WorldWideScience

Sample records for favorable streamwise pressure

  1. Experimental Studies of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows and Flow Control. Streamwise Pressure Profiles and Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    faculties. The geometry corresponded to "Pak B" LPT airfoil. The test section simulated LPT flow in a passage. Three experimental studies were performed: (a) Boundary layer measurements for ten baseline cases under high and low freestream turbulence conditions at five Reynolds numbers of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000, based on passage exit velocity and suction surface wetted length; (b) Passive flow control studies with three thicknesses of two-dimensional bars, and two heights of three-dimensional circular cylinders with different spanwise separations, at same flow conditions as the 10 baseline cases; (c) Active flow control with oscillating synthetic (zero net mass flow) vortex generator jets, for one case with low freestream turbulence and a low Reynolds number of 25,000. The Passive flow control was successful at controlling the separation problem at low Reynolds numbers, with varying degrees of success from case to case and varying levels of impact at higher Reynolds numbers. The active flow control successfully eliminated the large separation problem for the low Reynolds number case. Very detailed data was acquired using hot-wire anemometry, including single and two velocity components, integral boundary layer quantities, turbulence statistics and spectra, turbulent shear stresses and their spectra, and intermittency, documenting transition, separation and reattachment. Models were constructed to correlate the results. The report includes a summary of the work performed and reprints of the publications describing the various studies. The folders in this supplement contain processed data in ASCII format. Streamwise pressure profiles and velocity profiles are included. The velocity profiles were acquired using single sensor and cross sensor hot-wire probes which were traversed from the wall to the freestream at various streamwise locations. In some of the flow control cases (3D Trips and Jets) profiles were acquired at multiple spanwise locations.

  2. The structure of a three-dimensional boundary layer subjected to streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows

  3. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness

  4. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for evaluation of the integrity of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. OCA-P and VISA-II are PTS PFM computer codes that are currently referenced in Regulatory Guide 1.154 as acceptable codes for performing plant-specific analyses. These codes perform PFM analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability as the vessel accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. Experience with the application of these codes in the last few years has provided insights into areas where they could be improved. As more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses, there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code that is accepted by the NRC and utilities. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) code, which is expected to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as (1) a PFM global modeling methodology; (2) the calculation of the axial stress component associated with coolant streaming beneath an inlet nozzle; (3) a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an appropriate range of two and three dimensional inner-surface flaws; (4) the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports; and (5) enhanced user friendliness

  5. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  6. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  7. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  8. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, A C; Hasheminejad, S M; Nadesan, T; Tandiono; Low, H T; Lee, T S

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  9. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-06-02

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants' ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning.

  10. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants’ ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning. PMID:27251762

  11. Evolutionary Inference across Eukaryotes Identifies Specific Pressures Favoring Mitochondrial Gene Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Iain G; Williams, Ben P

    2016-02-24

    Since their endosymbiotic origin, mitochondria have lost most of their genes. Although many selective mechanisms underlying the evolution of mitochondrial genomes have been proposed, a data-driven exploration of these hypotheses is lacking, and a quantitatively supported consensus remains absent. We developed HyperTraPS, a methodology coupling stochastic modeling with Bayesian inference, to identify the ordering of evolutionary events and suggest their causes. Using 2015 complete mitochondrial genomes, we inferred evolutionary trajectories of mtDNA gene loss across the eukaryotic tree of life. We find that proteins comprising the structural cores of the electron transport chain are preferentially encoded within mitochondrial genomes across eukaryotes. A combination of high GC content and high protein hydrophobicity is required to explain patterns of mtDNA gene retention; a model that accounts for these selective pressures can also predict the success of artificial gene transfer experiments in vivo. This work provides a general method for data-driven inference of the ordering of evolutionary and progressive events, here identifying the distinct features shaping mitochondrial genomes of present-day species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Bouremel, Yann; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, Alexander C.; Winoto, Sonny H.

    2016-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  13. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Bouremel, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  14. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  15. Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.

