patients with FN, identifying those at low risk of complication, who could be treated in the out-patient setting. Several clinical decision rules (CDR) have now been developed and validated in defined populations, for the risk assessment of children being treated for cancer. Future research is needed to develop a universal CDR to improve the management of children with FN.

  16. Epilepsy in children with a history of febrile seizures.

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    Lee, Sang Hyun; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Gun Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin; Eun, So-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Febrile seizure, the most common type of pediatric convulsive disorder, is a benign seizure syndrome distinct from epilepsy. However, as epilepsy is also common during childhood, we aimed to identify the prognostic factors that can predict epilepsy in children with febrile seizures. The study comprised 249 children at the Korea University Ansan Hospital who presented with febrile seizures. The relationship between the subsequent occurrence of epilepsy and clinical factors including seizure and fever-related variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Twenty-five patients (10.0%) had additional afebrile seizures later and were diagnosed with epilepsy. The subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in patients with a history of febrile seizures was associated with a seizure frequency of more than 10 times during the first 2 years after seizure onset (Pseizures during a febrile seizure attack (P=0.005), and epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) (P=0.008). Other factors such as the age at onset of first seizure, seizure duration, and family history of epilepsy were not associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in this study. Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. However, careful observation is needed, particularly for prediction of subsequent epileptic episodes in patients with frequent febrile seizures with known risk factors, such as developmental delay, history of preterm birth, several attacks during a febrile episode, and epileptiform discharges on EEG.

  17. Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures.

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    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Hauck, Sarah; Henning, Stephan; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kaila, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in children. FS are suggested to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying FS remain unclear. Using an animal model of experimental FS, it was demonstrated that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis with consequent brain alkalosis and seizures. Here we examine the acid-base status of children who were admitted to the hospital for FS. Children who were admitted because of gastroenteritis (GE), a condition known to promote acidosis, were examined to investigate a possible protective effect of acidosis against FS. We enrolled 433 age-matched children with similar levels of fever from two groups presented to the emergency department. One group was admitted for FS (n = 213) and the other for GE (n = 220). In the FS group, the etiology of fever was respiratory tract infection (74.2%), otitis media (7%), GE (7%), tonsillitis (4.2%), scarlet fever (2.3%) chickenpox (1.4%), urinary tract infection (1.4%), postvaccination reaction (0.9%), or unidentified (1.4%). In all patients, capillary pH and blood Pco(2) were measured immediately on admission to the hospital. Respiratory alkalosis was found in children with FS (pH 7.46 ± 0.04, [mean ± standard deviation] Pco(2) 29.5 ± 5.5 mmHg), whereas a metabolic acidosis was seen in all children admitted for GE (pH 7.31 ± 0.03, Pco(2) 37.7 ± 4.3 mmHg; p seizure triggering factors, each of these patients had an alkalotic blood pH when admitted because of FS, whereas they had an acidotic pH (and no FS) when admitted because of GE (pH 7.47 ± 0.05 vs. pH 7.33 ± 0.03, p seizures when they have GE-induced fever that is associated with acidosis. The present demonstration of a close link between FS and respiratory alkalosis may pave the way for further clinical studies and attempts to design novel therapies for the treatment of FS by controlling the systemic acid-base status. Wiley

  18. Association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizure in children.

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    Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Abaskhanian, Ali; Alimohammadi, Hosein; ModanlooKordi, Mona

    2012-08-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC) is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition, FCs are generally thought to be induced by elemental changes such as iron deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile seizure and iron deficiency anemia in children, the aim was to investigate the role of iron deficiency anemia in FC patients. This case-control study was performed in 500 children with febrile seizures (case) and 500 febrile children without seizures (control), referred to Mofid hospital in Tehran during one year (Nov 2009-Nov 2010). All children were aged between 6-60 months. The groups were matched in age and gender and use of supplemental iron. Laboratory tests consisted of Complete Blood Count (CBC). Serum iron, plasma ferritin and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) analyses were done in each patient. The patients and controls were 26.49+12.65 and 26.84+11.70 months of mean age, respectively. The amount of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC count, serum iron and plasma ferritin were significantly higher and TIBC was significantly lower among the cases with febrile convulsion than the controls. The incidence of iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher in controls compared with the cases (p less than 0.016). The mean of temperature peak on admission was significantly higher in the febrile convulsion group than controls. The results of this study suggest that the risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children is less common as compared to non-anemic ones.

  19. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

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    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghasemi F, Valizadeh F, Taee N. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:38-44.ObjectiveConsidering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission wasmeasured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%.Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17 compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46 compared to the healthy group. ConclusionChildren with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS.References1. Østergaard J R. Febrile Seizures. Acta Pædiatr 2009;98(5:771-3.2. Jones T, Jacobsen SJ. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications. Int J Med Sci. 2007; 4(2:110-4.3. Flury T, Aebi

  20. The assessment of risk factors for febrile seizures in children.

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    Gontko-Romanowska, Krystyna; Żaba, Zbigniew; Panieński, Paweł; Steinborn, Barbara; Szemień, Michał; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Ratajczak, Krystian; Chrobak, Adrian; Mitkowska, Joanna; Górny, Jacek

    2017-07-31

    The aim of the paper was to assess the risk factors of febrile seizures in children. The paper presents an analysis of a group of 176 children aged 6 months to 5 years who were admitted to A&E because of febrile seizures. The analysed group of 176 children comprised 61.96% boys and 38.07% girls, and the average age equalled 23 months. Family history was significant in 9.66% of patients. A statistically significant difference was noticed between insignificant family history and the incidence of febrile seizures. In all the studied groups of children the factor that determined the incidence of febrile seizures was a sudden increase in the body temperature with an infection of the upper respiratory tract of several day's duration as another cause. Febrile seizure incident was most frequently associated with a sudden increase in the body temperature in 53.40% children. A statistically significant difference was observed between persisting fever and an increase thereof during the day. Yet another factor predisposing for febrile seizures incidence was an infection of the upper respiratory system that could be observed in 32.95% patients. The mean body temperature when the seizures occurred was 38.9°C. A sudden increase in the body temperature within the first day of pyrexia predisposes for the incidence of febrile seizures and it was proved that it depends on how long fever persists during the day. The other factor triggering the seizures was an infection of the upper respiratory tract of several days' duration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  1. Predictors of Recurrent Febrile Seizures in Iranian Children

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    Yousef Veisani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A few factors appear to boost a child's risk of having recurrent febrile seizures, including young age during the first seizure, seizure type, and having immediate family members with a history of febrile seizures. The present study aimed to provide reliable information about recurrent febrile seizure in Iranian children. On the computerized literature valid on valid keyword with search in valid database PubMed, Scientific Information Databases (SID (, Global medical article limberly (Medlib, Iranian Biomedical Journals (Iran Medex, Iranian Journal Database (Magiran, and Google Scholar recruited in different geographic areas. To explore heterogeneity in studies I2 index was used. Meta-analysis used to data analysis with random effects model.Hospital data of 4,599 children with febrile seizure. Overall, 21 studies met our inclusion criteria. Febrile seizure in 2 age groups (<2 and 2-6 years were 55.8% (95% CI: 50.4-61.2 and 44.2% (95% CI: 38.8-61.2 respectively. Pooled recurrent rate of febrile seizure in Iran was 20.9% (95% CI: 12.3-29.5. In 28.8 (95% CI: 19.3-38.4, children there was positive family history. The mean prevalence of simple and complex seizures was 69.3% (95% CI: 59.5-79.0 and 28.3% (95% CI: 19.6-31.0 respectively. The rates in different geographical regions of central, east, and west of Iran, 25, 20.8 and 27.1% were estimated, respectively.According to the data the prevalence febrile seizure is higher in males and children under two years. Recurrence rate in Iran, similar to other studies performed in other regions of the world.

  2. malaria parasitaemia among febrile children infected with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... Fever is one of the most common reasons why parents bring their children to the ... specifically guide on the management of febrile HIV infected children in .... of the participants, joint pains in 75% and vomiting in 34.7 %.

  3. Risk of Mortality in Children with Febrile Seizures

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality after febrile seizures was studied in a large population-based cohort of children in Denmark followed from 3 months of age up to 25 years or until death, by researchers at Institute of Public Health, and National Centre for Register-based Research, Aarhus University; and University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; and School of Public Health, UCLA, USA.

  4. Increased levels of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with febrile seizures.

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    Choi, Jieun; Min, Hyun Jin; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2011-10-11

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, and pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger the development of febrile seizures. In order to determine whether active inflammation, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, occurs in children with febrile seizures or epilepsy, we analyzed cytokine profiles of patients with febrile seizures or epilepsy. Forty-one febrile seizure patients who visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from June 2008 to May 2009 were included in this study. Blood was obtained from the febrile seizure child patients within 30 minutes of the time of the seizure; subsequently, serum cytokine assays were performed. Control samples were collected from children with febrile illness without convulsion (N = 41) and similarly analyzed. Serum samples from afebrile status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy children (N = 12), afebrile seizure attacks in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFSP) children (N = 6), and afebrile non-epileptic controls (N = 7) were also analyzed. Serum HMGB1 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in febrile seizure patients than in fever only controls (p febrile seizures than in fever only controls (p febrile seizure children. Although it is not possible to infer causality from descriptive human studies, our data suggest that HMGB1 and the cytokine network may contribute to the generation of febrile seizures in children. There may be a potential role for anti-inflammatory therapy targeting cytokines and HMGB1 in preventing or limiting febrile seizures or subsequent epileptogenesis in the vulnerable, developing nervous system of children.

  5. The Effect of Simple Febrile Seizure on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

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    Bahman Salehi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Febrile seizure is one of the most prevalent childhood convulsions. There are controversy about possible relation between febrile seizure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The aim of this study was to find the effect of simple febrile seizure on ADHD in children. Materials and Methods In a case-control study all children of 3-12 years old with febrile seizure referring Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak-Iran. Among these children, 103 of them with no corporeal or psychiatric disorders were compared to 103 children of the same age and gender admitted due to disease other than febrile seizure utilizing DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results This study shows that the hyperactivity disorder in the same order were 34.3% and 16.7%, respectively, which also denotes a significant relation between simple febrile seizure and hyperactivity(P

  6. Increase in Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections in Febrile Neutropenic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon Hee; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Seong Koo; Han, Seung Beom; Lee, Jae Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. Materials and Methods The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 an...

  7. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

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    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  8. Triage of febrile children at a GP cooperative : determinants of a consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, Miriam; Berger, Marjolein Y.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Broekman, Berth J.; Koes, Bart W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Most febrile children contacting a GP cooperative are seen by a GP, although the incidence of serious illness is low. The guidelines for triage might not be suitable in primary care. Aim To investigate the determinants related to the outcome of triage in febrile children. Design of study

  9. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: An Old Issue Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonna, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The possible deleterious role of febrile seizures on development is an old issue. It took a long time to realize that impaired development or occurrence of chronic epilepsy affected a very small minority of children with febrile seizures. These children either had pre-existing brain damage, specific genetic epileptic conditions, or seizure-induced…

  10. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  11. Febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Nihal; Tüysüz, Gülen; Çelik, Nigar; Yantri, Leman; Erginöz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi; Özkan, Alp; Yıldız, İnci; Celkan, Tiraje

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An important life-threatening complication of intensive chemotherapy administered in children with leukemia is febrile neutropenia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and consequences of febrile neutropenia attacks in children who were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Material and Methods: Nighty-six children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our center between January 1995 and December 2010 were included in the study. The data related to demographic characteristics, treatment features, relapse and febrile neutropenia incidences, risk factors, culture results and prognosis were retrospectively evaluated from the patients’ files. Results: A total of two hundred-ninety nine febrile neutropenia attacks observed in the patients during initial treatment and relapse treatment were evaluated. When the incidence of febrile neutropenia was evaluated by years, it was observed that the patients treated after year 2000 had statistically significantly more febrile neutopenia attacks compared to the patients treated before year 2000. When the incidences of febrile neutropenia during initial treatment and during relapse treatment were compared, it was observed that more febrile neutropenia attacks occured during relapse treatment. Fifty-nine percent of all febrile neutropenia attacks were fever of unknown origin. Eighty microorganisms grew in cultures during febrile neutropenia throughout treatment in 75 patients; 86% were bacterial infections (50% gram positive and 50% gram negative), 8% were viral infections and 6% were fungal infections. Coagulase negative staphylococcus (n=17) was the most frequent gram positive pathogen; E. Coli (n=17) was the most commonly grown gram negative pathogen. Conclusions: In this study, it was found that an increase in the incidence of febrile neutropenia occured in years. Increments in treatment intensities increase the incidence of febrile neutropenia while improving

  12. pre-hospital management of febrile seizures in children seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appropriate health education to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with ... parents/caregivers of children with febrile seizures and the maternal .... consequences of harmful traditional pre-hospital treatment of .... The natural history of.

  13. Mothers’ Experiences about Febrile Convulsions in Their Children: A Qualitative Study

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    Mahbobeh Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile convulsion in children is a frightening experience for the mothers. This experience may have unknown aspects, which must be investigated in order to plan better support for the mothers and children. This study is conducted with the aim of exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffer from febrile convulsion. Methods: This study was based on a qualitative content analysis. 12 mothers in Amir Kabir hospital of Arak city participated in the study and shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews. The gathered data were analysed using Graneheim and Lundman’s (2004 method. Results: Exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffered from febrile convulsion reflected three themes: perceived threat, seeking solution, and difference in adaptation. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study, comprehensive supportive care plans can be designed for enabling the mothers to better cope with their children’s febrile convulsion.

  14. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard; Cozijnsen, Martinus A; Nevitt, Sarah J

    2017-02-22

    Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. To evaluate primarily the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures; but also to evaluate any other drug intervention where there was a sound biological rationale for its use. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 7); MEDLINE (1966 to July 2016); Embase (1966 to July 2016); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) (July 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Trials using randomised or quasi-randomised participant allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic, antipyretic or other plausible agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Two review authors (RN and MO) independently applied predefined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the predefined relevant data, recording methods for randomisation, blinding and exclusions. For the 2016 update a third author (MC) checked all original inclusions, data analyses, and updated the search. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. We assessed the presence of publication bias using funnel plots. We included 40 articles describing 30 randomised trials with 4256 randomised participants. We analysed 13 interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We found no significant

  15. MRI abnormalities following febrile status epilepticus in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Jacqueline A.; Chan, Stephen; Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Lewis, Darrell V.; MacFall, James; Pellock, John M.; Nordli, Douglas R.; Frank, L. Matthew; Moshe, Solomon L.; Gomes, William; Shinnar, Ruth C.; Sun, Shumei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The FEBSTAT study is a prospective study that seeks to determine the acute and long-term consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in childhood. Methods: From 2003 to 2010, 199 children age 1 month to 5 years presenting with FSE (>30 minutes) were enrolled in FEBSTAT within 72 hours of the FSE episode. Of these, 191 had imaging with emphasis on the hippocampus. All MRIs were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to clinical details. A group of 96 children with first simple FS who were imaged using a similar protocol served as controls. Results: A total of 22 (11.5%) children had definitely abnormal (n = 17) or equivocal (n = 5) increased T2 signal in the hippocampus following FSE compared with none in the control group (p < 0.0001). Developmental abnormalities of the hippocampus were more common in the FSE group (n = 20, 10.5%) than in controls (n = 2, 2.1%) (p = 0.0097) with hippocampal malrotation being the most common (15 cases and 2 controls). Extrahippocampal imaging abnormalities were present in 15.7% of the FSE group and 15.6% of the controls. However, extrahippocampal imaging abnormalities of the temporal lobe were more common in the FSE group (7.9%) than in controls (1.0%) (p = 0.015). Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates that children with FSE are at risk for acute hippocampal injury and that a substantial number also have abnormalities in hippocampal development. Follow-up studies are in progress to determine the long-term outcomes in these children. PMID:22843278

  16. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  17. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  18. Relationship between common viral upper respiratory tract infections and febrile seizures in children from Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Yan, Wenhua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bingbing; Gu, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential predisposing factors for the development of febrile seizures among children with upper respiratory tract infection in the eastern Chinese region. Participants were individuals aged 6 months and 6 years (n = 189) who were diagnosed with febrile seizure, complicated with upper respiratory tract infection, and 174 age-matched children who had upper respiratory tract infection without seizures as controls. The viral antigens including influenza A and B, parainfluenza, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected from nasopharyngeal aspirates. The incidence of influenza A infection was much higher in patients with febrile seizure than controls, especially those children aged >36 months. Patients with influenza A infection had higher body temperatures at seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration, and shorter fever duration before seizure onset. Influenza A infections are frequently associated with febrile seizure in children with upper respiratory tract infection. During an influenza epidemic, effective vaccination of children, especially those with a past history of febrile seizure, may minimize the development of febrile seizure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Febrile seizures in children with familial Mediterranean fever: Coincidence or association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çomak, Elif; Tüfekçi, Özlem; Kılıçbay, Fatih; Isıyel, Emel; Sever, Ali Haydar; Aslanger, Ayça; Ekici, Barış

    2015-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disease characterized by recurrent bouts of fever and polyserositis and caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. Given the febrile characteristics of the disease one would expect higher frequency of febrile seizure in this group of pediatric patients. To evaluate the frequency of febrile seizure and related factors in patients with FMF. The children with the diagnosis of FMF were enrolled in the study. Information including clinical features, type of mutation and the history of febrile seizure were all noted. A total of 97 patients, 43 (44.3%) girls with a median age of 7.93 ± 4.05 years (2-16) and a median follow-up period of 20.65 ± 24.33 months (6-135) were included in the study. The frequency of febrile seizure in children with FMF was found as 13.4%, which is higher than the general population [p = 0.04, OR: 2.9 (95% CI: 1.0-8.5)]. The allele frequency of exon 2 mutations in MEFV genes was higher in the patients with febrile seizure (p = 0.03). Frequency of FMF related clinical findings (fever, abdominal pain, arthralgia/myalgia, arthritis, chest pain and erysipelas-like erythema) was similar between the two groups. However, frequency of headache was higher in the patients with febrile seizure (p = 0.014). The frequency of febrile seizure in children with FMF was found to be higher than the general population. Although this finding may be related to high fever during FMF attacks in individuals with genetic propensity of febrile seizure, it may also be a neurologic complication of FMF. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Febrile Convulsion (FC and Serum Level of Magnesium (Mg In Children

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    morteza Saddinejad

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: There is a relationship between serum level of magnesium and the presence of febrile convulsion in children. It can be said that the deficiency of magnesium may be one of causes of FC in children. So, it is suggested to use supplements of magnesium in diet of affected children.

  1. Clinical risk factors of febrile seizure in children in a university hospital in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashty

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the majority of febrile seizures are benign, it is clinically important to understand the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated characteristics of febrile convulsion and factors related to its recurrence and its relapse during a hospital course. Methods: A total of 102 patients with febrile seizure who were admitted serially at Fatemeh Zahra (S University Hospital in Bushehr port were investigated. Demographic information and data of the history and physical examination were recorded. Children under the age of five with temperature of more than 37.8C or with history of fever accompanied by seizure entered the study those with meningitis or encephalitis according to the results of lumbar puncture or clinical diagnosis were ruled out. Results: Mean age of patients was 24±13.1 months, the most frequent type of convulsion was tonic-clonic (60.5%, and the least were atonic and myoclonic (each 7.9%. Focal convulsion was determined in 13.0% and complex type was observed in 32.5% of patients. Family history of febrile seizure was found in 59.0%. Female sex (RR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.20-5.99, history of previous febrile seizure (RR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.11-5.95, age at initial febrile seizure (RR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.16-6.29, and complex type of seizure (RR=3.86, 95% CI: 1-14.97 increased the risk of seizure relapses in a hospital course (P<0.05. Conclusion: Gender, history of previous febrile seizure, age at initial febrile seizure, and complex type of seizure increase the risk of recurrence of febrile seizure during hospital course. Further studies for assessing the long term effects of these factors on recurrence will determine children who need more medical attention in the future.

  2. Characterization of Dengue Virus Infections Among Febrile Children Clinically Diagnosed With a Non-Dengue Illness, Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Balmaseda, Angel; Soda, K James; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2017-06-15

    We sought to characterize dengue virus (DENV) infections among febrile children enrolled in a pediatric cohort study who were clinically diagnosed with a non-dengue illness ("C cases"). DENV infections were detected and viral load quantitated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in C cases presenting between January 2007 and January 2013. One hundred forty-one of 2892 C cases (4.88%) tested positive for DENV. Of all febrile cases in the study, DENV-positive C cases accounted for an estimated 52.0% of patients with DENV viremia at presentation. Compared with previously detected, symptomatic dengue cases, DENV-positive C cases were significantly less likely to develop long-lasting humoral immune responses to DENV, as measured in healthy annual serum samples (79.7% vs 47.8%; P dengue. These findings have important implications for DENV transmission modeling, immunology, and epidemiologic surveillance.

  3. Increased number of febrile seizures in children born very preterm: relation of neonatal, febrile and epileptic seizures and neurological dysfunction to seizure outcome at 16 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgård, Eila A; Karvonen, Marjo; Luoma, Laila; Saavalainen, Pia; Määttä, Sara; Laukkanen, Eila; Partanen, Juhani

    2006-12-01

    In prematurely born population, a cascade of events from initial injury in the developing brain to morbidity may be followed. The aim of our study was to assess seizures in prematurely born children from birth up to 16 years and to evaluate the contribution of different seizures, and of neurological dysfunction to the seizure outcome. Pre- and neonatal data and data from neurodevelopmental examination at 5 years of 60 prospectively followed children born at or before 32 weeks of gestation, and of 60 matched term controls from the 2 year birth cohort were available from earlier phases of the study. Later seizure data were obtained from questionnaires at 5, 9, and 16 years, and from hospital records and parent interviews. In the preterm group, 16 children (27%) exhibited neonatal seizures, 10 children (17%) had seizures during febrile illness and 5 children had epilepsy. Eight children had only febrile seizures, and 3 of these had both multiple simple and complex febrile seizures and neurodevelopmental dysfunction. None of the 8 children had experienced neonatal seizures, 6 had a positive family history of seizures, but none developed epilepsy. The children with epilepsy had CP and neurocognitive problems, and all but one had experienced neonatal seizures; two of them had also had fever-induced epileptic seizures. In controls 3 children (5%) had simple febrile seizures. Children born very preterm have increased rate of febrile seizures compared to the controls. However, no cascade from initial injury via febrile seizures to epilepsy could be shown during the follow-up of 16 years. Symptomatic epilepsy in prematurely born children is characterised by neonatal seizures, major neurological disabilities and early onset of epilepsy.

  4. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  5. Possible Role of Rickettsia felis in Acute Febrile Illness among Children in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourembou, Gaël; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nzondo, Sydney Maghendji; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Essone, Jean Claude Biteghe Bi; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Rickettsia felis has been reported to be a cause of fever in sub-Saharan Africa, but this association has been poorly evaluated in Gabon. We assessed the prevalence of this bacterium among children Gabon; the locations were in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. DNA samples from 410 febrile children and 60 afebrile children were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Overall, the prevalence of R. felis among febrile and afebrile children was 10.2% (42/410 children) and 3.3% (2/60 children), respectively. Prevalence differed among febrile children living in areas that are urban (Franceville, 1.3% [1/77]), semiurban (Koulamoutou, 2.1% [3/141]), and rural (Lastourville, 11.2% [15/134]; Fougamou, 39.7% [23/58]). Furthermore, in a rural area (Fougamou), R. felis was significantly more prevalent in febrile (39.7% [23/58]) than afebrile children (5.0% [1/20]). Additional studies are needed to better understand the pathogenic role of R. felis in this part of the world.

  6. Comparison of serum zinc levels measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in preschool children with febrile and afebrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Hwa; Kim, Jeong Hyun

    2012-05-01

    Changes in levels of trace elements have been proposed to underlie febrile seizures. Particularly, low zinc levels have been proposed as related factor of febrile seizure. In this study, we investigated whether mean serum zinc levels differed between children with febrile seizure and afebrile seizure. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, serum zinc levels were measured in 288 children who had been diagnosed with febrile seizures (N=248) and afebrile seizures (N=40). Mean serum zinc levels were compared between the 2 groups. Mean serum zinc level was 60.5±12.7 µg/dL in the febrile seizure group and 68.9 ±14.5 µg/dL in the afebrile seizure group. A significant difference in serum zinc levels was observed between the febrile and afebrile seizure groups (Pfebrile seizure were significantly lower than those in children with afebrile seizure.

  7. Febrile seizrues: demographic, clinical and etiological profile of children admitted with febrile seizures in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shabbir; Tarar, Saba Haider

    2015-09-01

    The hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, Pakistan, from January 2012 to December 2013, to determine the demographic, clinical and aetiological profile of paediatric patients admitted with febrile seizures. Patients clinically diagnosed as a case of febrile seizure were included in study. Patient's information was collected using a predesigned proforma. Out of total enrolled 100 children, 68(68%) were male and 32(32%) female. Mean age of the sample was22.58±12.50 months. Mean time interval between onset of fever and occurrence of seizures was17.68±12.09 hours. Overall, 78(78%) patients had simple seizures. Only 30(30%) patients had positive family history and 35(35%) had recurrence of seizures during the same episode of illness. Acute respiratory infection was the commonest cause for FS in 72(72%).Besides, 64(64%) patients were malnourished, 77(77%) had anaemia and 51(51%) had raised total leukocyte count.

  8. [Imaging and follow-up of children with first febrile Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zachi; Miron, Dan

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children might, in a minority of cases, cause renal scarring and permanent damage. Known risk factors for renal damage are: obstruction to urinary flow, vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. The current recommendations for imaging and follow-up of children with first febrile UTI include renal ultrasound to rule out anatomic abnormalities, particularly obstruction, cystography for possible diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux, and prophylactic antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrent infections in children with detected reflux. DMSA renal scanning for the detection of renal scars is recommended as part of the imaging protocol by some institutions. Recently, published data doubts the importance of the various imaging techniques, as well as the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. In the current review, the role of renal ultrasound is examined, especially with regards to familiar data from fetal ultrasound. The complex relationship between vesicoureteric reflux and renal scarring is presented, with the possible implications on the importance of performing routine cystography and DMSA scanning after UTI. Studies questioning the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and therapy of suspected recurrent UTI as the preferred approach to prevent renal damage. Imaging studies are only recommended for high risk groups and not as a routine following UTI.

  9. Frequency of Meningitis in Children Presenting with Febrile Seizures at Ali- Asghar Children’s Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita TAVASOLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tavasoli A, Afsharkhas L, Edraki A. Frequency of Meningitis in Children Presenting with Febrile Seizure in Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:51-56.AbstractObjectiveFebrile seizures (FS are the most common type of childhood seizures, affecting 2–5% of children. As the seizure may be the sole presentation of bacterial meningitis in febrile infants, it is mandatory to exclude underlying meningitis in children presenting with fever and seizure. To determine the frequency of meningitis in children with FS and related risk factors, the present study was conducted at Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital.Materials & MethodsThe records of children aged from 1-month–6 years of age with fever and seizure admitted to the hospital from October 2000–2010 were studied. The charts of patients who had undergone a lumbar puncture were studied and cases of meningitis were selected. The related data was collected and analyzed with SPSS version 16.ResultsA total of 681 patients with FS were known from which 422 (62% lumbar punctures (LP were done. Meningitis (bacterial or aseptic was identified in 19 cases (4.5%, 95% CI 2.9–6.9 by Wilson- Score internal and bacterial meningitis in 7 (1.65%, 95% CI 0.8–3.3. None of the patients with bacterial meningitis had meningeal irritation signs. Complex FS, first attack of FS, and impaired consciousness were more common in patients with meningitis when compared to non- meningitis patients.ConclusionMeningitis is more common in patients less than 18 months presenting with FS; however, complex features of seizures, first attack of FS, or impaired consciousness seem significant risk factors for meningitis in these children and an LP should be considered in this situation. ReferencesKimia A, Ben-Joseph EP, Rudleo T, et al. Yield of lumbar puncture among children who present with their first complex febrile seizure. Pediatrics.2010; 126: 62

  10. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care : an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Gijs; van Ierland, Yvette; Bohnen, Arthur M.; de Wilde, Marcel; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriette A.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to antibiotic pres

  11. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care: An observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs); Y. van Ierland (Yvette); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); M. de Wilde (Marcel); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to ant

  12. Duration of Fever and Course of Symptoms in Young Febrile Children Presenting with Uncomplicated Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Marijke; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henriette A.; Koes, Bart W.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: It is important to advise parents when to consult a doctor when their child has fever. To provide evidence-based, safety-net advice for young febrile children, we studied the risk of complications, the occurrence of alarm symptoms, the duration of fever. Methods: In a 7-day prospective foll

  13. Medication management of febrile children: a qualitative study on pharmacy employees' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakenborg, Jacqueline P G; de Bont, Eefje G P M; Peetoom, Kirsten K B; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H J M G; Cals, Jochen W L

    2016-10-01

    Background While fever is mostly self-limiting, antibiotic prescription rates for febrile children are high. Although every parent who receives a prescription visits a pharmacy, we have limited insight into pharmacy employees' experiences with these parents. Pharmacy employees do however exert an important role in ensuring children receive correct dosages and in advising parents on administration of antibiotics. Objective To describe pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' experiences with parents contacting a pharmacy for their febrile child, and to identify ways of improving medication management of these children. Setting Community pharmacies in the Netherlands. Method A qualitative study including 24 Dutch pharmacy employees was conducted, performing four focus group discussions among pharmacy employees. Analysis was based on constant comparative technique using open and axial coding. Main outcome measure Pharmacy employees' experiences with parents contacting a pharmacy for their febrile child. Results Three categories were identified: (1) workload and general experience, (2) inconsistent information on antibiotic prescriptions, (3) improving communication and collaboration. Pharmacy employees experienced that dosing errors in antibiotic prescriptions occur frequently and doctors provide inconsistent information on prescriptions. Consequently, they have to contact doctors, resulting in a higher workload for both stakeholders. They believe this can be improved by providing the indication for antibiotics on prescriptions, especially when deviating from standard dosages. Conclusion Pharmacy employees experience a high amount of dosing errors in paediatric antibiotic prescriptions. Providing the indication for antibiotics in febrile children on prescriptions, especially when deviating from standard dosages, can potentially reduce dosage errors and miscommunication between doctors and pharmacy employees.

  14. Risk of subsequent asthma in children with febrile seizures: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ya; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ku, Yi-Chia; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-12-01

    No study has reported a relationship between febrile seizures and asthma; thus, we examined the association between these two disorders. We identified 991 cases of children with febrile seizures as the case cohort, and the control group was matched according to age, sex, urbanization level, and their parents' occupation at a 1:4 ratio. We applied the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for asthma among the children with febrile seizures. After 11 years of follow-up, the asthma incidence in the febrile seizure group was approximately 5% higher than that in the control group (log-rank test, P febrile seizure group was 1.41 times higher than that in the control group (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.65; P febrile seizure-related medical visits (one to two visits vs more than four visits; P Febrile seizures may be associated with an increase in the risk of future asthma occurrence in children. We observed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of asthma occurrence in children with more febrile seizure-related medical visits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  16. Association of Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen Use With Wheezing in Children With Acute Febrile Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Elizur, Arnon; Perlman, Amichai; Ganor, Shani; Levine, Hagai; Kozer, Eran

    2017-03-01

    Many infants and children receive acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen during febrile illness. Previously, some studies have linked acetaminophen and ibuprofen use to wheezing and exacerbation of asthma symptoms in infants and children. To assess whether acetaminophen or ibuprofen use are associated with wheezing in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with febrile illness. This was a cross-sectional study of children who presented with fever to the pediatric ED between 2009 and 2013. The data were collected from questionnaires and from the children's medical files. Patients with wheezing in the ED were compared with nonwheezing patients. Associations between medication use and wheezing were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounding variables (ie, age, atopic dermatitis, allergies, smoking, antibiotics use, etc) via propensity scores. During the study period, 534 children admitted to the ED met our inclusion criteria, of whom 347 (65%) were included in the study. The use of acetaminophen was similar in children diagnosed with wheezing compared with those without wheezing (n = 39, 81.3%, vs n = 229, 82.7%, respectively). Ibuprofen use was significantly lower in children diagnosed with wheezing (n = 22, 52.4%, vs n = 168, 69.4%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, acetaminophen was not associated with a higher rate of wheezing during acute febrile illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.24- 2.39), whereas ibuprofen was associated with a lower risk of wheezing (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13-0.96). Our study suggests that acetaminophen and ibuprofen are not associated with increased risk for wheezing during acute febrile illness.

  17. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour SADEGHZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:27-31.Abstract Objective: Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, serum iron (SI, total iron binding capacity (TIBC and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. ReferencesBidabadi E, Mashouf M.. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion: A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jan;18(5:347-51.Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevisasl P, Moussavinassab N, Koosha A, Norouzi M. The Relation Between Serum Zinc Level and Febrile Seizures in Children Admitted to Zanjan Valie-Asr Hospital. J Zanjan Uni Med Sci. 2011;19(74:17-24.Kumari PL, Nair MK, Nair SM, Kailas L, Geetha S. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for simple febrile seizures-a case control study. Indian Pediatr. 2012 Jan;49(1:17-9.Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D'Apuzzo A, Tregrossi C. Iron deficiency anaemia and

  18. Principles, practices and knowledge of clinicians when assessing febrile children: a qualitative study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, Anneka M; Ripp, Kelsey; Ndenga, Bryson; Mutuku, Francis; Vu, David; Baltzell, Kimberly; Masese, Linnet N; Vulule, John; Mukoko, Dunstan; LaBeaud, A Desiree

    2017-09-20

    Clinicians in low resource settings in malaria endemic regions face many challenges in diagnosing and treating febrile illnesses in children. Given the change in WHO guidelines in 2010 that recommend malaria testing prior to treatment, clinicians are now required to expand the differential when malaria testing is negative. Prior studies have indicated that resource availability, need for additional training in differentiating non-malarial illnesses, and lack of understanding within the community of when to seek care play a role in effective diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the various factors that influence clinician behavior in diagnosing and managing children presenting with fever to health centres in Kenya. A total of 20 clinicians (2 paediatricians, 1 medical officer, 2 nurses, and 15 clinical officers) were interviewed, working at 5 different government-sponsored public clinic sites in two areas of Kenya where malaria is prevalent. Clinicians were interviewed one-on-one using a structured interview technique. Interviews were then analysed qualitatively for themes. The following five themes were identified: (1) Strong familiarity with diagnosis of malaria and testing for malaria; (2) Clinician concerns about community understanding of febrile illness, use of traditional medicine, delay in seeking care, and compliance; (3) Reliance on clinical guidelines, history, and physical examination to diagnose febrile illness and recognize danger signs; (4) Clinician discomfort with diagnosis of primary viral illness leading to increased use of empiric antibiotics; and (5) Lack of resources including diagnostic testing, necessary medications, and training modalities contributes to the difficulty clinicians face in assessing and treating febrile illness in children. These themes persisted across all sites, despite variation in levels of medical care. Within these themes, clinicians consistently expressed a need for reliable basic testing

  19. The accuracy of clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of serious bacterial infection in young febrile children: prospective cohort study of 15 781 febrile illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Jonathan C.; Williams, Gabrielle J; Jones, Mike; Codarini, Miriam; Macaskill, Petra; Hayen, Andrew; Irwig, Les; Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Isaacs, David; McCaskill, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate current processes by which young children presenting with a febrile illness but suspected of having serious bacterial infection are diagnosed and treated, and to develop and test a multivariable model to distinguish serious bacterial infections from self limiting non-bacterial illnesses. Design Two year prospective cohort study. Setting The emergency department of The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, Australia. Participants Children aged less than 5 years pres...

  20. Beliefs and expectations of Canadian parents who bring febrile children for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enarson, Mark C; Ali, Samina; Vandermeer, Ben; Wright, Robert B; Klassen, Terry P; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to study the beliefs, expectations, and satisfaction of Canadian parents regarding fever and the treatment of their febrile children. A survey was developed exploring caregiver beliefs and treatment strategies, as well as expectations and satisfaction with medical care. Some items were modeled after previous studies to allow comparison. Caregivers with febrile children were recruited from 2005 to 2007 at 3 urgent care centers and emergency departments in Edmonton, Canada: a pediatric emergency department (n = 376), an urban urgent care center (n = 227), and a suburban urgent care clinic (n = 173). High and rapidly rising temperature, as well as physical symptoms associated with fever, caused concern in most parents surveyed. Seventy-four percent of parents felt that the elevated temperature from fever was dangerous and 90.3% always try to treat it. Forty degrees Celsius was the most commonly sited threshold for danger. Identifying the cause (80.6%) and seriousness (87.4%) of fever were the most com-mon stressors identified. Caregivers expected to receive information about the child's illness and appropriate treatment. The parents most often wanted information about febrile seizures and the potential dangers of febrile illness. Only 16.7% of caregivers expected anti-biotics. Nearly 92% of subjects were usually satisfied with medical care. Fever phobia continues to be a significant issue for Canadian parents. As a result, they treat fever aggressively and often seek medical attention. Good communication is important for medical staff caring for febrile children and typically leads to satisfied parents.

  1. Epilepsy and febrile seizures in children of treated and untreated subfertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    had received infertility treatment and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.00-1.89) if they conceived spontaneously. Children of subfertile couples did not have a higher risk of febrile seizures except for those who received hormonal treatment (HT) with or without intrauterine insemination (IRR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1...... who took part in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Information on time to pregnancy (TTP) and infertility treatment was reported by the mothers in computer-assisted telephone interviews. Data on epilepsy and febrile seizures were extracted from the Danish National Hospital Register. RESULTS.......14-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Children of subfertile couples had a slightly increased risk of epilepsy, and the risk tended to be higher for children of couples who received infertility treatment. Whether this reflects side effects of treatment or severity of subfecundity is not known....

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  3. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage in febrile children living in different areas of Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Nikiéma, Rosalie; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine; Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemi; Traoré, Alfred; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2013-10-29

    Considering malaria prevalence declines in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, such as Gabon, identification of the human infectious reservoir is important for successful malaria control. Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasites contribute to malaria transmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proportion of microscopic and sub-microscopic gametocyte carriers among febrile patients in two different areas of Gabon. Samples from febrile children aged less than 11 years old were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 at two health centres of Gabon. Patients were screened for the presence of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Gametocyte carriage was determined by microscopy and QT-NASBA. Gametocytes were detected in 5.3% (n = 16/304) of children by microscopy compared to 45.7% (n = 139/304) by QT-Nasba. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage (ie microscopy negative and QT-Nasba positive) was found in 89.2% (n = 124/139) of patients. Among patients with microscopically detected trophozoites, the proportion of sub-microscopic gametocyte (SMG) carriers was 58.4% (n = 118/202) and 6% in samples from children with negative slides (p microscopic gametocytaemia is common among Gabonese febrile children. They might strongly contribute to maintain malaria transmission. However, further analysis of sub-microscopic parasite carriage among asymptomatic individuals will be helpful to better characterize malaria transmission.

  4. Chronological Evolution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Children With Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Coppola, Marianna S; Shah, Namrata; Choudhri, Asim F; Morgan, Robin; Wheless, James W

    2016-02-01

    To describe and analyze the chronological evolution of the radiological findings in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. This is a retrospective study describing the radiological findings and evolution in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome who presented from 2009 to 2013. The children all fit the defined clinical criteria for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; all had a history of normal psychomotor development who presented with acute-onset catastrophic partial status epilepticus associated with a febrile illness or unspecific infectious process. The children were identified from the author's weekly review of the pediatric inpatient service, and then the data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Six males and one female ranging from 3 months to 9 years of age presented with status epilepticus preceded by a febrile illness. Extensive investigations for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic etiologies were unremarkable. Multiple antiepileptic medications were attempted, including drug-induced coma in all of them, with poor response. Immunotherapy with intravenous steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin (three patients had both) was tried in six of seven patients with a poor response. Ketogenic diet was initiated in four of seven patients with limited response. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies, done from the initial presentation through 18 months of follow-up, showed evolution from normal imaging to severe cerebral atrophy. Progressive cytotoxic edema involving mostly bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes was appreciated in one to three weeks. At one month from seizure onset, mild to moderate cerebral atrophy and hippocampal sclerosis was appreciated that continued to progress over the next year. After six to twelve months, most of the patients showed moderate to severe cerebral atrophy and by one year, cerebellar atrophy was also appreciated. Febrile infection-related epilepsy

  5. Procalcitonin as a marker of serious bacterial infections in febrile children younger than 3 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Prashant; Grzybowski, Mary; Chen, Xinguang; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama; Stanley, Rachel; Singal, Bonita; Hoyle, John; Borgialli, Dominic; Duffy, Elizabeth; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2014-02-01

    There is no perfectly sensitive or specific test for identifying young, febrile infants and children with occult serious bacterial infections (SBIs). Studies of procalcitonin (PCT), a 116-amino-acid precursor of the hormone calcitonin, have demonstrated its potential as an acute-phase biomarker for SBI. The objective of this study was to compare performance of serum PCT with traditional screening tests for detecting SBIs in young febrile infants and children. This was a prospective, multicenter study on a convenience sample from May 2004 to December 2005. The study was conducted in four emergency departments (EDs): one pediatric ED and three EDs with pediatric units, all with academic faculty on staff. A total of 226 febrile children 36 months old or younger who presented to the four participating EDs and were evaluated for SBI by blood, urine, and/or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cultures were included. The test characteristics (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of the white blood cell (WBC) counts including neutrophil and band counts were compared with PCT for identifying SBI. Thirty children had SBIs (13.3%, 95% CI = 8.85 to 17.70). Four (13.3%) had bacteremia (including one with meningitis), 18 (60.0%) had urinary tract infections (UTIs), and eight (26.6%) had pneumonia. Children with SBIs had higher WBC counts (18.6 × 10(9)  ± 8.6 × 10(9) cells/L vs. 11.5 × 10(9)  ± 5.3 × 10(9) cells/L, p under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for PCT was the largest (0.80, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.89). Procalcitonin is a more accurate biomarker than traditional screening tests for identifying young febrile infants and children with serious SBIs. Further study on a larger cohort of young febrile children is required to definitively determine the benefit of PCT over traditional laboratory screening tests for SBIs. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. On the Nursing of Children with Febrile Convulsion%关于小儿热惊厥护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婷

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the nursing of children with febrile convulsion, including the causes, treatment, family nursing and post-illness observation of febrile convulsion. Ob-jective:The nursing of children with febrile convulsion. Method:The obtained data and materials. Reason: To strengthen child nursing. Result: The process of the nursing of children with febrile convulsion is obtained.%关于小儿热惊厥的护理,其中包括小儿热惊厥的病因、治疗、家庭护理以及病后观察。研究目的:小儿热惊厥的护理。研究方法:已经得出的数据资料。研究原因:加强对小儿的护理。研究结果:得出小儿热惊厥的护理过程。

  7. Parental knowledge and perceptions of fever in children and fever management practices: differences between parents of children with and without a history of febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Niijima, Shinichi; Marui, Eiji

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare maternal knowledge and perceptions of fever, fever management practices, and information sources of mothers of children with and without a history of febrile seizures. A questionnaire was used to survey mothers of children who visited health departments for a routine 18-month-old well baby check-up. A total of 386 responses were analyzed. More mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures than mothers of children without it stated that high fever caused febrile seizures and antipyretics prevented it. Fewer mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures than mothers in the other group thought that high fever caused brain damage and antipyretics prevented the disease from worsening and warmed the child's body during fever episode. Many mothers in both groups stated that they considered physicians to be their primary information source. Spouse and own parents were named as information sources among mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures, whereas books and the Internet were named in the other group. Mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures demonstrated a higher rate of accuracy in their knowledge of fever than those in the other group. Mothers of children with a history of febrile seizures used personal communication, whereas those in the other group relied on mass communication for health information. Providing accurate information to family members is essential to provide mothers with both accurate information and emotional support.

  8. Dengue and Chikungunya fever among viral diseases in outpatient febrile children in Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D; Gwakisa, Paul S

    2014-11-01

    Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2-13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of febrile patients is recommended.

  9. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Qin Meng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  10. The assessment of laboratory parameters in children with fever and febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontko-Romanowska, Krystyna; Żaba, Zbigniew; Panieński, Paweł; Steinborn, Barbara; Szemień, Michał; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Ratajczak, Krystian; Górny, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the research paper was to assess selected laboratory results in children with fever without seizures and febrile seizure. The paper presents an analysis of a group of 306 children aged 6 months - 5 years who were admitted with diagnosed fever without seizures and febrile seizures in Specialized Health Care Centre for Mother and Child in Poznan between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2009. Out of the diagnostics procedures performed in children the following ones were taken into consideration: BCC and CRP. Of the analyzed group of 306 children, 59.48% were boys and 40.52% were girls. In the studied group 61.93% were boys and control group 56.15% were boys. Mean age of admitted children was 22 months. In the study group mean body temperature was 39.0°C and in the control group 38.6°C. A statistically significant difference was found between body temperature of study and control group (p = .005). The mean C-reactive protein level in the study group was 15.73 mg/L and in the control group 58.20 mg/L. There was a statistically significant difference (p seizures. The number of lymphocytes was lower in children with FS than in children with fever without seizures.

  11. Association of genetic polymorphism of pre-microRNA-146a rs2910164 and serum high-mobility group box 1 with febrile seizures in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Marianne Samir Makboul; Girgis, Marian; Haroun, Mervat; Shalaby, Amal

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune-inflammatory process and genetic factors might be implicated in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Pre-microRNA (miR)-146a rs2910164 polymorphism is postulated to modulate expression of miR-146a whose anti-inflammatory role involves regulation of high-mobility group box 1. Our aim is to examine whether rs2910164 polymorphism influences serum high-mobility group box 1 levels and whether an association exists between both and febrile seizures. The study included 136 children, divided into 4 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for detection of rs2910164 polymorphism and high-mobility group box 1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-mobility group box 1 levels were higher in febrile seizure patients compared to the other groups. Rs2910164 polymorphism was not associated with increased risk of febrile seizures. Rs2910164 polymorphism might be accompanied by an upregulation of the proinflammatory process as it might be associated with an increase in high-mobility group box 1 and leukocytic count. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. OUTCOME AND TRANSFORMATION OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN CHILDREN (DATA OF SVT. LUKA'S INSTITUTE OF CHILD NEUROLOGY & EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to definition, febrile seizures — benign, age-dependent, genetically predisposed condition in which the brain is susceptible to epileptic seizures, occurring in response to the fever. The article presents the outcome and trans­formation of febrile seizures in children by data of Svt. Luka's Institute of child neurology & epilepsy. The authors found, thatfebrile seizures can occur at onset of 21 epileptic syndromes with different etiologic factors and outcome. The clini­cal characteristics, EEG and neuroimaging data, as well as the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs and prognosis of dif­ferentforms of epilepsy with febrile seizures in history are described in detail.  

  13. Level of serum neuron-specific enolase and brain damage in children with febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Chen; Qiaobin Chen; Fang Yang; Zhi Lin; Xinfu Lin; Ying Huang; Xin Zheng; Yu Lin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure (FS) has good prognosis in the majority of cases. But there is an ongoing debate on the relationship between complicated febrile seizure (CFS) and later development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of serum neuron-specific enolase (S-NSE) of children with simple febrile seizure (SFS) and complicated febrile seizure and compare with children with non-FS respiratory tract infection. DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics and Department of Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine patients who were admitted to Department of Pediatrics of Fujian Provincial Hospital from June 2002 to September 2003 with FS were enrolled in this study. There were 28 boys and 21 girls aged from 5 to 72 months. All children were divided into 2 groups based on frequency and duration. Thirty-two children whose FS occurred within 24 hours (lasting shorter than single and twice durations and also shorter than 10 minutes) were regarded as SFS group; meanwhile, 17 children whose FS occurred within 24 hours (lasting longer than single and twice durations and also longer than 10 minutes) were regarded as CFS group. Another 23 patients who were admitted to our hospital with respiratory tract infection in the same period, without the history and positive symptoms/features of neurological dysfunction, were enrolled as control group. There were 13 boys and 10 girls aged from 5 months to 86 months. All parents were told the facts. METHODS: 2 mL venous blood was collected from FS children within 24 hours after the seizures. Meanwhile, 2 mL venous blood was also collected from children in the control group. Level of S-NSE was measured with enzyme immunoassay procedure, and differences among groups were compared with t test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Level of S-NSE in each group. RESULTS: A total of 49 children in FS group and 23 ones in control group were involved in the

  14. Inpatient admission for febrile seizure and subsequent outcomes do not differ in children with vaccine-associated versus non-vaccine associated febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartof, Sara Y; Tseng, Hung Fu; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Qian, Lei; Sy, Lina S; Hechter, Rulin C; Marcy, S Michael; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-11-12

    Recent data suggest that the risk factors for febrile seizure (FS) can differ depending on whether the FS was vaccine-associated (VA) or not. As such, there also may be differences in the risk of inpatient admission and/or the incidence of FS-related subsequent outcomes following the index FS depending on whether it was VA or non-vaccine associated (NVA). This could have useful clinical implications including caregiver education and planning for follow-up care. This cohort study consisted of 3348 children who experienced an index FS between 6 months up to 3 years of age from July 1, 2003 through December 31, 2011. The index FS was determined to be VA-FS or NVA-FS; inpatient admission for FS, recurrent FS, and diagnosis of epilepsy were compared between exposure groups. Hazard ratios and relative risk estimates comparing between VA-FS and NVA-FS were estimated by Cox proportional models and Robust Poisson regression models, adjusted for race, sex, age at first FS, birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores. The mean age at index FS was 1.5 years; the mean length of follow-up was 2.3 years. Of all index FS, 383 (11.4%) were VA and 2965 were NVA. Among index FS, 264 (7.9%) were admitted as inpatients. Subsequently, 703 (21.0%) children developed at least one recurrent FS, where the number of recurrences ranged from 0 to 9 events. Overall, 144 (4.3%) children were diagnosed with epilepsy during the follow-up period. In adjusted analyses, VA-FS did not differ in the risk for any of the outcomes of interest compared with NVA-FS. The risk of hospitalization for index FS or select subsequent FS outcomes did not differ between VA or NVA-FS. This suggests that the follow-up care of children with VA-FS does not warrant attention beyond that for NVA-FS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between platelet indices and febrile seizures in children

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    Murat Ozkale

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the increasing platelet turnover in complex FS group causes a slightly decrease in the PC, an significantly increase of MPV and PDW values indicating that these parameters may play an important role in predicting the severity of FS in children at diagnosis. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 695-701

  16. Factors associated with bacteraemia in febrile, non- neonatal children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child with bacteraemia needs to be identified and treated in order to prevent progression .... axillary temperature ≥37.5°C and whose parents or guardians .... Management of infants and children 3 to 36 months of age with fever without source.

  17. Premarketing surveillance of ibuprofen suppositories in febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Dan; Youngster, Ilan; Cohen, Avner; Leibovitch, Eugene; Shavit, Itai; Erez, Ilan; Uziel, Yosef; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-03-01

    In many countries, ibuprofen is available only in oral formulations. The authors aimed to investigate parental satisfaction and possible adverse reactions among children receiving newly marketed ibuprofen suppositories, prior to their arrival at the pharmaceutical points of distribution. Children needing antipyretic medication were recruited from 11 pediatric wards and clinics in Israel. Each patient received ibuprofen suppositories (5-10 mg/kg/dose) after completing a data collection form. After 3 to 7 days of treatment, information regarding parent satisfaction, possible adverse reactions, and concomitant use of drugs was obtained. Overall, 490 children completed the study. Parents' satisfaction was high (4.5 ± 0.47 on a scale of 1-5), and 92.2% reported that they would use the medication in the future. Adverse reactions were reported in 8 patients (1.63%, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.25), the most common being diarrhea. Rectal administration of ibuprofen suppositories is well tolerated and overall satisfaction and the repeated expected use were high.

  18. Lumbar puncture in children from an area of malaria endemicity who present with a febrile seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, Moses; Manning, Laurens; Hwaiwhange, Ilomo; Vince, John; Aipit, Susan; Mare, Trevor; Warrel, Jonathan; Karunajeewa, Harin; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2010-09-01

    Although routine lumbar puncture (LP) is often recommended as part of the assessment of fever-associated seizures in children, accumulating evidence questions its value and reveals a decrease in its frequency. Our primary hypothesis was that children who present with a single seizure but with no clinical signs of meningism or coma do not require LP as part of initial diagnostic assessment. We prospectively followed up 377 children aged 2 months through 10 years who presented with at least 1 fever-associated seizure to Modilon Hospital, Madang, Papua New Guinea, from November 2007 through July 2009. Clinical management was performed by hospital staff according to national pediatric guidelines. Of 188 children with a single seizure and 189 children with multiple seizures, 139 (73.9%) and 154 (81.5%), respectively, underwent a LP as part of their initial assessment. Of the 130 children with a single seizure but no evidence of meningism (ie, neck stiffness, positive Kernig's or Brudzinski's sign, and bulging fontanelle) or coma (Blantyre Coma Score 2), none (95% confidence interval, 0%-3.6%) had proven or probable acute bacterial meningitis, and only 1 patient had viral encephalitis (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Eighty-one of these children (62.3%) had a final diagnosis of a simple febrile seizure. Proven or probable acute bacterial meningitis was more common in children with a single seizure and meningism or coma (10; 17.2%) and in those with multiple seizures without or with meningism or coma (2 [2.0%] and 30 [33.7%], respectively). Initial LP is unnecessary when careful clinical assessment indicates features of a simple febrile seizure.

  19. Very early discharge versus early discharge versus non-early discharge in children with cancer and febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, Erik A. H.; te Poele, Esther M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common adverse effect in children with cancer. Due to the high relative risk of infections and infectious complications, standard care for children with cancer and febrile neutropenia consists of routine hospitalization and parenteral administration o

  20. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  1. Clinical profile and treatment outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in South Indian children

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    Sandeep B Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the clinical features and outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy, in a cohort of South Indian children. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of a cohort of children with previously normal development who presented with status epilepticus or encephalopathy with recurrent seizures following a nonspecific febrile illness during the period between January 2007 and January 2012. They were divided into two groups super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE and refractory status epilepticus (RSE depending on the duration and severity of the seizures. Key Findings: Fifteen children who met the inclusion criteria were included for the final analysis. The age of the children at presentation ranged 3-15 years (median 6.3 years. All the children presented with prolonged or recurrent seizures occurring 1-12 days (median 4 days after the onset of fever. Eight children had SRSE while seven children had refractory seizures with encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis was done in all the children in the acute phase, and the cell count ranged 0-12 cells/μL (median 2 cells/μL with normal sugar and protein levels. Initial neuroimaging done in all children (MRI in 10 and CT in 5, and it was normal in 13 children. Treatment modalities included multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (4-9 drugs (median 5 drugs. Midazolam (MDZ infusion was administered in seven patients. Eight patients required barbiturate coma to suppress the seizure activity. The duration of the barbiturate coma ranged 2-90 days (median 3 days. Steroids were used in 14 children and intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg in 7 children. Three children died in the acute phase. All children were maintained on multiple AEDs till the last follow-up, the number of AEDs ranged 1-6 (median 5 AEDs. The patients with super refractory status in the acute phase were found to be more severely disabled

  2. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    Background A history of complex febrile seizures can increase the risk of epilepsy, but the role of genetic factors is unclear. This analysis evaluated the relationship between febrile seizures and epilepsy. Methods Information on the history of seizures was obtained by a questionnaire from twin...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...... and emotional burden. It is currently not possible to accurately identify which children will develop recurrent febrile seizures, epilepsy, or neuropsychological comorbidities. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  3. Viruses and febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    We conclude that viral infections are the main cause of febrile seizures, with an important role for influenza A, HHV-6 and HHV-7. We showed that several viral infections not only contribute to initial febrile seizures, but also to recurrences. Viruses could not be detected in the CSF of children

  4. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review

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    Mohammad Mehdi NASEHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Nasehi MM, Sakhaei R, Moosazadeh M, Aliramzany M. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:17-24 .AbstractObjectiveSeveral factors are involved in the etiology of febrile seizure (FS, among themis zinc (Zn, which has been discussed in various studies. The present systematic review compares Zn levels in children with FS and a control group.Materials & MethodsWe searched keywords of febrile seizure, febrile convulsion, children, childhood,fever, trace elements, risk factor, predisposing, zinc, Zn, and epilepsy in thefollowing databases: SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The quality ofresearch papers was assessed using a checklist. Data was extracted from primarystudies based on demographic variables and amounts of Zn in case and controlgroups.ResultsTwenty primary studies were entered in the present study. Of which, eighteenstudies, reported that Zn serum levels were significantly lower in the case group(patients with FS than the control group.ConclusionThe present systematic review indicated that Zn is one factor for predicting FS.A low level of this element among children can be regarded as a contributingfactor for FS, a conclusion with a high consensus among different studies carriedout in different parts of the world. ReferencesHeydarian F, Ashrafzadeh F, Ghasemian A. Serum ZINC level in Patients with simple febrile seizure. Iran J Child Neurology 2010; 14(2:41-44.Mahyar A, Pahlavan AA, Varasteh-Nejad A. Serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure. Acta Medica Iranica 2008; 46(6: 477-80.Kunda GK, Rabin F, Nandi ER, Sheikh N, Akhter S. Etiology and Risk Factors of Febrile Seizure – An Update. Bangladesh J Child Health 2010; 34 (3:103-112.Abbaskhaniyan A, Shokrzadeh M, Rafati MR, Mashhadiakabr M, Arab A, Yazdani J. Survey and Relation of Serum Magnesium Level in Children with Seizure. J Mazand Univ

  5. Are clinical, laboratory, and imaging markers suitable predictors of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Mavadati, Shiva; Oveisi, Sonia; Habibi, Morteza; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection. One hundred fifty-three children with their first febrile urinary tract infection were divided into two groups according to the results of voiding cystourethrography: 60 children with vesicoureteral reflux and 93 children without. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, likelihood ratio (positive and negative), and accuracy of the clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux were determined. Of the 153 children with febrile urinary tract infection, 60 patients (39.2%) had vesicoureteral reflux. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding fever>38℃, suprapubic pain, C-reactive protein quantitative level, number of red blood cells in the urine, and results of renal ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (p38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning and vesicoureteral reflux. Also, there were significant positive correlations between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux. This study revealed fever>38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning as the best predictive markers for vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection. In addition, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound are the best predictive markers for high-grade vesicoureteral reflux.

  6. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Reller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not.To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740 aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5% were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2 in 38 (5.1% patients. Only 8.1% (3/37 of confirmed cases were suspected clinically.Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.

  7. Effect of an evidence-based education programme on ED discharge advice for febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Julie; Brennan, Denise

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an educational intervention on discharge advice given to parents leaving the emergency department with a febrile child. Childhood fever is a common reason to seek emergency care. Many children are discharged from the emergency department with fever as a significant component of their illness; therefore, it is vital that emergency department medical and nursing staff provide accurate and reliable information about childhood fever management. A pre/post-test design was used. The outcome measure was parental advice regarding paediatric fever management and the intervention for the study was an educational intervention for emergency department nursing staff that consisted of two tutorials. Data were collected using structured telephone interviews. Data were collected from 22 families during the pretest period and 18 families during the post-test period. The number of parents leaving the emergency department with no advice decreased by 48% (p = 0.002). Reports of written advice increased by 69.7% (p Parents leaving the emergency department with both written and verbal advice increased from 0 to 55.6% (p parents of febrile children. Parents and health care professionals alike need to better understand the physiological benefits of fever and the potential harmful effects of aggressive and often unwarranted treatment of fever.

  8. Evaluation of Plasma Melatonin Levels in Children With Afebrile and Febrile Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Orçun; Altun, Demet; Arslan, Mutluay; Yaman, Halil; Vurucu, Sabahattin; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Unay, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin modulates central nervous system neuronal activity. We compared the melatonin levels of patients with febrile and afebrile seizures during and after seizure with those of healthy controls. We enrolled 59 individuals with afebrile and febrile seizures (mean age, 6.09 ± 4.46 years) and 28 age-, sex-, and weight-matched healthy children. Melatonin levels were measured near the time of a seizure (0 to 1 hour) and at 12 and 24 hours post-seizure, and control melatonin levels were measured from a single venous blood sample. Plasma melatonin levels increased during seizures in the study group (P seizure plasma melatonin levels were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (P seizures who had and had not used antiepileptic drugs. Daytime (8 AM to 8 PM) and nighttime (8 PM to 8 AM) post-seizure melatonin levels were not significantly different. Melatonin levels were lower in pediatric patients prone to seizures than in healthy children and increased during seizures. Further research is needed to test the role of melatonin in the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dengue fever causing febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an unknown entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Mohammed; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Dinand, Veronique; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2013-06-01

    Dengue fever is endemic in many parts of the world but it has not been described as a cause of febrile neutropenia. We describe here clinical features, laboratory values and outcome in 10 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and with dengue fever as a cause of febrile neutropenia. These data are compared to an age-matched control population of 22 children with proven dengue infection without ALL. Except for fever in all patients and plethoric face in one patient, typical symptoms of dengue such as abdominal pain, myalgias, and headaches, were absent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.3±2.0 days in ALL patients vs. 5.0±2.0 in controls (p=0.096). Median platelet count was 13,000/cmm (range 1000-28,000) in cases vs. 31,500 (range 13,000-150,000) in controls (p=0.018). Mean time for recovery for platelet was 6.0±1.3days in ALL patients vs. 2.5±0.9days in controls (pfebrile neutropenia although typical symptoms may be lacking. Platelet recovery may be significantly delayed.

  10. Molecular Detection of Fastidious and Common Bacteria as Well as Plasmodium spp. in Febrile and Afebrile Children in Franceville, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourembou, Gaël; Fenollar, Florence; Socolovschi, Cristina; Lemamy, Guy Joseph; Nzoughe, Hermann; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Toure-Ndouo, Fousseyni; Million, Matthieu; Mbiguino, Angelique Ndjoyi; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Malaria was considered as the main cause of fever in Africa. However, with the roll back malaria initiative, the causes of fever in Africa may change. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacteria and Plasmodium spp. in febrile and afebrile (controls) children from Franceville, Gabon. About 793 blood samples from febrile children and 100 from controls were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with sequencing. Plasmodium spp. was the microorganism most detected in febrile (74.5%, 591/793) and controls (13%, 13/100), P Gabon. Two fastidious bacteria, Rickettsia felis and Borrelia spp., were found. Inclusion of controls should improve the understanding of the causes of fever in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF THE VIRAL TRIGGERS OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Stroganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of clinical and laboratory observations 121 children aged 3 to 36 months with the diagnosis «ARVI with convulsive syndrome».  The prevalence of patients with burdened hereditary anamnesis for the development of febrile seizures (FS (31.4 ± 4.2%. During the laboratory examination along with the respiratory viruses group noted the high herpes virus infection (51.2%, particularly human herpes virus 6 type (of 38.7%. The extension of the spectrum of the diagnostic examination of children  with FS will establish  the role of infectious triggers in the occurrence of FS and thereby define rational tactics and dispensary observation of this group of patients.

  13. Prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Lena M; Flick, Louise H; Twyman, Kimberly A; Xian, Hong; Conturo, Thomas E

    2016-11-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic ASD from multiplex and simplex families compared with the unaffected siblings in a cohort of 610 children with idiopathic ASD and their 160 unaffected siblings, participating in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange project, the secondary analysis was performed comparing the life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Statistical models to account for non-independence of observations, inherent with the data from multiplex families, were used in assessing potential confounding effects of age, gender, and history of febrile seizures on odds of having non-febrile seizures. The life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures was 8.2% among children with ASD and 2.5% among their unaffected siblings. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for familial clustering, children with ASD had 5.27 (95%CI: 1.51-18.35) times higher odds of having non-febrile seizures compared to their unaffected siblings. In this comparison, age, presence of gastrointestinal dysfunction, and history of febrile seizures were significantly associated with the prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Children with idiopathic ASD are significantly more likely to have non-febrile seizures than their unaffected siblings, suggesting that non-febrile seizures may be ASD-specific. Further studies are needed to determine modifiable risk factors for non-febrile seizures in ASD.

  14. A Case-Control Study of the Association Between Serum Copper Level and Febrile Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl MAHYAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Bakhtiyari H, Daneshi Khohan MM, Javadi A. A Case-Control Study of the Association Between SerumCopper Level and Febrile Seizures in Children. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:23-28.ObjectiveFebrile seizures are the most common cause of seizure in children. Identification of risk factors is very important. This study was conducted to determine the association between the serum copper level and simple febrile seizure in children.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 30 children with simple febrile seizures (case group were compared with 30 children with febrile illness without seizures (control group regarding serum copper level. This study was conducted in Qazvin children’s hospital (Qazvin, Iran.ResultsThe mean serum copper levels in the case and control groups were 141.41±30.90 and 129.43±18.97 mcg/dl, respectively. This difference was not significant statistically.ConclusionThis study revealed that there is no association between serum copper levels and febrile seizures. It seems that copper deficiency is not a risk factor for febrile seizures in children.References1. Mikati MA. Febrile seizures in: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, GemeIII JWS, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson textbookof pediatrics.19th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2011.p. 2017-19.2. Ferrie C, Newton R, Martland T. Febrile seizure in:Mclntosh N, Helms PJ, Smyth RL, Logan S. Forfar& Arneils textbook of pediatrics, London: ChurchillLivingstone; 2008. p. 860-1.3. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Fallahi M, Javadi A.Risk factors ofthe first febrile seizures in Iranian children. Int J Pediatr2010;2010:862897.[Epub 2010 Jun 24].4. Siqueira LF. Febrile seizures: update on diagnosisand management. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2010 Jul-Aug;56(4:489-92.5. Daoud A, Batieha A. Iron status a possible risk factor forthe first seizure. Epilepsy 2002;43(7:740-43.6. Hartfield DS, Tan J, Yager JY, Rosychuk RJ, SpadyD, Haines C, et al. The association between

  15. The Risk of Serious Bacterial Infection in Neutropenic Immunocompetent Febrile Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Assaf A; Kozer, Eran; Mordish, Yair; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Kventsel, Iris; Goldman, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Only few reports have looked into the risk of invasive bacterial infection in children with neutropenia that is not malignancy related. The objective of the current study was to determine the clinical significance of neutropenia as a predictor of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in immunocompetent children. We conducted a retrospective case-control study including children 3 months to 18 years of age with fever ≥ 38°C hospitalized or presenting to the emergency department. Patients who had neutropenia ≤ 1000 ANC/μL and had a blood culture taken were matched for age with the consecutive febrile patients for whom a blood culture was taken. The main outcome was the rate of SBI. SBIs were more prevalent among the control group than in the group of children with neutropenia, 19/71 and 6/71, respectively (P = 0.0005). More children were treated with antibiotics among the control group than in the group of children with neutropenia, 39/71 and 20/71, respectively (P neutropenia do not carry a higher risk for SBIs compared with patients with fever who do not have neutropenia.

  16. Utilization of public or private health care providers by febrile children after user fee removal in Uganda

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    Peterson Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite investments in providing free government health services in Uganda, many caretakers still seek treatment from the drug shops/private clinics. The study aimed to assess determinants for use of government facilities or drug shops/private clinics for febrile illnesses in children under five. Methods Structured questionnaires were administered to caretakers in 1078 randomly selected households in the Iganga – Mayuge Demographic Surveillance site. Those with children who had had fever in the previous two weeks and who had sought care from outside the home were interviewed on presenting symptoms and why they chose the provider they went to. Symptoms children presented with and reasons for seeking care from government facilities were compared with those of drug shops/private clinics. Results Of those who sought care outside the home, 62.7% (286/456 had first gone to drug shops/private clinics and 33.1% (151/456 first went to government facilities. Predictors of having gone to government facilities with a febrile child were child presenting with vomiting (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.10 – 3.89 and perceiving that the health providers were qualified (OR 10.32; 95% CI 5.84 – 18.26 or experienced (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.07 – 3.48. Those who took the febrile child to drug shops/private clinics did so because they were going there to get first aid (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.52. Conclusion Private providers offer 'first aid' to caretakers with febrile children. Government financial assistance to health care providers should not stop at government facilities. Multi-faceted interventions in the private sector and implementation of community case management of febrile children through community medicine distributors could increase the proportion of children who access quality care promptly.

  17. Selenium and leptin levels in febrile seizure: a case-control study in children

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    Abolfazl Khoshdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose&lt;/b&gt;: Febrile seizures (FS are seizures that occur between the age of 6 and 60 months, but its pathophysiology still is not fully understood. There is limited information about the correlation between levels of selenium and leptin with FS. This study aimed to determine the relationship between serum levels of selenium and leptin in children with FS. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; This case-control study was conducted in a University Hospital in Shahrekord, Iran, in 2011. The serum levels of selenium and leptin of 25 children with simple febrile seizure (case group were compared with 25 febrile children without seizure (control group in acute phase and after three months. The levels of serum selenium and leptin were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, respectively. &lt;b&gt;Results&lt;/b&gt;: In acute phase, the mean serum level of selenium in case and control groups were 95.88± 42.55 and 113.25±54.43 μg/dL, respectively, and difference was not significant (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt; =0.415, but after three months, this level had a significant increase in both groups (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt;&lt;0.001. In acute phase, the mean serum leptin level in case and control groups were 0.94±0.5 and 0.98±0.84 ng/mL, respectively, but difference was not significant (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt; =0.405. After three months, serum leptin level had no significant change in both groups (&lt;i&gt;P&lt;/i&gt; =0.882. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion&lt;/b&gt;: These observations suggest that serum levels of selenium and leptin have not specific relation with FS but overllay is lower, however, further study is recommended. Also selenium level in stress and acute phase was significantly lower than recovery phase.

  18. Severity of illness and the use of paracetamol in febrile preschool children; a case simulation study of parents' assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerløv, Per; Loeb, Mitchell; Slettevoll, Jorid; Lingjaerde, Ole-Christian; Fetveit, Arne

    2006-12-01

    Misconceptions and exaggerated fear of fever may divert parents' attention from more predictive symptoms of childhood illness, such as appetite and level of activity. This study aims at exploring how specific predefined characteristics of febrile preschool children affected parents' assessment of the severity of the condition and the perceived need for treatment with paracetamol. Parents judged 24 constructed cases of febrile children with different levels of fever, appetite and activity, occurring at different times of the day. For each case they decided whether the child was moderately or severely ill, and whether or not they would prefer to administer paracetamol. Parents' decision-making was examined by discriminant analyses. Of 466 invited parents, 267 supplied information about their families and 205 accepted to participate in judging constructed cases of febrile children. A total of 159 parents responded to all cases. When evaluating the severity of the illness, 119 parents (75%) responded to one or more of the four cues describing illness. Only one of four cues was used by 80 parents (67%), and 86 (72%) parents emphasized fever. When deciding to give paracetamol, one or more of four cues was used by 102 parents (64%), while 72 parents (71%) used only one cue, and 92 parents (90%) emphasized fever. Parents focus on fever when they evaluate febrile illness and decide whether or not to give paracetamol. Educating parents to focus on their child's level of appetite or activity may improve management, especially when judgement is based on only one or two cues.

  19. Role of electroencephalogram and neuroimaging in first onset afebrile and complex febrile seizures in children from Kashmir

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    Akhter Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To determine the frequency of abnormal neuroimaging in children with new-onset afebrile and complex febrile seizures; (2 to draw a correlation between Electroencephalogram (EEG and neuroimaging. Study Design: A hospital-based prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 children (6 months to 14 years of age, who presented with new-onset afebrile or complex febrile seizures, underwent EEG and neuroimaging [Computed Tomography (CT and/or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI]. Results: Generalized seizures constituted the major seizure group in our study - 116/276 (42% - followed by partial seizures 86/276 (31.2% and complex febrile seizure in 64/276 (23.2%. Generalized as well as partial seizures were more common in children aged 6-14 years, while complex febrile seizures were predominantly seen in children less than 6 years old. Most of the patients with generalized and partial seizures had EEG abnormalities, while EEG abnormalities were uncommon in patients with complex febrile seizures. A total of 27/276 (9.8% patients with seizure disorder had abnormal CT scans and this abnormality was more common in patients with partial seizures. CT abnormality was seen more commonly in those patients who had an abnormal EEG. EEG and CT correlation showed that patients with abnormal EEG had higher rates of CT abnormality, ie, 16.1% (25/155. Abnormal MRI was seen in 32/157 (20.4% of patients; accuracy of picking abnormality by MRI, when EEG was abnormal, was 24.8% (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that clinical examination and EEG results are good indicators for neuroimaging, and these can be used as one of the criteria for ordering neuroimaging in new-onset seizures.

  20. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF RECENT DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION AMONG FEBRILE CHILDREN IN A SEMI ARID ZONE

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    Faneye Adedayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Dengue virus has been established in Nigeria; owing to the severity of this disease and its attendant complications we investigated the presence of this virus serologically in febrile Nigerian children under 5 years of age from Ilorin. Blood samples were tested from 130 children under the age of 5 years for the presence of IgM antibodies against all the Dengue virus serotypes using ELISA Kit by IVD research, Inc® California USA. A prevalence rate of 40(30.8% was recorded, with male children having a higher rate of 30(44.1% while female children recorded 10(16.1%. Age range distribution was highest in group 3>5 years with 10(62.5% and lowest in age group <1 with 12(16.2%. Our findings in this study indicate potential endemicity of this virus infection in some parts of Nigeria. We therefore recommend further studies into circulating serotypes in human populations and urgent preventive and control measures of this emerging infectious disease.

  1. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

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    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  2. Which Variables Are Useful for Predicting Severe Infection in Children With Febrile Neutropenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delebarre, Mathilde; Garnier, Nathalie; Macher, Emilie; Thebaud, Estelle; Mazingue, Françoise; Leblond, Pierre; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain; Dubos, François

    2015-11-01

    To distinguish children with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) at low risk of severe infection, the variables that are significant risk factors must be identified. Our objective was to identify them by applying evidence-based standards. This retrospective 2-center cohort study included all episodes of chemotherapy-induced FN in children in 2005 and 2006. The medical history, clinical, and laboratory data available at admission were collected. Severe infection was defined by bacteremia, a positive culture of a normally sterile body fluid, invasive fungal infection, or localized infection at high risk of extension. Univariate analysis identified potential predictive variables. A generalized mixed model was used to determine the adjusted variables that predict severe infection. We analyzed 372 FN episodes. Severe infections occurred in 16.1% of them. Variables predictive of severe infection at admission were: disease with high risk of prolonged neutropenia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.5), blood cancer (aOR=1.9), fever ≥38.5°C (aOR=3.7), and C-reactive protein level ≥90 mg/L (aOR=4.5). Now that we have identified these variables significantly associated with the risk of severe infection, they must be validated prospectively before combining the best predictive variables in a decision rule that can be used to distinguish children at low risk.

  3. Serum interleukin -8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of vesicoureteral reflux in children with febrile urinary tract infection

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    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In view of the side effects of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG, identification of noninvasive markers predicting the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is important. This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8 in diagnosis of VUR in children with first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI. Materials and Methods: Eighty children with first febrile UTI were divided into two groups, with and without VUR, based on the results of VCUG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value positive and negative likelihood ratio, and accuracy of IL-8 for prediction of VUR were investigated. Results: Of the 80 children with febrile UTI, 30 (37.5% had VUR. There was no significant difference between the children with and without VUR and also between low and high-grade VUR groups in terms of serum concentration of IL-8 (P>0.05. Based on ROC curve, the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio positive, and accuracy of serum IL-8 was lower than those of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant positive correlation only between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and VUR. Conclusions: This study showed no significant difference between the children with and without VUR in terms of the serum concentration of IL-8. Therefore, it seems that serum IL-8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of VUR.

  4. Differentiation of acute pyelonephritis from other febrile states in children using urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL).

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    Arambašić, Jadranka; Mandić, Sanja; Debeljak, Željko; Mandić, Dario; Horvat, Vesna; Šerić, Vatroslav

    2016-01-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is a severe disease which is sometimes difficult to recognize based on clinical symptoms and routinely available diagnostic tests, especially in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) as a biomarker of acute pyelonephritis. In this case-control study we analyzed 134 children (median age 2.5 years) who were admitted to the Pediatric Clinic of University Hospital Centre Osijek, Croatia. Eighty of them had acute pyelonephritis, while 54 children had febrile state of different etiology including cystitis and they represented the control group. uNGAL, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, urinanalysis, urine culture, kidney ultrasound and a dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphic scan were done for each child. uNGAL was measured using chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay on ARHITECT i1000SR (Abbott Diagnostics, IL, USA). uNGAL values were significantly higher in children with acute pyelonephritis compared to the control groups (113.6 ng/mL vs. 10.2 ng/mL, ppyelonephritis from cystitis (cut-off 38.5 ng/mL), and for differentiation of cystitis from febrile states with etiology other than urinary tract infection (UTI) (cut-off 20.4 ng/mL). uNGAL can be a useful diagnostic biomarker in acute pyelonephritis in children, but also in differentiating cystitis from febrile states other than UTI.

  5. Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on Dried Blood Spots from Febrile Nigerian Children Compared to Culture.

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    Pui-Ying Iroh Tam

    Full Text Available Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal disease in the world, but accurate surveillance is lacking. Molecular detection of infectious pathogens in dried blood spots (DBS is an ideal method for surveillance of infections in resource-limited settings because of its low cost, minimal blood volumes involved, and ease of storage at ambient temperature. Our study aim was to evaluate a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR assay on DBS from febrile Nigerian children on Whatman 903 and FTA filter papers, compared to the gold standard of culture.Between September 2011 to May 2015, blood was collected from children 5 years of age or under who presented to six hospital study sites throughout northern and central Nigeria with febrile illness, and inoculated into blood culture bottles or spotted onto Whatman 903 or FTA filter paper. Culture and rt-PCR were performed on all samples.A total of 537 DBS specimens from 535 children were included in the study, of which 15 were culture-positive for S. pneumoniae. The rt-PCR assay detected S. pneumoniae in 12 DBS specimens (2.2%. One positive rt-PCR result was identified in a culture-negative specimen from a high-risk subject, and two positive rt-PCR results were negative on repeat testing. Six culture-confirmed cases of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were missed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivities of Whatman 903 and FTA DBS for detection of S. pneumoniae were 57.1% (95% CI 18.4-90.1% and 62.5% (95% CI 24.5-91.5%, respectively. Nonspecific amplification was noted in an additional 22 DBS (4.1%. Among these, six were positive for a non-S. pneumoniae pathogen on culture.Rt-PCR was able to detect S. pneumoniae from clinical DBS specimens, including from a culture-negative specimen. Our findings show promise of this approach as a surveillance diagnostic, but also raise important cautionary questions. Several DBS specimens were detected as S. pneumoniae by rt-PCR despite

  6. Modified Glasgow Coma Scale to predict mortality in febrile unconscious children.

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    Chaturvedi, P; Kishore, M

    2001-04-01

    A prospective hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of the Kasturba Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha to predict the mortality in children admitted with fever and unconsciousness using the Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score. Forty eight children were admitted with fever and unconsciousness; cases of febrile convulsions, epilepsy and cerebral palsy were excluded. MGCS scores were assessed on admission and repeated at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after admission in each case. Diagnosis in each case was confirmed by history, examinations and investigations. All the cases were regularly followed up till death/discharge. The overall mortality was 29.1% (14/48) out of which 85% (12/14) died within the first 24 hours. Mortality was highest in the toddler age group and in patients with pyogenic meningitis. There was a significant association between death and MGCS scores on admission with a post test probability for discharge being only 10% with a score of less than 5 and 99% with a score of more than 10 respectively. MGCS scores on admission can be used to predict mortality in patients hospitalized with fever and unconsciousness. The scale is simple, easy, can be applied at bed side and does not need any investigations. Its application in developing countries with limited investigative and intensive care facilities can help the treating physician decide regarding referral and counseling the parents regarding the probable clinical outcome.

  7. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

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    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.

  8. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟芬芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热性惊厥的原因及急救措施和护理。方法对我院儿科2014年1月~2015年1月收治的30例高热性惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果30例小儿高热惊厥的快速抽搐,及时冷却,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监控等一系列综合治疗和护理后全部转危为安。结论对高热惊厥患儿的治疗关键是高热,惊厥,迅速控制迅速冷却,加强综合护理。%Objective To investigate the cause of febrile convulsion in children and the emergency treatment and nursing. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of febrile convulsion in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 30 cases of children with febrile convulsion of fast twitch, timely cooling, maintain respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen, strengthen monitoring and so on a series of comprehensive treatment and nursing after turning the corner. Conclusion The key to the treatment of children with high fever convulsion is high fever, convulsion, rapid control rapid cooling, strengthen comprehensive nursing.

  9. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  10. Dengue and other common causes of acute febrile illness in Asia: an active surveillance study in children.

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    Maria Rosario Capeding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation

  11. Febrile seizures and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+).

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    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2015-06-01

    To review the literature about febrile seizures and GEFS plus with special emphasis on management and outcome. Selected literature review. Febrile seizures are the most common convulsive event in humans, occurring in 2-6% of the population. The aetiology is complex with strong evidence for a heterogeneous genetic predisposition interacting with fever of any cause, with certain viral infections having a greater effect. A large amount of literature has established that febrile seizures have no long-term consequences on cognition or behaviour. Unfortunately, about 40% of children with a first febrile seizure will have a recurrence. The strongest predictor of recurrence is age febrile seizure. Epilepsy follows febrile seizures in ∼3% cases, with the concepts of simple and complex febrile seizures providing relatively weak prediction. Very prolonged febrile seizures may lead to mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy although the degree of risk remains uncertain. Investigations beyond establishing the cause of the provoking fever are nearly always unnecessary. Treatment is mainly reassurance and there is some evidence that parents eventually "come to grips" with the fear that their children are dying during a febrile seizure. Antipyretic medications are remarkably ineffective to prevent recurrences. Daily and intermittent prophylactic medications are ineffective or have unacceptable side effects or risks. "Rescue" benzodiazepines may prevent prolonged recurrences for selected patients with a first prolonged febrile seizure although this has not been proven. Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a complex autosomal dominant disorder usually caused by mutations in SCN1A (a voltage-gated sodium channel). One third of patients have febrile seizures only; two thirds have a variety of epilepsy syndromes, both focal and generalized. Febrile seizures may distress parents but rarely have any long-term consequences. Reassurance is the only

  12. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This revi...

  13. Family history and recurrence of febrile seizures.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To determine the value of a detailed family history for the assessment of the risk of recurrence of febrile seizures, 115 children who visited the emergency room of an academic children's hospital were studied prospectively. The recurrence risk of febrile seizures was analysed in relation to the child's family history and the proportion of relatives affected by febrile seizures using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard models. A first degree family history positive for febrile ...

  14. Long-term neurocognitive outcome and auditory event-related potentials after complex febrile seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Lan; Hung, Kun-Long; Tsan, Ying-Ying; Tung, William Tao-Hsin

    2015-06-01

    Whether prolonged or complex febrile seizures (FS) produce long-term injury to the hippocampus is a critical question concerning the neurocognitive outcome of these seizures. Long-term event-related evoked potential (ERP) recording from the scalp is a noninvasive technique reflecting the sensory and cognitive processes associated with attention tasks. This study aimed to investigate the long-term outcome of neurocognitive and attention functions and evaluated auditory event-related potentials in children who have experienced complex FS in comparison with other types of FS. One hundred and forty-seven children aged more than 6 years who had experienced complex FS, simple single FS, simple recurrent FS, or afebrile seizures (AFS) after FS and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Patients were evaluated with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC; Chinese WISC-IV) scores, behavior test scores (Chinese version of Conners' continuous performance test, CPT II V.5), and behavior rating scales. Auditory ERPs were recorded in each patient. Patients who had experienced complex FS exhibited significantly lower full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), perceptual reasoning index, and working memory index scores than did the control group but did not show significant differences in CPT scores, behavior rating scales, or ERP latencies and amplitude compared with the other groups with FS. We found a significant decrease in the FSIQ and four indices of the WISC-IV, higher behavior rating scales, a trend of increased CPT II scores, and significantly delayed P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude in the patients with AFS after FS. We conclude that there is an effect on cognitive function in children who have experienced complex FS and patients who developed AFS after FS. The results indicated that the WISC-IV is more sensitive in detecting cognitive abnormality than ERP. Cognition impairment, including perceptual reasoning and working memory defects, was identified in

  15. The specific features and pattern of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES in children

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    L. V. Shalkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment in children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES and the aspects of identifying this disease as an individual nosological entity. It details a study of the possible etiological factors of FIRES, such as metabolic, genetic, and immunological disorders, aseptic inflammatory processes, as well as a search for a certain infectious agent by inoculations of different biological environments of the body and by polymerase chain reaction; the diagnostic characteristics of FIRES at the present stage, including the use of electroencephalography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging; different approaches to drug therapy for FIRES at the onset stages of its clinical manifestations, protracted status epilepticus, and drugresistant epilepsy. The issues of the predictable outcome of this disease, including survival and the probability of further development of epilepsy and maintenance of cognitive functions, are also viewed. Diagnostic criteria for the syndrome, such as age at its onset 3 to 15 years in previously healthy children; acute onset as fever to develop high-frequency focal seizures several days later; the absence of the identified disease pathogen detected by the examinations of cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and other environments of the body; the development of drug-resistant epilepsy and severe permanent cognitive and motor deficits after the completion of an acute period in most cases are presented. The paper is clinically exemplified by the authors’ observation of an 11-year-old boy who meets the above criteria for the syndrome, but has a relatively favorable course, without developing severe drug-resistant epilepsy.

  16. Comparison of Relation between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with and without Simple Febrile Seizure Admitted in Arak Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Safi Arian, Smira; Ebrahimi, Somaieh; Naziri, Mahdyieh

    2016-01-01

    Febrile seizure is one of the most prevalent childhood convulsions with the most common age of onset at 14-18 mo old. Fever decreases the brain threshold for seizure. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is also a neurologic-behavioral problem defined by attention deficit and hyperactivity according to DSM-IV criteria in which the child must have these signs in two different environments. There is controversy on the possible relation between febrile seizure and ADHD; while some studies approve a strong relation, some exclude any relation and some attribute ADHD to the side effects of other reasons. This descriptive-analytic study enrolled all children of 3-12 yr old with febrile seizure (according to Nelson Pediatrics Textbook diagnosed by the pediatrician in charge) referring to Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, central Iran in 2010-2011. Overall, 103 of them with no corporeal or psychological disorder (like depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and other CNS maternal disease) were compared to 103 children of the same age and gender admitted due to disease other than febrile seizure utilizing DSM IV criteria for ADHD. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. The hyperactivity disorder in the control and case group was 34.3% and 16.7%, respectively, denoted a significant relation between simple febrile seizure and hyperactivity. Hyperactivity has a significant relation with febrile seizure in male gender, making further investigation in these children prudent for early diagnosis and management.

  17. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Céline M; Brewster, Amy L; Richichi, Cristina; Zha, Qinqin; Baram, Tallie Z

    2007-10-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This review builds on recent advances derived from animal models and summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying febrile seizures and of changes in neuronal gene expression and function that facilitate the enduring effects of prolonged febrile seizures on neuronal and network excitability. The review also discusses the relevance of these findings to the general mechanisms of epileptogenesis during development and points out gaps in our knowledge, including the relationship of animal models to human febrile seizures and epilepsy.

  18. Serum and CSF adiponectin, leptin, and interleukin 6 levels as adipocytokines in Egyptian children with febrile seizures: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F; Abdalhady, Mohamed A; Almalky, Mohamed A A; Amin, Ezzat K; Sarhan, Dina T; Elhindawy, Eman M; Allah, Mayy A N; Elhewala, Ahmed A; Salam, Mohamed M A; Hashem, Mustafa I A; Soliman, Attia A; Akeel, Nagwa E; Abdellatif, Sawsan H; Elsamad, Nahla A; Rass, Anwar A; Arafat, Manal S

    2016-04-12

    A febrile seizure (FS) is the most common convulsive disorder in children. Activation of cytokine network is involved in FS pathogenesis. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-6 are the major adipocytokines secreted by fat cells. To date, only a few studies concerned the association of adipocytokines with febrile seizures. In this study, we tried to investigate serum and CSF levels of adiponectin, leptin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6); as adipocytokines, for the first time in Egyptian children with febrile seizures. This was a prospective cross-sectional study included one hundred patients with febrile seizure, and matched with age, gender, 100 children with febrile illness without seizures (febrile control, FC) and 100 healthy control group (HC). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of adiponectin, leptin, and (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in children with FS (16.8 ± 3.7 ug/ml) and the FC group (18.3 ± 4.3 ug/ml) compared to the HC group (9.5 ± 2.2 ug/ml); P adiponectin levels similar to those with complex febrile seizures (CFS); (P > 0.05). Serum and CSF leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with CFS compared to the SFS group (P < 0.05). Serum and CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with CFS compared to the SFS group (P < 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the high serum IL-6 levels was the most significant risk factor associated with febrile seizures among studied children (OR: 6.2; 95 % CI: 3.58 -10.57; P = 0.0001). Our data brought a novel observation that some adipocytokines like leptin and IL-6 could be, at least in part, an aetiopathogenetic factor in the manifestation of febrile seizures in susceptible Egyptian children. Moreover, we observed a significant association between high CSF IL-6 levels and susceptibility to complex febrile seizures as did the low CSF leptin levels.

  19. PROCALCITONIN AND INTERLEUKIN-6 AS MARKERS OF SEVERE INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA

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    Lidija Kitanovski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of the study conducted to determine whether procalcitonin (PCT and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are more sensitive and specific markers of severe infection in children with febrile neutropenia (FN than routinelly used C-reactive protein (CRP are presented in the article. 68 episodes of FN experienced by 32 patients were divided into three groups according to the site of infection. Group 1: episodes of bacteraemia and/or clinical sepsis (n = 16, group 2: episodes of focal infection (n = 16 and group 3: episodes of fever of unknown origin (FUO (n = 36. Blood samples for further PCT and IL-6 determination were collected on three consecutive days. CRP concentrations were measured daily in each patient until the resolution of fever. PCT, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were measured on one occassion in each of the 18 afebrile patients with malignant disase forming the reference group. Serum PCT and IL-6 concentrations were measured by immunochemiluminometric and immunoenzymatic assay. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine optimum sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of the studied parameters.Conclusions. PCT and IL-6 were found to be earlier and more sensitive markers of severe infection in neutropenic patients than CRP. The erliest one was IL-6, followed by PCT and CRP. Sequential determination of PCT up to 72 hours improved its diagnostic value, which was not the case for IL-6.In patients with gramnegative bacteraemias PCT concentracions were 3–5 times higher comparing to grampositive, whereas IL-6 concentrations were comparable in both groups.

  20. [Children less than 3 months hospitalised due to acute febrile syndrome. 5 years clinical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Espinola, Benigno Miguel; Herrera Labarca, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Acute fever of unknown origin (AFUO) is established when the anamnesis and physical examination cannot identify the cause. In infants less than 3 months-old this is situation for concern, due to the risk of a serious bacterial infection. To describe the clinical and laboratory variable of patients with AFUO, in order to look for clues in order to base studies on the decisions arising drom this problem. A report is presented on a retrospective study conducted on a cohort of children less than three months-old admitted to the Hospital Roberto del Río (2007-2011) due to an AFUO. Clinical histories were reviewed and the patients were grouped, according to the severity of the admission diagnosis, into severe and non-severe. They were compared in strata determined by the variables of clinical interest. A total of 550 children were admitted with AFUO during the study period. There was low agreement between the severity on admission and at discharge (kappa=0.079; P=.26). There were 23.8% of children in the severe group and 76.2% in the non-severe group. Urinary tract infection predominated in the severe group (68.7%) and 40.7% with acute febrile syndrome in the non-severe group. The cut-off levels for C-reactive protein, white cells, and neutrophils per mm(3), to calculate the fixed and variable indices, only showed negative predictive values of some use for ruling out serious bacterial infection. The ROC curves with white cell and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein, did not provide andy fixed indices of clinical use. More than one-third (34.6%) of lumbar punctures were traumatic or failures. According to the results of this study, there is an obvious excess of hospital admissions, little usefulness in the examinations to identify serious bacterial infection, a high percentage lumbar punctures traumatic and lumbar punctures failures, and an excess of antibiotic treatments. A review of clinical criteria and procedures is needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de

  1. 伴高热惊厥史的儿童癫痌病例分析%Analysis of children epilepsy with history of febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常杏芝; 孟洪弟; 秦炯; 游石琼

    2001-01-01

    分析伴高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿的临床特点,探讨高热惊厥脑损伤及其与颞叶癫痌的关系。方法对1996~1999年本院儿科神经病房480例住院癫痌患儿进行回顾性分析,包括首发年龄、家族史、持续时间、癫痌发作类型、神经影像学及脑电图改变等。结果115例(23.9%)患儿有前期高热惊厥史。伴高热惊厥史的患儿癫痌发作早且易于出现癫痌持续状态。与无高热惊厥史的患儿相比,伴高热惊厥史的患儿强直-阵挛发作较多,复杂部分性发作较少。408例患儿曾行影像学检查,4例提示有海马硬化者均无高热惊厥史。在伴高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿中脑电图局灶起源的异常放电显著低于无高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿。有6.08%(7/115)伴高热惊厥史的癫痌惠儿和6.84%(25/365)无高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿脑电图表现为单纯颞叶异常放电,二组相比无明显差异。结论在癫痌患儿中,高热惊厥可能伴有脑损伤,且可能与后期的癫痌发生有关,伴高热惊厥史者不一定发展为颞叶癫痌。%To investigate clinical characteristics in children with epilepsywho have a history of preceding febrile seizures ,the possible brain damage with febrile seizures, and the relationship of prior febrile seizures to temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods 480 children who were admitted to our pediatric neurological unit from 1996 to 1999 were studied by retrospective analysis including age at onset ,family history, status epilepticus and seizure type, neuroimaging and EEG. Results 115 ( 23.9% ) cases had preceding history of febrile seizures. Children with febrile seizures were younger at onset of epilepsy,and were more likely to develop status epilepticus. Compared with children without febrile seizures, children with prior febrile seizures had more tonic-clonic onset, fewer complex partial seizures. Imaging studies were performed in 408 children(85%), of the 4 children

  2. Alarming signs and symptoms in febrile children in primary care: an observational cohort study in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Elshout

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Febrile children in primary care have a low risk for serious infection. Although several alarming signs and symptoms are proposed to have predictive value for serious infections, most are based on research in secondary care. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms has not been established in primary care; however, in this setting differences in occurrence may influence their predictive value for serious infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of alarming signs/symptoms in febrile children in primary care. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Clinical information was registered in a semi-structured way and manually recoded. SETTING: General practitioners' out-of-hours service. SUBJECTS: Face-to-face patient contacts concerning children (aged ≤16 years with fever were eligible for inclusion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of 18 alarming signs and symptoms as reported in the literature. RESULTS: A total of 10,476 patient contacts were included. The frequency of alarming signs/symptoms ranged from n = 1 (ABC instability; 40°C as reported by the parents; 12.9% to 8,647 contacts (parental concern; 82.5%. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of specific alarming signs/symptoms is low in primary care, ≥50% of children have one or more alarming signs/symptoms. There is a need to determine the predictive value of alarming signs/symptoms not only for serious infections in primary care, but as well for increased risk of a complicated course of the illness.