  16. Streamwise vortices destabilize swimming bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Sheltzer, Alex P; Tytell, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    In their natural environment, fish must swim stably through unsteady flows and vortices, including vertical vortices, typically shed by posts in a flow, horizontal cross-flow vortices, often produced by a step or a waterfall in a stream, and streamwise vortices, where the axis of rotation is aligned with the direction of the flow. Streamwise vortices are commonly shed by bluff bodies in streams and by ships' propellers and axial turbines, but we know little about their effects on fish. Here, we describe how bluegill sunfish use more energy and are destabilized more often in flow with strong streamwise vorticity. The vortices were created inside a sealed flow tank by an array of four turbines with similar diameter to the experimental fish. We measured oxygen consumption for seven sunfish swimming at 1.5 body lengths (BL) s(-1) with the turbines rotating at 2 Hz and with the turbines off (control). Simultaneously, we filmed the fish ventrally and recorded the fraction of time spent maneuvering side-to-side and accelerating forward. Separately, we also recorded lateral and ventral video for a combination of swimming speeds (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 BL s(-1)) and turbine speeds (0, 1, 2 and 3 Hz), immediately after turning the turbines on and 10 min later to test for accommodation. Bluegill sunfish are negatively affected by streamwise vorticity. Spills (loss of heading), maneuvers and accelerations were more frequent when the turbines were on than in the control treatment. These unsteady behaviors, particularly acceleration, correlated with an increase in oxygen consumption in the vortex flow. Bluegill sunfish are generally fast to recover from roll perturbations and do so by moving their pectoral fins. The frequency of spills decreased after the turbines had run for 10 min, but was still markedly higher than in the control, showing that fish partially adapt to streamwise vorticity, but not completely. Coping with streamwise vorticity may be an important energetic

  17. Is the obesity epidemic reversing favorable trends in blood pressure? Evidence from cohorts born between 1890 and 1990 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David C; Gillespie, Cathleen; Howard, George; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2012-08-01

    Previous reports have described favorable changes in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age in recent birth cohorts. The obesity epidemic might threaten that pattern. To update analyses of differences between birth cohorts in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age and to determine whether increases in obesity have had adverse effects. We examined the systolic blood pressure distributions across birth cohorts born between 1890 and 1990 in 68,070 participants, aged 18-74 years, in the National Health (and Nutrition) Examination Surveys between 1960 and 2008. We postulated that age-adjusted 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure had decreased in more recent versus earlier cohorts, and that this pattern had slowed or reversed recently due, at least in part, to obesity. After adjusting for gender, race, age and age(2), the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure were 1.1, 1.4, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.4 mmHg lower for each decade more recently born (all P birth cohort were positive and significant (P distributions are shifted lower relative to earlier cohorts. Decreases of 1.9 mmHg in the median systolic blood pressure per decade translates into 11.4-13.3 mmHg over 6-7 decades, a shift that would contribute importantly to lower rates of cardiovascular diseases. These favorable changes are slowing, perhaps owing, at least in part, to the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.

  19. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio lower to 0.7% is safe without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with favorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Soon-Ae; Park, Sang-Jae

    2014-02-01

    The low graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the major risk factors affecting graft survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the lower limit of the GRWR can be safely reduced without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe LDLT. From 2005 to 2011, 317 consecutive patients from a single institute underwent LDLT with right-lobe grafts without portal pressure modulation. Of these, 23 had a GRWR of less than 0.7% (group A), 27 had a GRWR of ≥0.7%, recipient, donor, operation factors, laboratory findings and complications were reviewed retrospectively. The baseline demographics showed low model for end-stage liver disease score (mean 16.3+/-8.9) and high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma (231 patients, 72.9%). Three groups by GRWR demonstrated similar characteristics except recipient body mass index and donor gender. For small-for-size syndrome, there were 3 (13.0%) in group A, 1 (3.7%) in group B, and 2 patients (0.7%) in group C (Pneed to modulate portal pressure in adult-to-adult LDLT using the right-lobe in favorable conditions including low model for end-stage liver disease score.