  3. Rapid lung MRI - paradigm shift in evaluation of febrile neutropenia in children with leukemia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Bhatia, Anmol; Bansal, Deepak; Trehan, Amita; Singh, Meenu; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompromised children with hematological malignancies are at increased risk of developing potentially fatal pulmonary infections. Early detection and prompt treatment is critical to combat morbidity and mortality in these children. Twenty-six children with leukemia (age range: 5-13years) presenting with fever and neutropenia were included in this prospective study, which was approved by the institutional ethics committee. All patients underwent HRCT and MRI of the chest on the same day. The findings of HRCT and MRI were compared, with HRCT as the standard of reference. There was perfect agreement between MRI and CT examinations findings by kappa test (κ = 1). No significant difference was observed between the two modalities by the McNemar test (p > 0.05). Rapid lung MRI is technically feasible; has a high correlation, sensitivity and specificity to CT scan; and can emerge as the first line modality for the detection of pulmonary nodules in children with leukemia and persistent febrile neutropenia.

  4. 小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图分析%Analysis on ambulatory electroencephalogram of children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛; 辛翠娟; 梁东; 贾飞勇; 丁臻博

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图变化.方法:对167例热性惊厥患儿的动态脑电图进行回顾性对比分析.结果:小儿热性惊厥动态脑电图异常改变与年龄、体温、家族遗传史、出生史、发作持续时间、反复发作密切相关,均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:动态脑电图改变对小儿热性惊厥的预后评价具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the changes of ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) of children with febrile convulsion. Methods: The AEEG of 167 children with febrile convulsion were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The abnormal changes of AEEG in children with febrile convulsion were related to age, temperature, history of family heredity, history of birth, duration of febrile convulsion and repeated onset closely, there was significant difference (P <0. 0l ) . Conclusion: The changes of AEEG has important value in evaluation of prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  5. C-Reactive Protein Level as Diagnostic Marker in Young Febrile Children Presenting in a General Practice Out-of-Hours Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Marijke; Elshout, Gijs; Koes, Bart W.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear how well a C-reactive protein (CRP) value predicts a serious infection (SI) in young febrile children in general practice. Methods: This prospective cohort study with 1-week follow-up included children, aged 3 months to 6 years, presenting with fever to a general practition

  6. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Pasternak, Björn; Geller, Frank; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Wang, Tongfei; Huang, Fen; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Svanström, Henrik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hougaard, David M.; Schoggins, John W.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures represent a recognized serious adverse event following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination, and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259; P = 5.9×10−12 vs. controls; P =1.2×10−9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653; P = 9.6×10−11 vs. controls; P = 1.6×10−9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860; P = 2.2×10−16) and SCN2A (rs3769955; P = 3.1×10−10), a TMEM16 family gene (TMEM16C; rs114444506; P = 3.7×10−20), and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468; P = 3.4×10−11). Finally, functional relevance of TMEM16C was demonstrated with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats. PMID:25344690

  7. A review of ibuprofen and acetaminophen use in febrile children and the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanabar, Dipak; Dale, Stephen; Rawat, Mariyam

    2007-12-01

    Although many studies have investigated the safety and tolerability of ibuprofen or acetaminophen (paracetamol) use in children, few have specifically examined the association of ibuprofen or acetaminophen and the occurrence of asthma in pediatric populations. The primary objective of this literature review was to ascertain whether ibuprofen use exacerbates the symptoms of asthma or asthma-related adverse events in febrile children, and how it compares with acetaminophen use. The secondary objective was to develop an algorithm that allows for the consideration of ibuprofen treatment in children by health care professionals. Twelve electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, DARE, British Nursing Index, CBIB, Derwent Drug File, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Pharm-Line, CINAHL, PASCAL, SCZZ-SciSearch) were searched from their year of inception to June 2007, to identify English-language articles pertaining to ibuprofen or acetaminophen use in the asthmatic pediatric population. The following search terms were used: asthma, child, pediatric, pediatrics, ibuprofen, Nurofen, Brufen, Motrin, Advil, propionic acid, paracetamol, and acetaminophen. Of 472 articles retrieved, 3 were relevant for the development of the algorithm. Two were subanalyses of a major randomized controlled trial (RCT), the Boston University Fever Study. Therefore, some overlap should be noted. The third article was another RCT. Other studies and review articles identified were used for the discussion. Findings from the literature analysis indicated that the use of ibuprofen in the pediatric population does not exacerbate asthma morbidity. Two of the studies demonstrated that ibuprofen was associated with a lower risk for asthma morbidity in febrile children with or without asthma compared with acetaminophen. In one study, ibuprofen use was associated with a lower relative risk for hospitalization (0.63) and outpatient visits (0.56) for asthma compared with acetaminophen. In

  8. Prevalence of malaria, prevention measures, and main clinical features in febrile children admitted to the Franceville Regional Hospital, Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghendji-Nzondo Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760; among them 19 (21.4% had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738, after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738. Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months (p = 0.0013. Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001. Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17, followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17. The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162, followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162. Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936 and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001. Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001. The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced.

  9. Comparison of peripheral and central capillary refill time in febrile children presenting to a paediatric emergency department and its utility in identifying children with serious bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos-Kerkhof, Evelien; Krecinic, Tarik; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Moll, Henriëtte A; Nijman, Ruud G; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2017-01-01

    To determine the agreement between peripheral and central capillary refill time (pCRT/cCRT) and their diagnostic values for detecting serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile children attending the paediatric emergency department (ED). Prospective observational study. Paediatric ED, Erasmus Medium Care-Sophia Children's hospital, the Netherlands. 1193 consecutively included, previously healthy, febrile children (1 month-16 years) with both pCRT measurements and cCRT measurements available. SBI diagnosis was based on abnormal radiographic findings and/or positive cultures from normally sterile locations in addition to clinical criteria. Agreement between pCRT and cCRT (Cohen's κ), overall and stratified for age and body temperature. The diagnostic value of pCRT and cCRT for SBI was assessed with logistic regression. Overall agreement was 0.35 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.43; considered 'fair'). Although not significant, agreement was lower in children aged 1-39.5°C. Abnormal pCRT (>2 s) was observed in 153 (12.8%; 95% CI 10.9% to 14.7%) and abnormal cCRT in 55 (4.6%; 95% CI 3.4% to 5.8%) children. The OR of abnormal pCRT (>2 s) for predicting SBI was 1.10 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.84). For abnormal cCRT (>2 s), the OR was 0.43 (95% CI 0.13 to 1.39). The pCRT and cCRT values showed only fair agreement in a general population of febrile children at the ED, and no significant association with age or body temperature was found. Only a small part of febrile children at risk for serious infections at the ED show abnormal CRT values. Both abnormal pCRT and cCRT (defined as >2 s) performed poorly and were non-significant in this study detecting SBI in a general population of febrile children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henritte A.; Nijman, Ruud G.; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. Aim To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Design and setting Observatio

  11. Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndi Seinfeld, DO; Pellock, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Both the International League against Epilepsy and the National Institute of Health has published definitions on the classification of febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures are mostly benign, but a prolonged (complex) febrile seizure can have long term consequences. Most children who have a febrile seizure have normal health and development after the event, but there is recent evidence that suggests a small subset of children that present with seizures and fever may have recurrent seizure or develop epilepsy. This review will give an overview of the definition of febrile seizures, epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, outcomes and recent research. PMID:25383238

  12. The relationship between serum magnesium level and febrile convulsion in 6 months to 6 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of febrile convulsion (FC which is the most frequent seizure disorder in childhood isn’t clear but changes in the serum level of neurotransmitters and trace elements such as magnesium are known to contributing risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study serum magnesium of 32 children with FC and 33 children without FC were compared. Results: 25% of children with FC had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl. In the normal group no one had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl (p=0.05.Conclusion: Decreasing serum level in FC may be one contributing factor in the FC. It does not need to be lower than normal range in these groups of patients

  13. The method of urine sampling is not a valid predictor for vesicoureteral reflux in children after febrile urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Bernhard; Roesch, Judith; Strasser, Christa; Oswald, Josef

    2017-03-16

    The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques. We hypothesized that children with possibly contaminated urine samples during the initial diagnosis may show a lower rate of VUR in subsequent VCUGs because of a wrong diagnosis initially compared to children, where accurate urine sampling techniques were used. Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 555 patients underwent a primary VCUG at our department indicated because of febrile UTIs. Patients with urine collection methods other than bag urine and catheter/suprapubic aspiration (SPA) were excluded from this study (mid-stream urine, potty urine, n = 149). We evaluated 402 patients (male/female 131/271, mean age 1.91 years), VUR rates and grades were compared between patients where urine was sampled by the use of a urine bag only at the time of diagnosis (n = 296, 73.6%) and those where sterile urine sampling (catheter, suprapubic puncture) was performed (n = 106, 26.3%). 4 patients were excluded due to equivocal data on urine sampling. VUR rate in children after sterile urine sampling using a catheter or SPA accounted to 31.1%. In those where urine samples acquired by the use of urine bags were used, 33.7% showed VUR on subsequent VCUG (p = 0.718). There were no significant differences as to VUR grades or gender, although VUR was much more commonly diagnosed in female patients (37

  14. 热性惊厥患儿颅脑磁共振检查的合理应用%Reasonable use of MRI in children with febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the results of brain MRI in children with febrile seizures in order to provide the basis for using brain MRI properly.Methods The clinical data of 1 92 children with febrile seizures hospitalized from June 2013 to June 2014 examined with brain MRI were analyzed retrospectively, and the rate of abnormal brain MRI result was compared between the children with simple febrile seizures and complex febrile seizures.Results There were 1 67 cases of simple febrile seizures and 25 cases of com-plex febrile seizures in all 1 92 children with febrile seizures.Abnormal brain MRI results were detected in 25 cases,the rate of abnormal MRI was 10.2% in simple febrile seizures and 32% in complex febrile seizures. There was significant difference in the rate of abnormal brain MRI between children with simple febrile sei-zures and complex febrile seizures.Conclusion The brain MRI doesn't need to be used routinely in children with simple febrile seizures.If there is higher positive rate of brain MRI in children with complex febrile sei-zures and basic pathological changes are found,the brain MRI should be used routinely.%目的:分析热性惊厥患儿颅脑磁共振检查结果,为临床医生合理应用磁共振检查提供依据。方法解放军第二〇二医院儿科2013年6月至2014年6月收治住院并进行颅脑 MRI 检查的热性惊厥患儿192例,对其临床资料进行分析,比较单纯性和复杂性热性惊厥患儿磁共振检查结果的异常率。结果192例热性惊厥患儿中,单纯性167例,复杂性25例。MRI 结果异常25例,其中单纯性 MRI 异常率为10.2%(17/167),复杂性 MRI 异常率为32.0%(8/25),单纯性与复杂性热性惊厥患儿 MRI 异常率比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。MRI 异常的患儿中,脑白质髓鞘化不良11例,脑室增大和脑外间隙增宽6例,脑室周围白质软化4例,蛛网膜下腔囊肿3例,多发小软化灶1例。结论对于单纯性热性

  15. Association between hypocapnia and febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Buket; Erol, Ilknur; Ozkale, Yasemin; Saygi, Semra; Sariturk, Cagla

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation with subsequent hypocapnia is relevant to febrile seizures in children. This is only the second study to measure pCO2 and pH values in children with febrile seizures. This prospective case-control study enrolled 18 children who presented with febrile seizures and 18 children who presented with a febrile illness without seizures. Venous blood gas analyses were measured both from the febrile seizure and control group. There was no significant difference in mean blood pH between the febrile seizure and control groups but blood pCO2 was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group. Patients with complex febrile seizures exhibited significantly lower pCO2 levels within 1 hour of seizure onset than patients with simplex febrile seizures. These data indicate that febrile seizures may be associated with hyperventilation and that the ensuing hypocapnia may contribute to the development of febrile seizures.

  16. Alterations of cell-mediated immune response in children with febrile seizures Alterações da resposta imune celular em crianças portadoras de convulsão febril

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    Terezinha C.B. Montelli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the distribution of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood defined by monoclonal antibodies and by the lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PH A in 30 children with febrile seizures and in 14 age-matched control subjects. Frequent respiratory, urinary and dermatologic infections were observed in 22 patients. The immunologic parameters showed that 64% of the patients presented an increased number of CD8+ cells and a low helper/suppressor ratio was observed in 60% of the patients. In addition, the proliferative response of lymphocytes to PHA was impaired in the patients. It was observed the presence of inhibitory activity on lymphocyte function in the plasma of 33% of children with febrile seizures. These results suggest that patients with febrile seizures have an impairment of cellular immunity that may be connected with this epileptic syndrome and explain the infections observed.O objetivo da presente investigação foi estudar a distribuição das subpopulações de células T por meio de anticorpos monoclonais e a resposta proliferativa de linfócitos em resposta a fito-hemaglutinina (PHA em 30 crianças portadoras de convulsão febril e em 14 crianças saudáveis de mesma faixa etária dos pacientes. Infecções respiratórias, urinárias e dermatológicas frequentes foram observadas em 22 pacientes. Os parâmetros imunológicos demonstraram que 64% dos pacientes apresentaram valores elevados de células CD8+. Diminuição da relação de células CD4/CD8 foi observada em 60% dos pacientes. Além disso, a resposta proliferativa de linfócitos frente a PHA apresentou-se deprimida nos pacientes. Foi observada a presença de atividade inibidora da função de linfócitos no plasma de 33% das crianças com convulsão febril. Esses resultados sugerem que pacientes com convulsão febril apresentam depressão da resposta imune celular que poderia implicar em associação patog

  17. 热性惊厥患儿60例临床分析%Clinical analysis in 60 children with febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童热性惊厥(FC)的临床特点.方法:对60例FC患儿临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:60例FC患儿首发中有83.33%在3岁以下,男多于女,36.67%患儿有惊厥家族史;复发率为33.33%,癫痫发生率为3.33%;智力低下为1.67%.行为异常SFC为17.5%,CFC为55%.结论:FC的远期预后良好,若无特殊情况无需药物预防.%Objective : To investigate the clinical characteristic of children with febrile convulsion .Methods :The detailed data of 60 cases of febrile convulsion were analyzed retrospectively. Results :There were 83. 33% children in 60 cases with febrile convulion ,whose age below three-years old first onset,male exceed female,there were 36. 67% children had family medical history, relapse rate was 33. 33%,incidence rate of epilepsy was 3. 33% ; mental retardation was 1. 67%. dystropy in simple febrile convulsion was 17. 5%,in complex febrile convulsion was 55% . Conclusion : Febrile convulsion children have long-term eusemia they do not need drug prophylaxis , unless 8pecial circumstance.

  18. FEBRILE SEIZURE IN THALASSEMIC PATIENTS

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    Soroor INALOO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common seizure disorder in children. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood yet; however, some risk factors have been cited for it. Iron is one of these influential elements and is involved in the metabolism of some neurotransmitters which are reduced in irondeficiency anemia and also increases the sensitivity of neural cells during a febrile episode. The present study aimed to determine the rate of febrile seizure in thalassemic patients and to compare it with the corresponding rate in the normal population.Materials & MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 766 patients with thalassemia major. They were all older than 6 months and were referred to Dastghaib Cooly's Clinic, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from Oct 2006 to May 2007, and 766 normal and healthy children as the control group. Questionnaires containing demographic data and past history of febrile seizure, age of febrile seizure, number of episodes, hospitalization, and related family history were prepared and filled through interviewing the parents.ResultsFebrile seizure was detected in 7 cases of the patient group (0.9% versus 18 cases (2.3% of the control group. The frequency of febrile seizure in the controls was 2.5 times more than that in the thalassemia group, which was statistically significant (P ConclusionThis study showed a lower rate of febrile convulsion in thalassemic patients compared to the control group. Accordingly, it could be suggested that high iron storage is a protective factor against febrile convulsion.Keywords:seizure, febrile, thalassemia, convulsion

  19. Randomized comparative trial of efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children

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    Falgun Indravadan Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Paracetamol and ibuprofen are widely used for fever in children as monotherapy and as combined therapy. None of the treatments is proven clearly superior to others. Hence, the study was planned to compare the efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children. Materials and Methods: This was an investigator blind, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 99 febrile children, 6 months to 12 years of age, allocated to three groups. First group received paracetamol 15 mg/kg, second group received ibuprofen 10 mg/kg and third group received both paracetamol and ibuprofen, all as a single dose by the oral route. Patients were followed-up at intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h post dose by tympanic thermometry. Results: Mean tympanic temperature after 4 h of drug administration was significantly lower in the combination group compared with paracetamol group (P < 0.05; however, the difference was not clinically significant (<1΀C. The rate of fall of temperature was highest in the combination group. Number of afebrile children any time post dose until 4 h was highest in the combination group. Difference between combination and paracetamol was significant for the 1 st h (P = 0.04. Highest fall of temperature was noted in the 1 st h of drug administration in all the groups. No serious adverse events were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: Paracetamol and ibuprofen combination caused quicker temperature reduction than either paracetamol or ibuprofen alone. If quicker reduction of body temperature is the desired goal of therapy, the use of combination of paracetamol + ibuprofen may be advocated.

  20. Convulsiones febriles

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Ruiz-García

    2015-01-01

    La Liga Internacional de Lucha contra la Epilepsia y la Organización Mundial de la Salud consideran a las convulsiones febriles como eventos comunes y benignos de la etapa infantil. Las convulsiones febriles son la forma más frecuente de crisis convulsiva en la infancia y afectan de 2 a 4% de los menores de 5 años en Estados Unidos y Europa, de 9 a 10% en Japón y hasta a 14% en Guam.

  1. Convulsiones febriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ruiz-García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Liga Internacional de Lucha contra la Epilepsia y la Organización Mundial de la Salud consideran a las convulsiones febriles como eventos comunes y benignos de la etapa infantil. Las convulsiones febriles son la forma más frecuente de crisis convulsiva en la infancia y afectan de 2 a 4% de los menores de 5 años en Estados Unidos y Europa, de 9 a 10% en Japón y hasta a 14% en Guam.

  2. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luis H; Farrokhyar, Forough; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Pemberton, Julia; Lorenzo, Armando J

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively investigated the impact of risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with postnatally confirmed prenatal hydronephrosis. Patients seen for prenatal hydronephrosis from 2010 to 2013 were prospectively followed. Those with ectopic ureters and ureteroceles, posterior urethral valves and neuropathic bladders were excluded. The primary outcome was febrile catheter specimen urinary tract infection. We performed univariate analysis of 7 a priori risk factors, including age, hydronephrosis grade (low-I or II vs high-III or IV), type (isolated hydronephrosis vs hydroureteronephrosis), continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, vesicoureteral reflux grade, gender and circumcision status. Time to febrile urinary tract infection curves analyzed by Cox proportional regression were generated to adjust for confounders. We collected data on 334 patients, of whom 78% were male. A febrile urinary tract infection developed in 65 patients (19%) at a median of 4 months (range 1 to 31). High grade hydronephrosis was present in 192 infants (57%). Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 96 cases (29%). Of patients on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis 69% had high grade hydronephrosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was identified in 57 of 238 patients in whom voiding cystourethrogram was done. Reflux was grade I to III in 14 cases and grade IV or V in 43. Two-thirds of the patients with reflux were on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Circumcision was performed in 95 males (36%). Cox proportional regression identified female gender (HR 3.3, p = 0.02), uncircumcised males (HR 3.2, p = 0.02), hydroureteronephrosis (HR 10.9, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis excluding vesicoureteral reflux showed that high grade prenatal hydronephrosis was also a significant risk factor (HR 3.0, p = 0.04). After patients with vesicoureteral reflux were excluded from the study, females and uncircumcised males with high grade hydroureteronephrosis had significantly

  3. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome.

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    Kristina Elfving

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission.We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (qPCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH (all patients and rectal (GE swabs (diarrhoea patients. For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated.NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98% and 153/164 (93% of patients and 158/166 (95% and 144/165 (87% of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677 had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342 had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%, influenza A/B (22.3%, rhinovirus (10.5% and group-A streptococci (6.4%, CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%, Shigella (4.3% were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83 without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74% patients, but only 152 (22% had an infection retrospectively considered to require

  4. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. Methods We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2–59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. Findings NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection

  5. Convulsiones febriles

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    Martha L. Vélez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available e revisaron las historias clínicas de 118 niños con diagnóstico de convulsión febril, que acudieron a la consulta externa de lactantes del Hospital Infantil (Hospital Universitario San vicente de Paúl de Medellín.

  6. Clinical Nursing Observation of Children With Febrile Convulsion%小儿高热惊厥临床护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽密

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥的原因、探求最佳临床护理方法。方法分析我院2014年8月~2015年8月收治的100例小儿高热惊厥护理经验。结果发生小儿高热惊厥的患者年龄以1~3岁居多,占65%;发生支气管炎占15%;呼吸道感染占70%。本组100例患者中,治愈了98例,好转了2例。结论小儿高热惊厥先兆早期发现征兆的话能快速有效的治疗,控制高热、惊厥、保持呼吸道的畅通是治疗小儿高热惊厥的关键。%Objective To observe the cause of the children with febrile convulsion, ifnd the best method of clinical nursing.Methods From August 2014 to August 2015, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion nursing experience.Results Children with febrile convulsion occurred in patients aged 1 to 3 years old, was 65%. Bronchitis (15%). Respiratory infection (70%). 100 cases of patients, 98 cases cured, 2 cases improved.ConclusionChildren with febrile convulsion aura early detection of signs can fast effective treatment, control of high fever, convulsions, keep respiratory tract clear is the key to the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.

  7. Inequalities in care-seeking for febrile illness of under-five children in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najnin, Nusrat; Bennett, Catherine M; Luby, Stephen P

    2011-10-01

    Fever is an easily-recognizable primary sign for many serious childhood infections. In Bangladesh, 31% of children aged less than five years (under-five children) die from serious infections, excluding confirmed acute respiratory infections or diarrhoea. Understanding healthcare-seeking behaviour for children with fever could provide insights on how to reduce this high rate of mortality. Data from a cross-sectional survey in the catchment areas of two tertiary-level paediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were analyzed to identify the factors associated with the uptake of services from trained healthcare providers for under-five children with reported febrile illness. Health and demographic data were collected in a larger study of 7,865 children using structured questionnaires. Data were selected from 1,290 of these under-five children who were taken to any healthcare provider for febrile illness within two months preceding the date of visit by the study team. Certified doctors were categorized as 'trained', and other healthcare providers were categorized as 'untrained'. Healthcare-seeking behaviours were analyzed in relation to these groups. A wealth index was constructed using principal component analysis to classify the households into socioeconomic groups. The odds ratios for factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviours were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for clustering. Forty-one percent of caregivers (n=529) did not seek healthcare from trained healthcare providers. Children from the highest wealth quintile were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR)=5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-9.2] to be taken to trained healthcare providers compared to the poorest group. Young infants were more likely to be taken to trained healthcare providers compared to the age-group of 4-illness in urban Dhaka. Girls from poor families were less likely to access qualified medical care. To reduce child mortality in the short term, health

  8. Radiographic Evaluation of Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: Bottom-Up, Top-Down, or None of the Above?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaella M. Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper algorithm for the radiographic evaluation of children with febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI is hotly debated. Three studies are commonly administered: renal-bladder ultrasound (RUS, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG, and dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA scan. However, the order in which these tests are obtained depends on the methodology followed: bottom-up or top-down. Each strategy carries advantages and disadvantages, and some groups now advocate even less of a workup (none of the above due to the current controversies about treatment when abnormalities are diagnosed. New technology is available and still under investigation, but it may help to clarify the interplay between vesicoureteral reflux, renal scarring, and dysfunctional elimination in the future.

  9. FEBRILE SEIZURE IN THALASSEMIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common seizure disorder in children. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood yet; however, some risk factors have been cited for it. Iron is one of these influential elements and is involved in the metabolism of some neurotransmitters which are reduced in irondeficiency anemia and also increases the sensitivity of neural cells during a febrile episode. The present study aimed to determine the rate of febrile seizure in thalassemic patients and to compare it with the corresponding rate in the normal population.Materials & MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 766 patients with thalassemia major. They were all older than 6 months and were referred to Dastghaib Cooly's Clinic, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from Oct 2006 to May 2007, and 766 normal and healthy children as the control group. Questionnaires containing demographic data and past history of febrile seizure, age of febrile seizure, number of episodes, hospitalization, and related family history were prepared and filled through interviewing the parents.ResultsFebrile seizure was detected in 7 cases of the patient group (0.9% versus 18 cases (2.3% of the control group. The frequency of febrile seizure in the controls was 2.5 times more than that in the thalassemia group, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05.ConclusionThis study showed a lower rate of febrile convulsion in thalassemic patients compared to the control group. Accordingly, it could be suggested that high iron storage is a protective factor against febrile convulsion.

  10. Diagnostic testing of pediatric fevers: meta-analysis of 13 national surveys assessing influences of malaria endemicity and source of care on test uptake for febrile children under five years.

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    Emily White Johansson

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Health Organization revised guidelines to recommend diagnosis of all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. There has been no systematic assessment of malaria test uptake for pediatric fevers at the population level as countries start implementing guidelines. We examined test use for pediatric fevers in relation to malaria endemicity and treatment-seeking behavior in multiple sub-Saharan African countries in initial years of implementation.We compiled data from national population-based surveys reporting fever prevalence, care-seeking and diagnostic use for children under five years in 13 sub-Saharan African countries in 2009-2011/12 (n = 105,791. Mixed-effects logistic regression models quantified the influence of source of care and malaria endemicity on test use after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates. Results were stratified by malaria endemicity categories: low (PfPR2-1040%. Among febrile under-fives surveyed, 16.9% (95% CI: 11.8%-21.9% were tested. Compared to hospitals, febrile children attending non-hospital sources (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.69 and community health workers (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23-0.43 were less often tested. Febrile children in high-risk areas had reduced odds of testing compared to low-risk settings (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.42-0.62. Febrile children in least poor households were more often tested than in poorest (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.91, as were children with better-educated mothers compared to least educated (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.54.Diagnostic testing of pediatric fevers was low and inequitable at the outset of new guidelines. Greater testing is needed at lower or less formal sources where pediatric fevers are commonly managed, particularly to reach the poorest. Lower test uptake in high-risk settings merits further investigation given potential implications for diagnostic scale-up in these areas. Findings could inform continued implementation of new guidelines to improve access to

  11. Systematic review of fever, febrile convulsions and serious adverse events following administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Kim-Moy, J; Yin, J K; Rashid, H; Khandaker, G; King, C; Wood, N; Macartney, K K; Jones, C; Booy, R

    2015-06-18

    In 2010, increased febrile convulsions (FC) occurred after administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in Australia. We systematically reviewed the rates of fever, FC and serious adverse events (SAEs) after TIV, focussing on published and unpublished clinical trial data from 2005 to 2012, and performed meta-analysis of fever rates. From 4,372 records in electronic databases, 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 14 non-randomised clinical trials, six observational studies and 12 registered trials (five RCTs and seven non-randomised) were identified. In published RCTs, fever ≥ 38 °C rates after first dose of non-adjuvanted TIV were 6.7% and 6.9% for children aged 6–35 months and ≥ 3 years, respectively. Analysis of RCTs by vaccine manufacturer showed pooled fever estimates up to 5.1% with Sanofi or GlaxoSmithKline vaccines; bioCSL vaccines were used in two non-randomised clinical trials and one unpublished RCT and were associated with fever in 22.5–37.1% for children aged 6–35 months. In RCTs, FCs occurred at a rate of 1.1 per 1,000 vaccinated children. While most TIVs induced acceptably low fever rates, bioCSL influenza vaccines were associated with much higher rates of fever in young children. Future standardised study methodology and access to individual level data would be illuminating.

  12. Predictive indices of empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among under-five febrile children attending paediatric outpatient clinic

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    Hassan A Elechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria has remained an important public health problem in Nigeria with children under 5 years of age bearing the greatest burden. Accurate and prompt diagnosis of malaria is an important element in the fight against the scourge. Due to the several limitations of microscopy, diagnosis of malaria has continued to be made based on clinical ground against several World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Thus, we aim to assess the performance of empirical clinical diagnosis among febrile children under 5 years of age in a busy pediatric outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study. Children aged <5 years with fever or 72 h history of fever were recruited. Children on antimalarial prophylaxis or on treatment for malaria were excluded. Relevant information was obtained from the caregiver and clinical note of the child using interviewer administered questionnaire. Two thick and two thin films were made, stained, and read for each recruited child. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 433 children studied, 98 (22.6% were empirically diagnosed as having malaria and antimalarial drug prescribed. Twenty-three (23.5% of these children were confirmed by microscopy to have malaria parasitemia, while 75 (76.5% were negative for malaria parasitemia. Empirical clinical diagnosis show poor predictive indices with sensitivity of 19.2%, specificity of 76.0%, positive predictive value of 23.5% and negative predictive value of 71%. Conclusion and Recommendations: Empirical clinical diagnosis of malaria among the under-five children with symptoms suggestive of acute malaria is highly not reliable and hence the need to strengthen parasitological diagnosis.

  13. Assessment of serum zinc, selenium and copper in simple febrile convulsions in children aged 6 to 60 months in Mohammad Kermanshahi Hospital in 2012 year

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    Simin Gheini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some trace elements may play a role in the etiology of febrile convulsions. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between serum zinc, selenium and copper level and febrile convulsion. Methods: In this case – control study, 114 children with febrile disease and 101 children with simple febrile convulsion were selected as control and case groups, respectively. After collecting all samples, serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper were measured and the obtained data were analyzed by Spss software using independent t-test Results: Mean serum zinc level in control group (80.24±10.06 was significantly higher than that of the case group (63.54±6.7 (P<0.001. Mean serum selenium level in control group (80.78±10.12 was significantly higher that that of the case group (59.32±6.92 (P<0.001. Mean serum copper level in the male control group (73.08±9.68 was significantly lower than that of the case group (81.80 ±10.81 (P<0.001. Conclusion: The causal correlation between variables cannot be determined by only one case-control study. Only the differences between groups are reported.

  14. Febrile seizures: A review for family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common cause of convulsions in children. Most are simple in nature, although those with focal onset, prolonged duration (³15 min) or those that recur within 24 h or within the same febrile illness are considered complex. Diagnosis of this condition is essentially clinical and based on its description provided by parents. Its pathophysiology remains unclear, but genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Although most febrile seizures are ben...

  15. Diurnal and Seasonal Occurrence of Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Millichap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from University of Oulu, Finland, evaluated the diurnal and seasonal occurrence of the first febrile seizures (FS in 461 children in a population-based study of 1522 children.

  16. Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzell, Kimberly; Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Ali, Abdullah S; Msellem, Mwinyi; Gulati, Shilpa; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-01-28

    In Zanzibar, malaria prevalence dropped substantially in the last decade and presently most febrile patients seen in primary health care facilities (PHCF) test negative for malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows rural health workers to reliably rule out malaria in fever patients. However, additional diagnostic tools to identify alternative fever causes are scarce, often leaving RDT-negative patients without a clear diagnosis and management plan. This pilot study aimed to explore health workers' practices with febrile children and identify factors influencing their diagnostic and management decisions in non-malarial fever patients. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 health workers in six PHCFs in North A district, Zanzibar, April to June 2011. Interviews were coded using Atlas.ti to identify emerging themes that play a role in the diagnosis and management of febrile children. The following themes were identified: 1) health workers use caregivers' history of illness and RDT results for initial diagnostic and management decisions, but suggest caregivers need more education to prevent late presentation and poor health outcomes; 2) there is uncertainty regarding viral versus bacterial illness and health workers feel additional point-of-care diagnostic tests would help with differential diagnoses; 3) stock-outs of medications and limited caregivers' resources are barriers to delivering good care; 4) training, short courses and participation in research as well as; 5) weather also influences diagnostic decision-making. This pilot study found that health workers in Zanzibar use caregiver history of fever and results of malaria RDTs to guide management of febrile children. However, since most febrile children test negative for malaria, health workers believe additional training and point-of-care tests would improve their ability to diagnose and manage non-malarial fevers. Educating caregivers on signs and symptoms of

  17. Impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections at the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections (SBI attending the emergency department (ED.Randomized controlled trial with 439 febrile children, aged 1 month-16 years, attending the pediatric ED of a Dutch university hospital during 2010-2012. Febrile children were randomly assigned to the intervention (clinical decision model; n = 219 or the control group (usual care; n = 220. The clinical decision model included clinical symptoms, vital signs, and C-reactive protein and provided high/low-risks for "pneumonia" and "other SBI". Nurses were guided by the intervention to initiate additional tests for high-risk children. The clinical decision model was evaluated by 1 area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC to indicate discriminative ability and 2 feasibility, to measure nurses' compliance to model recommendations. Primary patient outcome was defined as correct SBI diagnoses. Secondary process outcomes were defined as length of stay; diagnostic tests; antibiotic treatment; hospital admission; revisits and medical costs.The decision model had good discriminative ability for both pneumonia (n = 33; AUC 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.90 and other SBI (n = 22; AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.90. Compliance to model recommendations was high (86%. No differences in correct SBI determination were observed. Application of the clinical decision model resulted in less full-blood-counts (14% vs. 22%, p-value < 0.05 and more urine-dipstick testing (71% vs. 61%, p-value < 0.05.In contrast to our expectations no substantial impact on patient outcome was perceived. The clinical decision model preserved, however, good discriminatory ability to detect SBI, achieved good compliance among nurses and resulted in a more standardized diagnostic approach towards febrile children, with less full blood-counts and more rightfully urine-dipstick testing.Nederlands Trial Register NTR2381.

  18. A prospective, randomized study of empirical antifungal therapy for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Désirée; Cesaro, Simone; Ziino, Ottavio; Ragusa, Pietro; Pontillo, Alfredo; Pegoraro, Anna; Santoro, Nicola; Zanazzo, Giulio; Poggi, Vincenzo; Giacchino, Mareva; Livadiotti, Susanna; Melchionda, Fraia; Chiodi, Marcello; Aricò, Maurizio

    2012-07-01

    Given that the rationale for empirical antifungal therapy in neutropenic children is limited and based on adult patient data, we performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial that evaluated 110 neutropenic children with persistent fever. Those at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI) received caspofungin (Arm C) or liposomal amphotericinB (Arm B); those with a lower risk were randomized to receive Arm B, C, or no antifungal treatment (Arm A). Complete response to empirical antifungal therapy was achieved in 90/104 patients (86·5%): 48/56 at high risk (85·7%) [88·0% in Arm B; 83·9% in Arm C (P = 0·72)], and 42/48 at low risk (87·5%) [87·5% in control Arm A, 80·0% Arm B, 94·1% Arm C; (P = 0·41)]. None of the variables tested by multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant effect on the probability to achieve complete response. IFI was diagnosed in nine patients (8·2%, 95% confidence interval, 3·8-15·0). This randomized controlled study showed that empirical antifungal therapy was of no advantage in terms of survival without fever and IFI in patients aged <18 years and defined with low risk of IFI. Higher risk patients, including those with relapsed cancer, appear to be the target for empirical antifungal therapy during protracted febrile neutropenia.

  19. Prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. Methods To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children wit...

  20. Febrile Children at a General Practice Out-of-hours Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kool (Marijke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractChildhood fever occurs frequently in young children and is a common reason for parents to contact a general practitioner (GP). On average children have suffered from 8 infective episodes at the age of 18 months. In an English birth cohort of 13,617 young children, parents have report

  1. Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Children : A Cohort Study during Out-of-Hours Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Gijs; Kool, Marijke; Van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Moll, Henriette A.; Koes, Bart W.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fever is common in children and often self-limiting, nevertheless antibiotics are frequently prescribed. We determined how often antibiotics were prescribed in children presenting with fever at a family physicians' out-of-hours service and established the children's signs and symptoms re

  2. Clinical features and dynamic ordinary laboratory tests differentiating dengue fever from other febrile illnesses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ho; Huang, Yi-Chuan; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Li, Chung-Chen

    2017-06-30

    Dengue fever is not easily to be diagnosed before presentation of the classic symptoms. The study aimed to investigate the clinical features and dynamic laboratory tests in pediatric patients to facilitate dengue diagnosis. This retrospective study examined the medical records of all pediatric patients who were clinically suspected to have dengue from June to December 2014. Laboratory-positive dengue cases were confirmed by detecting non-structural protein NS1, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of dengue virus, and dengue-specific IgM seroconversion. Of the 317 pediatric cases clinically suspected of dengue, 205 were laboratory-positive and 112 were laboratory-negative. In laboratory-positive cases, the most common clinical manifestation was skin rash in 156 (76.1%). Leukopenia occurred on days 1-5; thrombocytopenia, on days 2-7; prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), on days 1-4; and elevated transaminase levels, on days 3-11; and low CRP, on days 0-14. The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of combining of rash, itching and petechiae increased up to 100%. The PPV of combining of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated transaminase levels reached 100% on day 2 as well as days 6-8. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated aPTT, elevated transaminase levels, and low CRP could be used to differentiate dengue fever from other febrile illnesses. During dengue epidemics, combinations of the symptoms and laboratory findings are helpful to physicians for accurate diagnosis of dengue fever. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Frequency of fever episodes related to febrile seizure recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the number of fever episodes as a risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence during the first 6 months after the last previous febrile seizure. In a 6-month follow-up study of 155 children, aged 3 months to 5 y, with a first or a recurrent febrile

  4. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  5. Role of viruses in febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H M; Parry, J V; Parry, R P; Davies, H A; Sanderson, P J; Tyrrell, D A; Valman, H B

    1979-11-01

    A disseminated viral illness was demonstrated by isolating a virus from the CSF, blood or urine in 27% of 73 children who were admitted to hospital after a first febrile convulsion. However, a viral aetiology could be implicated for 86% of the children after combining results of tissue culture, electron microscopy, mouse inoculation, complement fixation tests, and interferon assay. Parallel bacterial cultures showed a possible pathogen in 29% of children, but in only 4% was the pathogen isolated from the CSF, blood, or urine. No correlation was found between the nature of the pathogen (or evidence of its dissemination) and the severity of the convulsion, degree of fever, CSF protein, CSF white cells, or the WBC. The results suggest that a febrile convulsion could be a response to invasion of the blood stream or central nervous system by a micro-organism which is usually a virus. Invasion may be of such brief duration that successful isolation of the virus from the blood, CSF, or urine in not more commonly achieved.

  6. A study of treatment seeking behaviour for malaria and its management in febrile children in rural part of desert, Rajasthan, Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Yada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: For management of malaria, there is a need to give attention on specificgroup of people like children <5 yr of age in the community. They are unable to explain theirfeelings about severity of illness and effects of treatment on health and they are dependent onothers for their health care, therefore, it is the mother who can seek, obtain, and use medicationappropriately. This is directly linked to the level of education, socioeconomic status, timely decision,accessibility of health facility, correct use of drugs and their follow-up. The present study wasundertaken with the aim to know the basis on which malaria was recognized and classified andexploring factors involved in the selection of different treatment options in the desert populationof Rajasthan.Methods: Interview and observation techniques were used for data collection in 15 villages ofRamgarh PHC in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan state, India. A total of 164 mothers were interviewedand observations were made by the investigators in the group discussions who utilized healthfacility for the febrile children <5 yr of age.Results: More than 93.3% mothers started taking care at home for their febrile children andwatched for improvement on an average up to 72 h. When they thought there was no hope tomanage the case at their level, they shifted their febrile children to the nearest health facility suchas sub-centre/PHC/private health practitioner. Utilization of health facility was linked with theage of the child, with younger children (<24 months of age being significantly more likely to beutilized nearby health facility than 24–59 months children. Children judged as severely ill by theirmothers utilized health facility significantly more often than those not thought to be severely ill.Mothers from households where the household heads had a primary or secondary education weremore likely to utilize health facility than those household heads having no education

  7. The diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor compared with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in children with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinoglu, Melis; Soysal, Ahmet; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Cinel, Ismail; Koç, Ahmet; Tokuç, Gülnur; Yaman, Ali; Haklar, Goncagül; Şirikçi, Önder; Turan, Serap; Altınkanat Gelmez, Gülşen; Söyletir, Güner; Bakır, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia. A prospective case-control study was performed. Patients included 29 children with febrile neutropenia (FN) and 27 control subjects without any infection or immunosuppressive condition. Blood samples were obtained on the day of admission and on the 4th to 7th days of the hospital stay. The median (minimum-maximum) serum levels of suPAR obtained on the first day of the admission were 2.08 (0.93-9.42) and 2.22 (1.08-5.13) ng/mL for the FN group and the control group, respectively. The median serum levels of suPAR in the FN and control groups were not significantly different (P = .053). The mean serum suPAR level was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the FN group (P febrile neutropenia; however, persistent high serum suPAR level may predict mortality in FN in children.

  8. TRPV1 promotes repetitive febrile seizures by pro-inflammatory cytokines in immature brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Xian; Yu, Fang; Sanchez, Russell M; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Min, Jia-Wei; Hu, Jiang-Jian; Bsoul, Najeeb Bassam; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder in children, and children with FS are regarded as a high risk for the eventual development of epilepsy. Brain inflammation may be implicated in the mechanism of FS. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is believed to act as a monitor and regulator of body temperature. The role of inflammation in synaptic plasticity mediation indicates that TRPV1 is relevant to several nervous system diseases, such as epilepsy. Here, we report a critical role for TRPV1 in a febrile seizure mouse model and reveal increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the immature brain. Animals were subjected to hyperthermia for 30 min, which generates seizures lasting approximately 20 min, and then were used for experiments. To invoke frequently repetitive febrile seizures, mice are exposed to hyperthermia for three times daily at an interval of 4h between every time induced seizure, and a total of 4 days to induce. Behavioral testing for febrile seizures revealed that a TRPV1 knock-out mouse model demonstrated a prolonged onset latency and a shortened duration and seizure grade of febrile seizure when compared with wild type (WT) mice. The expression levels of both TRPV1 mRNA and protein increased after a hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure in WT mice. Notably, TRPV1 activation resulted in a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1) in the hippocampus and cortex. These data indicate that the reduction of TRPV1 expression parallels a decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures. Thus, preventative strategies might be developed for use during febrile seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...... born in Denmark between January 1977 and December 1986 was followed until December 2001 by using data from nationwide registries. RESULTS: We followed 558,958 persons including 16,429 with a history of febrile seizures for 2.8 million person-years and identified 952 persons who were diagnosed...... with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...

  10. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...... restricting the analyses to people with no history of epilepsy. A history of both febrile seizures and epilepsy was associated with a 204% increased risk of schizophrenia (RR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.79) as compared with people with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: We found a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia......BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...

  11. Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen versus Monotherapies in Improvements of Distress and Reducing Refractory Fever in Febrile Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuanghong; Ran, Mengdong; Luo, Qiuhong; Shu, Min; Guo, Qin; Zhu, Yu; Xie, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chongfan; Wan, Chaomin

    2017-05-18

    No evidence can be found in the medical literature about the efficacy of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen treatment in children with refractory fever. Our objective was to assess the effect of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy on distress and refractory fever compared with acetaminophen or ibuprofen as monotherapy in febrile children. A total of 474 febrile children with axillary temperature ≥38.5 °C and fever history ≤3 days in a tertiary hospital were randomly assigned to receive either (1) alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen (acetaminophen 10 mg/kg per dose with shortest interval of 4 h and ibuprofen 10 mg/kg per dose with shortest interval of 6 h and the shortest interval between acetaminophen and ibuprofen ≥2 h; n = 158), (2) acetaminophen monotherapy (10 mg/kg per dose with shortest interval of 4 h; n = 158), or (3) ibuprofen monotherapy (10 mg/kg per dose with shortest interval of 6 h; n = 158). The mean Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC) score was measured every 4 h, and axillary temperatures were measured every 2 h. In total, 471 children were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. No significant clinical or statistical difference was found in mean NCCPC score or temperature during the 24-h treatment period in all febrile children across the three groups. Although the proportion of children with refractory fever for 4 h and 6 h was significantly lower in the alternating group than in the monotherapy groups (4 h: 11.54% vs. 26.58% vs. 21.66%, respectively [p = 0.003]; 6 h: 3.85% vs. 10.13% vs. 17.83%, respectively [p acetaminophen and ibuprofen can reduce the proportion of children with refractory fever, but if one cycle of alternating therapy cannot reduce febrile distress as defined by NCCPC score, two or more cycles of alternating therapy may have minimal to no clinical efficacy in some cases. The trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry as Chi

  12. Probabilities of Dilating Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children with First Time Simple Febrile Urinary Tract Infection, and Normal Renal and Bladder Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Tangngamsakul, Onjira

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated risk factors and assessed predicted probabilities for grade III or higher vesicoureteral reflux (dilating reflux) in children with a first simple febrile urinary tract infection and normal renal and bladder ultrasound. Data for 167 children 2 to 72 months old with a first febrile urinary tract infection and normal ultrasound were compared between those who had dilating vesicoureteral reflux (12 patients, 7.2%) and those who did not. Exclusion criteria consisted of history of prenatal hydronephrosis or familial reflux and complicated urinary tract infection. The logistic regression model was used to identify independent variables associated with dilating reflux. Predicted probabilities for dilating reflux were assessed. Patient age and prevalence of nonEscherichia coli bacteria were greater in children who had dilating reflux compared to those who did not (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004, respectively). Gender distribution was similar between the 2 groups (p = 0.08). In multivariate analysis older age and nonE. coli bacteria independently predicted dilating reflux, with odds ratios of 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.02) and 3.76 (95% CI 1.05-13.39, p = 0.04), respectively. The impact of nonE. coli bacteria on predicted probabilities of dilating reflux increased with patient age. We support the concept of selective voiding cystourethrogram in children with a first simple febrile urinary tract infection and normal ultrasound. Voiding cystourethrogram should be considered in children with late onset urinary tract infection due to nonE. coli bacteria since they are at risk for dilating reflux even if the ultrasound is normal. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intelligence level and structure in children with febrile seizures%热性惊厥儿童的智力水平和智力结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冰心; 赵亚茹; 谭迎花; 姜淑萍

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the characteristics of the intelligence level and structure in school-aged children with a history of febrile seizures (FS).[Methods] Thirty children with a history of simple febrile seizures (SFS),30 children with a history of complex febrile seizures (CFS) and 34 children without a history of FS were assessed using China Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children(C-WISC).The scores among groups were compared.[Results] The full intelligence quotient (FIQ),verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the SFS and CFS group were in normal ranges and did not different from the normal group.There were significant differences in the scores for coding,similarities and M/C factor between the CFS group and normal group (F=3.169,2.967,3.082,P<0.05).There was significantly different in balancing tests of three groups (x2 =4.099,6.461,P<0.05).[Conclusions] It is normal in the total intelligence level of FS children,but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure.The M/C factor of CFS children have some defects and CFS children might be brain dysfunction associated with memory and attention.%[目的]分析热性惊厥(febrile seizures,FS)儿童学龄期的智力水平和智力结构状况. [方法]采用中国韦氏儿童智力量表(China Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children,C-WISC)对30例有单纯型热性惊厥(simple febrile seizures,SFS)史、30例有复杂型热性惊厥(complex febrile seizures,CFS)史和34例无热性惊厥史的正常健康儿童进行智商测定,并对其智力结构进行分析. [结果]SFS组、CFS组和对照组的总智商(full intelligence quotient,FIQ)、言语智商(verbal IQ,VlQ)、操作智商(performance IQ,PIQ),差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).CFS组与对照组比较,编码及分类差异有统计学意义(F=3.169,2.967,P均<0.05),两组智商中的记忆/注意因子(M/C)差异有统计学意义(F=3.082,P<0.05).SFS组、CFS组分别与对照组比较,VIQ与FIQ平衡性测试(差值)结果比

  14. 232例儿童热性惊厥血清钠浓度临床分析%Clinical Analysis about Concentrations of Natrium in 232 Cases Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of concentrations of natrium and its clinical significance in children with febrile convulsions. Method:Clinical data of 232 children with febrile convulsions who visited Beijing commercial aviation general hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Result:The concentrations of natrium of children with febrile convulsions were diffrently lower than normal,especially in children with recurrent convulsion and status convulsion whose concentrations of natrium were obviously lower than children with simple febrile convulsions. Conclusion:Varying degrees of hyponatremia occur in children with febrile convulsions. It should pay attention to correct hyponatremia in treatmen of febrile convulsions to reduce the relapse frequency and duration of febrile convulsions,so reduce the harm of brain organization.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化及临床意义。方法:对北京民航总医院2010-2012年急诊治疗的232例热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度作回顾性分析。结果:热性惊厥儿童血清钠浓度常有不同程度的降低,且惊厥反复发作及惊厥持续状态患儿的血清钠浓度明显低于单纯性热性惊厥患儿。结论:热性惊厥患儿常存在不同程度的低钠血症,在常规治疗小儿热性惊厥时应注意纠正低钠血症,以减少小儿热性惊厥的发作次数及持续时间,减轻脑组织损害。

  15. Alarming signs of serious infections in febrile children: Studies in primary care and hospital emergency care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Ierland (Yvette)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children constitute a substantial part of the workload of physicians in primary care and hospital emergency care. In the Netherlands, about 70% of the 3.9 million inhabitants less than 20 years of age had one or more contacts with their general practitioner (GP) in 2011

  16. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a novel indicator of oxidative stress in children with simple febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Bahri; Erel, Özcan; Ersavaş, Dilek; Yürümez, Yusuf

    2017-08-14

    Simple febrile seizures are generally benign, but during the seizure, elevated levels of glutamate and high levels of oxygen use due to the high metabolic brain activity result in oxidative stress. However, the relationship between febrile seizures and oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a new oxidative stress parameter in patients with simple febrile seizures. This study was performed between February 2016 and May 2016 at the Pediatric Emergency Unit. The study population consisted of 40 patients with a diagnosis of simple febrile seizure and 30 control participants aged 8-59 months. Total thiol, native thiol and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, disulfide/total thiol, and native thiol/total thiol ratios were used as thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters and were quantified in patient and control groups. Furthermore, correlations with seizure duration were investigated. In the patient group, native and total thiol levels and native thiol/total thiol ratios were low, and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, and disulfide/total thiol ratios were significantly higher than in the control group. Negative correlations were observed between seizure duration, total and native thiol levels, and native thiol/total thiol ratio, whereas positive correlations were observed between seizure duration and disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratio. The sensitivities of both disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were high for simple febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures may cause impairment in favor of disulfide bonds in thiol/disulfide homeostasis. Overall, these changes may contribute to neuronal cell damage after simple febrile seizures.

  17. Epilepsy After Febrile Seizures: Twins Suggest Genetic Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, Syndi A; Pellock, John M; Kjeldsen, Marianne J; Nakken, Karl Otto; Corey, Linda A

    2016-02-01

    A history of complex febrile seizures can increase the risk of epilepsy, but the role of genetic factors is unclear. This analysis evaluated the relationship between febrile seizures and epilepsy. Information on the history of seizures was obtained by a questionnaire from twin pairs in the Mid-Atlantic, Danish, and Norwegian Twin Registries. The information was verified using medical records and detailed clinical and family interviews. The initial study evaluated the genetic epidemiology of febrile seizures in this population. Further information was analyzed and used to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures gave the highest risk for the unaffected twin to develop seizures or other neurological issues. These results are consistent with previous findings. There is a subgroup of febrile seizures that can be associated with long-term consequences. This subgroup can be associated with a significant financial and emotional burden. It is currently not possible to accurately identify which children will develop recurrent febrile seizures, epilepsy, or neuropsychological comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Febrile Seizures on Oxidant Status

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (EMA, glutathione peroxidase (GPO, and superoxide dismutase (SDM levels were assessed in 31 children with a febrile seizure and 30 without, in a study at Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

  19. Children Febrile Convulsion Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine%小儿高热惊厥中医证治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑勉; 张鹏; 杨冬妹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Through the analysis of the children's physical characteristics,the TCM treatment of febrile convulsion in children.Methods:First,according to the physiological characteristics of children:liver is often enough,spleen is often insufficient,infantile period firelight Yi Sheng,pediatric lung often inadequate; and the incidence of febrile convulsion is in the heart,liver two dirty,heart startled,liver wind.Thus combined with clinical TCM syndrome differentiation and analysis of infantile convulsion get the treatment principles.Results:Facilitating lung and regulating qi are the treatment principle of onset period.Invigorating lung and spleen is an important method to prevent the recurrence.Conclusion:Facilitating lung,regulating qi and invigorating lung and spleen are important principle of Chinese medicine treatment for children febrile convulsion.%目的:通过对小儿生理特点的分析,阐述小儿高热惊厥中医证治.方法:针对小儿的生理特点及高热惊厥的病机,结合临床对小儿高热惊厥进行中医辨证分析归纳,得出证治原则.结果:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机是发作期的治疗原则;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是预防复发的重要方法.结论:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是中医治疗小儿高热惊厥的重要原则.

  20. 热性惊厥导致T细胞功能改变的观察%Immune-Functional Changes of T-lymphocytes in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈遂 陈遂; 邹峥; 梅魁敏; 陈志军; 徐淑娟

    2000-01-01

    探讨热性惊厥患儿外周血T淋巴细胞免疫功能的变化。方法:应用APSAP法检测82例热性惊厥患儿、40例上呼吸道感染患儿及40例正常小儿T淋巴细胞亚群、CD25抗原在自然状态和PHA激活后的活化状态的百分率。结果:热性惊厥患儿外周血中,CD3、CD4、CD4/CD8比值,均显著低于两对照组;热性惊厥患儿在自然状态下的CD25抗原表达率明显低于两对照组,经PHA刺激后,CD25抗原表达在各组均显著增多,但热性惊厥组仍低于两对照组。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在着细胞免疫损害,这可能是热性惊厥发生和复发的一个重要因素。预防热性惊厥复发,必须从提高细胞免疫功能着手。%To ineestigate the immune-functional changes of T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in chil dren with febrile convulsions. Methods: Eighty-two children with febrile convulsions, forty with acute upper respiratory tract infection and forty normals were studied. The distribution of T-lymphocytes subsets, the expression of active marker CD25+ before and after PHA stimulation were investigated by APAAP assay. Results:Compared with the other control groups, the percentages of CD3, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio of T-lymphocytes were all significantly depressed in the peripheral blood in children with febrile convulsions. The expression rate of CD25 antigen before PHA stimulation was significantly lower than those in two control groups. After PHA stimulation, the expression rates of CD25 antigen were all higher than before, but the rate of the febrile convulsion group was still lower than those of the control groups. Conclusion: Impairment of T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function was associated with febrile convulsion and it might be a important cause of occurrence of febrile convulsion in children. For prevention and reduction of recurrence and subsequent brain damage, it is important to improve the T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function of the

  1. Gammagrafía renal en niños con primera infección febril del tracto urinario Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Duarte Pérez

    2012-12-01

    the first febrile urinary tract infection, and to relate them to the studied variables. Methods: two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography. Results: females prevailed and 82.4 % of patients were under one year-old. In the study group, 54 % presented with scintigraphic alterations and the hypocapture pattern of the radiopharmaceutical was the predominant finding in 70 % of patients. There was significant association between the duration and intensity of the fever, and the renal alterations. Regarding the lab parameters, leukocytosis above 15 000, accelerated erythrosedimentation and raised reactive-C protein were statistically significant and related to the renal alterations, whereas the radiological findings observed in renal ultrasound and mictional urethrocystography were statistically correlated to the renal lesion detected in the scintigraphy. Conclusions: high percentage of patients suffered the spread of infection over the renal parenchyma; additionally the studied clinical, lab and imaging variables indicated renal injure.

  2. Out-of-pocket costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for children with febrile illnesses: a case-control study in rural Tanzania.

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    Joëlle Castellani

    Full Text Available To study private costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for childhood fevers in rural Tanzania.A case-control study was conducted in Tanzania to establish factors that determine access to a health facility in acute febrile illnesses in children less than 5 years of age. Carers of eligible children were interviewed in the community; cases were represented by patients who went to a facility and controls by those who did not. A Household Wealth Index was estimated using principal components analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to understand the factors which influenced attendance of healthcare facility including severity of the illness and household wealth/socio-demographic indicators. To complement the data on costs from community interviews, a hospital-based study obtained details of private expenditures for hospitalised children under the age of 5.Severe febrile illness is strongly associated with health facility attendance (OR: 35.76, 95%CI: 3.68-347.43, p = 0.002 compared with less severe febrile illness. Overall, the private costs of an illness for patients who went to a hospital were six times larger than private costs of controls ($5.68 vs. $0.90, p<0.0001. Household wealth was not significantly correlated with total costs incurred. The separate hospital based cost study indicated that private costs were three times greater for admissions at the mission versus public hospital: $13.68 mission vs. $4.47 public hospital (difference $ 9.21 (95% CI: 7.89 -10.52, p<0.0001. In both locations, approximately 50% of the cost was determined by the duration of admission, with each day in hospital increasing private costs by about 12% (95% CI: 5% - 21%.The more severely ill a child, the higher the probability of attending hospital. We did not find association between household wealth and attending a health facility; nor was there an association between household wealth and private cost.

  3. The choice of healthcare providers for febrile children after introducing non-professional health workers in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea

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    Takahiro eTsukahara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease burden of malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG is the highest in Asia and the Pacific, and prompt access to effective drugs is the key strategy for controlling malaria. Despite the rapid economic growth, primary healthcare services have deteriorated in rural areas; the introduction of non-professional health workers [village health volunteers (VHVs] is expected to improve antimalarial drug deliveries. Previous studies on PNG suggested that distance from households negatively affected the utilization of health services; however, price effect on healthcare demand decisions has not been explored. Empirical studies on household’s affordability as well as accessibility of healthcare services contribute to policy implications such as efficient introduction of out-of-pocket costs and effective allocation of health facilities. Therefore, we investigate price responsiveness and other determinants of healthcare provider choice for febrile children in a malaria endemic rural area wherein VHVs were introduced.Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted using a structured questionnaire distributed in a health center’s catchment area of East Sepik Province in the 2011/2012 rainy seasons. Caretakers were interviewed and data on fever episodes of their children in the preceding two weeks were collected. Mixed logit model was employed to estimate the determinants of healthcare provider choice.Results: Among 257 fever episodes reported, the main choices of healthcare providers were limited to self-care, VHV, and a health center. Direct cost and walking distance negatively affected the choice of a VHV and the health center. An increase of VHV’s direct cost or walking distance did not much affect predicted probability of the health center, but rather that of self-care. While, drug availability and illness severity increased the choice probability of a VHV and the health center. Conclusion: The results suggest that the net healthcare demand

  4. The “Top-Down” Approach to the Evaluation of Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

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    Hans G. Pohl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of children presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI has long entailed sonography and cystography to identify all urological abnormalities that might contribute to morbidity. The identification of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been of primary concern since retrospective studies from the 1930s to 1960s established a strong association between VUR, recurrent UTI, and renal cortical scarring. It has been proposed that all VUR carries a risk for renal scarring and, therefore, all VUR should be identified and treated. We will not discuss the controversies surrounding VUR treatment in this review focusing instead on a new paradigm for the evaluation of the child with UTI that is predicated on identifying those at risk for scarring who are most deserving of further evaluation by cystography.

  5. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

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    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEmpirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3-7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  6. Nursing telephone triage and its influence on parents' choice of care for febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Patricia A; Hupcey, Judith E; Clark, Mary Beth

    2005-12-01

    Nursing telephone triage is a mechanism whereby parents call for advice and referrals. One common call in pediatrics concerns children's fever, which may be managed at home. Giving parents proper advice may avoid unnecessary visits. This study investigated whether home-care advice given by nurses changed parents' original preference for care. Data were collected using an existing database to determine parents' preference for location of care before and actual location of care after a call. Of the 110 calls, 73 parents wanted a physician or emergency department visit but 53 followed nursing advice for home care. Findings suggest that although most parents wanted to have their child seen, a majority followed nursing advice for home care.

  7. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  8. SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH SIMPLE FEBRILE SEIZURE

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    Farhad HEYDARIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the serum zinc level of the patients with simple febrile seizure and compare them with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis prospective case - control study was performed on 60 patients aged 6 months to 6 years from Apr. 2009 to Jan.2010 in Ghaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad. The serum zinc level was assessed and compared between the cases (30 individuals who suffered from simple febrile seizure and the controls (30 individuals who had fever without seizure.ResultsMean serum zinc level was 663.7 µg /l and 758.33  µg /l in the case group and the control group, respectively (PConclusionIt was revealed that the serum level of zinc was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Keywords: Simple febrile seizure, children, zinc, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid

  9. 热性惊厥患儿高血糖的护理对策%Nursing countermeasures for febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 吴国红; 滕云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the change of blood glucose level in children with febrile convulsion and propose appropriate nursing countermeasures. Methods Febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia were conducted with basic nursing, and meanwhile the hyperglycemia level was regulated by targeted nursing. Results After the application of targeted nursing, all the children's blood glucose levels return to normal level within 48 hours after hospitalization. Conclusion Targeted nursing can timely correct hyperglycemia and alleviate damage of brain tissue and other vital organs caused by hyperglycemia.%目的 探讨热性惊厥患儿血糖水平的变化并提出相应的护理对策.方法 对伴有高血糖的热性惊厥患儿进行基础护理的同时,对其高血糖也进行针对性护理.结果 对伴高血糖热性惊厥患儿进行针对性护理后,人院48 h内患儿血糖全部恢复正常水平.结论 针对性护理可及时纠正高血糖,减轻高血糖造成的脑组织和其他重要器官的损害.

  10. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Plasmodium falcipanlm parasitaemia in child- ren younger than 5 ... an effective single treatment for febrile illness in young children in ... highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated ... parental consent. Children who ...

  11. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  12. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet van Stuijvenberg

    Full Text Available This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides during infancy in term-born children (n=1130. In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population participated: 232 (56% from the prebiotics group (PG, 243 (58% from the control group (CG, and 197 (66% from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG. The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08 episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57 in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60 in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  13. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday. PMID:26076141

  14. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J J

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  15. Expression Profiling after Prolonged Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mice Suggests Structural Remodeling in the Hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloets, Bart C; van Gassen, Koen L I; Kan, Anne A; Olde Engberink, Anneke H O; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Holstege, Frank C P; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most prevalent type of seizures among children up to 5 years of age (2-4% of Western-European children). Complex febrile seizures are associated with an increased risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy. To investigate short- and long-term effects of experimental febrile seiz

  16. Febrile seizures: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most common cause of convulsions in children. Most are simple in nature, although those with focal onset, prolonged duration (³15 min or those that recur within 24 h or within the same febrile illness are considered complex. Diagnosis of this condition is essentially clinical and based on its description provided by parents. Its pathophysiology remains unclear, but genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Although most febrile seizures are benign and associated with minor viral illnesses, it is critical that the child be evaluated immediately to reduce parental anxiety and to identify the cause of the fever. It is essential to exclude underlying pyogenic meningitis, either clinically or, if any doubt remains, by lumbar puncture. The risk of pyogenic meningitis is as low (< 1.3% as the risk in a febrile child without seizures. After an initial febrile seizure (simple or complex, 3-12% of children develop epilepsy by adolescence. However, the risk of developing epilepsy after an initial simple febrile seizure is low (1.5-2.4%. Since the vast majority of children have a normal long-term outcome, antiepileptic medication is not recommended to prevent recurrence of febrile seizures. Oral diazepam or clobazam, given only when fever is present, is an effective means of reducing the risk of recurrence. The family physician can play an important role in counseling the parents that most febrile seizures are brief, do not require any specific treatment or extensive work-up, the probability of frequent or possibly threatening recurrences is low and the long-term prognosis is excellent.

  17. Correlation analysis on children febrile seizures and iron deficiency anemia%儿童热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟喜标

    2013-01-01

    目的 对儿童热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血之间的关系进行探究.方法 对热性惊厥212例患儿的平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度、平均红细胞血红蛋白含量、平均红细胞容积、血红蛋白及红细胞计数进行检测,同时以同期188例无惊厥、肠道感染及呼吸道感染的患儿作为对照组,并详细分析检测结果.结果 观察组患者的贫血发病率比对照组患儿明显要高,并且绝大多数为小细胞性贫血,与缺铁性贫血的相关血液特征相符合.结论 儿童缺铁性贫血可能是导致热性惊厥的一项重要原因.%Objective To explore the relationship between children febrile seizures and iron deficiency anemia.Methods The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,mean corpuscular hemoglobin,mean corpuscular volume,hemoglobin and red blood cell count of 212 cases of febrile seizures patients as observation group were detected,and the 188 cases of convulsions,intestinal infections and respiratory tract infections in children were selected as the control group at the same period,and then the detection results were analyzed in detail.Results The incidence of anemia of children of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group,the vast majority of small-cell anemia was consistent with the iron deficiency anemia blood characteristics.Conclusion Children with iron deficiency anemia may lead to an important cause of febrile seizures.

  18. Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayandiran Olufemi E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure of mothers on the management of febrile conditions in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13, occupation was positively correlated (0.17 with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.

  19. Zinc status in febrile seizure: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehiomran, Mohammad Reza; Mahzari, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Febrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc) and febrile seizure. Zinc, as a major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. This case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years. This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case) and 50 febrile children without seizures (control), that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the north of Iran). Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001). The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to the control groups. Our findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children.

  20. NSE与视频脑电图在儿童热性惊厥的相关研究%THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM NEURON SPECIFIC ENOLASE AND VIDEO EEG IN FEBRILE CONVULSION OF CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀琴; 于树红; 孙若鹏

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neuron specific enolase and Video EEG in Febrile Convulsion of childen. Method:Serum NSE was detected by RIA on the first day and the seventh day after seizure in 40 children with simple febrile convulsion and 18 with complex febrile convulsion. Video EEG was performed at 1st, 7th and 30th day in all the patients. Results: There were significant differences between NSE levels at 24th hour and on 7th day after convulsion (P<0.01). NSE concentrations in patients with SFC and CFC were also different (P < 0.01). The more slowly NSE restored, the higher the abnormal ratio of EGG was . Conclusion: NSE increased in patients within 24hours after seizure, especially in CFC patients. The abnormal ratio of VideoEEG was related to the change of NSE concentration.

  1. Treatment duration and prognostics in febrile urinary tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starre, Willy Elizabeth van der (Willize)

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this thesis was to provide evidence for the clinical implication of biomarkers in blood and urine, as well as genetic markers, for the prediction of the severity and course of febrile UTI. Furthermore, this thesis focused on optimization of antimicrobial treatment of febrile UTI. The main

  2. Sociodemographic and Clinical Determinants of Time to Care-Seeking Among Febrile Children Under-Five in North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. Abdulkadir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study sought to determine the time parents of febrile children under the age of five took to seek competent medical care. We also looked at the possible sociodemographic/ clinical factors that influenced this presentation. Methods: Four hundred and nine under-fives presenting at the emergency unit with a history of fever in the last 48 hours along with their mothers were recruited over four months. Relevant sociodemographic information as well as symptoms and duration of illness were obtained. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of early and late presentation. Results: Over half (57% of patients presented within 24 hours of onset of fever. The mean age of the children and mothers were 22±15 months and 30±5 years, respectively. High social class (odds ratio (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.6–26.4, Hausa ethnic group (OR 19.3, 95% CI 5.7–65.6, convulsions (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6–6.5 and appearance of other symptoms (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0–12.0 were significant predictors of early presentation. Secondary school education, belonging to another ethnic group, and non-resolution of fever were significant predictors of late presentation. Conclusion: The majority of febrile under-fives came to the hospital to seek competent medical care within the first 24 hours of illness. However, there is a need for more parental education on early hospital presentation for parents of low socioeconomic status and educational background.

  3. Study on prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion%高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建军; 杨毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素.方法 采用自编问卷收集2010年8月~2011年8月在湖南省永州市祁阳县人民医院儿科住院治疗的43例高热惊厥患儿临床资料.结果 在本研究入选的43例患儿中,35例患儿预后良好,预后良好率为81.40%,而预后不良率为18.60%,多因素Logistic回归分析发现初次发作年龄<1岁,高热惊厥持续时间≥15 min、高热惊厥次数≥2次和脑电图异常是高热惊厥患儿预后差危险因素.结论 高热惊厥患儿总体预后欠佳,预后影响因素较多,在对高热惊厥进行治疗的过程中,积极治疗高热惊厥,发作时尽可能在最短时间内止痉,改善患儿的预后.%Objective To investigate the prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion. Methods Clinical data of 43 children with febrile convulsion who were treated in the Department of Pediatric in the People's Hospital of Qiyang County in Yongzhou City, Hu'nan Province, from August 2010 to August 2011 were collected by self-made questionnaire. Results 43 children with febrile convulsion were favorable prognosis, the good prognosis rate was 81.40%, the bad prognosis rate was 18.60%, binary classification logistic regression analysis showed that first onset age <1 year old, febrile convulsion duration ≥15 min, febrile convulsion number ≥2 and electroencephalography abnormality were risk factors. Conclusion The prognosis status of children with febrile convulsion was bad. It is affected by various factors. We should give positive treatment and control attack as soon as possible to improve the prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  4. 236例高热惊厥患儿的血清钠分析%236 Cases of Serum Sodium Level Change in Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate influential factors and clinical significance of serum sodium reduction in children with febrile convulsion. Methods To analyze retrospectively the serum sodium concentration changes in children with febrile convulsion.Results In 236 cases,girls (90/236) serum sodium values for (135.97 ±3.04) mmol/L,boys(146/236) serum sodium values for (134.55±3.57) mmol/L,P=0.002,31.11% of the girls (28/90) had lower serum sodium,54.11% of the boy (79/146) had lower serum sodium,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;twitching time ranging from 30 seconds to 20 minutes,3 minutes,5 minutes and 10 minutes respectively grouped boundaries,in dif erent groups of children serum sodium statistics P>0.05;serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence between children with previous twitching history (89/236) and no twitching history (147/236);in children with having family history (78/236) and no family history (158/236),serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence.Conclusion In children with febrile convulsion,there is often decreased serum sodium,the proportion of reduction with serum sodium is higher in male children;and there is no clear correlation with twitching time,twitching history,family history.%目的:探讨高热惊厥(Fc)患儿发生血清钠降低的影响因素及其临床意义。方法对236例高热惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化进行回顾分析。结果236病例中,女童(90/236)血钠值为(135.97±3.04) mmol/L,男童(146/236)血钠值为(134.55±3.57) mmol/L, P=0.002,女童中31.11%(28/90)有血清钠降低,男童中54.11%(79/146)有血清钠降低,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;抽搐时间在30s~20min不等,分别以3min、5min及10min为分组界限,不同组别的患儿血清钠统计 P>0.05;既往有抽搐史者(89/236)与无抽搐史者(147/236)血钠值及血钠降低率统计学差异无显著意义;有家族史者(78/236)与无家族史(158/236)血钠

  5. Clinical characteristics and EEG analysis of children with febrile seizures%小儿热性惊厥临床特征及脑电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承明; 王平利; 程恒笛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥(FC)的脑电图(EEG)表现与相关因素的关系。方法回顾性分析168例 FC 患儿的临床病例资料、脑电图表现。结果168例 FC 患儿中,初发年龄0.5~3岁147例(87.3%),>3岁为21例(11.1%),3岁以内的患儿为热性惊厥多发年龄;≤3岁热性惊厥者的 EEG 异常率为25.20%,>3岁异常率为75.00%,说明随着年龄增大 EEG 异常率增高;≥38.5℃患儿的 EEG 异常率是26.20%,<38.5℃患儿 EEG 异常率是66.00%,即低热时易引起惊厥。以上两组组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。发作1~3次的 EEG 异常率为37.91%,>3次的 EEG 异常率为64.88%(P <0.05)。反复的惊厥发作,发生脑损伤的可能性大。结论EEG 的异常率与 FC 临床特征有关;FC 患儿应定期进行 EEG 检查,以密切追踪随访观察疾病的转归。%Objective To explore the electroencephalogram (EEG)features and related factors of children with febrile convulsion (FC).Methods The clinical and EEG data of 168 FC children were retrospectively analyzed.Results Of 168 children with FC,the initial issuance of 147 patients aged 0.5 -3 years old (87.30%),>3 years was 21 cases (11.10%),3 -year -old children within the age of multiple febrile seizures;the abnormal rate of EEG≤3 years old febrile seizures was 25.20%,>3 years old abnormal rate was 75.00%,indicated that with age increased,higher rate of EEG abnormalities;abnormal rate of EEG in children ≥ 38.5℃ was 26.20%,EEG abnormal rate in children 3 times the EEG abnormality was 64.88%(P <0.05),indicated that repeated seizures,the likelihood of cerebral injury larger. Conclusion EEG abnormality rate is related with clinical features of the FC;FC EEG in children should be regular inspections to closely follow up observation of disease prognosis.

  6. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes.

  7. [Simple febrile seizure, complex seizure, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus, FIRES and new syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de Flagge, Noris

    2013-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in childhood. They have been observed in 2-5% of children before the age of 5, but in some populations this figure may increase to 15%. It is a common cause of pediatric hospital admissions and cause of anxiety for parents. Febrile seizures could be the first manifestation of epilepsy. About 13% of epileptic patients have a history of febrile seizure, and 30% have had recurrent febrile seizures. Their phenotypic characteristics allow, in the majority of cases, a classification of the seizure, an elaboration of a prognosis and to assume a specific therapeutic attitude. It is possible to describe a spectrum according to their severity, from the benign simple seizure to the more complex, febrile seizure plus, Dravet'syndrome, and FIRES. During the past decade, molecular genetic studies have contributed to the identification of genetic factors involved in febrile seizure and related disorders, making the necessity of a careful follow up of these patients in order to detect risk factors earlier. We have reviewed the medical literature to update current knowledge of febrile seizures, their prognosis and their relation to new epileptic syndromes.

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children and adolescents with the impact of antibiotic resistance: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Sup; Park, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Seong Koo; Han, Seung Beom; Lee, Jae Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-07-17

    Although the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections has reduced after the introduction of antibiotics with anti-pseudomonal effects, P. aeruginosa bacteremia still causes high mortality in immunocompromised patients. This study determined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibilities of strains isolated from febrile neutropenic patients. Thirty-one febrile neutropenic children and adolescents with underlying hematologic/oncologic disorders diagnosed with P. aeruginosa bacteremia between 2011 and 2016 were enrolled in the study. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility rates of the isolated P. aeruginosa to eight antibiotic categories (anti-pseudomonal penicillin, anti-pseudomonal penicillin and β-lactamase inhibitor combination, anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin, monobactam, carbapenem, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone, and colistin) were also determined. Among the investigated factors, risk factors for mortality and infections by a multidrug-resistance (MDR) strain were determined. Thirty-six episodes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia were identified. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 9.5 ± 5.4 years, and 26 (72.2%) episodes occurred in boys. Acute myeloid leukemia (41.7%) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (33.3%) were the most common underlying disorders. The 30-day mortality was 38.9%, and 36.1% of the episodes were caused by MDR strains. The deceased patients were more likely to experience breakthrough infection (P = 0.036) and bacteremia (P = 0.005) due to MDR strains when compared with the patients who survived. The survived patients more likely received appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy (P = 0.024) and anti-pseudomonal β-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy (P = 0.039) compared with the deceased patients. The antibiotic susceptibility rates of the isolated P. aeruginosa

  9. 小儿高热惊厥的治疗及护理%The Nursing and Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热惊厥的原因及主要表现,实施有效的护理,在医护紧密配合下获得满意的效果。方法回顾性分析我院接诊的14例高热惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果经及时止惊,降温,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监护等综合治疗,患儿均转为为安。结论及时迅速控制惊厥,降温,加强护理,降低高热惊厥患儿的意外伤害率,减少惊厥的复发。%Objective To explore the causes and the main performance of high fever convulsion in children, and implement effective nursing care to obtain satisfactory results in close cooperation with medical care.Methods Retrospective analyzed of 14 cases of febrile convulsion in children in our hospital.Results The patients were treated with the combined therapy of respiratory tract, keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen inhalation, strengthening the monitoring, et al, all of them were safe. Conclusion Prompt control of seizures, cooling, enhanced care, reduce the rate of accidental injury in children with high fever and recurrence of seizures.

  10. Diazepam for Febrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of intermittent oral diazepam for the prevention of febrile seizure recurrence were investigated in the Departments of Clinical Pharmacology, Neurosurgery, and Biostatistics, University of Tours, France.

  11. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ABOUT CHANGES OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME IN 62 CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE CONVULSION%62例小儿热性惊厥心肌酶谱变化临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任莉英; 陈颖; 石霖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对热性惊厥患儿抽搐后心肌酶谱的检测,探讨热性惊厥对心肌的损害.[方法]对2008年10月~2010年10月收治的62例急性上呼吸道感染致热性惊厥患儿进行心肌酶谱检测.[结果]观察组血清肌酸激酶同工酶(c reatine kinase-MB,CK-MB)、肌酸激酶(creatine k inase,CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(lac tare dehydrogenase,LDH)较对照组升高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]热性惊厥患儿抽搐时会引起心肌受损.治疗热性惊厥患儿时要注意保护心肌,有助于患儿早日康复.%[Objective] Through the detection of myocardial enzymes of children with febrile convulsion after convulsion, to investigate the myocardial damage. [Methods] From October 2008-October 2010, myocardial enzymes of 62 children with febrile convulsion admitted in because of acute upper respiratory tract infection were detected. [ Results] The serum levels of creatine kinase (c reatine kinase-MB, CK-MB) , creatine kinase (creatine k inase, CK) , lactate dehydrogenase (lac tate dehydrogenase, LDH) were higher than those in control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01). [Conclusion] The convulsions in children with febrile convulsion may cause myocardial damage. When treating febrile convulsion children, it should pay attention to the pmtection of the cardiac muscle, which helps children to recovery early.

  12. Social Implications in Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Kaye Spence

    Such topics as death, divorce, old age, poverty, crime, racism, and handicaps are becoming the subjects of novels for young people and of picture books for children. If these books are to help children deal with social issues, conflicts, and concerns, they should foster realistic rather than stereotypical attitudes. Many books, for example,…

  13. The Role of Human Coronaviruses in Children Hospitalized for Acute Bronchiolitis, Acute Gastroenteritis, and Febrile Seizures: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jevšnik

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoVs are associated with a variety of clinical presentations in children, but their role in disease remains uncertain. The objective of our prospective study was to investigate HCoVs associations with various clinical presentations in hospitalized children up to 6 years of age. Children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis (AB, acute gastroenteritis (AGE, or febrile seizures (FS, and children admitted for elective surgical procedures (healthy controls were included in the study. In patients with AB, AGE, and FS, a nasopharyngeal (NP swab and blood sample were obtained upon admission and the follow-up visit 14 days later, whereas in children with AGE a stool sample was also acquired upon admission; in healthy controls a NP swab and stool sample were taken upon admission. Amplification of polymerase 1b gene was used to detect HCoVs in the specimens. HCoVs-positive specimens were also examined for the presence of several other viruses. HCoVs were most often detected in children with FS (19/192, 9.9%, 95% CI: 6-15%, followed by children with AGE (19/218, 8.7%, 95% CI: 5.3-13.3% and AB (20/308, 6.5%, 95% CI: 4.0-9.8%. The presence of other viruses was a common finding, most frequent in the group of children with AB (19/20, 95%, 95% CI: 75.1-99.8%, followed by FS (10/19, 52.6%, 95% CI: 28.9-75.6% and AGE (7/19, 36.8%, 95% CI: 16.3-61.6%. In healthy control children HCoVs were detected in 3/156 (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-5.5% NP swabs and 1/150 (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.02-3.3% stool samples. It seems that an etiological role of HCoVs is most likely in children with FS, considering that they had a higher proportion of positive HCoVs results than patients with AB and those with AGE, and had the highest viral load; however, the co-detection of other viruses was 52.6%.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987519.

  14. "Simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)": more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours is usually okay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Marie F; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether children with recurrent febrile seizures within a 24-hour period need to be worked up differently from children with simple febrile seizures. Inclusion criteria included the following: (i) children with first seizure cluster between 4 months and 3 years of age, (ii) children who had more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours, and (iii) children who returned to baseline between and after each event. Thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria over a 3-year period. All patients underwent brain CT and/or MRI and EEG. All head CTs were normal. Two children had abnormal MRI findings - both benign: one is thought to represent postictal changes, and the other one is an incidental arachnoid cyst. Of the 4 abnormal EEGs, one showed epileptiform discharges, while the others showed generalized ictal or postictal features. We propose the term "simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)" to describe children who have more than one seizure within 24 hours but who are otherwise not different in presentation from children with SFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors for Febrile Seizure Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Factors that predict recurrence of febrile seizures (FS were determined in a prospective study of 260 children age 3 months to 6 years followed for a median of 4.3 years after the first FS at Ippokratio Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

  16. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  17. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  18. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali DELPISHEH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Delpisheh A, Veisani Y, Sayehmiri K, Fayyazi A. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3:30-37. AbstractObjectiveFebrile seizures (FSs are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children.Materials & MethodsOn the computerized literature valid databases, the FS prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects model. A metaregression analysis was introduced to explore heterogeneity between studies. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using Stata10.ResultsThe important viral or bacterial infection causes of FSs were; recent upper respiratory infection 42.3% (95% CI: 37.2%–47.4%, gastroenteritis21.5% (95% CI: 13.6%–29.4%, and otitis media infections15.2% (95% CI: 9.8%- 20.7% respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of FS among other childhood convulsions was 47.9% (95% CI: 38.8–59.9%. The meta–regression analysis showed that the sample size does not significantly affect heterogeneity for the factor ‘prevalence FS’.ConclusionsAlmost half of all childhood convulsions among Iranian children are associated with Febrile seizure. ReferencesFelipe L, Siqueira M. febrile seizures: update on diagnosis and management. Siqueira LFM. 2010;56 (4:489–92.Oka E, Ishida S, Ohtsuka Y, Ohtahara S. Neuroepidemiological Study of Childhood Epilepsy by Application of International Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes (ILAE, 1989. Epilepsia. 1995;36 (7:658–61.Shi X, Lin Z, Ye X, Hu Y, Zheng F, Hu H. An epidemiological survey of febrile convulsions among pupils in the Wenzhou region. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Feb;14 (2:128–30.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child

  19. Profilaxia intermitente na convulsão febril com diazepam via oral Intermittent prophylaxis in febrile seizures with oral diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos a profilaxia intermitente com diazepam via oral como opção de tratamento para convulsão febril. Justificamos essa proposta diante dos importantes efeitos colaterais que ocorrem com as duas medicações classicamente usadas na profilaxia contínua (fenobarbital e valproato. Foram tratados 19 pacientes. Obtivemos resultados favoráveis, pois apenas um caso apresentou recorrência de convulsão febril em vigência de dose adequada do diazepam. Houve efeitos colaterais transitórios em 36,8% da nossa casuística.Intermittent prophylaxis with oral diazepam is presented as an optional treatment for febrile seizures. This proposition is justified by the severe side effects of the currently used chronic anticonvulsant drug therapy in febrile seizures (phenobarbital and valproate. Nineteen patients aged between 3 months and 5 years were treated. They had either simple or complex febrile seizures. Sixteen patients, had at least one prognostic factor for recurrence of febrile seizures: first febrile seizure before 15 months of age, positive family history for epilepsy or febrile seizures, occurrence of a complex febrile seizure or abnormal neurological examination. Three patients had none, (cases 8, 12 and 13. We recommended 2.5mg b.i.d. for children younger than 12 months, 5mg b.i.d. for children older than 12 months and younger than 3 years, and 7.5 b.i.d. for children older than 3 years. The results showed that only one patient had febrile convulsions while taking adequate diazepam dosage. Transient side effects occurred in 36.8% of the cases.

  20. Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manreza, M L; Gherpelli, J L; Machado-Haertel, L R; Pedreira, C C; Heise, C O; Diament, A

    1997-12-01

    Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean = 23.7 m.) that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS) entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified in 5. The mean follow-up period was 7.9 months (range = 1 to 23 m.), and the age at the first seizure varied from 5 to 42 months (mean = 16.8 m.). Clobazam was administered orally during the febrile episode according to the child's weight: up to 5 kg, 5 mg/day; from 5 to 10 kg, 10 mg/day; from 11 to 15 kg, 15 mg/day, and over 15 kg, 20 mg/day. There were 219 febrile episodes, with temperature above 37.8 degrees C, in 40 children during the study period. Twelve children never received clobazam and 28 received the drug at least once. Drug efficacy was measured by comparing FS recurrence in the febrile episodes that were treated with clobazam with those in which only antipyretic measures were taken. Ten children (20%) experienced a FS during the study period. Of the 171 febrile episodes treated with clobazam there were only 3 recurrences (1.7%), while of the 48 episodes treated only with antipyretic measures there were 11 recurrences (22.9%), a difference highly significant (p diazepam in the intermittent treatment of FS recurrence.

  1. Association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Valia; Vargiami, Euthymia; Kontopoulos, Eleutherios; Kardaras, Panagiotis; Economou, Marina; Athanassiou-Mataxa, Miranta; Kirkham, Fenella; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between iron status and febrile seizures has been examined in various settings, mainly in the Developing World, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures (FS) in European children aged 6-60 months. Prospective, case-control study. Greek population in Thessaloniki. 50 patients with febrile seizures (cases) and 50 controls (children presenting with fever, without seizures). None. Haematologic parameters (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width), plasma iron, total iron-binding capacity, plasma ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptors were compared in cases and controls. Plasma ferritin was lower (median [range]: 42.8 (3-285.7) vs 58.3 (21.4-195.3 ng/ml; p = 0.02) and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) higher (mean [Standard Deviation] 267 [58.9] vs 243 [58.45] μg/dl, p = 0.04) in cases than in controls. Results were similar for 12 complex FS cases (ferritin 30 (3-121 vs 89 (41.8-141.5ng/lL; TIBC 292.92 [68.0] vs 232.08 [36.27] μg/dL). Iron deficiency, defined as ferritin children with febrile seizures have lower Ferritin than those with fever alone, and iron deficiency, but not anaemia, is associated with recurrence. Iron status screening should be considered as routine for children presenting with or at high risk for febrile seizures. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 242例不同来源高热惊厥患儿电解质水平比较分析%Electrolyte Levels Comparative Analysis of 242 Cases of Febrile Convulsion Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋生; 徐昀; 陈玉勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the correlatlonshlp of seruifi electrolyte levels and convulsion from children of dif ferent sources Methods Selected 242 cases hyperpyrexia children aged 13 years,the an seruifi electrolyte levels are compared in simple Febrile Convulsions children group and Febrile non convulsion children group;The mean serum ion ized calcium levels are compared in urban source children group and migrant workers Source group;The convulsions in cidence were compared of urban source children group and migrant workers Source group Results The mean setuifi I onized calcium levels of simple Febrile Convulsions children group (n=130)lower than Febrile non convulsion children group(112 cases)(P<0.05);The mean setuifi ionized calcium levels in migrant workers Source group(143 cases)lower than urban source children group(P<0.05);The incidence of Febrile Convulsions was no significant difference (P>0.05)between urban source children group and migrant workers Source group.Conclusion Hypocalcaemia is a risk factor for the occurrence of simple Febrile Convulsions It should be actively promoted the development of commu nity medical and scientific upbringing and supervision to ensure the reduction of convulsions incidence both of urban source and migrant workers Source children.%目的 观察不同来源的高热患儿血清钙、钠、钾、氯离子的水平与发生惊厥的关系.方法 选择242例1-3岁高热患儿,采集动脉血,应用干化学式血气电解质分析系统进行血气分析.按照单纯性高热惊厥患儿以及高热无惊厥患儿进行分组,比较平均血清离子水平;按照患儿来源于城市或外来务工人员进行分组,比较患儿平均血清离子钙水平,并比较惊厥发生率.结果 高热惊厥患儿血清钙离子水平显著低于高热无惊厥患儿血清离子钙水平(P0.05).结论 低钙是发生高热惊厥的危险因素,对于来源于城市及外来务工人员的儿童,均应积极倡导合理补钙并发

  3. The Long-term Risk of Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures in susceptible subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sidenius, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    A family history of seizures, preexisting brain damage, or birth complications may modify the long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures. The authors evaluated the association between febrile seizures and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.54 million persons born in Denmark (1978......-up but was particularly high shortly after the first febrile seizure, especially in children who experienced early (late (>3 years of age) onset of febrile seizures. At 23 years of follow-up, the overall cumulative incidence of epilepsy after febrile seizures was 6.9% (95% confidence interval: 6.5, 7......, or low Apgar scores at 5 minutes....

  4. La neutropenia severa febril en niños con cáncer: Estudio descriptivo en el Hospital Universitario de Santander Severe febrile neutropenia in children with cancer: A descriptive study at the Hospital Universitario de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rueda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir una población oncológica afectada por neutropenia severa febril, sus características demográficas, nutricionales, microbiológicas, de tratamiento y severidad de la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: Esta es una serie de casos prospectiva de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de Santander entre enero/2007 y enero/2008. Resultados: Veintiun (21 pacientes aportaron 35 episodios de neutropenia febril; 65,7% eran hombres, la edad promedio 5,6 años; 38,3% vivían en el Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga y 91,4% en estrato socioeconómico bajo. El diagnóstico oncológico más frecuente fue leucemia linfocítica aguda. Ninguno presentó dolor abdominal o síntomas neurológicos. La neutropenia se detectó 8,5 días en promedio posterior a la última quimioterapia. El 31,4% no tuvieron neutrófilos absolutos, 54,2% plaquetas Objective: To describe an oncological population affected with severe febrile neutropenia, its demographic, nutritional, and microbiological features, their treatment and severity of the illness. Materials and methods: A descriptive-prospective clinical chart review from attended patients at the Hospital Universitario de Santander, from January/2007 to January/2008. Results: Twenty (21 patients contributed with 35 febrile neutropenia episodes; 65.7% were male; they aged average was 5.6-years; 38.37% lived in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area; 91.4% had low economic status. The most frequent oncological diagnosis was acute lumphocytic leukemia. No one presented abdominal pain or neurological symptoms. The neutropenia was detected 8.5 days after the last chemotherapy cycle. 31.4% patients had no absolute neutrophils; 54.2% blood platelets <50,000/mm3, 45.7% had reactive C protein <90 mg|/dL. The bloodculture was positive only in 7 patients. It was found the infection focus in 88.6% of the episodes and the most frequently diagnosis were related with the gastrointestinal tract. The most used

  5. Clinical prediction model to aid emergency doctors managing febrile children at risk of serious bacterial infections: Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Nijman (Ruud); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); M.J. Thompson (Matthew); M.V. Veen (Mirjam Van); A.H.J. van Meurs (Alfred); J. van der Lei (Johan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To derive, cross validate, and externally validate a clinical prediction model that assesses the risks of different serious bacterial infections in children with fever at the emergency department. Design: Prospective observational diagnostic study. Setting: Three paediatric em

  6. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of 2 Acetaminophen Dosing Regimens in Febrile Infants and Children: A Report on 3 Legacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Brenda; Gelotte, Cathy; Kuffner, Edwin K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare efficacy and safety of 10 to 15 mg/kg with 20 to 30 mg/kg acetaminophen in febrile children 6 months to ≤ 11 years from 3 double-blind, randomized, single or multiple dose studies. METHODS Doses were compared on sum of the temperature differences (SUMDIFF), maximum temperature difference (MAXDIFF), temperature differences at each time point, and dose by time interactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was evaluated in the 72-hour duration study. RESULTS A single dose of acetaminophen 20 to 30 mg/kg produced a greater effect on temperature decrement and duration of antipyretic effect over 8 hours than a single dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg. When equivalent total doses (i.e., 2 doses of 10 to 15 mg/kg given at 4-hour intervals and 1 dose of 20 to 30 mg/kg) were given over the initial 8-hour period, there were no significant temperature differences. Over a 72-hour period, 10 to 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered every 4 hours maintained a more consistent temperature decrement than 20 to 30 mg/kg acetaminophen administered every 8 hours. Following doses of 60 to 90 mg/kg/day for up to 72 hours, no child had a clinically important increase in ALT from baseline. The number of children with reported adverse events was similar between doses. CONCLUSIONS Data demonstrate the antipyretic effect of acetaminophen is dependent on total dose over a given time interval. These 3 studies provide clinical evidence that the recommended standard acetaminophen dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg is a safe and effective dose for treating fever in pediatric patients when administered as a single dose or as multiple doses for up to 72 hours. PMID:28337078

  7. Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria

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    E E Eseigbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7% fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1. Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6% were in the upper social classes (I-III. Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4% of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4% of the cases. Eleven (64.7% had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4% consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7% received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures.

  8. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

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    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb &lt;10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P&lt;0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  9. Febrile Seizures: Controversy and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Omer A.