  20. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S. H.; Lua, K. B.; Low, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out

  1. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  2. Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.

  3. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.

  4. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  5. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nüchel

    Full Text Available Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  6. The influence of streamwise vortices on turbulent heat transfer in rectangular ducts with various aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Seok; Park, Tae Seon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► With changing aspect ratio, the effect of secondary flows on the turbulent heat transfer is scrutinized by a LES. ► The conditional sampling technique of instantaneous near-wall streamwise vortices is developed. ► Clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating streamwise vortices are sampled and discussed with the wall heat transfer. ► The hot-sweep motions of CW and CCW vortices clearly appear with increasing aspect ratio. -- Abstract: The effect of aspect ratio of rectangular duct on the turbulent flow and heat transfer is very important for its engineering applications. But the turbulent thermal fields have not been fundamentally scrutinized in spite of its engineering significance especially for cooling device. Hence, in the present study, large eddy simulation is applied to the turbulent flow and heat transfer in rectangular ducts with varying aspect ratio. The turbulent statistics of the flow and thermal quantities are calculated and the characteristics of wall Nusselt number are investigated for each rectangular duct. Especially, to scrutinize near-wall streamwise vortices, a conditional sampling technique is developed and adopted. Clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating streamwise vortices are sampled and the probability density function of the vortex circulation Reynolds number and wall Nusselt number are calculated. From the results, the time-averaged secondary flow caused by instantaneous vortical motions has a great effect on the heat and momentum transport of the flow in the rectangular ducts. Hence, the wall Nusselt number is enhanced near the downwash flow region of the secondary flow. However, with increasing the aspect ratio, the effects of the hot-sweep flow of the clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vortices become equally dominant near the wall normal bisector of the ducts. During time averaging process, these two counter-rotating vortices are canceled out each other diminishing a secondary flow but they still enhance the

  7. Development of Pre-set Counter-rotating Streamwise Vortices in Wavy Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Budiman, A.C.

    2015-10-23

    Development of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface has been experimentally quantified using hot-wire anemometry. The wavy surface has fixed amplitude of 3.75 mm. The counter-rotating vortices are pre-set by means of a sawtooth pattern cut at the leading edge of the wavy surface. Variations of the central streamwise velocity Uc with a channel gap H = 35 mm and 50 mm (corresponding to a Reynolds number from 1600 to 4400) change the instability of the flow which can be distinguished from the velocity contours at a certain spanwise plane. The streamwise velocity contours and turbulence intensity for Reynolds number Re = 3100 and H = 35 mm show the disappearance of the mushroom-like vortices prior to turbulence near the second peak of the wavy surface, while for higher Re, this phenomenon occurs earlier. Under certain conditions, for example, for Re = 4400 and H = 50 mm, the splitting of the vortices can also be observed.

  8. Development of Pre-set Counter-rotating Streamwise Vortices in Wavy Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Budiman, A.C.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Bouremel, Y.; Winoto, S.H.; Low, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Development of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface has been experimentally quantified using hot-wire anemometry. The wavy surface has fixed amplitude of 3.75 mm. The counter-rotating vortices are pre-set by means of a sawtooth pattern cut at the leading edge of the wavy surface. Variations of the central streamwise velocity Uc with a channel gap H = 35 mm and 50 mm (corresponding to a Reynolds number from 1600 to 4400) change the instability of the flow which can be distinguished from the velocity contours at a certain spanwise plane. The streamwise velocity contours and turbulence intensity for Reynolds number Re = 3100 and H = 35 mm show the disappearance of the mushroom-like vortices prior to turbulence near the second peak of the wavy surface, while for higher Re, this phenomenon occurs earlier. Under certain conditions, for example, for Re = 4400 and H = 50 mm, the splitting of the vortices can also be observed.