    1983-01-01

    Although febrile convulsions are a relatively common complaint, the approach to their management is far from uniform and highly controversial. This article reviews the consensus statement on febrile convulsions arrived at by the Consensus Development Conference held in 1980 by the National Institutes of Health, together with other literature of interest to family physicians. Guidelines are given for the assessment, diagnosis and emergency treatment of febrile seizures. Epilepsy and atypical febrile convulsions are distinguished from simple febrile seizures. Prognosis, prevention, and the importance of counselling parents are discussed, as well as the controversial issue of prophylactic treatment. PMID:21286583

  10. Changes of C-reactive protein and peripheral white blood cell levels in children with febrile con-vulsions%C-反应蛋白与外周血白细胞计数在儿童热性惊厥中的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正文; 黄娅娜; 邓春晖; 张本金

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童热性惊厥患儿 C-反应蛋白(CRP)与外周血白细胞计数(WBC)水平的变化。方法选择热性惊厥与同期住院期间发热无惊厥的患儿,检测其 WBC 与 C-反应蛋白水平并进行统计学分析。结果惊厥组中30例 CRP 水平升高,WBC 值为(13.6±4.5)×109/ L;78例 CRP 值正常,WBC 值为(12.2±4.6)×109/ L。非惊厥组中52例 CRP 值增高,WBC 值为(9.8±4.3)×109/ L;46例 CRP 值正常,WBC 值为(7.6±3.2)×109/ L。无论 CRP 是否增高,惊厥组的 WBC 值明显高于非惊厥组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。惊厥组78例 CRP 水平正常者中 WBC 值增高52例,占66.7%;而非惊厥组46例 CRP 水平正常者中 WBC 值增高10例,仅占21.7%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论在同样因素影响下,热性惊厥患儿外周血 WBC 值与 CRP 水平或许不平行,且 WBC值常高于非惊厥患儿。%Objective To study the changes of C-reactive protein(CRP)and peripheral white blood cell(WBC)levels in children with febrile convulsions. Methods Children with fever were divid-ed into two groups(108 children with febrile convulsions and 98 children without febrile convulsions). The levels of CRP and WBC were detected and statistically analyzed. Results The CRP levels were ele-vated in 30 children with febrile convulsions,whose WBC counts were(13. 6 ± 4. 5)× 109 / L;The CRP levels were normal in 78 children with febrile convulsions,whose WBC counts were(12. 2 ± 4. 6)× 109 / L. The CRP levels were elevated in 52 children without febrile convulsions,whose WBC counts were (9. 8 ± 4. 3)× 109 / L;The CRP levels were normal in 46 children without febrile convulsions,whose WBC counts were(7. 6 ± 3. 2)× 109 / L. Whether the levels of CRP increased or not,the WBC counts in children with febrile convulsions were obviously higher than those in children without febrile convulsions, there were significant differences(P < 0. 05

  11. Efficacy of Levetiracetam in Prevention of Recurrent Febrile Seizures in Children%左乙拉西坦预防儿童热性惊厥复发的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨左乙拉西坦(LEV)对热性惊厥复发的预防效果。方法选取156例既往有热性惊厥史且随访资料完整的患儿,将其按随机数字表法分成治疗组(58例)和对照组(98例)。2组均按常规对原发病进行治疗。在体温超过37.5℃时,对照组给予退热治疗(口服对乙酰氨基酚或布洛芬),并在体温超过38.5℃时加用安定口服;治疗组除常规治疗外加用口服 LEV。记录2组热性惊厥复发率、次数等。结果治疗组热性惊厥复发6例,复发率6.12%,总复发次数为6次;对照组热性惊厥复发26例,复发率44.83%,其中复发1次为19例,占32.76%,复发2次为5例,占8.62%,复发3次及以上为2例,占3.45%,总复发次数为52次。治疗组热性惊厥复发率明显低于对照组(P <0.05)。结论LEV 可明显降低热性惊厥的再发率,未见显著的不良反应发生。%ABSTRACT:Objective To explore the efficacy of levetiracetam in the prevention of recurrent fe-brile seizures.Methods A total of 156 children with a history of febrile seizures and complete fol-low-up data were randomly divided into two groups.All children received conventional treat-ment for primary disease.In the control group(n=58),oral acetaminophen or ibuprofen was given when body temperature was higher than 37.5℃,and oral diazepam was additionally used when body temperature was higher than 38.5℃.The treatment group(n=98)was given oral levetirace-tam.The incidence,frequency and duration of recurrent febrile seizures were recorded in both groups.Results In the treatment group,recurrent febrile seizures occurred in 6 children(6.12%) and the total number of recurrence was 6.In the control group,recurrent febrile seizures occurred in 26 children(44.83%).Among them,recurrence occurred 1 time in 19(32.76%),2 times in 5 (8.62%),and 3 times or more in 2(3.45%).The total number of recurrence was 52.The inci

  12. Use of health care among febrile children from urban poor households in Senegal: does the neighbourhood have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, Georges Karna; Lalou, Richard; Audibert, Martine; Lafarge, Hervé; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Ndonky, Alphousseyni; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-01

    Urban malaria is considered a major public health problem in Africa. The malaria vector is well adapted in urban settings and autochthonous malaria has increased. Antimalarial treatments prescribed presumptively or after rapid diagnostic tests are also highly used in urban settings. Furthermore, health care strategies for urban malaria must comply with heterogeneous neighbourhood ecosystems where health-related risks and opportunities are spatially varied. This article aims to assess the capacity of the urban living environment to mitigate or increase individual or household vulnerabilities that influence the use of health services. The data are drawn from a survey on urban malaria conducted between 2008 and 2009. The study sample was selected using a two-stage randomized sampling. The questionnaire survey covered 2952 households that reported a case of fever episode in children below 10 years during the month before the survey.Self-medication is a widespread practice for children, particularly among the poorest households in Dakar. For rich households, self-medication for children is more a transitional practice enabling families to avoid opportunity costs related to visits to health facilities. For the poorest, it is a forced choice and often the only treatment option. However, the poor that live in well-equipped neighbourhoods inhabited by wealthy residents tend to behave as their rich neighbours. They grasp the opportunities provided by the area and adjust their behaviours accordingly. Though health care for children is strongly influenced by household socio-economic characteristics, neighbourhood resources (facilities and social networks) will promote health care among the poorest and reduce access inequalities. Without being a key factor, the neighbourhood of residence-when it provides resources-may be of some help to overcome the financial hurdle. Findings suggest that the neighbourhood (local setting) is a relevant scale for health programmes in African

  13. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsion in 3- to 60-Month-Old Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Narges Habibian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding the association between Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA, iron status, and Febrile Convulsion (FC during childhood. In this article, a systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted in order to determine possible association and the degree of association between these statuses and FC. To identify all studies related to IDA and FC, various references such as MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase (OVID, Web of sciences (Thomson Reuters and Google scholar were searched (up until 15 January 2013. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic, Tau2, and I2. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed. The outcome of primary interest was the overall Odds Ratio (OR of FC for IDA and standard mean differences (SMD of ferritin level. In total, 21 articles were considered to assess the association between IDA and FC. Anemia was more prevalent among the FC patients compared with the controls and the overall OR was 1.52 (95% CI=1.03 to 2.25. In addition, the pooled OR for 17 studies performed in the populations with low and moderate prevalence of anemia was 2.04 (95% CI=1.46 to 2.85. Furthermore, 12 studies assessed the association between the ferritin level and FC. The overall SMD was -0.02 with a 95% CI of -0.09 to 0.06. Besides, the pooled SMD of ferritin was -0.57 (95% CI=-0.7 to -0.46 in 6 studies reporting no difference between the FC and the control group with respect to temperature. IDA was associated with a moderate increased risk of FC in children, particularly in the areas with low and moderate prevalence of anemia.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Acetaminophen Plus Ibuprofen to Treat Fever Than any of the Two Alone in Febrile Children

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    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a natural response of the host to infection and a normal part of children's infectious disease. Objectives The purpose of the study was comparison of the combined treatment of acetaminophen and ibuprofen compact with each treatment alone. Methods This Double-blind clinical trial study was done on 540 children with 38°C to 41°C as body temperature. Eligible children after considering inclusion criteria divided in three groups randomly. First group of 183 patients administrated with acetaminophen, the second and the third groups of 178 and 179 patients with ibuprofen and combination. The first dose of antipyretic drug was administered to the patient under the supervision of a physician or nurse. After explanation of benefits and marginal effects to the parents if they accepted the conditions their children were admitted to the study. Parents were free if they wish to withdraw the study before completing. Information of each patient was recorded on a form. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic, one-way ANOVA and SPSS software version 16. Results Out of sample 60.6% were boy. The mean age of children treated with acetaminophen, ibuprofen and combination therapy was 2.21 ± 2.49, 3.00 ± 2.92 and 2.22 ± 2.33 years in the order given. The results showed statistical difference in two (F = 4.45 and P = 0.012 and four hours (F = 3.11 and P = 0.045 after taking drug. A significant difference not observed in the value of temperature decrease within 2 - 4 hours after drug intake, (F = 2.49, P=0.084 but in the time of 0-2 (P = 0.012 and 4-6 hours (P = 0.001 was observed. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that acetaminophen is more effective for a short time but the combination in the long time when ibuprofen placed in the middle position with the respect of time.

  15. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months,

  16. Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean=23.7 m.) that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS) entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified i...

  17. Evaluation of Serum Sodium Levels in Simple, Multiple and Recurrent Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Razieh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common form of childhood seizures that occur in 2-5% of them. The purpose of this study was to compare serum sodium level in first simple, multiple and recurrent febrile con-vulsions to answer whether serum sodium levels can predict febrile seizure recurrence in 24 hours and in other febrile episodes? In a retrospective study, sodium serum levels of all children aged 6 months to 6 years with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure admitted between March 2004 and August 2005 to Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital, were compared in simple, multiple and recurrence febrile convulsions. 139 cases with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure found among whom serum sodium checked in 112.54 girls and 58 boys with mean age of 2.01 ± 1.2 years evaluated. Type of febrile convulsions was complex in 36.6% of them. 18% had multiple (occurrence of more than one seizure during the febrile illness seizures and 35.7% showed seizure recurrence in other fever episodes among whom 88% occurred in first year. Mean survival recurrence rate was 6.7 ± 5.9 months. There is no significant differences in age and serum sodium level among the three groups. Association of relative hyponatremia and febrile seizure recurrence was not confirmed. These findings reaffirm the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to not routinely obtain electrolytes in febrile convulsion unless clinically indicated.

  18. Clinical and microbiological profile of children with febrile neutropenia following antineoplastic treatments in a hospital in Medellin (Colombia), 2009-2010: case series

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Lina Maria; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Palacio Mesa, María Juliana; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Diosa Restrepo, Mariana; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Ramírez Pulgarín, Sergio; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Rodríguez Gázquez, María de los Angeles; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Orozco Forero, Juan Pablo; Universidad pontificia bolivariana

    2015-01-01

    La neutropenia febril compromete la respuesta inmunológica, facilitando la invasión de microorganismos generando altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: describir el perfil clínico y microbiológico de los niños con neutropenia febril sometidos a tratamientos antineoplásicos, en una institución hospitalaria de Medellín. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron las historias clínicas de 34 pacientes pediátricos con tratamiento antineoplásico, neu...

  19. Incidence of abnormal imaging and recurrent pyelonephritis after first febrile urinary tract infection in children 2 to 24 months old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Trisha M; Stephany, Heidi A; Clayton, Douglass B; Thomas, John C; Pope, John C; Adams, Mark C; Brock, John W; Tanaka, Stacy T

    2013-10-01

    The AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) no longer recommends voiding cystourethrogram in children 2 to 24 months old who present with a first urinary tract infection if renal-bladder ultrasound is normal. We identified factors associated with abnormal imaging and recurrent pyelonephritis in this population. We retrospectively evaluated children diagnosed with a first episode of pyelonephritis at age 2 to 24 months using de-identified electronic medical record data from an institutional database. Data included age at first urinary tract infection, gender, race/ethnicity, need for hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic use, history of abnormal prenatal ultrasound, renal-bladder ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram results, urinary tract infection recurrence and surgical intervention. Risk factors for abnormal imaging and urinary tract infection recurrence were analyzed by univariate logistic regression, the chi-square test and survival analysis. We identified 174 patients. Of the 154 renal-bladder ultrasounds performed 59 (38%) were abnormal. Abnormal prenatal ultrasound (p = 0.01) and the need for hospitalization (p = 0.02) predicted abnormal renal-bladder ultrasound. Of the 95 patients with normal renal-bladder ultrasound 84 underwent voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was more likely in patients who were white (p = 0.003), female (p = 0.02) and older (p = 0.04). Despite normal renal-bladder ultrasound, 23 of 84 patients (24%) had dilating vesicoureteral reflux. Of the 95 patients with normal renal-bladder ultrasound 14 (15%) had recurrent pyelonephritis and 7 (7%) went on to surgical intervention. Despite normal renal-bladder ultrasound after a first pyelonephritis episode, a child may still have vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent pyelonephritis and the need for surgical intervention. If voiding cystourethrogram is deferred, parents should be counseled on these risks. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  20. INCIDENCE OF ABNORMAL IMAGING AND RECURRENT PYELONEPHRITIS AFTER FIRST FEBRILE URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN 2-24 MONTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Trisha M.; Stephany, Heidi A.; Clayton, Douglass B.; Thomas, John C.; Pope, John C.; Adams, Mark C.; Brock, John W.; Tanaka, Stacy T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The American Academy of Pediatrics no longer recommends a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for children aged 2 to 24 months presenting with their first urinary tract infection (UTI) if renal-bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is normal. Our goal was to identify factors associated with abnormal imaging and recurrent pyelonephritis for this population. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated children diagnosed with first episode of pyelonephritis between 2 to 24 months using de-identified electronic medical record data from an institutional database. Data included age at first UTI, gender, race/ethnicity, need for hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic use, history of abnormal prenatal ultrasound, RBUS and VCUG results, UTI recurrence and surgical intervention. Risk factors for abnormal imaging and UTI recurrence were analyzed with univariate logistic regression, chi square and survival analysis. Results We identified 174 patients. Of 154 RBUS performed, 59 (38%) were abnormal. Abnormal prenatal ultrasound (p=0.01) and need for hospitalization (p=0.02) predicted abnormal RBUS. Of the 95 patients with normal RBUS, 84 had a VCUG. Vesicoureteral reflux was more likely in Caucasians (p=0.003), females (p=0.02) and older patients (p=0.04). Despite normal RBUS, 23 of 84 (24%) patients had dilating vesicoureteral reflux. Of the 95 patients with normal RBUS, 14 (15%) had recurrent pyelonephritis and 7 (7%) went on to surgical intervention. Conclusions Despite a normal RBUS after first episode of pyelonephritis, a child may still have vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent pyelonephritis, and need for surgical intervention. If VCUG is deferred, parents should be counseled regarding these risks. PMID:23353046

  1. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Christensen, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were estimated by using Cox regression analysis, comparing children with epilepsy and febrile seizure with those without these disorders, adjusted for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, as well as family history of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. A total of 906 379 individuals were followed up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20-1.35). In individuals with both epilepsy and febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 3.22 (95% CI, 2.72-3.83). Our findings indicate a strong association between epilepsy in childhood and, to a lesser extent, febrile seizure and subsequent development of ADHD, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, and family history of epilepsy, febrile seizures, or psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Febrile and other occasional seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, T; Carmant, L

    2013-01-01

    Seizures with fever that result from encephalitis or meningitis usually occur late in the course of febrile illness, and are focal and prolonged. Febrile seizures are by far the most common affecting 5% of the population, followed by posttraumatic seizures and those observed in the setting of a toxic, infectious, or metabolic encephalopathy. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation of the three most common forms, due to fever, trauma, and intoxication. Febrile seizures carry no cognitive or mortality risk. Recurrence risk is increased by young age, namely before 1 year of age. Febrile seizures that persist after the age of 6 years are usually part of the syndrome of Generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus. These febrile seizures have a strong link with epilepsy since non-febrile seizures may occur later in the same patient and in other members of the same family with an autosomal dominant transmission. Complex febrile seizures, i.e., with focal or prolonged manifestations or followed by focal defect, are related to later mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis; risk factors are seizure duration and brain malformation. Prophylactic treatment is usually not required in febrile seizures. Early onset of complex seizures is the main indication for AED prophylaxis. Early posttraumatic seizures, i.e., within the first week, are often focal and indicate brain trauma: contusion, hematoma, 24 hours amnesia, and depressed skull fracture are major factors of posttraumatic epilepsy. Prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is not effective. Various psychotropic drugs, including antiepileptics, may cause seizures.

  3. Frequent fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Annemarie M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Breteler, Monique M B; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriette A; Arts, Willem Frans M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the number of fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study from early foetal life onwards. Information about the occurrence of febrile seizures and fever episodes was collected by questionnaires at the ages of 12, 24 and 36 months. Analyses were based on 3033 subjects. The risk of febrile seizures was compared between children with frequent fever episodes (>2 per year), and children with only 1 or 2 fever episodes per year. The frequency of fever episodes was not associated with the risk of febrile seizures in the age range of 6-12 months. In the second and third year of life, having more than 2 fever episodes was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures (odds ratios 2.02 [95% confidence interval 1.13-3.62] and 2.29 [95% confidence interval 1.00-5.24], respectively). In the age range between 6 and 36 months, we observed a significant trend between the frequency of fever episodes (4 per year) and the risk of febrile seizures (p-value for trend febrile seizures was stronger for children with recurrent febrile seizures. Frequent fever episodes are associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures in the second and third years of life. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dose Supplemental Zinc Prevent Recurrence of Febrile Seizures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak SHIVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Shiva S, Barzegar M, Zokaie N, Shiva Sh. Dose Supplemental Zinc Prevents Recurrence of Febrile Seizures? Iranian Journal ofChild Neurology 2011;5(4:11-14. Objective Febrile seizures (FS are the most common form of seizures in children. Previous studies have suggested that zinc may play a role in the prevention of FS. However, there is limited information on the preventative effects of zinc against FS. This study aimed to determine whether prescribing zinc supplements could prevent FS.Materials & Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 100 children who had experienced simple FS for the first time were recruited. Children in the case group (50 patients were orally administered1mg/kg/day zinc sulfate for 1 year, and children in the control group (50 patients received a placebo. Serum zinc levels in both the control and case groups were measured at the start and at the end of the study,and recurrent cases of FS were recorded. Results The case group consisted of 29 boys (58% and 21 girls (42% with a mean age of 2.06 ± 0.83, and the control group consisted of 31 boys (62% and 19 girls (38% with a mean age of 2.22 ± 1.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between febrile diseases and serum zinc levels. In other words, the occurrence of febrile diseases decreased with an increase in serum zinc levels.Eight children (16% in the case group and 8 in the control group experienced recurrent FS within a year.ConclusionSupplemental doses of zinc (1mg/kg/day reduced the rate of febrile illnesses,but did not prevent the recurrence of FS.References Margaretha L, Masloman N. Correlation between serum zinc level and simple febrile seizure in children. Paediatr Indones 2010;50(6:326-30.Prasad R, Singh A, Das B, Upadhyay R, Singh T, Mishra O. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum zinc, copper, magnesium and calcium levels in children with Idiopathic seizure. J Clin Diagn Res 2009;3:1841-6.Vestergaard M, Obel C

  5. Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfries, Nicholas; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-02-01

    Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Despite being a higher-risk group, children receiving these vaccinations should not receive prophylactic antipyretics, as no statistically significant reduction in the rate of febrile seizures has been documented, and prophylactic antipyretic use potentially decreases the immune response to certain vaccines. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  6. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  7. Febrile Seizures: Four Steps Algorithmic Clinical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures (FS are the most common form of convulsive phenomena in human being and affect 2% to 14% of children. It is the most common type of seizures that every pediatrician is dealing with. It is the most benign type of all seizures occurring in childhood. There are many debates on how to approach to febrile seizures in pediatric neurology and there are many possible malpractices in this field. Some of the most common frequent queries are -How could we differentiate FS from seizures and fever associated with serious infections involving the central nervous system? - When should we refer the affected child for further investigations such as lumbar puncture, EEG, neuroimaging, and routine biochemical studies? - How should we treat FS in its acute phase? - How could we assess the risk for further recurrences as well as other risks threatening the childs health in future? - How could we select the patients for treatment or prophylaxis? - Which medication(s should be selected for treatment or prophylaxis? Trying to answer the above-mentioned questions, this review article will present a four steps algorithmic clinical approach model to a child with febrile seizures based on the current medical literature.

  8. Febrile Seizures: Four Steps Algorithmic Clinical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of convulsive phenomena in human being and affect 2% to 14% of children. It is the most common type of seizures that every pediatrician is dealing with. It is the most benign type of all seizures occurring in childhood. There are many debates on how to approach to febrile seizures in pediatric neurology and there are many possible malpractices in this field. Some of the most common frequent queries areHow could we differentiate FS from seizures and fever associated with serious infections involving the central nervous system?When should we refer the affected child for further investigations such as lumbar puncture, EEG, neuroimaging, and routine biochemical studies?How should we treat FS in its acute phase?How could we assess the risk for further recurrences as well as other risks threatening the child's health in future?How could we select the patients for treatment or prophylaxis?Which medication(s) should be selected for treatment or prophylaxis? Trying to answer the above-mentioned questions, this review article will present a four steps algorithmic clinical approach model to a child with febrile seizures based on the current medical literature. PMID:23056677

  9. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  10. 用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果探讨%Curative Effect Discussion on Combination of Diazepam and Phenobarbital in the Treatment of Children Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中贤; 许正香; 周泉良

    2016-01-01

    Objective To Discuss the Curative effect of combination of diazepam and phenobarbital in the treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods Randomly divided 98 children with febrile convulsion from October 2013 to October 2015 into diazepam group,phenobarbital group and combined treatment group, respective intravenous with diazepam,phenobarbital and combination of diazepam and Phenobarbital.Compare the anticonvulsant effect and recurrence of convulsion rate.Results Combined treatment group anticonvulsant effect is better than that of phenobarbit al group and the recurrence rate is lower than that of diazepam group, the differences shows statis tically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Combination of diazepam and phenobarbital has a better anticonvulsant effect and low recurrence rate in treatment of children febrile convulsion,and is worth clinical application.%目的:探讨用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的临床效果。方法:将我院于2013年10月~2015年10月期间收治的98例热性惊厥患儿随机分为地西泮组、苯巴比妥组和联合用药组,为这三组患儿分别使用地西泮、苯巴比妥、地西泮和苯巴比妥进行治疗。比较三组患儿所用药物的镇惊效果及其病情的复发率。结果:经治疗,联合用药组患儿镇惊的效果、惊厥的复发率均好于苯巴比妥组和地西泮组患儿,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果理想,而且能有效地降低此病患儿惊厥的复发率。

  11. 综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿进行的护理效果观察%Observation of nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利霞; 黄电芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿的护理效果。方法60例高热惊厥患儿采用随机数字表法分为对照组与试验组,每组30例。对照组采用常规护理方法,试验组采用综合护理干预,观察比较两组患儿护理后的临床效果。结果试验组患儿惊厥复发率3.33%明显低于对照的30.00%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高热惊厥患儿进行综合护理干预后,惊厥复发率明显降低,可显著提高护理质量,促进患儿恢复健康,安全可靠,值得临床推广应用。%Objcetive To investigate the nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion. Methods A total of 60 children with febrile convulsion were divided by random number table into control group and experimental group, and each group contained 30 cases. The control group received conventional nursing method, and the experimental group received comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical effects were observed and compared between the two groups after nursing. Results The relapse rate of convulsion was 3.33%in the experimental group, and that was obviously lower than 30.00%of the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Implememt of comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion can remarkably decrease relapse rate of convulsion, improve nursing quality and promote children’s rehabilitation. This method is safe and reliable, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.

  12. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  13. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Lee, Dong Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction.

  14. Neurodiagnostic Evaluation of a Child with First Complex Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita S Thakker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizure is the most common type of childhood seizure and complex febrile seizure has been associated with the risk of epilepsy. The neurodiagnostic evaluation of a child with first CFS is still unclear. Aim & Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and diagnostic evaluation of children aged 1 month to 5 years presenting with first Complex Febrile Seizure (CFS and to determine the utility of various investigations in a case of first CFS. Material and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the pediatric department of a tertiary hospital. Fortynine children aged 1 month-5 years with first CFS fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study over duration of 8-months. All the cases were evaluated with complete blood count, serum calcium, serum electrolytes, Electroencephalography (EEG, CT/MRI and lumbar puncture. Results: The investigation results were analyzed with respect to different CFS parameter like type of seizure (focal or generalized and duration of seizure(less than or more than 15 minutes. Upper respiratory tract infection is the main cause of febrile seizure. The duration of CFS did not vary according to the underlying cause. Serum calcium levels are found to be lower in children with complex febrile seizure. All children with CFS, whether focal or multiple generalized, whether of long or short duration, had a normal EEG. Children who had prolonged focal and multiple generalized seizures had abnormal neuroimaging but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: We conclude from our study that a child with first CFS may not need EEG and neuroimaging as a diagnostic evaluation test. Hypocalcemia can be identified in these children and can be corrected to stop the seizure. Further studies are needed on a large series of children with first CFS to form guidelines for their neurodiagnostic evaluation.

  15. EEG disorder in patients with complex febrile convulsion and underlying risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hemmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsion disorder in childhood. The possible risk of developing epilepsy in febrile seizures is about 2-10%. EEG is helpful to diagnose epilepsy; however, there are controversies about the abnormal EEG and associated risk factors .The aim of this study was to determine EEG abnormality and effective risk factors in patients with complex febrile seizures. Methods: This study was conducted on the patients with complex febrile seizures in 2009-2010.EEG was performed on all children 6 to 10 days after seizure and reported by a neurologist. Demographic data and risk factors, including age, sex, family history of epilepsy and febrile convulsions, presentation of seizure, postictal neurological disorder were documented by a checklist and their association with EEG was analyzed. Results: 111 patients with complex febrile seizure, 70 girls and 41 boys, with the mean age of 3.4±20 months were studied. EEG was abnormal in 37.8% of patients, 9% were epileptic form abnormality and 28.8% were nonspecific abnormal. There was a statistically significant association between EEG abnormality in patients with focal seizures, family history of febrile seizures and postictal neurologic disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed abnormality of EEG in complex febrile convulsions in 37.8% of patients, which was significantly higher in patients with postictal neurological disorder, focal seizures and family history of febrile seizure.

  16. System Identification of Learning Disabled Children: Implications for Research Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gale M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Sources of variability in identification of children for learning disabilities include teacher bias, peer tolerance, socioeconomic status, and assessment variability. Implications of these variables for research design and sampling are noted. (CL)

  17. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Rezayi A, Togha M, Ahmadabadi F, Derakhshanfar H, Azargashb E, Khodaei F. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:20-25.ObjectiveSome studies suggest that detection of epileptic discharge is unusual during the first postictal week of febrile seizure and others believe that EEGs carried out on the day of the seizure are abnormal in as many as 88% of the patients. In thisstudy, we intend to compare early and late EEG abnormalities in febrile seizure.Materials & Methods EEG was recorded during daytime sleep, 24-48 hours (early EEG and 2 weeks (late EEG after the seizure in 36 children with febrile seizure (FS, aged between 3 months and 6 years. EEGs that showed generalized or focal spikes, sharp, spike wave complex, and slowing were considered as abnormal EEG.Abnormalities of the first EEG were compared with those of second EEG.ResultsThe most common abnormal epileptiform discharges recorded in the early EEG were slow waves (27.6% and sharp waves in late EEG (36%. Distribution of abnormalities in early and late EEG showed no significant statistical difference.ConclusionThe early and late EEG recording had the same results in patient with febrile seizure. Reference:Hauser WA, Kurland LT. The epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Epilepsia 1975;16(1:1-66.Freeman JM. Febrile seizures: a consensus of their significance, evaluation, and treatment. Pediatrics 1980;66(6:1009.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 2004;89(8:751-6.ILAE. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy, International League against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34(4:592-6.Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, Kurland LT. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1987;316(9:493-8.Berg AT, Shinnar S, Darefsky AS, Holford TR, Shapiro ED, Salomon ME, et al. Predictors of recurrent febrile

  18. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions...... of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... should still be dispatched primarily to febrile convulsions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  19. Identification of Srp9 as a febrile seizure susceptibility gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Karst, Henk; de Graaff, Esther; van Lith, Hein A; de Bruijn, Ewart; de Sonnaville, Sophietje; Verbeek, Nienke E; Lindhout, Dick; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Kempen, Marjan; Brilstra, Eva; Cuppen, Edwin; Loos, Maarten; Spijker, Sabine S; Kan, Anne A; Baars, Susanne E; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter H; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; van Duijn, Cornelia; Vergeer, Jeanette; Moll, Henriette A; Taubøll, Erik; Heuser, Kjell; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kas, Martien J H; de Graan, Pierre N E

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in young children. Complex FS are a risk factor for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). To identify new FS susceptibility genes we used a forward genetic strategy in mice and subsequently analyzed candidate genes in humans. METHODS:

  20. Characteristics of the initial seizure in familial febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E. van Beijeren; N.H. Wils; G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractComplex seizure characteristics in patients with a positive family history were studied to define familial phenotype subgroups of febrile seizures. A total of 51 children with one or more affected first degree relatives and 177 without an affected first degree relative

  1. Identification of Srp9 as a febrile seizure susceptibility gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Karst, Henk; de Graaff, Esther; van Lith, Hein A; de Bruijn, Ewart; de Sonnaville, Sophietje; Verbeek, Nienke E; Lindhout, Dick; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Kempen, Marjan; Brilstra, Eva; Cuppen, Edwin; Loos, Maarten; Spijker, Sabine S; Kan, Anne A; Baars, Susanne E; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter H; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; van Duijn, Cornelia; Vergeer, Jeanette; Moll, Henriette A; Taubøll, Erik; Heuser, Kjell; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kas, Martien J H; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in young children. Complex FS are a risk factor for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). To identify new FS susceptibility genes we used a forward genetic strategy in mice and subsequently analyzed candidate genes in humans. METHODS:

  2. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  3. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  4. New guidelines for the clinical management of febrile neutropenia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendes, Ana Verena Almeida; Sapolnik, Roberto; Mendonça, Núbia

    2007-01-01

    .... A review of the scientific literature utilizing an electronic bibliographic search on MEDLINE, Medscape, SciELO, Google, Cochrane and PubMED using the keywords febrile, neutropenic, cancer, children...

  5. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAJOGHLI Shirin MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepamin febrile seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy ofintermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age rangeof 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with ahistory of psychomotor delay, abnormal neurological examination, a history ofantiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from thestudy. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritmentand three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-freeafter 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common sideeffects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because theyhad prior awareness of the possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam isefficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informedof its side effects.

  6. Clinical Exploration of Factors Related to Recurrence of Febrile Convulsion in Children%小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors related to the recurrence of febrile convulsion in children. Methods:Select 6 9 cases of child patient in relapse of febrile convulsion as the treatment group and 6 9 cases of concurrent non-recurrent child patient as the control group.Compare their differences on gender ,age,the condition and temperature when convulsion recurs,anomalies during perinatal period ,family history, weight,preictal complications and otherwise.Results:Compare some of the factors of the patients in the two groups,the number of male,age,weight,convulsion times,EEG anomaly,convulsion duration,family his-tory and complications and other factors in treatment group was found to be obviously different from that in the control group,P0.05.Conclusion:The recurrence rate of febrile convulsion is quite high,some may even transform to epilepsia,scientific and effective measures would prevent sequela in nervous system and lower the recurrence effectively.%目的::对小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素进行研究分析。方法:从某院小儿热性惊厥复发患者中选取69例为治疗组,选取同期没有复发的69例小儿热性惊厥患者为对照组,对比分析两组患者在性别、年龄、惊厥发作情况、体温、围生期异常、家族史、体重和发作前合并症等因素之间的差异性。结果:对比两组患者部分因素,治疗组患者男性比率、年龄、体温、惊厥次数、复杂型、脑电图异常、惊厥发作时间、家族史和合并症等因素同对照组患者间存在显著差异性,P0.05。结论:热性惊厥疾病具有较高复发率,部分患者会转化为癫痫,科学有效的处理措施可有效避免患者出现神经系统后遗症,降低患者出现复发现象发生率。

  7. Cerebral Abscess Presenting as a Complex Febrile Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Anjoli; Salas, Alicia; Mahl, Evan; Levine, Marla C

    2015-07-01

    Currently, there is no standardized approach to the management of complex febrile seizures in children and there are no published practice guidelines for the procurement of neuroimaging. Presented is a 2-year-old female patient who experienced a 3- to 5-minute episode of staring and unilateral mouth twitching associated with high fever. On initial presentation, the patient appeared well and had a normal neurological examination. No focus of infection was identified, and she was diagnosed with complex febrile seizure. The patient was discharged home with close neurology and primary care follow-up but returned the following day with altered mental status, toxic appearance, and right lower extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed left-sided cranial empyema and the patient was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage. A literature review to answer the question "Do children with complex febrile seizures require emergent neuroimaging?" yielded a small number of retrospective reviews describing the utility of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture in the work-up of febrile seizures. Current evidence indicates that neuroimaging is not indicated in an otherwise healthy child who presents with complex febrile seizure if the patient is well appearing and has no evidence of focal neurological deficit on examination. As this case demonstrates, however, serious conditions such as meningitis and brain abscess (though rare) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complex febrile seizure and physicians should remain aware that the need for neuroimaging and/or lumbar puncture may arise in the appropriate clinical setting.

  8. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  9. Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2014-10-09

    Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A first prolonged febrile seizure does not increase the risk of recurrence, but if there is a recurrence, it is more likely to be prolonged. Prevention of recurrent febrile seizures is difficult. Antipyretics are ineffective. Daily AED treatment is not often justified. Intermittent oral diazepam at the time of illness is not very successful and has significant side effects. The most optimistic study found that the number of subjects required to treat in order to prevent one recurrence was 14. Intermittent clobazam has fewer side effects than diazepam and may be somewhat effective. Rescue benzodiazepines given outside health care facilities may be effective in selected patients to prevent prolonged recurrences, although this has not been proven with rectal diazepam which has been more extensively studied than buccal or nasal midazolam. Currently, we suggest that, for children with febrile seizures, candidates for consideration for rescue benzodiazepines are those with a prolonged febrile seizure or poor access to medical care. It is possible that the use of a rescue benzodiazepine may alleviate severe parental anxiety, but this remains to be established.

  10. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizure is a common type of seizure in childhood, probably caused by both genetic and early environmental factors. Little is known about the effect of environmental factors that operate in prenatal life, although the fetal brain may be particular vulnerable as a result...... of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  11. Febrile neutropaenia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, M; Nicholson, A; Lee, M G; Wharfe, G; Frankson, M A

    2010-03-01

    Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinicalfeatures. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.

  12. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A ZolalyDepartment of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures.Methods: The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever.Results: Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine.Conclusion: Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.Keywords: antihistamine, nonantihistamine, histamine H1 antagonist, febrile seizures

  13. 中性粒细胞缺乏并细菌感染发热患儿的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection in children with febrile neutropenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立荣; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    Infection rate was high in children with hematologic cancers and febrile neutropenia,especially the number of drug-resistant bacteria showed an increasing trend.Because of defects of the immune function,the typical symptoms,pathogenic bacteria and infection was not clear in these children,the fever may be the only sign of serious underlying infection,mortality related with infection was high,so it was important to evalute the clinical risk accuratly and select antibiotic properly.%中性粒细胞缺乏的造血系统恶性肿瘤患儿感染发生率高,尤其是耐药菌的感染数量呈增加趋势.此类患儿免疫功能低下,炎症的症状、体征不具型,病原菌及感染灶也不明确,发热可能是严重潜在感染的唯一征象,感染相关病死率高,因此,准确地进行临床及风险度评估,并选用恰当的抗菌药物具有重要临床意义.

  14. Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.G.; Kugler, S.L.; Stenroos, E.S.; Meulener, M.C. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-02

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Post febrile acquired cutis laxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumaran R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired cutis laxa following enteric fever has been described in a male in the neck region. Biopsy revealed fragmented elastic fibres in the dermis which were better visualised with special stain for elastic tissue. This case is reported for rarity of its occurrence at the localised site following febrile illness.

  16. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Dawman, Lesa; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-05-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pfebrile seizures, peak body temperature, underlying cause of fever, antenatal complications, low serum calcium, sodium, blood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  17. Correlates and implications for agreeableness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D

    2002-01-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship between agreeableness and other constructs related to children's social relationships. Third through 6th graders (N = 76; 46 boys, 30 girls) completed self-reports on agreeableness (based on the adult version of the NEO Personality Inventory Manual; Costa & McCrae, 1985), social skills (Social Skills Rating System for Children; Gresham & Elliot, 1991), empathy (Feshbach, 1990) and trust (Children's Trust Scale; Imber, 1973). Using multiple regression, agreeableness was predicted by social skills, empathy, and trust for girls. There were no significant predictors of agreeableness for boys. The discussion focuses on the mutability of childhood personality.

  18. 地西泮联合苯巴比妥对小儿惊厥患者的临床效果研究%Clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴文利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion.Methods Seventy cases of febrile convulsion patients were divided into control group (phenobarbital treatment,35 cases) and experiment group (diazepam combined with phenobarbital,35 cases) by random digits table method,and compared the efficacy and complications.Results Two groups were cured within 1 h.The effective rate within 30 min in experiment group was significantly higher than that in control group [88.6% (31/35) vs.74.3% (26/35)] (P < 0.05).The recurrent rate in experiment group was significantly lower than that in control group [2.9% (1/35) vs.14.3% (5/35)] (P < 0.05).The complications had no statistically significant differences between two groups(P > 0.05).Conclusions Diazepam combined with phenobarbital are very effective for children with febrile convulsion,can greatly improve clinical efficacy,decrease recurrent rate,and won't produce adverse reaction and complications,are the ideal treatment in the clinical treatment.%目的 探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥患者的临床效果.方法 选取小儿惊厥患者70例,按随机数字表法分为对照组和试验组,每组35例,对照组患儿给予苯巴比妥药物治疗,试验组患儿给予地西泮联合苯巴比妥药物治疗.观察比较两组临床效果与并发症发生情况.结果 两组患儿均在1h内治愈.试验组患儿30 min内的治疗有效率为88.6%(31/35),明显高于对照组的74.3%(26/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组患儿复发率为2.9%(1/35),明显低于对照组的14.3%(5/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组并发症发生情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对小儿惊厥患者使用地西泮联合苯巴比妥的药物治疗,可以迅速提高临床治疗效果,降低惊厥复发的几率,并且不良反应及并发症少,是临床治疗中的理想治疗方式.

  19. Dose Supplemental Zinc Prevent Recurrence of Febrile Seizures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak SHIVA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile seizures (FS are the most common form of seizures in children. Previous studies have suggested that zinc may play a role in the prevention of FS. However, there is limited information on the preventative effects of zinc against FS. This study aimed to determine whether prescribing zinc supplements could prevent FS.Materials & MethodsIn a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 100 children who had experienced simple FS for the first time were recruited. Children in the case group (50 patients were orally administered1mg/kg/day zinc sulfate for 1 year, and children in the control group (50 patients received a placebo. Serum zinc levels in both the control and case groups were measured at the start and at the end of the study,and recurrent cases of FS were recorded.ResultsThe case group consisted of 29 boys (58% and 21 girls (42% with a mean age of 2.06 ± 0.83, and the control group consisted of 31 boys (62% and 19 girls (38% with a mean age of 2.22 ± 1.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between febrile diseases and serum zinc levels. In other words, the occurrence of febrile diseases decreased with an increase in serum zinc levels.Eight children (16% in the case group and 8 in the control group experienced recurrent FS within a year.ConclusionSupplemental doses of zinc (1mg/kg/day reduced the rate of febrile illnesses,but did not prevent the recurrence of FS.

  20. Seizure-Induced Neuronal Injury: Vulnerability to Febrile Seizures in an Immature Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zsolt; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Haftoglou, Suzie; Ribak, Charles E.; Tallie Z. Baram

    1998-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common seizure type in young children. Whether they induce death of hippocampal and amygdala neurons and consequent limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy has remained controversial, with conflicting data from prospective and retrospective studies. Using an appropriate-age rat model of febrile seizures, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of hyperthermic seizures on neuronal integrity and survival in the hippocampus and amygdala via molecular and neuroanatomic...

  1. Febrile seizures: an appropriate-aged model suitable for long-term studies

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever are the most prevalent age-specific seizures in infants and young children. Whether they result in long-term sequelae such as neuronal loss and temporal lobe epilepsy is controversial. Prospective studies of human febrile seizures have found no adverse effects on the developing brain. However, adults with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated limbic cell loss frequently have a history of prolonged febrile seizures in early life. These critical issues may be resolved ...

  2. Patología infecciosa importada en síndrome febril de origen desconocido en niño inmigrante: 2 casos Imported infectious diseases in fever of unknown origin in migrant children: 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz Goikoetxea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El auge de los movimientos migratorios ha aumentado la incidencia de enfermedades infecciosas infrecuentes en nuestro medio. Ante la presencia de un proceso febril en niños procedentes de áreas endémicas, se deben descartar en primer lugar enfermedades infecciosas importadas. Presentamos dos casos de fiebre tifoidea en niños inmigrantes, diagnosticados recientemente en nuestro centro. Ambos procedían de países con alta prevalencia de la enfermedad e ingresaron para estudio de fiebre de origen desconocido. Los dos pacientes residían en nuestro país desde hacía menos de un mes. El aislamiento de bacilo gran negativo en los hemocultivos fue clave para llegar al diagnóstico etiológico. En los dos casos se instauró antibioterapia endovenosa y se negativizaron tanto los hemocultivos como los coprocultivos de forma previa al alta. En la actualidad los dos niños se encuentran libres de enfermedad.The increase in migratory movements has increased the incidence of infectious diseases that were infrequent in our setting. In the presence of fever in children from endemic areas, imported infectious diseases must be ruled out in the first place. We present two cases of typhoid fever in immigrant children, recently diagnosed in our centre. Both from countries with a high prevalence of the disease were admitted for study of fever of unknown origin. The two patients had been living in our country for less than one month. Isolation of the gram-negative bacillus in the blood cultures provided the key for reaching the etiological diagnosis. In both cases endovenous antibiotherapy was established and both the blood cultures and stools became negative before discharge. At present the two children are free of the disease.

  3. The Clinical Study of Serum Levels of Brain Natriuritic Peptide and Sodium Ion in Children with Febrile Convul-sion%热性惊厥儿童血清脑利钠肽与钠离子水平的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母发光; 何海兰; 李晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and clinical significance of BNP and sodium ion in children with febrile convulsion. Methods Forty-eight children with febrile convulsion were enrolled in this study,Including 20 case of complex febrile convulsion(CFC group) ,28 case of simple febrile convulsion(SFC group),20 case of upper respiratory tract infection ( URI group) and 15 health children as the control group were enrolled in this study. the serum levels of BNP were determined by radioimmunoassay, the serum levels of Na + was measured by Full Automatic biochemical analyzer. The statistical analysis was used to compare the difference of each group. Results The serum BNP and NA + levels:BNP level of CFC group was higher than the SFC group,URI group and control group (P0. 05). BNP has the negative correlation with NA +(r= -0. 54,P0.05)。 BNP与Na +之间具有负相关关系(相关系数 r=-0.54,P<0.01)。结论热性惊厥刺激BNP的分泌,高水平BNP抑制醛固酮系统,使血钠水平下降,降低惊厥阈值。从而发生热性惊厥和惊厥性脑损伤的发生。因此,测定热性惊厥患儿血清中的BNP和Na +水平对热性惊厥的发病机制、分型及预后判断可能具有重要的临床价值。

  4. Epileptogenesis provoked by prolonged experimental febrile seizures: mechanisms and biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Celiné M.; Ravizza, Teresa; Hamamura, Mark; Zha, Qinqin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Fok, Kimberly; Andres, Adrienne M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Obenaus, Andre; Vezzani, Annamaria; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Whether long febrile seizures (FS) can cause epilepsy in the absence of genetic or acquired predisposing factors is unclear. Having established causality between long FS and limbic epilepsy in an animal model, we studied here if the duration of the inciting FS influenced the probability of developing subsequent epilepsy and the severity of the spontaneous seizures. We evaluated if interictal epileptifom activity and/or elevation of hippocampal T2 signal on MRI provided predictive biomarkers for epileptogenesis, and if the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an intrinsic element of FS generation, contributed also to subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that febrile status epilepticus, lasting an average of 64 minutes, increased the severity and duration of subsequent spontaneous seizures compared with FS averaging 24 minutes. Interictal activity in rats sustaining febrile status epilepticus was also significantly longer and more robust, and correlated with the presence of hippocampal T2 changes in individual rats. Neither T2 changes nor interictal activity predicted epileptogenesis. Hippocampal levels of IL-1β were significantly higher for over 24 hours after prolonged FS. Chronically, IL-1β levels were elevated only in rats developing spontaneous limbic seizures after febrile status epilepticus, consistent with a role for this inflammatory mediator in epileptogenesis. Establishing seizure duration as an important determinant in epileptogenesis, and defining the predictive roles of interictal activity, MRI, and inflammatory processes are of paramount importance to the clinical understanding of the outcome of FS, the most common neurological insult in infants and children. PMID:20519523

  5. SerumTrace Elements in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMAKIN, Kokab; ZARDAST, Mahmoud; SHARIFZADEH, Golamreza; BIDAR, Toktam; ZARGARIAN, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure (FS) is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood.Pathogenesis of febrile convulsion is unknown. This study investigated some trace elements among children admitted with FS compared with thoseof febrile without seizure attacks. Materials & Methods This case-control study was conducted on48 children (6 months to 5 yrold) diagnosed with febrile seizure as the cases and 48 age-matched febrile children as the control group. Serum levels of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and serum zinc were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 15) using Student t-test. Results There were no significant differences between the cases and controls in terms of gender or age. The means of serum level of zinc, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the case group was lower than those of the control group. There was no significant difference onserum potassium mean level between the case and control groups. Conclusion Deficiency of trace elements was correlated significantly with febrile convulsion, while further investigations on trace elements are required. PMID:27375757

  6. Towards Improving Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Non-malaria Febrile Illness: A Metabolomics Approach.

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    Saskia Decuypere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-malaria febrile illnesses such as bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI are a leading cause of disease and mortality in the tropics. However, there are no reliable, simple diagnostic tests for identifying BSI or other severe non-malaria febrile illnesses. We hypothesized that different infectious agents responsible for severe febrile illness would impact on the host metabolome in different ways, and investigated the potential of plasma metabolites for diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness.We conducted a comprehensive mass-spectrometry based metabolomics analysis of the plasma of 61 children with severe febrile illness from a malaria-endemic rural African setting. Metabolite features characteristic for non-malaria febrile illness, BSI, severe anemia and poor clinical outcome were identified by receiver operating curve analysis.The plasma metabolome profile of malaria and non-malaria patients revealed fundamental differences in host response, including a differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A simple corticosteroid signature was a good classifier of severe malaria and non-malaria febrile patients (AUC 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93. Patients with BSI were characterized by upregulated plasma bile metabolites; a signature of two bile metabolites was estimated to have a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 80.2-100 and a specificity of 82.9% (95% CI: 54.7-99.9 to detect BSI in children younger than 5 years. This BSI signature demonstrates that host metabolites can have a superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to pathogen-detecting tests to identify infections characterized by low pathogen load such as BSI.This study demonstrates the potential use of plasma metabolites to identify causality in children with severe febrile illness in malaria-endemic settings.

  7. Evaluation of the nitrite test in screening for urinary tract infection in febrile children with sickle cell anaemia in Maiduguri- Nigeria

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    Y Mava

    2011-01-01

    There was significant bacteriuria in 65 (26% children with SCA. A positive test for nitrite was obtained in 43 of the 65 (66.2% children. The nitrite test has a specificity of 93.5% in detecting bacteriuria, a sensitivity of 66.2%, a positive predictive value of 78.2% and a negative predictive value of 93.5%. A positive nitrite test was significantly associated with bacteriuria, while a negative test was also significantly associated with an absence of bacteriuria. Conclusions: From this study, the nitrite test is useful as a screening test for UTI in SCA children. However in sick children with SCA, microscopy, culture and sensitivity should still be done in spite of a negative nitrite test.

  8. Interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels obtained within 24-h of admission do not predict high-risk infection in children with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biomarkers that can predict the severity of febrile neutropenia (FN are potential tools for clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of plasma interleukin (IL levels as indicators of high-risk FN. Materials and Methods: Children with haematological malignancies and FN were enrolled prospectively. A blood sample was obtained within 24-h of admission for estimation of IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were stratified into three groups. Group I (low-risk: No focus of infection; Group II: Clinical/radiological focus of infection; Group III: Microbiologically proven infection or FN related mortality. Groups II and III were analysed as high-risk. The cytokines were assessed at three different cut-off levels. Results: A total of 52 episodes of FN in 48 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 6 years (range: 2-13. Primary diagnosis included acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (82%, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (13% and acute myeloid leukaemia (5%. Absolute neutrophil count was < 200 cells/μl in half and 200-500 in 23%. Majority were categorised as Group I (69%, followed by Group II (16% and III (15%. The range of IL-5 was too narrow and similar in the two risk-groups to be of any relevance. The best sensitivity of TNF-α and IL-6 for high-risk group was 78% and 70%, respectively. The highest specificity observed was 35%. The negative predictive value of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α exceeded 80%. Conclusion: IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α failed as predictors of clinically localised or microbiologically documented infection in children with chemotherapy induced FN. However, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α could be useful in excluding the possibility of high-risk infection.

  9. Febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies

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    Sharma A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is the principle sign of infection in neutropenic patient and frequently may be the only evidence of infection. The pattern of fever in neutropenia is non-specific and not pathognomonic of any type of infections or non-infectious process and can be suppressed by the antipyretic effects of drugs such as corticosteroids. Neutropenia, resulting from cytotoxic chemotherapy is the most common risk factor for severe infections in hematological malignancies. The duration of neutropenia also contributes significantly to the risk of serious infections. This risk is significantly greater a lower neutrophil counts, such that 100% patients with ANC < 100 cells/µl lasting 3 weeks or more develop documented infections. The prompt initiation of empirical antibiotics in febrile neutropenia has been the most important advance in the management of the immunocompromised host. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen started at presentation of the febrile episode frequently requires modifications especially in high-risk febrile neutropenia. Neutropenic patients who remain febrile despite 4-7 days of broad spectrum antibacterial therapy are at a high risk of invasive fungal infection. Empirical antifungal therapy with Amphotericin B in persistently febrile neutropenic patients and other high risk patients has shown to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection by 50-80% and the risk of fungal infection related mortality by 23-45% in 1980′s. The IDSA has recommended that amphotericin B at 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day be administered till marrow recovery. This approach is limited however by the adverse effects caused by drug infusion (fever, chills, myalgias, nausea, hypotension and bronchospasm. Lipid formulations which improve the therapeutic ratio of the traditional formulation are available. The safety and efficacy of these formulations is well established. These formulations have comparable efficacy and are less nephrotoxic than conventional amphotericin B

  10. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  11. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Modarresi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS. Results Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.

  12. S100B proteins in febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti

    2011-01-01

    S100B protein concentrations correlate with the severity and outcome of brain damage after brain injuries, and have been shown to be markers of blood-brain barrier damage. In children elevated S100B values are seen as a marker of damage to astrocytes even after mild head injuries. S100B proteins...... may also give an indication of an ongoing pathological process in the brain with respect to febrile seizures (FS) and the likelihood of their recurrence. To evaluate this, we measured S100B protein concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 103 children after their first FS. 33 children...... with acute infection without FS served as controls for the serum concentrations. In the FS patients the mean S100B concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid samples was 0.21μg/L and that in the serum samples 0.12μg/L. The mean serum concentration in the controls was 0.11μg/L (difference 0.01μg/L, 95...

  13. S100B proteins in febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti

    2011-01-01

    S100B protein concentrations correlate with the severity and outcome of brain damage after brain injuries, and have been shown to be markers of blood-brain barrier damage. In children elevated S100B values are seen as a marker of damage to astrocytes even after mild head injuries. S100B proteins...... may also give an indication of an ongoing pathological process in the brain with respect to febrile seizures (FS) and the likelihood of their recurrence. To evaluate this, we measured S100B protein concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 103 children after their first FS. 33 children...... with acute infection without FS served as controls for the serum concentrations. In the FS patients the mean S100B concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid samples was 0.21µg/L and that in the serum samples 0.12µg/L. The mean serum concentration in the controls was 0.11µg/L (difference 0.01µg/L, 95...

  14. Mossy Fiber Plasticity and Enhanced Hippocampal Excitability, Without Hippocampal Cell Loss or Altered Neurogenesis, in an Animal Model of Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most frequent seizures affecting infants and children; however, their impact on the developing hippocampal formation is not completely understood. Such understanding is highly important because of the potential relationship of prolonged febrile seizures to temporal lobe epilepsy. Using an immature rat model, we have previously demonstrated that prolonged experimental febrile seizures render the hippocampus hyperexcitable throughout life. He...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a ...

  16. Abandoning presumptive antimalarial treatment for febrile children aged less than five years--a case of running before we can walk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike English

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  17. Antibody-dependent cellular inhibition is associated with reduced risk against febrile malaria in a longitudinal cohort study involving Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K;

    2015-01-01

    studies (LCS). We investigated the relationship between ADCI activity of immunoglobulin G before malaria season and risk of malaria in a LCS involving Ghanaian children. High ADCI activity was significantly associated with reduced risk against malaria. Findings here suggest a potential usefulness...

  18. A cross-sectional survey of parental care-seeking behavior for febrile illness among under-five children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Baba Abdulkadir

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: There is poor care-seeking for fever in under-five children by parents in Nigeria. Improved literacy, women empowerment and health education are strategies that may improve care-seeking behavior. Highlighted regional differences are additional considerations for such interventions.

  19. When your child with epilepsy die suddenly: febrile seizures are part of the process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V C Terra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures (FS affect almost 2-5% of children and factors related to an increase susceptibility of children to FS may involve an imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and genetic factors. FS had low morbidity, but may be associated with the occurrence of late chronic epilepsy. Here we describe factors related to FS and its possible correlation with SUDEP.

  20. Association of interleukin-6 polymorphism and febrile seizures in children%小儿热性惊厥与IL-6基因多态性的关联性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃萍; 方映玲; 邹新英

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨白细胞介素-6 (Interleukin-6,IL-6)基因-572C/G、-174G/C多态性与小儿热性惊厥(febrile seizures,FS)的关联.方法:选择2009年6月~2010年6月热性惊厥患儿50例为FS组,同期门诊健康体检儿童30例为对照组 (所有研究对象均为汉族,无血缘关系).采用PCR/RFLP对病例组与对照组小儿的IL-6基因的-572、-174位点基因进行分析.结果:IL-6基因-572位点基因型和等位基因频率在FS组与对照组间分布差异有统计学意义,FS组-572 GG基因型和G等位基因频率均显著高于对照组(P<0.05);携带G等位基因个体患FS的风险约是C等位基因型个体的7.64倍(95%CI:2.89~18.13,P<0.05);IL-6基因启动子-174位点未发现基因多态性.结论:IL-6基因-572C/G多态性可能是中国汉族儿童FS发病的遗传危险因素之一.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-572 C/G,-174G/C single nueleotide polymorphism (SNP) and febrile seizures (PS) in children.Methods:A total of 50 pediatric patients with FS were studied together with 30 healthy controls.The polymorphism of IL-6 was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.Results:The frequency of the genotype GG of the IL-6 (-572) site in the FS group was significanTLy higher than that of the control group.The risk of FS of the G allele carriers was 7.64 times that of the C allele carriers (OR95% CI:2.89 ~ 18.i3,P <0.05).No polymorphism at position-174 was found in two groups.Conclusion:IL-6 gene-572C/G polymorphism could be the predictor of FS in the Chinese children.

  1. The Epidemiologic, Microbiologic and Clinical Picture of Bacteremia among Febrile Infants and Young Children Managed as Outpatients at the Emergency Room, before and after Initiation of the Routine Anti-Pneumococcal Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Leibovitz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We described the occult bacteremia (OB and bacteremia with diagnosed focus (BwF picture among children managed as outpatients at the pediatric emergency room (PER in southern Israel, before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs introduction in a retrospective study enrolling all three- to 36-month-old patients with fever >38.0 °C during 2005–2014. Of 511 (0.82% of all febrile patients true bacteremias, 230 (45% were managed as outpatients; 96 of 230 (41.7% had OB and 134 (3.59% had BwF. OB and BwF rates were 0.22% and 3.02%, respectively. A significant decrease was noted in OB and BwF rates (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.02, respectively. S. pneumoniae (SP, 37.5%, K. kingae (11.4% and Brucella spp. (8.7% were the most common OB pathogens and SP (29.8%, S. viridans (13.4%, and Brucella spp. (12.7% were the most common in BwF patients. PCV13 serotypes were not found among the serotypes isolated post-PCV13 introduction. During 2010–2014 there was an increase in non-PCV13 serotype isolation (p = 0.005. SP was the main pathogen isolated among patients with pneumonia, acute otitis media (AOM and periorbital cellulitis (62.5%, 33.3% and 60%, respectively. OB and BwF decreased following the introduction of PCVs and SP was the main pathogen in both conditions. Vaccine-SP serotypes were not isolated in OB after PCV13 introduction and non-vaccine serotypes increased significantly.

  2. Intermittent prophylaxis of recurrent febrile seizures with clobazam versus diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S; Saha, S K; Parveen, F; Banu, L A; Momen, A; Ahmed, A U; Quddush, M R; Karim, M M; Begum, S A; Haque, M A; Hoque, M R

    2014-10-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common type of seizure among children that can be prevented by using prophylactic drugs like Clobazam and Diazepam. The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh over a period of 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 to compare the effectiveness of intermittent Clobazam versus Diazepam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and assessed adverse effects of each drug. A total of 65 patients (32 children administered Clobazam and rest 33 children received Diazepam) of simple and complex febrile seizures aged 6 months to 5 years of both sexes were the study population. Data were collected by interview of the patients, clinical examination and laboratory investigations using the research instrument. Data were analyzed by using Chi-square (χ2) Test, Student's 't' Test and Fisher's Exact Test. For all analytical tests, the level of significance was set at 0.05 and pfebrile convulsion during the follow up period. From the data adverse effects within 3 and 6 months experienced by the patient's drowsiness, sedation and ataxia were higher in Diazepam group than those in Clobazam group. However, within 9 months lethargy and irritability were somewhat higher in Clobazam group than those in Diazepam group. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in Diazepam group compared to Clobazam group (6.0±1.0 vs. 4.6±0.08 days, Pfebrile seizures in Diazepam group had a history of recurrent seizures, whereas 3(9.4%) of 32 children in the Clobazam group. The risks of recurrent febrile seizure in the Diazepam group was 2.6 times greater compared to those in the Clobazam group (P=0.186). The result indicates that Clobazam is safe, efficacious, requires less frequent dosing and has less adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, ataxia and irritability as compared to Diazepam. So, Clobazam may be an

  3. Advances in children's rights and children's well-being measurement: implications for school psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E Scott

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of children's rights has developed, which is best expressed in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention outlines the conditions necessary to ensure and promote children's well-being and calls for the ongoing monitoring of children's well-being for accountability purposes. We articulate advances in children's rights and children's well-being measurement in the context of children's schooling experiences in general and for school psychology in particular. We highlight implications for the assessment roles of school psychologists, who occupy a unique position at the intersection of multiple subsystems of children's overall ecosystems. We argue that the synergy between a rights-based agenda and advances in children's well-being assessment methodology can provide valuable opportunities for school psychology. This synergy can help school communities establish perspective and goals for children's well-being in rights respecting ways, using the most promising well-being assessment strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-04-24

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or 'hotspots' of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001. Copyright © 2014, Bejon et al.

  5. 综合护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用%Application of comprehensive nursing intervention in children with febrile convulsion treated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建梅; 陈凤艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥中应用综合护理干预的效果。方法资料选取内蒙古医科大学附属医院2011年3月~2012年3月收治的高热惊厥患儿共138例,将其分为研究组与对照组,其中对照组69例予常规护理,研究组69例在上述护理的基础上予综合护理干预。观察两组患儿的预后相关指标水平及血清生化检查结果,对患儿行2年随访,观察惊厥复发情况。结果研究组惊厥消失时间为(38.77±10.52)s,住院时间为(7.69±2.38)d,均显著少于对照组[(68.94±19.68)s,(13.04±2.17)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);护理后研究组血钾、血钠、血糖水平均显著优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);随访末期研究组8例(11.59%)复发,显著低于对照组[19例(27.54%)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论小儿高热惊厥中应用综合护理干预能够有效改善预后,恢复患儿正常血清生化指标,降低复发率,临床效果显著,具有应用价值。%Objective To observe the effect of children with febrile convulsion treated with comprehensive nursing in-tervention. Methods 138 cases were selected from patients with febrile convulsion who received treatment in the Affil-iated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from March 2011 to March 2012. They were divided into the re-search group and the control group. The research group (69 cases) was given the comprehensive nursing intervention and the common nursing; while the control group (69 cases) was given the common nursing. Then levels of prognostic index and results of biochemistry of blood serum of two groups were observed, 2 years of follow-up on children were made in order to observe the relapse of convulsion. Results The elapsed time of convulsion and length of stay in the research group [(38.77±10.52) s and (7.69±2.38) d] were less than those in the control group [(68.94±19.68) s and (13.04±2.17) d], with statistical

  6. Effect of Xingnaojing injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion%醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion. Methods 60 cases of children with febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups,with 30 cases in each group.Control group was given conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment,such as anti-convulsion,anti-infection,abatement of fever,oxygen uptake,and so on,on basis of which,treatment group was given Xingnaojing Injection 0.2-0.6mL/(kg·d),once a day.The course was 7 days.The observational indexes included:clinical effect;abatement time of fever,length of stay;recurrence of convulsion,epileptogenesis. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 93.3%,which was higher than that of control group (76.7%),the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05).There were no statistically significant difference of the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(P > 0.05). Conclusion Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion can improve clinical effect obviously,shorten abatement time of fever and length of stay,reduce the times of recurrence of convulsion,which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果。方法将60例热性惊厥患儿随机分为两组,各30例。对照组给予止惊、抗感染、退热、吸氧等常规对症支持治疗,治疗组在此基础上给予醒脑静注射液0.2~0.6mL/(kg·d),1次/d。7d为1个疗程。观察指标包括:临床疗效、退热时间、住院时间、惊厥复发以及癫痫发生情况、不良反应发生情况。结果治疗组总有效率达93.3%,显著高于对照组(76.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组退热时间(1.48±0.16)d、住院时间(2.48±0.56)d,均显著短于对照组(2.23±0.47)d、(4.97±1.34)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。随访1年后,

  7. Utility of initial EEG in first complex febrile seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, Chellamani; Nagarajan, Elanagan; Kimia, Amir A; de Carvalho, Rachel Marin; An, Sookee; Bergin, Ann M; Takeoka, Masanori; Pearl, Phillip L; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    The risk of developing epilepsy following febrile seizures (FS) varies between 2% and 10%, with complex febrile seizures (CFS) having a higher risk. We examined the utility of detected epileptiform abnormalities on the initial EEG following a first CFS in predicting subsequent epilepsy. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients (ages 6-60 months) who were neurologically healthy or mildly delayed, seen in the ED following a first CFS and had both an EEG and minimum of 2-year follow-up. Data regarding clinical characteristics, EEG report, development of subsequent epilepsy, and type of epilepsy were collected. Established clinical predictors for subsequent epilepsy in children with FS and EEG status were evaluated for potential correlation with the development of subsequent epilepsy. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal EEG (epileptiform EEG) were calculated. A group of 154 children met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 20 (13%) children developed epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy was 13% (CI 8.3-19.6%). Epileptiform abnormalities were noted in 21 patients (13.6%), EEG slowing in 23 patients (14.9%), and focal asymmetry in six (3.8%). Epileptiform EEGs were noted in 20% (4/20) of patients with epilepsy and 13% (17/134) of patients without epilepsy (p=0.48). At an estimated risk of subsequent epilepsy of 10% (from population-based studies of children with FS), we determined that the PPV of an epileptiform EEG for subsequent epilepsy was 15%. None of the clinical variables (presence of more than 1 complex feature, family history of epilepsy, or status epilepticus) predicted epilepsy. An epileptiform EEG was not a sensitive measure and had a poor positive predictive value for the development of epilepsy among neurologically healthy or mildly delayed children with a first complex febrile seizure. The practice of obtaining routine EEG for predicting epilepsy after the first CFS needs clarification by well

  8. Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R

    2007-03-01

    Drawing on the data from the longitudinal Binuclear Family Study, 173 grown children were interviewed 20 years after their parents' divorce. This article addresses two basic questions: (1) What impact does the relationship between parents have on their children 20 years after the divorce? and (2) When a parent remarries or cohabits, how does it impact a child's sense of family? The findings show that the parental subsystem continues to impact the binuclear family 20 years after marital disruption by exerting a strong influence on the quality of relationships within the family system. Children who reported that their parents were cooperative also reported better relationships with their parents, grandparents, stepparents, and siblings. Over the course of 20 years, most of the children experienced the remarriage of one or both parents, and one third of this sample remembered the remarriage as more stressful than the divorce. Of those who experienced the remarriage of both of their parents, two thirds reported that their father's remarriage was more stressful than their mother's. When children's relationships with their fathers deteriorated after divorce, their relationships with their paternal grandparents, stepmother, and stepsiblings were distant, negative, or nonexistent. Whether family relationships remain stable, improve, or get worse is dependent on a complex interweaving of many factors. Considering the long-term implications of divorce, the need to emphasize life course and family system perspectives is underscored.

  9. IL-1β: an important cytokine associated with febrile seizures?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Yu; Wan-Hong Liu; Xiao-Hua He; Bi-Wen Peng

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common convulsions in childhood.Studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between a history of prolonged FSs during early childhood and temporal sclerosis,which is responsible for intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.It has been shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is intrinsically involved in the febrile response in children and in the generation of FSs.We summarize the gene polymorphisms,changes of IL-1β levels and the putative role of IL-1 β in the generation of FSs.IL-1β could play a role either in enhancing or in reducing neural excitability.If the enhancing and reducing effects are balanced,an FS does not occur.When the enhancing effect plays the leading role,an FS is generated.A mild imbalance can cause simple FSs while a severe imbalance can cause complex FSs and febrile status epilepticus.Therefore,anti-IL-1 β therapy may help to treat FSs.

  10. Risk factors for subsequent febrile seizures in the FEBSTAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lax, Daniel N; Pellock, John M; Nordli, Douglas R; Seinfeld, Syndi; Gallentine, William; Frank, L Matthew; Lewis, Darrell V; Shinnar, Ruth C; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Epstein, Leon G; Moshé, Solomon L; Liu, Binyi; Sun, Shumei

    2016-07-01

    To identify risk and risk factors for developing a subsequent febrile seizure (FS) in children with a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) compared to a first simple febrile seizure (SFS). To identify home use of rescue medications for subsequent FS. Cases included a first FS that was FSE drawn from FEBSTAT and Columbia cohorts. Controls were a first SFS. Cases and controls were classified according to established FEBSTAT protocols. Cumulative risk for subsequent FS over a 5-year period was compared in FSE versus SFS, and Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted. Separate analysis examined subsequent FS within FSE. The use of rescue medications at home was assessed for subsequent FS. Risk for a subsequent FSE was significantly increased in FSE versus SFS. Any magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality increased the risk 3.4-fold (p 10 min over the 5-year follow-up did not differ in FSE versus SFS. Rectal diazepam was administered at home to 5 (23.8%) of 21 children with subsequent FS lasting ≥10 min. Compared to controls, FSE was associated with an increased risk for subsequent FSE, suggesting the propensity of children with an initial prolonged seizure to experience a prolonged recurrence. Any baseline MRI abnormality increased the recurrence risk when FSE was compared to SFS and when FSE was studied alone. A minority of children with a subsequent FS lasting 10 min or longer were treated with rectal diazepam at home, despite receiving prescriptions after the first FSE. This indicates the need to further improve the education of clinicians and parents in order to prevent subsequent FSE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Febrile seizures after 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination and infection: a nationwide registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Aaberg, Kari Modalsli; Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per; Håberg, Siri Eldevik

    2015-11-09

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, a monovalent pandemic strain vaccine containing the oil-in-water adjuvant AS03 (Pandemrix®) was offered to the Norwegian population. The coverage among children reached 54%. Our aim was to estimate the risk of febrile seizure in children after exposure to pandemic influenza vaccination or infection. The study population comprised 226,889 children born 2006-2009 resident in Norway per October 1st, 2009. Febrile seizure episodes were defined by emergency hospital admissions / emergency outpatient hospital care with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, codes R56.0 or R56.8. The self-controlled case series method was applied to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in pre-defined risk periods compared to the background period. The total observation window was ± 180 days from exposure day. Among 113,068 vaccinated children, 656 (0.6%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures 1-3 days after vaccination was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-3.51). In the period 4-7 days after vaccination, no increased risk was observed. Among the 8172 children diagnosed with pandemic influenza, 84 (1.0%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures on the same day as a diagnosis of influenza was 116.70 (95% CI: 62.81-216.90). In the period 1-3 days after a diagnosis of influenza, a tenfold increased risk was observed (IRR 10.12, 95% CI: 3.82 - 26.82). In this large population-based study with precise timing of exposures and outcomes, we found a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures 1-3 days after pandemic influenza vaccination. However, we found that pandemic influenza infection was associated with a much stronger increase in risk of febrile seizures.

  12. Febrile seizures: risks, evaluation, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Reese C; Oehler, Karen; Tingle, Leslie E

    2012-01-15

    Febrile seizures are common in the first five years of life, and many factors that increase seizure risk have been identified. Initial evaluation should determine whether features of a complex seizure are present and identify the source of fever. Routine blood tests, neuroimaging, and electroencephalography are not recommended, and lumbar puncture is no longer recommended in patients with uncomplicated febrile seizures. In the unusual case of febrile status epilepticus, intravenous lorazepam and buccal midazolam are first-line agents. After an initial febrile seizure, physicians should reassure parents about the low risk of long-term effects, including neurologic sequelae, epilepsy, and death. However, there is a 15 to 70 percent risk of recurrence in the first two years after an initial febrile seizure. This risk is increased in patients younger than 18 months and those with a lower fever, short duration of fever before seizure onset, or a family history of febrile seizures. Continuous or intermittent antiepileptic or antipyretic medication is not recommended for the prevention of recurrent febrile seizures.

  13. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS.  Results  Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups.   Conclusion  Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.  Keywords: Zinc; Zinc deficiency; Febrile Convulsion.

  14. Decreased concentrating capacity in children with febrile urinary tract infection and normal 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan:does medullonephritis exist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor García-Nieto; Silvia González-Cerrato; María Isabel Luis-Yanes; Margarita Monge-Zamorano; Beatriz Reyes-Millán

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (AP), sometimes it produces false results in children with clinical features of AP. There are no studies on the comparison of the sensitivity of DMSA and concentrating capacity test. Methods: Eighty-fi ve infants with AP of less than one year old were studied to evaluate whether they had real AP or not. Data were compared between infants with an abnormal (group A, n=64) and those with a normal DMSA scan (group B, n=21) respectively. A DDAVP test was performed for each infant. Results: All the infants in both groups presented a high level of C-reactive protein and fever (≥38ºC). There were no differences in clinical and analytical variables except C-reactive protein level in the two groups. Both groups exhibited a low urinary osmolality (87.5% in the group A vs. 85.7% in the group B). The patients with normal DMSA and decreased concentrating capacity have some renal parenchymal damage and not only a lower urinary infection. Of the infants with an abnormal DMSA scan, 33.9% showed renal scars after 6-12 months. No infant with a normal DMSA scan showed scars. The biochemical variables in both groups of infants were not related to vesicoureteral refl ux. Conclusion: Infants with AP, normal DMSA scan and low concentrating capacity may be characterized by a localized infection in the medulla (medullonephritis) or by a false negative DMSA scan.

  15. Children's metamemory: A review of the literature and implications for the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen KARABLY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the development of children's metamemory and provide practical implications of research findings for the classroom. In the first part of the paper we define and discuss the global concept of metacognition, the component processes of metacognition and the importance of each component to children's learning. We then examine the development of children's knowledge about memory and ability to monitor memory (i.e., metamemory. We focus, in particular, on seven major research themes: children's metamemory develops with age and experience, younger children are less aware than older children of the benefits of categorization on recall, younger children use different strategies than older children, children's causal attributions may affect metamemory, instructional interventions must be appropriately timed, children will show more strategy transfer when explicit instructions are provided and children overestimate their memory ability. We discuss implications of these major themes for teachers of young children.

  16. Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Chen, Qing

    2015-07-17

    Considering the febrile seizure rate, there is no longer a clear preference for use of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine over separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (V) vaccine. This work was undertaken to assess the risk of febrile seizure after MMRV vaccine in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and other databases through 12 December 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted using R version 3.1.2 and Stata version 12.0. A total of thirty-nine studies were included. Thirty-one published or unpublished clinical trials involving about 40,000 subjects did not show significant differences in incidence of febrile seizure or vaccine related febrile seizure between MMRV and MMR with or without varicella vaccine after any doses, in the risk windows of 0-28, 0-42 or 0-56 days and 7-10 days. In addition, these studies showed that the receipt of concomitant use of MMRV and other pediatric vaccines was not a significant predictor of febrile seizure. Eight post-marketing observations involving more than 3,200,000 subjects were included. No evidence suggested elevated risk of febrile seizure associated with MMRV vaccine among children aged 4-6 years old during 7-10 days or 0-42 days after vaccination. However, an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of seizure or febrile seizure during 7-10 days or 5-12 days after MMRV vaccination was found among children aged 10-24 months, although the highest incidence of seizure was still lower than 2.95‰. First MMRV vaccine dose in children aged 10-24 months was associated with an elevated risk of seizure or febrile seizure. Further post-marketing restudies based on more rigorous study design are needed to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hippocampal Sclerosis After Febrile Status Epilepticus: The FEBSTAT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Darrell V.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Bagiella, Emilia; Bello, Jacqueline A.; Chan, Stephen; Xu, Yuan; MacFall, James; Gomes, William A.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Mathern, Gary W.; Pellock, John M.; Nordli, Douglas R.; Frank, L. Matthew; Provenzale, James; Shinnar, Ruth C.; Epstein, Leon G.; Masur, David; Litherland, Claire; Sun, Shumei

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether febrile status epilepticus (FSE) produces hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been debated. Our objective is to determine if FSE produces acute hippocampal injury that evolves to HS. Methods FEBSTAT and two affiliated studies prospectively recruited 226 children aged 1 month to 6 years with FSE and controls with simple febrile seizures. All had acute MRIs and follow-up MRIs were obtained at approximately 1 year later in the majority. Visual interpretation by two neuroradiologists informed only of subject age was augmented by hippocampal volumetrics, analysis of the intra-hippocampal distribution of T2 signal, and apparent diffusion coefficients. Results Hippocampal T2 hyperintensity, maximum in Sommer's sector, occurred acutely after FSE in 22 of 226 children in association with increased volume. Follow-up MRIs obtained on 14 of the 22 with acute T2 hyperintensity showed HS in 10 and reduced hippocampal volume in 12. In contrast, follow-up of 116 children without acute hyperintensity showed abnormal T2 signal in only 1 (following another episode of FSE). Furthermore, compared to controls with simple febrile seizures, FSE subjects with normal acute MRIs had abnormally low right to left hippocampal volume ratios, smaller hippocampi initially and reduced hippocampal growth. Interpretation Hippocampal T2 hyperintensity after FSE represents acute injury often evolving to a radiological appearance of HS after one year. Furthermore, impaired growth of normal appearing hippocampi after FSE suggests subtle injury even in the absence of T2 hyperintensity. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the relationship of these findings to TLE. PMID:24318290

  18. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen s

  19. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen

  20. Hippocampal Abnormalities in Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements were used to characterize hippocampal edema within 5 days of a prolonged febrile seizure (PFS in a study at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  1. MRI Abnormalities After Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings of 17 Asian patients with encephalopathy following a prolonged febrile seizure were reviewed retrospectively at Kameda Medical Center, and other centers in Japan and San Francisco, USA.

  2. Serum interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in febrile seizures: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Orangpour, Reza; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad Mahdi; Sarokhani, Mohammad Reza; Javadi, Amir; Habibi, Morteza; Talebi-Bakhshayesh, Mousa

    2014-10-01

    Febrile seizures are induced by fever and are the most common type of seizures in children. Although numerous studies have been performed on febrile seizures, their pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that cytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. The present study was conducted to identify potential links between serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and febrile seizures. Ninety-two patients with simple or complex febrile seizures (46 patients per seizure type), and 46 controls with comparable age, sex, and severity of temperature were enrolled. The median concentrations of serum IL-1β in the simple, complex febrile seizure, and control groups were 0.05, 0.1, and 0.67 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001). Moreover, the median concentrations of TNF-α in the simple, complex febrile seizure, and control groups were 2.5, 1, and 61.5 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001). Furthermore, there were significant differences between the case groups in serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels (Pfebrile seizures.

  3. Febrile seizures: Mechanisms and relationship to epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Céline M.; Brewster, Amy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of febrile seizures have been driven by two major enigmas: first, how these most common of human seizures are generated by fever has not been known. Second, epidemiological studies have linked prolonged febrile seizures with the development of temporal lobe epilepsy, yet whether long or recurrent febrile seizures cause temporal lobe epilepsy has remained unresolved. To investigate these questions, a model of prolonged (complex) febrile seizures was developed in immature rats and mice, permitting mechanistic examination of the potential causal relationships of fever and seizures, and of febrile seizures and limbic epilepsy. Although the model relied on hyperthermia, it was discovered that the hyperthermia-induced secretion of endogenous fever mediators including interleukin-1β, which contributed to the generation of these ‘febrile’ seizures. In addition, prolonged experimental febrile seizures provoked epilepsy in a third of the animals. Investigations of the mechanisms of this epileptogenesis demonstrated that expression of specific ion (HCN) channels and of endocannabinoid signaling, may be involved. These may provide novel drug targets for intervention in the epileptogenic process. PMID:19232478

  4. Pediatric febrile urinary tract infections: the current state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Ian K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies undertaken in recent years have improved our understanding regarding the consequences and management of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs, which are amongst the most common serious bacterial infections in childhood, with renal scarring a frequent outcome. In the past pyelonephritic scarring of the kidney, often associated with vesico-ureteral reflux (reflux nephropathy was considered a frequent cause of chronic renal insufficiency in children. Increasing recognition as a consequence of improved antenatal ultrasound, that the majority of these children had congenital renal hypo-dysplasia, has resulted in a number of studies examining treatment strategies and outcomes following UTI. In recent years there is a developing consensus regarding the need for a less aggressive therapeutic approach with oral as opposed to intravenous antibiotics, and less invasive investigations, cystourethrography in particular, following an uncomplicated first febrile UTI. There does remain a concern that with this newer approach we may be missing a small subgroup of children more prone to develop severe kidney damage as a consequence of pyelonephritis, and in whom some form of intervention may prove beneficial. These concerns have meant that development of a universally accepted diagnostic protocol remains elusive.

  5. Phenotyping mouse chromosome substitution strains reveal multiple QTLs for febrile seizure susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, E.V.; Gassen, K.L.I. van; Wolterink-Donselaar, I.G.; Stienen, P.J.; Fernandes, C.; Brakkee, J.H.; Kas, M.J.; Graan, P.N. de

    2009-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children and recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the mechanisms underlying FS are largely unknown, recent family, twin and animal studies indicate that genetics are important in FS susceptibility.

  6. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their

  7. Phenotyping mouse chromosome substitution strains reveal multiple QTLs for febrile seizure susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, E V S; van Gassen, K L I; Wolterink-Donselaar, I G; Stienen, P J; Fernandes, C; Brakkee, J H; Kas, M J H; de Graan, P N E

    2009-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children and recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the mechanisms underlying FS are largely unknown, recent family, twin and animal studies indicate that genetics are important in FS susceptibility. He

  8. Phenotyping mouse chromosome substitution strains reveal multiple QTLs for febrile seizure susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, E.V.; Gassen, K.L.I. van; Wolterink-Donselaar, I.G.; Stienen, P.J.; Fernandes, C.; Brakkee, J.H.; Kas, M.J.; Graan, P.N. de

    2009-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children and recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the mechanisms underlying FS are largely unknown, recent family, twin and animal studies indicate that genetics are important in FS susceptibility. He

  9. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA How to Cite This Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Gholami N, Daneshi-Kohan MM, Mohammadi N, Ahmadi MM, Sahmani AA. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 24-29. AbstractObjectiveRecognition of risk factors for febrile seizures (FS and epilepsy is essential. Studies regarding the role of melatonin in these convulsive disorders are limited.This study determines the relationship between serum melatonin levels and FS and epilepsy in children.Materials & MethodsA population of 111 children with simple FS, complex FS, and epilepsy (37 children per group, respectively were included as case groups. In addition, 37 febrile children without seizures comprised the control group. Serum melatonin levels were measured and compared between all groups.ResultsThe serum melatonin levels in the simple, complex FSs, and epilepsy groups were 2, 2.4, and 2 pg/ml, respectively. The serum melatonin level in the control group was 2.1pg/ml.Moreover, there were no significant differences observed while comparing the case groups.ConclusionThe present study reveals that there is no association between serum melatonin level and simple or complex FS and epilepsy. It appears that melatonin plays no significant role in these convulsive disorders. ReferencesBanerjee TK, Hazra A, Biswas A, Ray Jet al. Neurological disorders in children and adolescents. Indian J Pediatr2009; 76:139-46.Salehi Omran MR, Khalilian E, Mehdipour E, Ghabeli JA. Febrile seizures in North Iranian children: Epidemiology and clinical feature, Journal of Pediatric Neurology2008, 6: 39-43.Shinnar S, O’Dell C. Febrile Seizures, Pediatr Ann 2004, 33: 394-402.Millar JS. The child with febrile seizure, Pediatrics for parents 2006.24:12-14.Fetvei A. Assessment of febrile seizures in children, Eur J Pediatr2008, 167:17-27.Mikati MA. Seizures in Childhood In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St

  10. Malaria Parasitemia Among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Henry N; Montgomery, Joel M; Cosmas, Leonard; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Nairobi is considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, but travel can influence transmission of malaria. We investigated the demographic characteristics and travel history of patients with documented fever and malaria in a study clinic in a population-based surveillance system over a 5-year period, January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. During the study period, 11,480 (68%) febrile patients had a microscopy test performed for malaria, of which 2,553 (22%) were positive. Malaria was detected year-round with peaks in January, May, and September. Children aged 5-14 years had the highest proportion (28%) of positive results followed by children aged 1-4 years (23%). Almost two-thirds of patients with malaria reported traveling outside Nairobi; 79% of these traveled to three counties in western Kenya. History of recent travel (i.e., in past month) was associated with malaria parasitemia (odds ratio: 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 9.0-11.0). Malaria parasitemia was frequently observed among febrile patients at a health facility in the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi. The majority of patients had traveled to western Kenya. However, 34% reported no travel history, which raises the possibility of local malaria transmission in this densely populated, urban setting. These findings have important implications for malaria control in large Nairobi settlements. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. The PIC Cystogram: Its Place in the Treatment Algorithm of Recurrent Febrile UTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Hagerty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A common pediatric dilemma involves management of children with recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs who have normal voiding cystourethrograms. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been demonstrated in such cases by performing a cystogram which positions the instillation of contrast (PIC at the ureteral orifice. We describe the evidence supporting this diagnostic test. Materials and Methods. The literature was searched to identify and subsequently evaluate all studies investigating PIC cystography. Results. In patients with febrile UTIs and negative VCUGs, the PIC cystogram has been demonstrated to identify occult reflux (PIC-VUR. When identified and treated, these patients have a significant reduction in the incidence of febrile UTIs. Conclusions. Although the current literature on PIC cystography is limited, it appears to be a clinically useful test in a select group of patients with recurrent febrile UTIs, that are not found to have VUR on a conventional VCUG. A prospective randomized trial is underway to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of febrile UTIs.

  12. Febrile seizures: an appropriate-aged model suitable for long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Gerth, Angelika; Schultz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever are the most prevalent age-specific seizures in infants and young children. Whether they result in long-term sequelae such as neuronal loss and temporal lobe epilepsy is controversial. Prospective studies of human febrile seizures have found no adverse effects on the developing brain. However, adults with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated limbic cell loss frequently have a history of prolonged febrile seizures in early life. These critical issues may be resolved using appropriate animal models. Published models of hyperthermic seizures have used ‘adolescent’ and older rats, have yielded a low percentage of animals with actual seizures, or have suffered from a high mortality, rendering them unsuitable for long-term studies. This article describes the establishment of a model of febrile seizures using the infant rat. Hyperthermia was induced by a regulated stream of mildly heated air, and the seizures were determined by both behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) criteria. Stereotyped seizures were generated in 93.6% of 10–11-day-old rats. EEG correlates of these; seizures were not evident in cortical recordings, but were clearly present in depth recordings from the amygdala and hippocampus. Prolonged febrile seizures could be induced without bums, yielding a low mortality (11%) and long-term survival. In summary, an infant rat paradigm of EEG-confirmed, hyperthermia-induced seizures which is suitable for long-term studies is described. This model should be highly valuable for studying the mechanisms and sequelae of febrile seizures. PMID:9051269

  13. Intermittent diazepam and continuous phenobarbital to treat recurrence of febrile seizures: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuko Alice Hatsue

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions triggered by fever are the most common type of seizures in childhood, and 20% to 30% of them have recurrence. The prophylactic treatment is still controversial, so we performed a systematic review to find out the effectiveness of continuous phenobarbital and intermittent diazepam compared to placebo for febrile seizure recurrence. METHOD: Only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were analyzed. The recurrence of febrile seizure was assessed for each drug. RESULTS: Ten eligible clinical trials were included. Febrile seizure recurrence was smaller in children treated with diazepam or phenobarbital than in placebo group. Prophylaxis with either phenobarbital or diazepam reduces recurrences of febrile seizures. The studies were clinical, methodological, and statistically heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of phenobarbital and diazepam could not be demonstrated because clinical trials were heterogeneous, and the recommendation for treatment recurrence should rely upon the experience of the assistant physician yet.

  14. A review of the effects of armed conflict on children - psychological implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogwo, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    .... The review also delved into the impact of armed conflict on health, nutrition and education of children and further, outlined some international research findings that reflect the Psychological health of children during armed conflict. In the concluding part, the Psychological implications conflicts on children were outlined and recommendations were given.

  15. Risk Factors for Febrile Status Epilepticus: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V.; Nordli, Douglas R.; Pellock, John M.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Shinnar, Ruth C.; Litherland, Claire; Bagiella, Emilia; Frank, L. Matthew; Bello, Jacqueline A.; Chan, Stephen; Masur, David; MacFall, James; Sun, Shumei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for developing a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) among children with a first febrile seizure (FS). Study design Cases were children with a first FS that was FSE drawn from the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood and Columbia cohorts. Controls were children with a first simple FS and separately, children with a first complex FS that was not FSE. Identical questionnaires were administered to family members of the 3 cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging protocol and readings were consistent across cohorts, and seizure phenomenology was assessed by the same physicians. Risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Compared with children with simple FS, FSE was associated with younger age, lower temperature, longer duration (1-24 hours) of recognized temperature before FS, female sex, structural temporal lobe abnormalities, and first-degree family history of FS. Compared with children with other complex FS, FSE was associated with low temperature and longer duration (1-24 hours) of temperature recognition before FS. Risk factors for complex FS that was not FSE were similar in magnitude to those for FSE but only younger age was significant. Conclusions Among children with a first FS, FSE appears to be due to a combination of lower seizure threshold (younger age and lower temperatures) and impaired regulation of seizure duration. Clinicians evaluating FS should be aware of these factors as many episodes of FSE go unnoticed. Further work is needed to develop strategies to prevent FSE. PMID:23809042

  16. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 热性惊厥儿童的脑电图异常与后期癫痫发生率%EEG Characteristics for the Sebsquent Epilepsy in Children with Febrile Seizure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 董晓峰; 程庆璋

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察热性惊厥(FS)儿童的脑电图(EEG)异常与癫痫发生率。方法:102例 FS 患儿根据 EEG检查结果分为 EEG 正常组和 EEG 异常组,比较 EEG 异常组不同部位 EEG 异常率及 FS 患儿后期癫痫发生率。结果:102例 FS 患儿中共有38例(37.25%)EEG 异常,其中弥漫性异常22例(57.89%)、额颞叶区异常9例(23.68%)、顶枕叶区异常7例(18.42%),弥漫性 EEG 异常率明显高于额颞叶区及顶枕叶区 EEG 异常率(χ2=9.20和12.54,P <0.01),经对102例 FS 患儿随访2年,共发现13例(12.75%)发生后期癫痫,均来自 EEG 异常组,其中3例为弥漫性异常(13.64%),8例为额颞叶区异常(88.89%),2例为顶枕叶区异常(28.57%),额颞叶区 EEG 异常FS 患儿后期癫痫发生率高于弥漫性 EEG 异常患儿(χ2=16.11,P <0.01)。结论:额颞叶区 EEG 异常 FS 患儿后期癫痫的发生率较高。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between the electroencephalogram(EEG)characteristics of the febrile seizure(FS)and the subsequent epilepsy.Method:102 children with FS who were diagnosed in our hospital were investigated.They were divided into two groups according to EEG:the normal group and the abnormal group.The EEG and compare the factor of epilepsy with EEG in different parts were analysed.Results:Of 102 pa-tients with FS,38 cases (37.25%)revealed EEG abnormal.Diffused EEG abnormality was 22 cases (57.89%), which was the highest,frontal and temporal paroxysmal EEG abnormality was 9 cases (23.69%),frontal and occip-ital lobe EEG abnormality was 7 cases (18.42%).Follow-up visit for two years,13 cases (12.75%)were diagnosed to epilepsy,diffused EEG abnormality was 3 cases (13.64%),frontal and temporal paroxysmal EEG abnormality was 8 cases (88.89%),frontal and occipital lobe EEG abnormality was 2 cases (28.57%).The difference between the abnormal EEG parts and factor of the epilepsy was statistically significant(P <0.01).Conclusion:These findings suggest that patients with

  18. Epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis and febrile seizures linked by common genetic variation around SCN1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B.; Matarin, Mar; Leu, Costin; Novy, Jan; Tostevin, Anna; Leal, Bárbara; Hessel, Ellen V. S.; Hallmann, Kerstin; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Ryten, Mina; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Alhusaini, Saud; Doherty, Colin P.; Dorn, Thomas; Hansen, Jörg; Krämer, Günter; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Zumsteg, Dominik; Duncan, Susan; Kälviäinen, Reetta K.; Eriksson, Kai J.; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Pandolfo, Massimo; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Schlachter, Kurt; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Zimprich, Fritz; Théâtre, Emilie; Smith, Colin; O’Brien, Terence J.; Meng Tan, K.; Petrovski, Slave; Robbiano, Angela; Paravidino, Roberta; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Sperling, Michael R.; Buono, Russell J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chaves, João; Costa, Paulo P.; Silva, Berta M.; da Silva, António M.; de Graan, Pierre N. E.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Becker, Albert; Schoch, Susanne; von Lehe, Marec; Reif, Philipp S.; Rosenow, Felix; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Hamer, Hajo M.; Kobow, Katja; Coras, Roland; Blumcke, Ingmar; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Weale, Michael E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Kunz, Wolfram S.

    2013-01-01

    , and open avenues for investigation of prognostic factors and possible prevention of epilepsy in some children with febrile seizures. PMID:24014518

  19. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, Paul J; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-07-08

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. History of febrile illness and variation in semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality....

  1. Acute febrile encephalopathy in adults from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute onset fever with altered mentation is a common problem encountered by the physician practicing in tropical countries. Central nervous system (CNS infections are the most common cause resulting in fever with altered mentation in children. Aim : In this study, we have tried to analyze the cause of encephalopathy following short febrile illness in adults presenting to a tertiary care center in Northwestern part of India. Setting and Design : A prospective observational study carried out in a tertiary care center in the Northwestern India over a period of 1 year. Material and Methods : A total of 127 patients with fever of less than 2 weeks duration along with alteration in mentation were studied prospectively over a period of 12 months. The demographic variables were recorded in detail. In addition to routine investigations, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, noncontrast- and contrast-enhanced computed tomography, along with magnetic resonance imaging were performed in all the subjects. Statistical Analysis : The results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The values were expressed as mean with standard deviation for contiguous variable as percentage for the others. Results and Conclusion : Out of these, 70% had primary CNS infection as the etiology. A total of 33% patients had meningitis, 29.9% had evidence of meningoencephalitis, and 12.7% were diagnosed as sepsis-associated encephalopathy. These were followed by cerebral malaria, leptospirosis, and brain abscess as the cause of febrile encephalopathy in adults. Among the noninfectious causes, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cortical venous thrombosis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome were documented in 2.36% each. In 11% of the patients, the final diagnosis could not be made in spite of the extensive investigations. Our study demonstrates that acute febrile encephalopathy in adults is a heterogeneous syndrome with primary CNS infections being the commonest

  2. 左乙拉西坦预防小儿热性惊厥复发的疗效和安全性%Effect and safety of Levetiracetam for the prevention of febrile seizure recurrence in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易招师; 钟建民; 虞雄鹰; 吴华平; 查剑; 陈勇; 谢基华; 秦洁

    2014-01-01

    目的 采用左乙拉西坦(LEV)预防儿童热性惊厥(FS)的复发,并随访观察其疗效和安全性.方法 将2011年8月至11月在江西省儿童医院住院或门诊就诊的63例反复FS患儿按先后顺序分为对照组、低剂量组和高剂量组,其中对照组患儿体温在38.5 ℃以上时给予退热治疗;高、低剂量组在对照组的基础上,当患儿开始发热时分别口服LEV每次30 mg/kg和15 mg/kg,每日2次,维持1周,然后减量,第8-12天减为每次20 mg/kg和10 mg/kg,每日2次,第13-15天继续减为每次10 mg/kg和5 mg/kg,每日2次,第16天停药.3组均随访观察1年,每3个月随访1次,随访内容包括发热次数、惊厥复发次数、用药情况及药物不良反应.结果 3组复发例数分别为11例、4例、3例,复发率分别为52.38%、19.05%、14.29%,平均复发次数分别为(0.76±1.00)次、(0.19 ±0.40)次、(0.14 ±0.36)次;对照组复发次数显著高于治疗组(P<0.05),但低剂量组与高剂量组间差异无统计学意义(P=0.951).低剂量组2例FS患儿出现轻度嗜睡症状,高剂量组1例FS患儿出现轻度兴奋、冲动及暴躁等症状.不良反应发生率分别为9.52%(2/21例)和4.76%(1/21例),且2组间比较差异无统计学意义(P=1.000).结论 LEV可有效预防反复FS的患儿复发,且小剂量即可达到大剂量相似的预防效果,同时具有不良反应少,耐受性良好等特点.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Levetiracetam (LEV) for prophylaxis of febrile seizures(FS) recurrence in children and provide a new approach to treatment.Methods Approved by their guardians,63 cases were collected from the inpatients or outpatients in Jiangxi Children's Hospital from Aug.to Nov.2011.They were randomly divided into a control group,low dose LEV group and high dose LEV group.When they had a fever of 38.5 ℃ or higher,only antipyretic was given in the control group.However,LEV was given to the other 2 groups additionally

  3. Topiramate as a neuroprotectant in the experimental model of febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, K; Sobaniec, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M E; Artemowicz, B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study wad to estimate a potentially neuroprotective effect of topiramate (TPM) in the experimental model of FS. 24 young male rats divided in 4 groups were involved in the study. Febrile seizures were induced by placing the animals in 45 degrees C warm water bath for four consecutive days. TPM at the dose 80 mg/kg b.m. was administered: before the FS and immediately after the FS. FS group and control rats received only normal saline. Thereafter hippocampal slices were prepared to performing histological and morphometric examination. Morphometric investigations revealed that FS caused death of 60% of the neurons in sector CA1 and a half of them in sector CA3. Histological examinations of hippocampal slices showed that TPM at a dose of 80 mg/kg b.m., administered before the seizures, considerably improved CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell survival. Similar neuroprotective effect, but in a markedly lesser degree was observed when TPM was administrated after the FS. Our findings seem to confirm that FS exert a strong destructive effect on the sensitive hippocampal neurons and on the neuroprotective properties of TPM in this process, which may have practical implications. It can be assumed that in children with recurrent and prolonged FS, prophylactic drug administration could prevent hippocampal sclerosis and development of symptomatic epilepsy.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid purine metabolite and neuron-specific enolase concentrations after febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, A; Cid, E; Rodríguez-García, J; Camiña, F; Rodríguez-Segade, S; Castro-Gago, M

    2000-10-01

    If febrile seizures cause significant compromise of neuronal metabolism (whether permanent or reversible), this should be reflected in an increase in the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and/or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown products. In the present study, AMP, IMP, inosine, adenosine, guanosine, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and NSE concentrations were determined in the cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children 1 h after febrile seizure (73 simple febrile seizures (SFS); 17 complex febrile seizures (CFS)), and in a control group of 160 children. There was no statistically significant difference between the SFS group and the control group for any of the substances determined, suggesting that SFS neither significantly depletes neuronal ATP concentration, nor significantly increases NSE concentration; thus, SFS do not appear to constitute a threat to neuronal integrity. However, patients with CFS showed significantly lower IMP concentrations and significantly higher adenine concentrations than controls, and significantly higher AMP concentrations than SFS patients; these results suggest that CFS may affect energy metabolism in the brain. However, NSE concentrations were normal in the cerebrospinal fluid of both SFS and CFS patients, suggesting that neither type of seizure causes significant neuronal damage, at least early after the seizure.

  5. Expression Profiling after Prolonged Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mice Suggests Structural Remodeling in the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart C Jongbloets

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most prevalent type of seizures among children up to 5 years of age (2-4% of Western-European children. Complex febrile seizures are associated with an increased risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy. To investigate short- and long-term effects of experimental febrile seizures (eFS, we induced eFS in highly febrile convulsion-susceptible C57BL/6J mice at post-natal day 10 by exposure to hyperthermia (HT and compared them to normotherm-exposed (NT mice. We detected structural re-organization in the hippocampus 14 days after eFS. To identify molecular candidates, which entrain this structural re-organization, we investigated temporal changes in mRNA expression profiles eFS 1 hour to 56 days after eFS. We identified 931 regulated genes and profiled several candidates using in situ hybridization and histology at 3 and 14 days after eFS. This is the first study to report genome-wide transcriptome analysis after eFS in mice. We identify temporal regulation of multiple processes, such as stress-, immune- and inflammatory responses, glia activation, glutamate-glutamine cycle and myelination. Identification of the short- and long-term changes after eFS is important to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to epileptogenesis.

  6. A comparative study of febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Chung, Sajun

    2013-08-01

    Seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis have been increasingly reported. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis, and attempted to determine the influence of fever in these two groups. We reviewed the medical records of 59 children presenting with seizures during a mild gastroenteritis episode. They were classified into an afebrile group (n=27) and a febrile group (n=32). We compared the age of onset, sex, seizure semiology, frequency, duration, family history, and prior history of seizures between the two groups. The mean age, family history, seizure semiology, and frequency of seizures were not significantly different between the two groups. However, more patients in the afebrile group experienced ≥ 2 seizures/day than in the febrile group (63% vs. 38%, p=0.051). The febrile patients had a tendency of experiencing prolonged seizures lasting ≥ 5 min compared with the afebrile group (34% vs. 11%, p=0.063). Prior febrile seizures were noted in 5 of the 32 patients (15.6%) in the febrile group, while none of the 27 patients in the afebrile group had a history of prior seizures (p=0.056). It seems that the presence of fever may influence the clinical characteristics of seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis. We suggest that afebrile seizures associated with gastroenteritis may be regarded as a distinct condition from those associated with fever, and it needs to be clarified by a further large sample study. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Febrile neutropenia in childhood cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression renders children who receive treatment for cancer ... of the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy on the proliferation and ... negative organisms penetrate the mucosa frequently at the ...

  8. 热性惊厥患儿血清C-反应蛋白与心肌酶变化的临床意义%Clinical significance of C-reactive protein and myocardial enzymes changes in children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕飞; 任允孜; 段爱花; 李雅彬; 王艳芬

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨C-反应蛋白( CRP)和心肌酶谱变化在热性惊厥患儿的临床意义。方法选取2014年9月至2015年9月热性惊厥患儿120例为惊厥组,选择同期住院伴发热无惊厥上呼吸道感染患儿45例为对照组,比较两组患儿血清CRP及心肌酶指标。结果惊厥组CRP、肌酸激酶( CK)、肌酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)阳性率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。热性惊厥组CRP[(17.05±8.04)mg/L]高于对照组[(6.34±3.89)mg/L],差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。CRP水平与CK呈正相关(r=0.523)。结论热性惊厥患者中存在一定程度脏器损伤;CRP、CK与炎性反应相关,可作为机体炎症反应的重要参考指标。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of C-reactive protein and myocar-dial enzymes changes in children with febrile convulsion. Methods One hundred and twenty children with febrile convulsion from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected as convulsion group,over the same period 45 cases with fever and without convulsion upper respiratory tract infection with were se-lected as control group,serum CRP and myocardial enzyme index of the two groups were compared. Re-sults The rates of abnormality of CRP,CK,CK-MB,LDH of the convulsion were increased more sig-nificantly than that of the control group,the differences were significant( P ﹤0. 05 ). CRP[( 17. 05 ± 8. 04)mg/L]of the convulsion group was higher than[(6. 34 ± 3. 89)mg/L]of control group,the differ-ence was significant( P﹤0. 05 ). The level of CRP was closely correlated with to CK( r=0. 523 ). Con-clusions It is sure that some organ impairment exists in children with febrile convulsion;C-reactive and CK are correlated with the degree of inflammation reaction and can be as important marks of inflammation reaction in children with febrile convulsion.

  9. Triagem para o tratamento ambulatorial da neutropenia febril Screening for the outpatient treatment of febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bellesso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A neutropenia febril (NF é uma complicação frequente e potencialmente fatal nos pacientes em tratamento quimioterápico. Entendemos hoje que a neutropenia febril é considerada uma emergência clínica e que a administração de antibióticos de amplo espectro diminui drasticamente a mortalidade. Estudos sugerem que a neutropenia febril compreende um grupo extremamente heterogêneo e que dados clínicos como febre domiciliar, ausência de hipotensão, ausência de desidratação, ausência de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, ausência de outros sintomas, ausência de infecção fúngica prévia e idade Febrile neutropenia is a frequent and potentially fatal adverse event of chemotherapy. Nowadays, febrile neutropenia is considered an emergency and it is known that prompt infusion of antibiotics decreases mortality. Several studies demonstrated that febrile neutropenia is a heterogeneous group of diseases and that factors such as outpatient status, no hypotension, no dehydration, no chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no symptoms, no previous fungal infection and age < 60 years are protective factors against serious complications as demonstrated by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC. These data show that outpatient treatment and early discharge is safer and much research has shown lower costs for outpatient treatment in low-risk patients with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this work is to review and discuss tools (in particular the MASCC index for safe screening of febrile neutropenia for outpatient treatment in addition to demonstrate results of research.

  10. Febrile Seizures: clinical and genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFebrile seizures are described as a temporary seizure disorder of childhood; the attacks occur by definition in association with fever and are usually accompanied by sudden tonic-clonic muscle contractions and reduced consciousness, usually lasting not longer than 5 to 10 minutes. Accord

  11. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  12. Febrile Seizures: clinical and genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFebrile seizures are described as a temporary seizure disorder of childhood; the attacks occur by definition in association with fever and are usually accompanied by sudden tonic-clonic muscle contractions and reduced consciousness, usually lasting not longer than 5 to 10 minutes.

  13. Incidence of febrile seizures in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburgh, M.E.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Velden, J. van der; Hoes, A.W.; Offringa, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the incidence of febrile seizures in The Netherlands, we analyzed data from a population-based study carried out in 161 Dutch general practices. The overall incidence rate was 4.8/1,000 person-years. Considerable age and seasonal variation was found. The chance of a child suffering a

  14. Lumbar Puncture for First Simple Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics consensus statement recommendations regarding lumbar puncture for infants 6-18 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure was investigated by a retrospective review of 704 infants evaluated in the pediatric emergency medicine division at Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, Oct 1995-Oct 2006.

  15. Characterization of febrile seizures and febrile seizure susceptibility in mouse inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gassen, K L I; Hessel, E V S; Ramakers, G M J; Notenboom, R G E; Wolterink-Donselaar, I G; Brakkee, J H; Godschalk, T C; Qiao, X; Spruijt, B M; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; de Graan, P N E

    2008-07-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most prevalent seizures in children. Although FS are largely benign, complex FS increase the risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Studies in rat models for FS have provided information about functional changes in the hippocampus after complex FS. However, our knowledge about the genes and pathways involved in the causes and consequences of FS is still limited. To enable molecular, genetic and knockout studies, we developed and characterized an FS model in mice and used it as a phenotypic screen to analyze FS susceptibility. Hyperthermia was induced by warm air in 10- to 14-day-old mice and induced FS in all animals. Under the conditions used, seizure-induced behavior in mice and rats was similar. In adulthood, treated mice showed increased hippocampal Ih current and seizure susceptibility, characteristics also seen after FS in rats. Of the seven genetically diverse mouse strains screened for FS susceptibility, C57BL/6J mice were among the most susceptible, whereas A/J mice were among the most resistant. Strains genetically similar to C57BL/6J also showed a susceptible phenotype. Our phenotypic data suggest that complex genetics underlie FS susceptibility and show that the C57BL/6J strain is highly susceptible to FS. As this strain has been described as resistant to convulsants, our data indicate that susceptibility genes for FS and convulsants are distinct. Insight into the mechanisms underlying seizure susceptibility and FS may help to identify markers for the early diagnosis of children at risk for complex FS and TLE and may provide new leads for treatment.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  17. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  18. Connecting Children's eCulture to Curriculum: Implications for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, Deanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of including "children's eCulture" in school curricula. "Children's eCulture" is the culture of children as it relates to electronics and technology. Integrating children's eCulture into formal learning experiences allows teachers to promote multiple literacies in their students. The article will describe the…

  19. Developmental Sequences in Children's Understanding of Death with Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Darryl E.; Matter, Roxana Marie

    1982-01-01

    Proposes children develop an understanding about death in an orderly sequence progressing from total unawareness in early childhood to the point of logical consideration in terms of cause and effect. Discusses implications for parents, teachers, and counselors for helping children deal with death. (RC)

  20. Correlates of Ability Patterns in Children adn Adults: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith; Horowitz, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Presents research evidence that children with a high verbal-low spatial ability profile tend to respond in the "usual" way to social reinforcement or praise, whereas children with a high spatial-low verbal profile do not find praise reinforcing. Implications for teaching considered in detail. (Author)

  1. 左乙拉西坦预防小儿热性惊厥复发疗效的 Meta 分析%A meta-analysis of levetiracetam on prevention of recurrent febrile seizures in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓楠; 代珊珊; 宋攀; 陈永前; 刘姝娆; 张妮

    2016-01-01

    目的:系统评价左乙拉西坦预防小儿热性惊厥复发的有效性与安全性。方法计算机检索 PubMed、The Cochrane Library、Embsae、CBM、Wan fang Data、VIP 和 CNKI 数据库,查找关于以左乙拉西坦为干预措施预防小儿热性惊厥复发的随机对照试验,并追查纳入排除文献的参考文献。检索时限均从建库至2016年3月20日。由2名研究者按照纳入与排除标准独立筛选文献、提取资料并评价质量后,采用 RevMan 5.2软件进行 Meta 分析。结果共纳入5个研究,共计475例患者。Meta 分析结果显示:与常规退热治疗相比,左乙拉西坦可以明显降低热性惊厥的复发率[RR =0.30,95% CI (0.21,0.43),P <0.01];不能降低癫痫发生率[RR =1.11,95% CI (0.26,4.79),P =0.89];同时会增加不良反应发生率[RR =4.36,95% CI (1.01,18.76),P =0.05]。结论左乙拉西坦在预防小儿热性惊厥复发方面具有较好的疗效,不能降低癫痫发生率,会增加不良反应发生,由于纳入研究存在偏倚可能,尚需更多高质量、多中心、大规模 RCT 进一步验证。%ABSTRACT:Objective To systematically review the clinical efficacy and security of levetiracetam reducing the recurrence rate of febrile seizures.Methods Databases such as PubMed,Cochrane Library,Embase,CBM,Wan fang Data,VIP and CNKI were searched in levetiracetam as interventions in the treatment of febrile seizures from inception to March 20th,201 6.Literature screening,extracting data and evaluating methodological quality were independently performed by two reviewers.Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software.Results A total of 5 studies involving 475 patients were included.Meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional method of antifebrile, levetiracetam can significantly reduce the recurrence rate of febrile seizures than the conventional antifebrile method (RR =0.30,95% CI [0.21,0.43 ],P < 0.01 );but can not reduce the incidence rate of epilepsy (RR

  2. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  3. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  4. Children in Armed Conflicts: Rights, Reality and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil

    Throughout this century, there have been numerous attempts to give substance and effective existence to the rights of children in armed conflicts. Humanitarian law dictates that, as civilians, children will not be targets in war, nor will they be used as soldiers. Neither of these rights has ever been implemented. Children are victims of war by…

  5. The PIC Cystogram: Its Place in the Treatment Algorithm of Recurrent Febrile UTIs

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer A. Hagerty; Max Maizels; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. A common pediatric dilemma involves management of children with recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) who have normal voiding cystourethrograms. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been demonstrated in such cases by performing a cystogram which positions the instillation of contrast (PIC) at the ureteral orifice. We describe the evidence supporting this diagnostic test. Materials and Methods. The literature was searched to identify and subsequently evaluate all studies invest...

  6. Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam Tratamento de convuslsões febris com clobazam intermitente

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean=23.7 m.) that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS) entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified i...

  7. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  8. [Epidemiological surveillance of febrile rash illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Gabriela Fidela; Rojas-Mendoza, Teresita; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Maldonado-Burgos, Martha Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 se detectaron tres casos importados de sarampión, por lo que se intensificó la vigilancia epidemiológica con emisión de alertas epidemiológicas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el fenómeno de la intensificación de la vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad febril exantemática ante la importación de casos confirmados de sarampión en el territorio nacional en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Métodos: se obtuvieron los casos del sistema especial de vigilancia epidemiológica de 2011, se compararon con el año previo. Se determinó t de Student para diferencia de medias, prueba de Wilson para proporciones; ambas con un valor alfa del 0.05. Resultados: en 2011 se notificaron 2786 casos de enfermedad febril exantemática, 51.2 % más casos que el año anterior; el número de casos reportados con relación a los esperados aumentó en 29 de las 35 Delegaciones del IMSS con un incremento en el promedio de casos notificados a partir de la semana 26. El 67.4 % de los casos notificados se concentró en los menores de 5 años de edad. Conclusiones: se apreció un incremento importante de casos notificados de enfermedad febril exantemática en comparación con el año previo. El Instituto cuenta con un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad febril exantemática robusto y flexible, que ha permitido identificar riesgos a la población.

  9. Identification of febrile seizure susceptibility genes : studies in mouse chromosome substitution strains and temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, E.V.S.

    2010-01-01

    Febrile Seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children and recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although the mechanisms underlying FS are largely unknown, recent family, twin and animal studies indicate that genetics are important in FS

  10. Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and the Risk for Febrile Neutropenia and Infection in Pediatric Oncology Patients With Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.J. Frakking; J. Israëls; L.C.M. Kremer; T.W. Kuijpers; H.N. Caron; M.D. van de Wetering

    2011-01-01

    Background. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) and/or infection in pediatric oncology patients. Procedure. We systematically searched and reviewed all the literature on MBL and infections in children with can

  11. Identification of febrile seizure susceptibility genes : studies in mouse chromosome substitution strains and temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, E.V.S.

    2010-01-01

    Febrile Seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children and recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although the mechanisms underlying FS are largely unknown, recent family, twin and animal studies indicate that genetics are important in FS susceptibili

  12. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-02-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge. It remains difficult to obtain insight into the epidemiology of febrile UTI because urine and blood cultures are frequently missing. The relationship between host and virulence factors of Escherichia coli was further explored showing that less virulent strains can cause infection in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to obstructive uropathy, diabetes, and being older, neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. A randomized controlled trial revealed that ceftolozane-tazobactam was marginally superior to levofloxacin as treatment for complicated UTI. Case series supported the notion that xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis are more common in diabetic patients and that drainage or surgery is often required. Neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. When local resistance percentages to the frequently prescribed fluoroquinolones are high, the combination of ceftolozane-tazobactam may be an alternative as treatment for complicated UTI. Xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis need to be considered in diabetic patients presenting with UTI symptoms.

  13. Study of febrile seizure and its relation to low serum sodium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroozi Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most frequent type of seizure in childhood occurring in 2-4% of children under the age of 5. Although pathogenesis of seizure following fever is not well understood, multiple risk factors are known to contribute to its precipitation. One of the possible risk factors which had not been mentioned yet in reference texts and still is in the research phase is a serum sodium level below the normal limits which specially plays a role in the recurrence of febrile seizure. In this descriptive retrospective study records of 400 in-patients cases of primary episodes of febrile seizure in Bahrami children hospital in the years of 1996-1997 were reviewed. 214 (53.5% cases had serum sodium levels of <135 m.mol/L. The mean serum sodium level for all the cases was 135.28±4.65 m.mol/L which is considerly less than the serum sodium level of 140±0.8 m.mol/L seen in healthy children. There was no significant difference in serum sodium levels different sex and age groups in this patient population

  14. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... if they had already been included, if their parents had no Danish address or if the questionnaire was not returned after a reminder was sent. RESULTS: In the period of investigation, 333 children were eligible for inclusion, 290 questionnaires were sent, and 235 were returned, giving a response rate of 81......%. The median age was 1 year (range: 0-7 years). In general, parents were satisfied with the MECU. Reasons of dissatisfaction are described. Most children (76%) were admitted without physician escort. A total of 37 children (16%) received diazepam therapy, of whom 15 (6%) were given intravenous diazepam. In 90...

  15. Prevalence of febrile syndromes in dengue surveillance, havana city, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Otto; Sánchez, Lizet; Más, Pedro; Pérez, Suzette; Kourí, Gustavo; Guzmán, María G

    2011-04-01

    Determine point prevalence of febrile syndromes and compare with prevalence reported by habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system in Havana City. In October 2007, a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample, calculating prevalences of febrile syndromes and undifferentiated febrile syndromes. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparisons. Point prevalences of febrile syndromes and undifferentiated febrile syndromes were 352.6 and 144.2 times greater, respectively, than those reported by the habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system; these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Point prevalence of febrile syndromes was far greater than prevalence reported by the habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system, an indication of underreporting.

  16. [An unusual cause of febrile neutropenia: brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Soner; Asma, Süheyl; Ozdoğu, Hakan; Yeral, Mahmut; Turunç, Tuba

    2014-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia which is a common complication of cancer treatment, is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible for infections in neutropenic patients, however the most common microorganisms are Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci, in decreasing order. Although Brucella spp. infections are endemic in Turkey, brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia has only rarely been reported. In this report, a case of brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was presented. A 56-year-old male patient presenting with fever, petechiae/purpura, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory studies revealed a hemoglobin level of 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count of 77.100 k/ml, absolute neutrophil count of 200 k/ml, and platelets at 94.200 k/ml. The patient was diagnosed as AML-M1 and piperacillin/tazobactam was started as the first-line antibiotic therapy due to the febrile neutropenia. On admission, blood and urine cultures were negative. Once the fever was controlled, remission/induction chemotherapy was initiated. However, fever developed again on the eight day, and vancomycin was added to the therapy. Since the fever persisted, the antibiotic therapy was gradually replaced with meropenem and linezolid. However, fever continued and the patient's general condition deteriorated. Subsequently performed Brucella tube agglutination test revealed positivity at 1/320 titer and the microorganism grown in blood culture (Bactec 9050; BD, USA) was identified as B.melitensis by conventional methods. Rifampicin and doxycycline therapy was started immediately, however, the patient died due to septic shock. If the tests for brucellosis were performed earlier when response to second step antibiotic therapy lacked in this patient, it was assumed that mortality could be prevented by the prompt initiation of the

  17. Elevated levels of CXCL10 in the Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA) during and between febrile episodes; an indication of a persistent activation of the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førsvoll, Jostein; Kristoffersen, Einar Klæboe; Oymar, Knut

    2013-10-17

    The Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA) is the most common periodic fever syndrome in childhood. Clinically, PFAPA may resemble autoinflammatory diseases, but the etiology is not fully understood. We measured inflammatory proteins in plasma and hematologic parameters in children with PFAPA during and between febrile episodes, and in a control group with suspected bacterial pneumonia. In children with PFAPA, a first blood sample was taken within 24 hours of a febrile episode and a second sample between episodes. In children with pneumonia, the first sample was taken shortly after admission and a second sample after full recovery. A total of 22 children with PFAPA and 14 children with pneumonia were included. In children with PFAPA, levels of interleukin (IL) 6, CXCL10 and CCL4 were significantly increased during febrile episodes. The levels of IL-6 and CXCL10 were higher in children with PFAPA during febrile episodes than in children with pneumonia. The levels of CXCL10 remained higher in children with PFAPA between febrile episodes compared to children with pneumonia after recovery. Children with PFAPA had a relative eosinopenia and lymphocytopenia with reduced numbers of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during febrile episodes. This pattern was not observed in the children with pneumonia. The results indicate an innate immune response as the initial step in PFAPA, and a subsequent adaptive response with activation and redistribution of T cells. Moreover, an activation of the innate immune system involving CXCL10 may persist between febrile episodes. CXCL10 may be a possibly clinical marker in children with PFAPA.

  18. Maternal use of antibiotics and the risk of childhood febrile seizures: a Danish population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Miller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a large population-based cohort in Denmark to examine if maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy, as a marker of infection, increases the risk of febrile seizures in childhood in a large population-based cohort in Denmark. METHODS: All live-born singletons born in Denmark between January 1, 1996 and September 25, 2004 and who were alive on the 90(th day of life were identified from the Danish National Birth Registry. Diagnoses of febrile seizures were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register and maternal use of antibiotics was obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: We followed 551,518 singletons for up to 5 years and identified a total of 21,779 children with a diagnosis of febrile seizures. Slightly increased hazard ratios were observed among most exposure groups when compared to the unexposed group, ex. HR 1.08 95% CI: 1.05-1.11 for use of any systemic antibiotic during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We found weak associations between the use of pharmacologically different antibiotics during pregnancy and febrile seizures in early childhood which may indicate that some infections, or causes or effects of infections, during pregnancy could affect the fetal brain and induce susceptibility to febrile seizures.

  19. The prevalence of Familial Mediterranean Fever common gene mutations in patients with simple febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, F; Kocak, N; Kelekci, S; Yildirim, I H; Hacimuto, G; Ozdemir, O

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) represent the most common form of childhood seizures that occurs in 2-5 % of the children younger than 6 years. There have been many recent reports on the molecular genetic and pathogenesis of FC. It has been recognized that there is significant genetic component for susceptibility of FC with different reported mutation. FEB1, FEB2, FEB4, SCNA1, SCNA2, GABRG2 and IL-1β are related to with febrile convulsions (FCs). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine that contributes to febrile inflammatory responses. There are conflicting results on increasing this cytokine in serum during FC. The determine the association between mutations of MEFV gene product pyrine and febrile seizures. The study was carried out on 104 children that were diagnosed as FS and 96 healthy children. MEFV gene mutations were detected and analyzed with PyroMark Q24. PCR was performed using the PyroMark PCR Kit and pyrosequencing reaction was conducted on instrument instructions. M694V is the most common mutation in our patient group and we found a significant association between MEFV gene mutations and FSs. Of 104 patients, 68 were heterozygotes for any mutation and 10 patients were compound. 17.7% of control group were heterozygotes for any studied mutation.Statistical analyses showed that there was strongly significant statistical difference between results obtained from FS and control group (X = 46.20, p < 0.0001). MEFV gene mutations, especially M694V mutation, are positively associated with FSs.

  20. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  1. Early discontinuation of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with persistent primary vesicoureteral reflux initially detected during infancy: outcome analysis and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kimihiko; Mitsui, Takahiko; Kitta, Takeya; Nakamura, Michiko; Kanno, Yukiko; Kon, Masafumi; Nishimura, Yoko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively assessed the incidence of and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in children during active surveillance after early discontinuation of antibiotic prophylaxis. We retrospectively evaluated 9 females and 61 uncircumcised males diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux before age 1 year who had persistent reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram and were subsequently followed under active surveillance without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients with secondary vesicoureteral reflux or associated urological abnormality were excluded. Clinical outcomes, including incidence of febrile urinary tract infection and new scar formation, were evaluated. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection were also analyzed. Mean age at stopping continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was 21 months, and mean followup was 61 months. During active surveillance 21 patients had febrile urinary tract infection, and the 5-year infection-free rate under active surveillance was 67.5%. One or 2 foci of minimal new scarring developed in 4 of 16 patients who underwent followup dimercapto-succinic acid scan after febrile urinary tract infection. On multivariate analysis dilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram was the only significant risk factor for febrile urinary tract infection. This study revealed that about two-thirds of patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux were free of febrile urinary tract infection during 5 years of active surveillance. Those with dilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram are at significantly greater risk for febrile urinary tract infection. Accordingly active surveillance, especially in patients with nondilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram, seems to be a safe option even in children who have not yet been toilet trained. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. allow for unilateral divorce, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Such regulations have come under fire for their perceived negative consequences for marital stability and resulting child outcomes, but there is no evidence to date to support the contention that easier divorce regulations are actually bad for children. I assess the long run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment...

  3. Psychological and Physical Implications of Highly Competitive Sports for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J.; Kleiber, Douglas

    1976-01-01

    A more constructive view of cultural socialization would promote cooperation rather than competition; cooperation is a value that children learn naturally through social interaction in forming and maintaining their own games. (MM)

  4. Seasonal and locational variations in children's play: implications for wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergler, Christina R; Kearns, Robin A; Witten, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity, through independent outdoor play, has come to the fore as a way to improve children's health through it fostering healthy mental and social as well as physiological development. However, in many high-income countries children's autonomous play opportunities have diminished due to urban intensification and declining parental license. Regardless of this trend, children's play varies across countries, cities, cultures and seasons. This paper offers new insights into the complexities of play as a vital aspect of children's wellbeing. Within the context of New Zealand - whose citizens generally regard themselves as outdoor people - this paper explores why 'play' might resonate differently across localities and seasons. We contrast the play affordances provided by Auckland's central city (dominated by apartment living) with Beach Haven, a suburban area. We employed a multi-method approach and included 20 children and their parents who were recruited through school and summer holiday programs embracing different gender and ethnicities to reflect the general cultural mix of the respective neighbourhoods. We advance two arguments. First, we suggest that the rarity of children playing outdoors unsupervised normalises supervised indoor play and reduces children's opportunities to see outdoor play as an alternative to interior or supervised pastimes. Second, we follow Bourdieu's theory of practice to argue that the regard parents and children have towards outdoor play reflects locally constituted beliefs about what is seasonally 'appropriate' children's activity. We found that extra-curricular activities and supervised excursions are undertaken in the central city all year around and only vary between social groups by the type of destination. In the suburb, independent outdoor play in summer represents children's main business after school in ways that enhance their environmental literacy and potential future health gain. For others these symbolic values

  5. Ethical implications of the children's rights movement for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearig, Judith S

    1982-07-01

    Mental health professionals should be special protectors of children's rights. However, at times they have not seemed to fulfil this responsibility very well, perhaps contributing to the need for the children's rights movement. Role perceptions, theoretical orientation, external pressures, paucity of services, conflict with parents, and complexity of the task are considered as reasons. The need for the professional to take a strong ethical position, going beyond traditional guidelines, is presented.

  6. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  7. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梅玲; 彭丰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系。方法检测104例热性惊厥患儿的红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、SI,并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,且多为小细胞性贫血(符合缺铁性贫血的血液特征)。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的联系,缺铁性贫血可能是引起小儿热性惊厥的重要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the correlation of febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia. Methods Mesured the RBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,SI in 104 children of Upper respiratory tract infection, and recorded children of febrile convulsion with Iron deficiency anemia, and children of febrile convulsion without iron deficiency anemia,children of febrile convulsion without deficiency anemia. The rest 2 groups of children are as control group. Results Which is significantly higher than the control group. And anemin in which the average size of erythrocytes is smal er than normal. Conclusion Children febrile convulsion could be highly correlated, and the iron deficiency anemia maybe one of the cause of children febrile convulsion.

  8. Guidelines for children's work in agriculture: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7-16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific and programmatic evidence about the content, efficacy, application, and uptake of NAGCAT and propose key recommendations for the future. The methods for this review included a synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature and programmatic evidence gathered from safety professionals. From the review, it is clear that the NAGCAT tractor guidelines and the manual material handling guidelines need to be updated based upon the latest empirical evidence. While NAGCAT do have the potential to prevent serious injuries to working children in the correct age range (7-16 years), the highest incidence of farm related injuries and fatalities occur to children aged 1-6 years and NAGCAT are unlikely to have any direct effect on this leading injury problem. It is also clear that NAGCAT, as a voluntary educational strategy, is not sufficient by itself to protect children working on farms. Uptake of NAGCAT has been sporadic, despite being geographically widespread and has depended, almost solely, on a few interested and committed professionals. Key recommendations for the future are provided based upon this review.

  9. Las convulsiones febriles en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    Pertejo García, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Las convulsiones febriles conforman la patología convulsiva más frecuente en la infancia, generan mucha ansiedad y temor en los padres debido a que aparenta más gravedad de la que realmente tiene. Se muestra una visión global de esta patología y los procedimientos a seguir por los profesionales de enfermería. También se hace hincapié en la educación sanitaria que hay que llevar a cabo

  10. Cost and radiation exposure in the workup of febrile pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jason E; Gupta, Natasha; Baumgartner, Timothy S; Kim, Brian; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2016-06-15

    Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans are often used in the evaluation of pediatric patients with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). Given the prevalence of febrile UTIs, we sought to quantify the cost, radiation exposure, and clinical utility of DMSA scans when compared with dedicated pediatric renal ultrasounds (RUSs). An institutional review board approved retrospective study of children under the age of 18 years evaluated at our institution for febrile UTIs between the years 2004-2013 was conducted. The patients had to meet all of the following inclusion criteria: a diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, a fever >38°C, a positive urine culture, and evaluation with a DMSA scan and RUS. A chart review was used to construct a cost analysis of technical and professional fees, radiographic results, and radiation dose equivalents. Overall, 104 children met the inclusion criteria. A total of 122 RUS and 135 DMSA scans were performed. The technical costs of a DMSA scan incurred a 35% cost premium as compared to an RUS. The average effective radiation dose of a single DMSA scan was 2.84 mSv. New radiographic findings were only identified on 7% of those patients who underwent greater than 1 DMSA scan. The utility of the unique information acquired from a DMSA scan as compared to a RUS in the evaluation of febrile UTI must be evaluated on an individual case-by-case basis given the increased direct costs and radiation exposure to the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines in febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomoyuki; Sakaue, Yuko; Sokoda, Tatsuyuki; Sawai, Chihiro; Akabori, Shie; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Taga, Takashi; Ohno, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. The study population comprised 14 patients with simple febrile seizures and 35 patients with complex febrile seizures. Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamine. The time from fever detection to the seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than that in nonantihistamine group. Interleukin-1beta is thought to be associated with causing febrile seizures via its dual role as a pyrogen and convulsant substance. Moreover, interleukin-1beta may activate the turnover of hypothalamic neural histamine. These considerations, along with the present results, suggest that the depletion of hypothalamic neuronal histamine induced by antihistamines may increase neuronal excitability, thereby increasing seizure susceptibility in patients with febrile seizures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. No Place to Play: Implications for the Interaction of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sheridan

    1997-01-01

    Uses J Bowbly's (1969) theory of attachment as a framework for considering the implications of a lack of outdoor access for parental strategies and for the interaction of parents and children in low-income families. It argues that having access to outdoor play opportunities is supportive of healthy child development and responsive parenting and…

  13. No Place to Play: Implications for the Interaction of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sheridan

    1997-01-01

    Uses J Bowbly's (1969) theory of attachment as a framework for considering the implications of a lack of outdoor access for parental strategies and for the interaction of parents and children in low-income families. It argues that having access to outdoor play opportunities is supportive of healthy child development and responsive parenting and…

  14. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  15. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  16. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science.

  17. Children's Book Preferences: Patterns, Particulars, and Possible Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraks, Nancy; Hoffman, Amy; Bauer, David

    1997-01-01

    Surveys 315 fourth- and fifth-grade inner city and suburban children from Virginia and Ohio about their "most favorite" book, with titles categorized by literary genre. Finds little overlap with individual titles but emergence of some genre patterns--girls favoring realistic fiction and boys selecting fantasy; inner city children…

  18. Language Delays among Foster Children: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Carol D.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the centrality of language in early childhood development and the potential for language delays to negatively affect long-term outcomes in educational and social domains. Given the high rate of language delays in the foster care population, an emphasis should be placed on assessing language skills among children ages 6 and…

  19. Cultural Bias in Children's Storybooks: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Joan S.

    This study addresses concern about bias in educational materials for elementary school pupils. Children's storybooks were examined for the appearance of biases across the cultural categories of race, ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic level, religion, and environmental background. These biases included stereotyping, invisibility (omission of…

  20. Children's Social Learning: Implications of Research and Expert Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Edna; Miel, Alice

    This book, designed as an aid for teachers and curriculum developers, reports the findings of a study of children's social learnings and the ways they are acquired. Topics covered are: (1) a perspective on social learning--definition of social learnings, a view of social learnings, social learnings for democratic living, social learnings related…

  1. Children's Book Preferences: Patterns, Particulars, and Possible Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraks, Nancy; Hoffman, Amy; Bauer, David

    1997-01-01

    Surveys 315 fourth- and fifth-grade inner city and suburban children from Virginia and Ohio about their "most favorite" book, with titles categorized by literary genre. Finds little overlap with individual titles but emergence of some genre patterns--girls favoring realistic fiction and boys selecting fantasy; inner city children…

  2. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  3. Children Who Help Victims of Bullying: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, literature on the phenomenon of bullying has evolved from treating bullying as an individual behavior to understanding it as a group process. Other than those of the bully and the victim, researchers have identified several roles children assume in bullying situations, with some assuming a pro-social role, often called the…

  4. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  5. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile convulsion (FC is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001 in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113 between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test.

  6. Phonological acquisition of Turkish children: implications for phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbaş, S

    1997-01-01

    The study reported describes the phonological rules typical of normal development of Turkish-speaking children. The processes identified include: reduplication, syllable deletion, consonant deletion, assimilation, cluster reduction, liquid deviation, stopping, fronting, affrication, and backing. From a crosslinguistic perspective, the phonological process patterns exhibited coincide broadly with universal tendencies, although some language specific patterns were also evident. In contrast, a case study of a phonologically disordered child indicated that her system was characterised by the use of idiosyncratic phonological rules as well as delayed acquisition of some aspects of the system. This atypical pattern reflects reports of phonologically disordered children learning other languages. The findings indicate that the deficit underlying this type of phonological disorder leads to similar phonological behavior irrespective of the language being acquired.

  7. Violence in Animated Feature Films: Implications for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turkmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartoons and animated films occupy a significant proportion of a child’s viewing time, but may be considered questionable in terms of their content. Although parents prefer such films in order to shield their children from daily problems and potentially harmful images in the media, examination of their content has so far been limited. In this study, violence depicted in popular animated cinema films was analyzed using content analysis, tabulating categories and frequency. Twenty-three animated films from among the 100 highest-grossing feature films of all time were examined. Results indicated that the most violent physical elements were punching and kicking, the most violent verbal elements were taunting and threatening and there were 18 scenes of killing. It is concluded that the frequency of the violence shown in some of the animated films may be disturbing for the healthy mental development of young children.

  8. Language profiles in children with Down syndrome and children with language impairment: implications for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated early language profiles in two groups of children with developmental disability: children with Down Syndrome (DS, n=13) and children with Language Impairment (LI, n=16). Vocabulary and grammatical skills in the two groups were assessed and compared to language skills of typically developing (TD) children matched on size of either their receptive or expressive vocabulary (n=58). The study aimed to establish if language development in these groups is delayed or fundamentally different than the TD groups, and if the group with DS showed a similar language profile to the group with LI. There is a clinical motivation to identify possible key risk characteristics that may distinguish children who are likely to have LI from the variation observed in TD children. Three clear findings emerged from the data. Firstly, both receptive and expressive vocabulary compositions did not significantly differ in the clinical groups (DS and LI) after being matched to the vocabulary size of TD children. This provides further support for the idea that word learning for the children in the clinical groups is delayed rather than deviant. Secondly, children with LI showed a significantly larger gap between expressive and receptive word knowledge, but children with DS showed a pattern comparable to TD children. Thirdly, children with LI who understood a similar number of words as the TD children still had significantly poorer grammatical skills, further underlining the dissociation between lexical and grammatical skills in children with LI. Grammatical skills of children with DS were commensurate with their lexical skills. The findings suggest that language intervention should be specifically tailored to etiology rather than focused on general communication strategies, particularly in children with LI.

  9. Emergency Department Crowding and Time to Antibiotic Administration in Febrile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Light

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early antibiotic administration is recommended in newborns presenting with febrile illness to emergency departments (ED to avert the sequelae of serious bacterial infection. Although ED crowding has been associated with delays in antibiotic administration in a dedicated pediatric ED, the majority of children that receive emergency medical care in the U.S. present to EDs that treat both adult and pediatric emergencies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time to antibiotic administration in febrile newborns and crowding in a general ED serving both an adult and pediatric population.Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 159 newborns presenting to a general ED between 2005 and 2011 and analyzed the association between time to antibiotic administration and ED occupancy rate at the time of, prior to, and following infant presentation to the ED.Results: We observed delayed and variable time to antibiotic administration and found no association between time to antibiotic administration and occupancy rate prior to, at the time of, or following infant presentation (P > 0.05. ED time to antibiotic administration was not associated with hospital length of stay, and there was no inpatient mortality.Conclusion: Delayed and highly variable time to antibiotic treatment in febrile newborns was common but unrelated to ED crowding in the general ED study site. Guidelines for time to antibiotic administration in this population may reduce variability in ED practice patterns. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:518-524.

  10. Listening to Children as a Way to Reconstruct Knowledge about Children: Some Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosinho, Julia; Araujo, Sara Barros

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have been turning to children's views as a way to better construct knowledge about children and childhood issues. This article presents, firstly, a brief reflection on the image of child underlying this new perspective in research with children, an image that assumes, first and above all, a strong belief in…

  11. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  12. The diagnostic significance of the detection of serum C-reaction protein and WBC in children with febrile diseases%血清C-反应蛋白及WBC水平在儿童发热性疾病中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐福杰; 秦德明; 蒙小丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of the detection of serum C‐reactive protein (CRP) in children with febrile diseases .Methods 176 cases of children with febrile diseases admitted in Women and Children s Health Care Hospital of Fuling District from January 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled in the study , and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed .According to their diagnosis results at discharge ,the children were divided into bacterial infection group(n=81) ,viral infection group (n=72) ,and rheumatic disease group (n=23) .At the same time ,38 cases of healthy children who had physical examination in Women and Children s Health Care Hospital of Fuling District and voluntarily participated in the study were enrolled as normal control group . There was no difference of age ,sex ratio ,duration of fever ,nutritional status ,and complication among 4 groups (P>0 .05) .The levels of CRP and WBC of 3 disease groups were compared with those of normal control group .Results Comparing with normal control group ,the levels of CRP and WBC in bacterial infection group were significantly in‐creased ,and the difference was statistically significant (P0 .05);The CRP level of rheumatic disease group was significant‐ly higher than that of normal control group (P0 .05) .In bacterial infection group ,there were 63 cases of patients with CRP(+ )WBC(+ ) ,accounting for 77 .78% (63/81) .In viral infection group ,there were 70 cases of patients with CRP(-)WBC(-) ,accounting for 97 .22% (70/22) .In rheumatic disease group ,there were 18 cases of patients with CRP(+ )WBC(-) ,accounting for 78 .26% (18/23) .Conclusion The combined detection of CRP and WBC had important value in the differential diagnosis of pediatrics febrile diseases .%目的:探讨发热患儿血清C‐反应蛋白(CRP)及WBC水平在儿童发热性疾病中的临床意义。方法选择2014年1~12月重庆市涪陵区妇幼保健院儿科收治的176例发热患儿的病历

  13. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin during febril attacks in PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgan, Hamza; Keleş, Esengül; Yazgan, Zerrin; Gebeşçe, Arzu; Demirdöven, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    To assess the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children diagnosed with PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) during their febrile attacks. 23 patients with diagnosis of PFAPA included into the study prospectively during a three years period. In these patients, CRP and PCT values were recorded during 78 febrile episodes. Furthermore, 20 patients with diagnosis of pneumonia were chosen as a control group and their CRP and PCT values were measured. Normal reference values for CRP and PCT were 0-10 mg/L and 0-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Mean CRP and PCT values of patients with PFAPA were 94.8±71.6 mg/L and 0.29±0.14 ng/mL, respectively. In control group, mean CRP value was 153.2±26 mg/L and PCT was 1.59±0.53 ng/mL. CRP and PCT were high in control group. CRP was detected high and PCT was normal in PFAPA. Compared to control group, in PFAPA group, CRP values were not significantly (p>0.05) and PCT values were significantly lower (p<0.001). During febrile episodes in the patients with diagnosis of PFAPA, CRP values were substantially elevated, whereas PCT values were within normal levels. Concomitant assessment of CRP and PCT in addition to clinical diagnostic criteria may be of help in making diagnosis and distinguishing febrile attacks from infections. However, studies in larger groups are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenomedullin--A New Marker in Febrile Neutropenia: Comparison With CRP and Procalcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Metin; Tugcu, Deniz; Akcay, Arzu; Aydogan, Gönül; Akıcı, Ferhan; Salcioglu, Zafer; Ekmekci, Hakan; Sevinir, Betül; Balci Ekmekci, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine serum adrenomedullin levels and compare them with levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Cancer patients aged 0-18 years who experienced febrile neutropenia attacks were included in the study. Adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT were analyzed at admission, day 3, and days 7-10 later. Fifty episodes of febrile neutropenia that developed in 37 patients were analyzed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 7.5 ± 4.7 (1-18) years. The patients had leukemia (73%), solid tumors (19%), and lymphoma (8%). The percentages of the patients in the clinically documented infection (CDI), fever of unknown origin (FUO), sepsis, and microbiological documented infection (MDI) categories were 34%, 34%, 20%, and 12%, respectively. During the study period, four patients were lost. In the MDI group, adrenomedullin levels on day 3 were significantly higher than those in the CDI and FUO groups. PCT levels were significantly higher in the sepsis group than those in the CDI group at admission, day 3, and days 7-10. In the sepsis group, PCT levels on days 7-10 days were significantly higher than those in the sepsis group. PCT values from the deceased patients on days 7-10 were significantly higher than those from patients who survived. CRP levels did not differ significantly among the febrile neutropenia groups. First, in our study, adrenomedullin was used as a biomarker in the febrile neutropenia episodes of children with cancer. Among adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT, procalcitonin demonstrates the highest correlation with the severity of infection.

  15. Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idro, Richard; Gwer, Samson; Williams, Thomas N; Otieno, Tuda; Uyoga, Sophie; Fegan, Gregory; Kager, Piet A; Maitland, Kathryn; Kirkham, Fenella; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J

    2010-11-16

    There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area. We recruited 133 children, aged 3-156 months, who presented to a district hospital on the Kenyan coast with acute seizures and frequency-matched these to children of similar ages but without seizures. We defined iron deficiency according to the presence of malarial infection and evidence of inflammation. In patients with malaria, we defined iron deficiency as plasma ferritiniron deficiency and febrile seizures in children. In our Kenyan case control study, cases and controls were similar, except more cases reported past seizures. Malaria was associated with two-thirds of all seizures. Eighty one (30.5%) children had iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was neither associated with an increased risk of acute seizures (45/133[33.8%] cases were iron deficient compared to 36/133[27.1%] controls, p = 0.230) nor status epilepticus and it did not affect seizure semiology. Similar results were obtained when children with malaria, known to cause acute symptomatic seizures in addition to febrile seizures were excluded. However, in a meta-analysis that combined all eight case-control studies that have examined the association between iron deficiency and acute/febrile seizures to-date, iron deficiency, described in 310/1,018(30.5%) cases and in 230/1,049(21.9%) controls, was associated with a significantly increased risk of seizures, weighted OR 1.79(95%CI 1.03-3.09). Iron deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of all acute seizures in children but of febrile seizures. Further studies should examine mechanisms involved and the implications for public health.

  16. A Cross-cultural Exploration of Children's Everyday Ideas: Implications for science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Children's everyday ideas form critical foundations for science learning yet little research has been conducted to understand and legitimize these ideas, particularly from an international perspective. This paper explores children's everyday ideas about the environment across the US, Singapore and China to understand what they reveal about children's relationship to the environment and discuss its implications for science teaching and learning. A social constructivist lens guides research, and a visual methodology is used to frame children's realities. Participants' ages range from elementary to middle school, and a total of 210 children comprized mainly of Asians and Asian Americans were sampled from urban settings. Drawings are used to elicit children's everyday ideas and analyzed inductively using open coding and categorizing of data. Several categories support existing literature about how children view the environment; however, novel categories such as affect also emerged and lend new insight into the role that language, socio-cultural norms and perhaps ethnicity play in shaping children's everyday ideas. The findings imply the need for (a) a change in the role of science teachers from knowledge providers to social developers, (b) a science curriculum that is specific to learners' experiences in different socio-cultural settings, and (c) a shift away from inter-country comparisons using international science test scores.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF SERUM PROCALCITONIN IN FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Riyaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Febrile neutropenia is defined as a fever >101°F for 1 hour, with an absolute neutrophil count of ≤500 cells/microliter, or an ANC of ≤1000 cells/microliter with a projected nadir of ≤500 cells/microliter. In haematological malignancies it is the common complication and requires broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. Clinical examination and cultures fail to detect a pathogen or an infectious focus in 25–50%, which are classified as pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Patient with pyrexia of unknown origin may receive long duration of antibiotic treatment as the cause is unclear of being infective or not. Febrile neutropenia is a common complication of many chemotherapeutic regimens for all types of cancers. Mortality and Morbidity is high particularly in elderly, immuno-compromised. Approximately 20- 40 % of patients with severe sepsis and 45-60% patients with septic shock die within 15-20 days. This study was done to know the sources of infection and to assess the diagnostic value of serum Procalcitonin and its relation with mortality in various stages of sepsis. Sepsis incidence was more in patient age more than 55yrs. the most common source of sepsis was respiratory tract infection. Serum PCT proved to be an indicator of sepsis in ill patients, with sensitivity of 91%. Presence of both persistent and profound neutropenia was associated with a much higher mortality. The occurrence of infection is directly proportional to the degree of neutropenia, at the onset of fever the PCT levels will not be helpful for the decision to start or stop the antibacterial therapy, and a PCT value higher than 0.5ng/ml in pyrexia of unknown origin might suggest a possibility of occult infection, i.e. with lacking microbiological and clinical documentation. A delayed PCT peak higher than0.5ng/ml contributes to the early diagnosis of fungal disease.

  18. Nutritional status of foster children in the U.S.: Implications for cognitive and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Ursula A; Makhoul, Zeina; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-11-01

    Children in foster care are at greater risk for poor health, physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes than are children in the general population. Considerable research links early nutrition to later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the prevalence of poor nutrition and its relation to subsequent health and development in foster children. Relevant studies for inclusion were identified from numerous sources (e.g., PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference sections). Inclusion criteria were studies published between 1990 and 2016 of (i) the nutritional status of children in foster care or (ii) the nutritional status of children exposed to early adversity (e.g., low-income and internationally adopted children) or (iii) the developmental effects of poor nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Two key findings that have adverse implications for cognitive development emerged: (i) the prevalence of anemia and iron-deficiency anemia is higher among foster children than among the general population of children in the U.S., and (ii) the developmental demands of catch-up growth post-placement may lead to micronutrient deficiencies even after children have begun sufficient dietary intake of these nutrients. Moreover, there is a paucity of recent studies on the nutritional status of children in foster care, despite the multiple factors that may place them at risk for malnutrition. Attention to nutritional status among care providers and medical professionals may remove one of the possible negative influences on foster children's development and in turn significantly alter their trajectories and place them on a more positive path early in life. Recommendations for further research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  19. Kidney imaging in management of delayed febrile urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolhassan Sayedzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-sectional study performed to evaluate the imaging findings of 40 children, aged one month to five years (16.65 ± 14.97 months, who presented with protracted fever of more than 48 hours due to urinary tract infection (UTI. About 85% of the patients had positive Tc99-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and 58% had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Kidney sonography aided in the diagnosis and treatment in 10% of the patients. Age, sex, presence or laterality of VUR did not contribute to defective DMSA scan (pyelonephritis (P > 0.05. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of febrile UTI is associated with a high incidence of positive findings of DMSA scan irrespective of age, sex or presence/absence of VUR. In mild VUR, the DMSA scan may be normal while in patients with moderate and severe VUR the DMSA scan is almost always abnormal. Thus, our study shows that a normal DMSA scan can help in ruling out moderate to severe forms of VUR and that cystography remains an excellent and standard tool for the diagnosis of VUR.

  20. Kidney imaging in management of delayed febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedzadeh, Sayed Abolhassan; Malaki, Majid; Shoaran, Maryam; Nemati, Massood

    2011-11-01

    We report a cross-sectional study performed to evaluate the imaging findings of 40 children, aged one month to five years (16.65 ± 14.97 months), who presented with protracted fever of more than 48 hours due to urinary tract infection (UTI). About 85% of the patients had positive Tc99-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan and 58% had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Kidney sonography aided in the diagnosis and treatment in 10% of the patients. Age, sex, presence or laterality of VUR did not contribute to defective DMSA scan (pyelonephritis) (P > 0.05). Delayed diagnosis and treatment of febrile UTI is associated with a high incidence of positive findings of DMSA scan irrespective of age, sex or presence/absence of VUR. In mild VUR, the DMSA scan may be normal while in patients with moderate and severe VUR the DMSA scan is almost always abnormal. Thus, our study shows that a normal DMSA scan can help in ruling out moderate to severe forms of VUR and that cystography remains an excellent and standard tool for the diagnosis of VUR.

  1. Women who abuse their children: implications for pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B; Stein, M T

    1980-10-01

    Parents who abuse their children may not accept traditional therapy but may be influenced by the child's primary care physician. A comparative study of abusive and nonabusive mothers showed abusers to have lower self-concept and higher self-concept incongruence and inconsistency than nonabusers. They were also found to value authority over others more, and conformity and benevolence less, than nonabusers. Practically applied, the data lead the pediatrician to an educative and supportive role in which he or she may enhance self-esteem and lower unrealistic expectations in the course of treating the child. In addition, there seems to be a need to develop access to support groups, day care, and other avenues for the mother's personal growth. This may be done either within a pediatric practice or through liaison with community resources.

  2. Crisis febriles simples y complejas, epilepsia generalizada con crisis febriles plus, FIRES y nuevos síndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Noris Moreno de Flagge

    2013-01-01

    Las convulsiones febriles representan la mayoría de las convulsiones en el niño. Se ha descrito que 2-5% de los niños experimentan convulsiones febriles antes de los 5 años de edad, aunque en algunas poblaciones se ha descrito hasta un 15%. Es una causa común de admisión en pediatría y de preocupación de los padres. Puede ser la primera manifestación de una epilepsia. Un 13% de pacientes que desarrollan epilepsia tienen antecedente de convulsiones febriles y 30% de estos pacientes se presenta...

  3. Postural Dysfunction in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Some Implications for Therapeutic Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brogren Carlberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural problems play a central role in the motor dysfunction of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Therefore, they spend more time in sitting than in standing to perform vital tasks of daily life. The focus of this article is to describe the pathophysiology of postural control in sitting and outline some implications for management and treatment. In general, children with CP exhibit muscular activity counteracting forces that disturb equilibrium. Only ‘non-sitting’ children with severe CP lack such ‘direction-specific’ adjustments, possibly ruling out achievement of independent sitting. Most frequently, the children display dysfunctions in the adaptation of the adjustment. Typical characteristics of this adaptation in children with CP are a top-down recruitment of pos tural muscles, an excessive degree of antagonistic coactivation, and an incomplete adaptation of the EMG-amplitude to task specific constraints. Despite our knowledge on the pathophysiology underlying the postural problems in children with CP, little ’high-level’ evidence (according to Sackett exists on how different interventions can affect these problems. Therapeutic attention to promote motor performance in sitting focuses on adaptive seating, tilting of the support surface, and ample, variable training in motivating settings. The challenge facing us now is to provide evidence about the efficacy of specific treatment approaches facilitating that children reach an optimal level of functioning in daily life.

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Enhanced Seizure Susceptibility after Febrile Seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Dengchang; Feng, Bo; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Xiaohua; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Tang, Yangshun; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Benyan; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate that prolonged febrile seizures induced by exposure of rat pups to a hyperthermic environment enhance seizure susceptibility not only in these hyperthermia-treated rats but also...

  5. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteyn, Jacqueline S; Wilfong, Angus; Devinsky, Orrin; Bluvstein, Judith; Charuta, Joshi; Ciliberto, Michael A; Laux, Linda; Marsh, Eric D

    2017-01-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epilepsy affecting normal children after a febrile illness. FIRES presents with an acute phase with super-refractory status epilepticus and all patients progress to a chronic phase with persistent refractory epilepsy. The typical outcome is severe encephalopathy or death. The authors present 7 children from 5 centers with FIRES who had not responded to antiepileptic drugs or other therapies who were given cannabadiol (Epidiolex, GW Pharma) on emergency or expanded investigational protocols in either the acute or chronic phase of illness. After starting cannabidiol, 6 of 7 patients' seizures improved in frequency and duration. One patient died due to multiorgan failure secondary to isoflourane. An average of 4 antiepileptic drugs were weaned. Currently 5 subjects are ambulatory, 1 walks with assistance, and 4 are verbal. While this is an open-label case series, the authors add cannabidiol as a possible treatment for FIRES.

  6. Advances in Children's Rights and Children's Well-Being Measurement: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…

  7. Serological response to Bartonella species in febrile patients from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Gibbons, Robert V; Iverson, Jennifer; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Pavlin, Julie A; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2011-12-01

    The Bartonella-associated illnesses are spread world-wide and involve a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms in humans. Several Bartonella species have been shown to be responsible for cases of febrile illnesses. Little information exists on distribution of Bartonella species and their role in human diseases in Nepal. Our preliminary study, a retrospective serological survey of archived specimens, suggests that Bartonella antibodies are prevalent among febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

  8. Histoplasmosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Sarah M.; Kirsch, Emily J.; Maro, Venance P.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Msuya, Levina J; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Diefenthal, Helmut C.; Ramadhani, Habib O.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Histoplasmosis may be common in East Africa but the diagnosis is rarely confirmed. We report 9 (0.9%) cases of probable histoplasmosis retrospectively identified among 970 febrile inpatients studied in northern Tanzania. Median (range) age was 31 (6, 44) years, 6 (66.7%) were female, 6 (66.7%) HIV-infected; 7 (77.8%) were clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis or bacterial pneumonia. Histoplasmosis is an important cause of febrile illness in Tanzania but is rarely considered in the differenti...

  9. ERITEMA NODOSO Y SINDROME FEBRIL PROLONGADO ASOCIADOS A HIPERPARATIROIDISMO SECUNDARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Enz P; Musso C; Luque K,; Kowalczuk A; Galimberti R; Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    El hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo s...

  10. Infección bacteriana severa en niños febriles: Parámetros predictivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez Rodríguez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigadores han realizado estudios sobre el manejo del niño febril y plantean que es un dilema al que se enfrenta a diario el médico que atiende niños. Motivados por este tema se efectuó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los niños febriles, sin causa aparente en su valoración inicial, que asistieron al servicio de urgencias en un período de 9 meses, con el objetivo de identificar el diagnóstico definitivo al egreso y se precisó el tipo de infección bacteriana severa y relacionó la presencia de éstos con parámetros clínicos y de laboratorios. El mayor número de niños febriles valorados e ingresados mostraron edades desde 91 días hasta 36 meses. El menor porcenaje de ellos ingresaron y desarrollaron alguna infección bacteriana severa principalmente neumonía, y fue mayor el porcentaje de niños con esta patología a menos edad con predominio del aspecto tóxico y de la temperatura 39 EC. Resultó el manejo ambulatorio del niño febril mayor de 90 días y bajo riesgo de infección bacteriana severa un ahorro en vidas y dinero, por lo que se recomienda generalizar el flujograma propuesto para la evaluación y manejo del niño febril de 3 a 36 meses de edad.Different researches have performed studies on the management of the febrile infant and they point out that this is a dilemma faced by every physician who takes care of children. Motivated by this subject, a descriptive and retrospective study of febrile infants was conducted. The study was carried out to evaluate febrile infants without evident cause at the baseline evaluation who attended the emergency service during a period of 9 months with the objective of identifying the definite diagnosis at admission. The type of bacterial infection was accurately assessed and the presence of this was related to clinical and laboratory parameters. The greatest number of febrile infants evaluated and admitted to hospital were 91 days-36 months old. The lowest percentage

  11. Lack of association between TNF-α gene polymorphisms at position -308 A, -850T and risk of simple febrile convulsion in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleman; Habibian, Roya; Nozari, Ahora; Baradaran, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile convulsions (FCs), occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age is the most common seizure disorder during childhood. The febrile response is thought to be mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1). There is a significant relationship between genetic components for susceptibility of FCs and different report mutation. We investigated association between two polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoter region (G-308A, C-850T) and FCs in the southwest area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this matched case–control study, 100 patients with febrile convulsion as case group and 130 healthy children as control group were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted by standard phenol–chloroform method. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNF- α polymorphisms in case and control groups were determined by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The average age of case and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 1.2 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between age and sex in both the groups (P > 0.05). A family history of febrile convulsion was detected in 44% of patients. Moreover, the simple febrile convulsion was detected in 85% of the case group. Conclusion: RFLP analysis of TNF- α promoter region polymorphisms, considering P = 0.146 and P = 0.084 for G-308A and C-850T, respectively, showed no correlation between TNF- α polymorphisms and predisposition to simple febrile, based on the kind of convulsion (atypical and simple febrile convulsion). We found a significant relation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in case group (P = 0.04). A significant correlation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in the case group was

  12. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  13. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited.

  14. Effectiveness of intermittent diazepam prophylaxis in febrile seizures: long-term prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efterpi; Tzitiridou, Maria; Panteliadis, Christos

    2006-12-01

    The efficacy of intermittent rectal diazepam prophylaxis is assessed in the prevention of febrile seizures. In a prospective randomized cohort trial, 139 children (77 girls, 62 boys) who experienced a first febrile seizure were allocated to two groups: group A, which received intermittent diazepam (n = 68), and group B, which received no prophylaxis (n = 71). All children had a 3-year follow-up. The inclusion criteria were no personal history of afebrile seizures, normal neurodevelopment, no previous anticonvulsant therapy, and age between 6 months and 3 years. Each group was stratified to low, intermediate, and high risk according to the available clinical data. The 36-month recurrence rates in the no-prophylaxis group were 83% in high-risk patients, 55% in intermediate-risk patients, and 46% in low-risk patients. In the prophylaxis group, the recurrence rates were reduced in all risk groups: 38%, 35%, and 33%, respectively. Intermittent diazepam prophylaxis reduces the recurrence rate mainly in high-risk children provided that sufficient doses are given on time and adequately.

  15. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  16. Mapping of a FEB3 homologous febrile seizure locus on mouse chromosome 2 containing candidate genes Scn1a and Scn3a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; van Lith, Hein A; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; de Wit, Marina; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; Kas, Martien J H; Fernandes, Cathy; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2016-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in children. Recurrent FS are a risk factor for developing temporal lobe epilepsy later in life and are known to have a strong genetic component. Experimental FS (eFS) can be elicited in mice by warm-air induced hyperthermia. We used this model

  17. HPA stability for children in foster care: mental health implications and moderation by early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-09-01

    Research on stress-sensitive biological systems has typically focused on activation at one time, yet recent theories emphasize dynamic, context-specific adaptation. This study tested hypothesized calibration of one such system by examining both mean levels and longitudinal stability of daily cortisol--reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation--in children exposed to high-risk versus lower-risk caregiving contexts. Context-specific effects of longitudinal cortisol profiles were addressed via relations with child psychiatric symptoms. Children from regular foster care, foster children participating in a family-based intervention, and community comparison children (n = 96 total) collected saliva samples for cortisol assay at 29 timepoints across 6+ years. High-risk (regular foster care) children showed lower and more variable cortisol levels than their lower-risk (treatment foster care, community comparison) counterparts. For the high-risk children only, higher and more stable cortisol related to elevated anxiety symptoms. Implications for contextual calibration of stress systems and family intervention mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Validación de nuevos parámetros predictivos de infecciones bacterianas severas en niños febriles menores de 36 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez Rodríguez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva-prospectiva con el objetivo de validar nuestros criterios de riesgos en la identificación de la infección bacteriana severa (IBS en niños febriles, para lo cual se establecieron las categorías de riesgos y se aplicaron en 215 niños febriles que habían ingresado por esta causa en un período de 12 meses. Se obtuvo que el 54,9 % de los niños se clasificaron como bajo riesgo y el 71,6 % sin IBS. No obstante, la frecuencia de dicha afección resultó elevada, 28,4 %, con predominio de las infecciones urinarias. Se triplicó el riesgo de padecer IBS en los niños con aspecto tóxico, temperatura mayor o igual a 39°C, test clínico de Bonadio mayor que 8, cituria mayor o igual a 10 000 células/mm³, con diferencias significativas entre las categorías de riesgo y la IBS, y fue mayor la frecuencia en los niños tóxicos y de riesgos, 92,8 y 54,3 %, respectivamente. Uno de cada 4 niños febriles presentó IBS. Se introdujo la categoría "Riesgo" y se recomienda un flujograma de evaluación.A descriptive-prospective research study was carried out to validate our risk criteria in the identification of severe bacterial infection in febrile young children. For this purpose, risk categories were set and applied in 215 febrile children who had been admitted in a period of 12 months. 54.9 % of febrile children were at low risk for serious bacterial infections whereas 71.6 % presented no risk at all. Nevertheless, the frequency of this affection was high, accounting for 28.4 % with predominance of urinary infections. The risk of getting SBI trippled in children who shared toxic look, temperature greater than or equal to 39 °C, Bonadium clinical test higher than 8, cyturia values over or equal to 10 000 cell/mm³, significant differences between risk and SBI categories and the highest frequency of such affection found in toxic children and in children at low risk (92.8 vs 54.3 %. One in every four febrile

  19. "HOW FREQUENT IS THE CERBROSPINAL FLUID PLEOCYTOSIS IN INFANTS WITH FEBRILE SEIZURES?"

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    M. Mohammadi1 H. Ravaghi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common type of convulsion yet described in man. It is a convulsive event mainly occurring in children between the ages of 6 to 60 months and is not accompanied by any type of electrolyte imbalance and CNS infections, which are very difficult to be ruled out in infancy. To determine the frequency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pleocytosis in infants under the age of eighteen months with febrile seizure who routinely undergo lumbar puncture, we studied 159 cases (from 3 to 18 months of age, mean of 11, SD of 4 months, referred to Takhti Children Hospital from September 1995 to September 1996 because of Febrile Seizures. There were only 5 patients (3.1% with pleocytosis in our case series. Significant correlation was found between pleocytosis and high erythrocyte sedimentation rates (CI=99%, Chi square=5.94 in our patients. There was also a positive correlation between pleocytosis and the duration between the beginning of fever and occurrence of seizure (CI=98%, Chi square=7.58. We concluded that there was little risk for our patients to have CSF pleocytosis. We also strongly recommend further investigations to exam the relationship of various signs and symptoms with meningitis in infants with seizure and fever, preferably in the form of likelihood ratios. It is noteworthy to emphasize that performing a lumbar puncture in any infant less than 18 months of age is practically rational until more precise and specific indications emerge from further such welldesigned studies in the future.

  20. [Pharmaceutical analysis and clinical efficacy of Kampo medicine, maoto, extract suppository against pediatric febrile symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Nobuhiro; Doi, Norio; Uemura, Tomochika; Taketani, Takeshi; Hayashi, George; Kasai, Takeshi; Kanai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Naora, Kohji

    2009-06-01

    A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Kampo medicine, maoto, has been widely used in the treatment of febrile symptoms caused by viral infection. This herbal extract granule for oral use, however, is not well accepted by infants or young children due to its unpleasant taste and odor. Therefore, we prepared Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository and investigated the pharmaceutical and clinical efficacy of the suppository. Kampo medicine, maoto, granules were micro-pulverized and homogeneously dispersed into Hosco-H15 to prepare suppositories containing 0.25 to 1.0 g herbal extract by the conventional fusion method. Content of l-ephedrine, an index compound of Kampo medicine, maoto, in the extract granules and suppositories was determined by using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Physicochemical experiments revealed that the suppository containing 0.5 g herbal extract had the most suitable melting point of 34 degrees C. Contents of l-ephedrine in the suppository were constant, 93-96% of those in the same amount of the extract granules in different three lots. Upper and lower portions of the suppository had the same content of l-ephedrine. The suppository maintained more than 95% of l-ephedrine content through 6 months at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 40 degrees C, although maldistribution of the extract constituent was observed after storage at 40 degrees C. The suppository was administered to 21 pediatric febrile patients at a dose of 1/3 to 2 full pieces depending on their body weight and physical status. Significant reduction (psuppository was found to satisfy the physicochemical quality and quantity standards as well as to be clinically applicable to neonates, infants and children with viral febrile symptoms without any adverse effects.

  1. Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam Tratamento de convuslsões febris com clobazam intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza G. Manreza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean=23.7 m. that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified in 5. The mean follow-up period was 7.9 months (range=l to 23 m., and the age at the first seizure varied from 5 to 42 months (mean=16.8 m.. Clobazam was administered orally during the febrile episode according to the child's weight: up to 5 kg, 5 mg/day; from 5 to 10 kg, 10 mg/day; from 11 to 15 kg, 15 mg/day, and over 15 kg, 20 mg/day. There were 219 febrile episodes, with temperature above 37.8 °C, in 40 children during the study period. Twelve children never received clobazam and 28 received the drug at least once. Drug efficacy was measured by comparing FS recurrence in the febrile episodes that were treated with clobazam with those in which only antipyretic measures were taken. Ten children (20% experienced a FS during the study period. Of the 171 febrile episodes treated with clobazam there were only 3 recurrences (1.7%, while of the 48 episodes treated only with antipyretic measures there were 11 recurrences (22.9%, a difference highly significant (pAvaliamos prospectivamente o uso intermitente do clobazam na profilaxia de convulsão febril em 50 crianças, 24 do sexo feminino e 26 do masculino, com idades entre 6 e 72 meses (média = 23,7 meses que haviam apresentado pelo menos um episódio de convulsão febril. Foram excluídas crianças com anormalidades neurológicas severas, doença neurológica progressiva, crises durante infecção do SNC e crises epilépticas sintomáticas outras. As convulsões febris foram classificadas como simples em 25

  2. Successful emergency department interventions that reduce time to antibiotics in febrile pediatric cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sandra; Nypaver, MIchele; Hebert, Katherine; Benner, Christopher; Stanley, Rachel; Cohen, Daniel; Rogers, Alexander; Goldstick, Jason; Mahajan, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Children with cancer and fever are at high risk for sepsis related death. Rapid antibiotic delivery ( 38.0 C). A secondary objective was to identify interventions amenable to translation to other centers. We conducted a post project analysis of prospectively collected observational data from children practice guideline establishment 7) Family pre-ED education for fever and 8) Staff project updates. This core set of eight low cost, high yield QI interventions were developed independently by the three ED's which led to substantial reduction in time to antibiotic delivery in children with cancer presenting with fever. These interventions may inform future QI initiatives in other settings caring for febrile pediatric oncology patients. PMID:28321299

  3. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  4. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  5. MALARIA TYPHOID CO - INFECTION AMONG FEBRILE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fevers, caused by different organisms are major public health problems in developing countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of both infections concurrently. These are the important cause of fevers in many endemic areas especially during rainy season. Each of these diseases can substantially contribute to mortality if not diagnosed and treated early. The present study was designed to find the Sero prevalence of Malaria, Typhoid and Typho malarial co - infections in febrile patients. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to May 2015. A total of five hundred and eighty two subjects were screened for Malaria and Typhoid is included in study irrespective of their age & sex. Data was analysed on the basis of Demographic factors & Serological results. The results were analysed statistically. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of malarial infection was found to be 58.41% , Typhoid as 1.8 % whereas, True Typho Malarial co - infection was seen in 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The present study reports the Prevalence of Malaria, Typhoid and Typho Malarial Co - infection which are important when planning large scale vaccine trials as well as making health policies and a Protocol is required to treat these infections to limit the mortality and morbidity.

  6. A study of Taiwanese children's conceptions of and relation to nature: Curricular and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Amy Hsin-I.

    The present study investigated children's conceptions of and relations to nature. Understanding the factors that influence them was the goal. The study used the Contextual Model of Learning as the theoretical framework to structure the research questions and data analysis to understand children's nature learning in the personal, sociocultural, and physical contexts that change over time. Twelve children aged 5 and 6 were prompted to draw a picture of themselves in nature. They were interviewed about the sources of those ideas and living experiences, and if they thought photographs of scenery were nature. These twelve children's parents also participated in a survey to study the family influence. I used interpretational analysis to seek for common patterns and themes. Scoring rubrics, coaxial comparison, constant comparison, and the theoretical framework were used to triangulate and investigate influential factors of children's ideas of nature. The study showed that children at this age already had developed a basic conception of what is nature, but also need to learn about the role of human beings in nature and the interrelations of nature in order to develop environmental education ideas. Most children also had a positive feeling toward nature. Children's definitions of nature were developed mainly from what parents and grandparents had told them and their firsthand exposure to nature. Only during the weekend did the children's families have time to visit nature. It was found that most parents in this study stated that they were inspired by nature and were very willing to take their children to nature settings. The most visited natural places that were reported visited were parks in the city and the mountains surrounding the city. However, very often parents missed teachable opportunities to make the experiences with nature meaningful to children. Implications of the study apply to curriculum designers, educators, urban planners, and parents. It is recommended

  7. European American and Chinese parents' responses to children's success and failure: implications for children's responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined cultural differences in parents' responses to their children's performance. In Study 1 (N = 421), Chinese 5th graders reported that their parents de-emphasized their academic success and emphasized their academic failure, whereas their American counterparts reported that their parents did the opposite. This partially accounted for Chinese (vs. American) children responding less positively to success and more negatively to failure. In Study 2 (N = 128), Chinese and American mothers' responses to their 4th and 5th graders' performance were observed in the laboratory. The cultural differences in children's reports of parents' responses documented in Study 1 were replicated; mothers' responses were also associated with children's subsequent performance. In addition, Chinese mothers were more involved than were American mothers, but their affect was similar. Taken together, the results suggest that parents' responses to children's performance may be a channel for cultural transmission and perpetuation of responses to performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Searsia chirindensis reverses the potentiating effect of prenatal stress on the development of febrile seizures and decreased plasma interleukin-1β levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, Willie M U; Russell, Vivienne; Mabandla, Musa V

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that more than 80% of patients with epilepsy live in developing countries with 50-60% of them being children. This high prevalence is perpetuated by low socio-economic challenges, poor health care facilities and lack of drug affordability. Searsia chirindensis formerly known as rhus chirindensis and commonly known as 'Red Current' is a popular traditional medicinal plant, which has been used to treat a number of illnesses such as heart complaints and neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of S. chirindensis on the development of febrile seizure in a prenatally stressed rat. Febrile seizures were induced by administering lipopolysaccharide to 14-day-old rat pups followed by kainic acid. A subset of the rats was treated with Searsia after induction of febrile seizures. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were measured in plasma. Lipid peroxidation was determined in liver tissue. Our data shows that treatment with Searsia reduced interleukin-1β levels in plasma of the febrile seizure rats and prevented lipid oxidation in the liver. Prenatal stress is dampened by the beneficial effects of Searsia on seizure development in rat pups. These results highlight the potentiating effects of Searsia in the reversal of febrile seizures and prenatal stress effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Reading and Reinterpreting Picture Books on Children's Television: Implications for Young Children's Narrative Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2016-01-01

    "Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…

  10. An Overview of Existing Research about Children's Singing and the Implications for Teaching Children to Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the findings of the studies devoted to the child voice, most of which have occurred in the past 25 years, and to present a synthesis of these findings with respect to the pedagogy, or art and science, of teaching children to sing. The data suggest that a philosophical disparity exists about…

  11. Reading and Reinterpreting Picture Books on Children's Television: Implications for Young Children's Narrative Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2016-01-01

    "Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…

  12. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children.

  13. Crisis febriles simples y complejas, epilepsia generalizada con crisis febriles plus, FIRES y nuevos síndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noris Moreno de Flagge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las convulsiones febriles representan la mayoría de las convulsiones en el niño. Se ha descrito que 2-5% de los niños experimentan convulsiones febriles antes de los 5 años de edad, aunque en algunas poblaciones se ha descrito hasta un 15%. Es una causa común de admisión en pediatría y de preocupación de los padres. Puede ser la primera manifestación de una epilepsia. Un 13% de pacientes que desarrollan epilepsia tienen antecedente de convulsiones febriles y 30% de estos pacientes se presentan con convulsiones recurrentes. Sus características fenotípicas nos permiten, en su gran mayoría, clasificarlas, tomar una actitud terapéutica y elaborar un pronóstico. Se puede describir un espectro de su gravedad desde las convulsiones febriles simples hasta las más complejas como las convulsiones febriles plus que comprenden los síndromes de Dravet y FIRES. En los últimos años se han hecho descubrimientos importantes que definen su carácter genético, entrelazándose cada vez más con diferentes afecciones de tipo epiléptico que nos obliga a un seguimiento neurológico más estrecho de muchos de estos niños con convulsiones febriles. Hacemos una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre las convulsiones febriles, su pronóstico y su relación con los nuevos síndromes epilépticos.

  14. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

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    Akogun Oladele B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next" as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them.

  15. Pediatric first time non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations: is emergent imaging indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, N; Harper, M B; Prabhu, S P; Monuteaux, M C; Sadiq, Z; Torres, A; Kimia, A A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of clinically urgent intra-cranial pathology among children who had imaging for a first episode of non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations. We performed a cross sectional study of all children age 1 month to 18 years evaluated for first episode of non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations and having neuroimaging performed within 24h of presentation at a single pediatric ED between 1995 and 2012. We excluded intubated patients, those with known structural brain abnormality and trauma. A single neuro-radiologist reviewed all cranial computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging performed. We defined clinically urgent intracranial pathology as any finding resulting in a change of initial patient management. We performed univariate analysis using χ(2) analysis for categorical data and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data. We identified 319 patients having a median age of 4.6 years [IQR 1.8-9.4] of which 45% were female. Two hundred sixty-two children had a CT scan, 15 had an MR and 42 had both. Clinically urgent intra-cranial pathology was identified on imaging of 13 patients (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.0). Infarction, hemorrhage and thrombosis were most common (9/13). Twelve of 13 were evident on CT scan. Persistent Todd's paresis and age ≤ 18 months were predictors of clinically urgent intracranial pathology. Absence of secondary generalization and multiple seizures on presentation were not predictive. Four percent of children imaged with first time, afebrile focal seizures have findings important to initial management. Children younger than ≤ 18 months are at increased risk. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scientific thinking in young children: theoretical advances, empirical research, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison

    2012-09-28

    New theoretical ideas and empirical research show that very young children's learning and thinking are strikingly similar to much learning and thinking in science. Preschoolers test hypotheses against data and make causal inferences; they learn from statistics and informal experimentation, and from watching and listening to others. The mathematical framework of probabilistic models and Bayesian inference can describe this learning in precise ways. These discoveries have implications for early childhood education and policy. In particular, they suggest both that early childhood experience is extremely important and that the trend toward more structured and academic early childhood programs is misguided.

  17. Analysis of clinical characteristics and plasma level of mannose-binding lectin in 68 children with febrile convulsion%68例热性惊厥患儿临床特点及其血浆甘露糖结合凝集素水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超前; 华春珍; 罗巧二; 王琦婧; 戴凯丽; 黄邢邢; 杨钦梳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the clinical characteristics of febrile convulsion (FC) occurred in children and study the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels in plasma at both acute and convalescent stages in the case group. [Methods] Plasma samples were separated from whole blood which was collected from children with FC at the acute and convalescent stages during August 2010 to July 2011. The MBL concentrations were measured by ELISA method and the SPSS 11. 0 software was used in the study. [Results] Among all 68 cases,The mean MBL levels were (595 + 559)ng/mL at acute stage and (585 ± 466)ng/mL in recovery stage,and no significant difference was found between the two groups (Z = 0. 207,P = 0. 836). However,there was a significant correlation of the MBL levels between the two stages (r=0. 809, P<0. 01). 29. 4% of all individuals had low MBL levels less than 200 ng/mL at convalescent stage. Acute reaction of MBL was observed in 38. 2% children with FC. No correlation was found between MBL levels and CRP levels(r =-0. 15,P=0. 22). It was found that 89. 7% of the FC children was caused by acute upper respiratory tract infection. The creatine kinase-MB exceeding normal value was found in 54. 1% of all individuals. [Conclusion] As a whole, convulsion acting as a kind of stress, had no significant effects on the MBL level in vivo.%[目的]了解热性惊厥患儿的临床特点及其血浆甘露糖结合凝集素(mannose-binding lectin,MBL)水平在惊厥前后的变化. [方法]对2010年8月-2011年7月在本院住院的68例热性惊厥患儿,应用ELISA法检测急性期与恢复期血浆MBL浓度,同时进行临床特点分析.统计分析采用SPSS 11.0. [结果]急性期和恢复期MBL平均浓度分别为(595±559) ng/mL和(585±466) ng/mL,二者差异无统计学意义(Z=0.207,P=0.836),急性期与恢复期MBL水平呈线性相关(r=0.809,P<0.01).其中恢复期MBL血浆浓度<200 ng/mL的病例占29.4%,MBL参与急性应答占全部病例的38.2%.MBL浓

  18. The Value of C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin in Febrile Neutropenia

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    Solmaz Çelebi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Febrile neutropenia is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. For this reason, early diagnosis of severe infections and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between C-reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin in determining the sepsis and its severity. Materials and Method: A total of 30 children (35 episodes with febrile neutropenia who were hospitalized in the Uludag University, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Unit were included in this prospective study. The blood samples for CRP and procalcitonin were collected daily between 0 to 5th days. Serum CRP and procalcitonin levels were compared with culture positivity, prolonged fever, mucositis and absolute granulosit count (AGC. Results: A total of 16 patients (56% diagnosed with acute leukemia and, 14 patients (46% having solid tumours were evaluated. In sequential analysis of febrile episodes, both the median of procalcitonin and the CRP concentrations showed the same tendency and there was no significant correlation between them (r=0.2, p>0.05. There was no significant association between CRP and procalcitonin among those having positive culture and mucositis. However, CRP values at the 3rd, 4th and 5th days were significantly higher in the patients with AGC100/mm3. Similarly, CRP values were significantly higher at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th days among the patients having prolonged fever. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is no difference between CRP and procalcitonin in determining sepsis and its severity. Although procalcitonin is a valuable acute phase reactant in non-neutropenic patients, larger prospective investigations are needed to show the prognostic value of procalcitonin in neutropenic patients. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 7-12

  19. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

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    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Serum Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells Levels in Malignancy Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Bacteremia and Fungemia

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    Ahmad-Reza Shamshiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in febrile neutropenic patients with malignancy. Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for prompt diagnosis and early treatment which is crucial for optimal management. We assessed the utility of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1 in the diagnosis of bacteremia and fungemia in febrile neutropenic patients. Methods:Sixty-five febrile neutropenic children with malignancy hospitalized in Mofid Children's Hospital during a period of one year from January 2007 were recruited for this cross sectional study (mean age 66.2± 37 months; 35 females and 30 males. Thirty patients (46.2% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 (3.1% acute myeloid leukemia, one (1.5% lymphoma and 32 (49.2% were under treatment for solid tumors. Simultaneous blood samples were collected for measurement of serum sTREM-1 levels and for blood cultures which were grown in BACTEC media. Gold standard for the presence of infection was a positive BACTEC culture as a more sensitive method compared to current blood culture techniques. Findings Blood cultures with BACTEC system were positive in 13(20% patients (12 bacterial and one fungal culture. The mean serum sTREM-1 level in BACTEC positive patients was 948.2±592.9 pg/ml but in BACTEC negative cases it was 76.3±118.8 pg/ml (P<0.001. The optimal cut-off point of sTREM-1 for detecting patients with positive result of BACTEC was 525 pg/ml with sensitivity and specificity of 84.6% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion:Our study revealed a significant association between serum sTREM-1 level and bacteremia and fungemia in febrile neutropenic patients suffering malignancy with acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Tratamiento ambulatorio del paciente con neutropenia febril Outpatient therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia

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    Andrés Londoño Gallo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El tratamiento de los pacientes con neoplasia y neutropenia febril plantea muchas dudas. Una de ellas, que genera ansiedad en el personal de la salud, el paciente y sus familiares, es la necesidad de hospitalización porque ésta implica exponer a gérmenes intrahospitalarios potencialmente resistentes a un paciente cuyo sistema inmune puede no estar en las mejores condiciones; incluso con un aislamiento óptimo existe el riesgo de adquirir una infección nosocomial. Muchos estudios han tratado de validar métodos para clasificar a los pacientes con fiebre y neutropenia en grupos de diferente riesgo, como fundamento para implementar estrategias de tratamiento selectivo; así se ha abierto la posibilidad de utilizar medidas más conservadoras para el tratamiento de los episodios de bajo riesgo, entre ellas la administración de regímenes orales ambulatorios de antibióticos de amplio espectro; ello sin demeritar la necesidad de aplicar un juicio clínico adecuado, hacer un buen seguimiento y tener acceso a la atención médica inmediata. La neutropenia es una de las consecuencias graves de la quimioterapia para el cáncer, y se ha demostrado que el tratamiento del paciente neutropénico febril con antibióticos intravenosos reduce la mortalidad. La terapia oral podría ser una alternativa aceptable para pacientes bien seleccionados. Ella puede mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer, evitar las complicaciones asociadas con la terapia intravenosa y disminuir los costos del tratamiento.

    Treatment of patients with neoplasia and febrile neutropenia, as a consequence of chemotherapy, poses many doubts, among them the need for hospitalization, since this implies exposure to potentially resistant nosocomial microorganisms. Even under the best isolation techniques, there may

  2. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

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    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  3. Developmental status of 22 children with trisomy 18 and eight children with trisomy 13: implications and recommendations.

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    Bruns, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    Trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 are conditions often referred to as "incompatible with life" or "lethal anomalies." If there is long-term survival, the outlook is considered "grim." Developmental status is presumed to be minimal. Yet, Baty et al. [1994; 49:189-194] described a variety of developmental skills in their sample. An additional 22 children with trisomy 18 and eight with trisomy 13 are described here. A range of developmental skills is noted with strengths in the language and communication, gross and fine motor and social-emotional domains including indicating preferences, exploration of objects and a range of voluntary mobility. These results serve to expand the knowledge base on developmental status for these groups and advance the need to further explore developmental abilities rather than focus on deficits. Avenues for future research, implications, and recommendations are provided.

  4. ERITEMA NODOSO Y SINDROME FEBRIL PROLONGADO ASOCIADOS A HIPERPARATIROIDISMO SECUNDARIO

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    Enz P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  5. Early-life febrile seizures worsen adult phenotypes in Scn1a mutants.

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    Dutton, Stacey B B; Dutt, Karoni; Papale, Ligia A; Helmers, Sandra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene SCN1A, encoding the Nav1.1 channel, are responsible for a number of epilepsy disorders including genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS). Patients with SCN1A mutations often experience prolonged early-life febrile seizures (FSs), raising the possibility that these events may influence epileptogenesis and lead to more severe adult phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 21-23-day-old mice expressing the human SCN1A GEFS+ mutation R1648H to prolonged hyperthermia, and then examined seizure and behavioral phenotypes during adulthood. We found that early-life FSs resulted in lower latencies to induced seizures, increased severity of spontaneous seizures, hyperactivity, and impairments in social behavior and recognition memory during adulthood. Biophysical analysis of brain slice preparations revealed an increase in epileptiform activity in CA3 pyramidal neurons along with increased action potential firing, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed worsening of adult phenotypes. These findings demonstrate the long-term negative impact of early-life FSs on disease outcomes. This has important implications for the clinical management of this patient population and highlights the need for therapeutic interventions that could ameliorate disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cerebral blood perfusion in febrile convulsions with sup 123 -IMP SPECT

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    Michihiro, Narumi; Ariizumi, Motomizu; Shiihara, Hiroaki; Suemitsu, Tomoko; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Egami, Yuriko (Dokkyo University Hospital, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Twenty-five pediatric patients with febrile convulsions underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. Nineteen patients (76%) had a localized, decreased blood flow on early images, 12 of whom had it in the temporal region. According to seizure type, the abnormality was seen in 85% (17/20) for complex type, in contrast to 40% (2/5) for simple type. This finding has implications for pathological similarities between epilepsy and febrile convulsion. Delayed imaging performed on 12 patients showed redistribution in 5 of 9 patients having a decreased blood flow on early images. In the other 3 patients having normal findings on early images, however, different findings were seen on delayed images - normal, increased or decreased blood flow. There was no correlation between SPECT and encephalographic findings. A localized, decreased blood flow on SPECT seemed to reflect the risk for developing epilepsy. A follow-up care for preventing epilepsy is mandatory when there are abnormal findings on SPECT. (N.K.).

  7. Agreement between medical record and parent report for evaluation of childhood febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bradley K; Sy, Lina S; Yao, Janis F; Craig Cheetham, T; Espinosa-Rydman, Ana M; Jones, Tonia L; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-06-12

    The monitoring of vaccine safety is critical to maintaining the public acceptance of vaccines required to ensure their continued success. Methods used to assess adverse events following immunization (AEFI) must accurately reflect their occurrence. Assessment of AEFI is often done via medical record review (MR) or via patient report (PR). However, these sources of data have not previously been compared for the analysis of AEFI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concordance between MR and PR for young children identified as having had a febrile seizure (FS), an important AEFI, in an integrated health care system. The variables chosen for analysis were those recommended by the Brighton Collaboration Seizure Working Group for the evaluation of generalized seizure as an AEFI [1]. Parent report from phone interviews and mailed questionnaires was compared to abstracted medical records of 110 children with FS between ages 3 and 60 months. Concordance between PR and MR for characteristics and predisposing factors of FS was assessed by percent total agreement and kappa statistic. Percent total agreement between PR and MR was between 43.6 and 100% for variables studied, with 62.5% of items having >70% agreement. However, kappa was poor to fair for all measures (-0.04 to 0.33). While some variables, such as history of seizures in a sibling or parent and several seizure characteristics, were reported more often by PR, other items, such as maximum fever and several concurrent conditions, were reported more often by MR. These findings demonstrate the limitations of using MR or PR alone to assess febrile seizures in children. This analysis supports the practice of collecting data from both MR and PR to most accurately portray the spectrum of predisposing factors and seizure characteristics when evaluating FS in children whenever feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

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    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  9. A national health facility survey of malaria infection among febrile patients in Kenya, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githinji, Sophie; Noor, Abdisalan M; Malinga, Josephine; Macharia, Peter M; Kiptui, Rebecca; Omar, Ahmeddin; Njagi, Kiambo; Waqo, Ejersa; Snow, Robert W

    2016-12-08

    The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones). The selected sample was representative of the number of hospitals, health centres and dispensaries within each zone. Fifty patients with fever presenting to each sampled health facility during the short rainy season were screened for malaria infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Details of age, pregnancy status and basic demographics were recorded for each patient screened. 10,557 febrile patients presenting to out-patient clinics at 234 health facilities were screened for malaria infection. 1633 (15.5%) of the patients surveyed were RDT positive for malaria at 124 (53.0%) facilities. Infection prevalence among non-pregnant patients varied between malaria risk zones, ranging from 0.6% in the low risk zone to 41.6% in the high lake endemic zone. Test positivity rates (TPR) by age group reflected the differences in the intensity of transmission between epidemiological zones. In the lake endemic zone, 6% of all infections were among children aged less than 1 year, compared to 3% in the coast endemic, 1% in the highland epidemic zone, less than 1% in the seasonal low transmission zone and 0% in the low risk zone. Test positivity rate was 31% among febrile pregnant women in the high lake endemic zone compared to 9% in the coast endemic and highland epidemic zones, 3.2% in the seasonal low transmission zone and zero in the low risk zone. Malaria infection rates among febrile patients, with supporting data on age and pregnancy status

  10. Chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Julian T; Munishi, O Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong; Howe, Shiqin; Lim, Wen Yan; Chow, Angelia; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Onyango, Jecinta J; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Gubler, Duane J; Crump, John A

    2012-01-01

    Consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Presumptive acute DENV infection was defined as a positive anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-DENV IgG ELISA result. Among 870 participants, PCR testing was performed on 700 (80.5%). Of these, 55 (7.9%) had confirmed acute CHIKV infection, whereas no participants had confirmed acute DENV or flavivirus infection. Anti-DENV IgM serologic testing was performed for 747 (85.9%) participants, and of these 71 (9.5%) had presumptive acute DENV infection. Anti-DENV IgG serologic testing was performed for 751 (86.3%) participants, and of these 80 (10.7%) had prior flavivirus exposure. CHIKV infection was more common among infants and children than adults and adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, P = 0.026) and among HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression (OR 10.5, P = 0.007). CHIKV infection is an important but unrecognized cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania. DENV or other closely related flaviviruses are likely also circulating.

  11. Assessing the Utility of Urine Testing in Febrile Infants Aged 2 to 12 Months With Bronchiolitis.

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    Elkhunovich, Marsha A; Wang, Vincent J

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate whether the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants aged 2 to 12 months with bronchiolitis is higher than the presumed prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (1%) in similarly aged patients and thus to determine whether UTI testing is necessary for these patients. This was a prospective cohort study in which we enrolled a convenience sample of febrile infants aged 2 to 12 months with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. All patients were seen in the emergency department at a large children's hospital between November 1, 2011 and April 15, 2012, had reported or documented fever higher than 38°C, and had urine collected for determination of the presence of UTI. After the conclusion of enrollment, a chart review was conducted to assess missed cases. Positive urine cultures were found in 6/90 (6.7%) patients (confidence interval, 2.5%-13.9%). The positive urine cultures and urinalysis results were found in 4/90 (4.5%) patients (confidence interval, 1.2%-11%). In our patient population, a significant proportion of infants aged 2 to 12 months who present with bronchiolitis and fever have a concurrent UTI. Obtaining a urine specimen for UTI testing should be considered in infants aged 2 to 12 months with bronchiolitis and fever. A larger multicenter study is needed to further assess the risk factors for UTIs in this patient population.

  12. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their neonatal life. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) latency and probability of seizures, (2) spatial learning and memory, in adult rats after neonatal hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures (FS). Prolonged FS were elicited in 10-day old, male Sprague Dawleys (n=11/group) by exposure to heated air (48-52 °C) for 30 min; control rats were exposed to 30 °C air. After 1.5 months the animal's cognitive performance was assessed by 5 day trial in the Morris water maze. In another experiment the latency and probability of seizures were measured in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections (increased doses ranged from 7 to 140 mg/kg; i.p.). In water maze, both groups showed improvements in escape latency and distance swam to reach the platform; effects were significantly greater in control versus hyperthermia-treated animals on days 3 and 4. Latency and probability of PTZ-induced seizures were shorter and higher respectively, in hyperthermia-treated animals compared to controls. We concluded that FS in neonatal rats leads to enhanced susceptibility for seizures, as well as cognitive deficits in adults.

  13. Recognition of depression in children in general hospital-based paediatric units in Kenya: practice and policy implications

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    Mutiso Victoria N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical disorders are commonly comorbid with depression in children attending general medical facilities. However, the depression component is rarely recognised. Methods A questionnaire on sociodemographics and history of presenting medical conditions was administered together with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI to all 11-year-old to 17-year-old children attending at nine medical facilities. Results In all, 408 children were recruited from 9 health facilities. Whereas the clinicians diagnosed a mental disorder in only 2.5% of the sample studied, 41.3% had CDI scores that suggested mild to moderate depression. The highest proportion of children with depressive symptomatology was found at the Kenyatta National and Teaching Referral Hospital. Conclusion Although prevalence rate for depression among children is high, detection rates remain low. This finding has clinical practice and policy implications within and outside Kenya.

  14. Poverty and Children Health Care: Implication for Teaching and Learning of Science and Technology

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    L.A. Keswet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on poverty and children’s health care and its implication for teaching and learning of science and technology. It looked at the importance of education and its achievements to the Nigerian citizens. The paper was restricted to the differences seen in the education of the poor children across generations. The paper also identified how poverty and ill health can be destructive to the teaching and learning of science and technology. Poor and healthy children all face a lot of challenges relating to academic success. Some of these challenges could include chronic stress, exposure to lead and other dangerous substances. The importance of science among other things is not only to respond to the needs of the society, but also to be used by all citizens. The study presented some important strategies for reducing poverty and ill health in children by increasing social assistance to poor families, subsidy in housing and more attention to healthcare centers. It suggested among others, that government should sought advice from local, state and federal government and international researchers on how to reduce the menace in the country.

  15. Social and academic implications of acoustically hostile classrooms for hard of hearing children

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    Jamieson, Janet R.

    2005-04-01

    The correlation between lowered academic achievement and classroom noise has been demonstrated for normally hearing children (Shield and Dockrell, 2003). However, the implications of poor classroom acoustics on the socialization and academic performance of children who are hard of hearing have not been examined. Eleven hard of hearing students in one school district, ranging from kindergarten to grade 7, were the foci of the present study. Acoustic measurements of each of the 11 classrooms in both unoccupied and occupied conditions revealed that all classrooms were acoustically challenging for the hard of hearing students, particularly at transition times, when ventilation was operational, and in the primary grades, when language learning needs are greatest. Interviews with parents and teachers underscored the difficulty these students experienced in comprehending teacher instructions and participating in group work. The students seldom initiated conversation or seatwork independently, but, rather, followed the lead of their peers. The hard of hearing students experienced frequent difficulties in understanding or participating in informal peer-to-peer conversations in the classroom, and parents and teachers attributed the children's frequent social isolation and withdrawal at school to the combined effects of poor hearing abilities and hostile classroom acoustics. [Work supported by Hampton Research Fund.

  16. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

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    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  17. Neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents following maltreatment: Neurodevelopmental consequences and neuropsychological implications of traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A; Jerskey, Beth A; Holler, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant risk factor for a host of psychiatric, developmental, medical, and neurocognitive conditions, often resulting in debilitating and long-term consequences. However, there is no available neuropsychological resource reviewing the literature on the associated neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents. This review comprehensively examines the 23 prior studies that evaluated the intellectual, language, visual-spatial, memory, motor, and/or attention/executive functions in children and adolescents following an experience of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Neurocognitive impairments were frequently reported. Impairments in executive functions were the most frequent and severe reported impairments, although intelligence, language, visual-spatial skills, and memory are also at serious risk for compromised development following maltreatment. However, specific factors such as abuse/neglect duration, severity, type, and timing during development were all associated with neurocognition. This indicates that these factors are of greater importance than just the presence of abuse/neglect in identifying risk for neurocognitive compromise. Such neurocognitive deficits appear to be a consequence to the known neurobiological and brain development abnormalities of this population, suggesting traumatic stress can be a potential cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings have critical implications for the clinical practice and research involving children following childhood maltreatment and other types of traumatic stress.

  18. HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS IN EPILEPSY AND CHILDHOOD FEBRILE SEIZURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUKS, JBM; COOK, MJ; FISH, DR; STEVENS, JM; SHORVON, SD

    1993-01-01

    The connection between hippocampal sclerosis and childhood febrile seizures (CFS) is a contentious issue in the study of epilepsy. We investigated 107 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy by high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 20 had a history of CFS, 45 had focal (26) or

  19. Mayaro Virus in Child with Acute Febrile Illness, Haiti, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-11-01

    Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections.

  20. Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Jansen, Floor E.; Dibbens, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can both arise due 10 mutations of SCN1A. the gene encoding the alpha 1 pore-forming subunit of the sodium channel. GEFS+ refers to a familial epilepsy syndrome where at least two family members have phenotypes that fit within t