  9. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S.H.; Low, H.T.; Lua, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns

  10. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the convective heat transfer from a stream-wise oscillating circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Sheng; Chen Sheng; Liu Zhaohui; Zheng Chuguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heat transfer is enhanced by small and slow stream-wise oscillation. ► The average Nu decreases with increasing oscillation frequency. ► The RMS Nu increases with increasing frequency. ► The mean and RMS Nu reach a local maximum value in locked regime. ► Similar frequency effect is found for different Reynolds numbers. - Abstract: In this paper, we studied the convective heat transfer from a stream-wise oscillating circular cylinder. Two dimensional numerical simulations are conducted at Re = 100–200, A = 0.1–0.4 and F = f o /f s = 0.2–3.0 with the aid of the lattice Boltzmann method. In particular, detailed attentions are paid on the extensive numerical results elucidating the influence of oscillation frequency, oscillation amplitude and Reynolds number on the time-average and RMS value of the Nusselt number. Over the ranges of conditions considered herein, the heat transfer characteristics are observed to be influenced in an intricate manner by the value of the oscillation frequency (F), oscillation amplitude (A) and Reynolds number (Re). Firstly, the heat transfer is enhanced when the cylinder oscillates stream-wise with small amplitude and low frequency, while it will be reduced by large amplitude and high frequency. Secondly, the average Nusselt number (Nu (ave)) decreases against the increasing value of oscillation frequency, while the RMS value of the Nusselt number, Nu (RMS), displays an opposite trend. Third, we obtained a similar frequency effect on the heat transfer over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated in this paper. In addition, detailed analyses on phase portraits, energy spectrum are also made.

  11. Reynolds stress analysis of EMHD-controlled wall turbulence. Part I. Streamwise forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.H.; Karniadakis, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we investigate numerically turbulent flow of low electrical conductivity fluid subject to electro-magnetic (EMHD) forcing. The configuration is similar to the one considered in the experimental work of Henoch and Stace [Phys. Fluids 7, 1371 (1995)] but in a channel geometry. The lower wall of the channel is covered with alternating streamwise electrodes and magnets to create a Lorentz force in the positive streamwise direction. Two cases are considered in detail corresponding to interaction parameter values of 0.4 (case 1) and 0.1 (case 2). The effect of switching off and on the electrodes is also studied for the two cases. At the Reynolds number considered (Re τ ∼200), a drag increase was obtained for all cases, in agreement with the experiments of Henoch and Stace. A Reynolds stress analysis was performed based on a new decomposition of the gradients normal to the wall of the Reynolds stress -u'v'. It was found that the vortex stretching term w'w 2 ' and the spanwise variation of the stress component u'w' are responsible for the drag increase. More specifically, the term ∂(u'w')/∂x 3 is associated with secondary vortical motions in the near-wall and becomes large and positive for large shear stress in regions where fluid is moving toward the wall. In contrast, negative values are associated with regions of lower shear where fluid is being lifted away from the wall. Unlike the unperturbed flow, in the controlled flow high speed near-wall streamwise jets are present (case 1) even in the time-averaged fields. Other changes in turbulence structure are quantified using streak spacing, vortex lines, vorticity quadrant analysis, and plots of the rms value of the vorticity angle. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.

  13. Simultaneous Infrared And Pressure Measurements Of Crossflow Instability Modes For HIFiRE 5 (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    contained streamwise-distributed arrays of pressure sensors well upstream of the one measuring station available on the previous model. The streamwise...P. Borg and Roger L. Kimmel Hypersonic Sciences Branch High Speed Systems Division JULY 2017 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...PAO) and is available to the general public, including foreign nationals. Copies may be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center

  14. Skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow based on streamwise shear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform DNSs of fully developed turbulent channel flows to explore an active flow control concept using streamwise velocity shear control at the wall. • The structural spacing and wall amplitude parameters are systematically changed to achieve a high-efficient drag reduction rate for longitudinal control surface. • Significant drag reduction is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations. • The generation and evolution of the turbulent vortices in the absence of velocity shear and how they contribute to DR have been examined. - Abstract: It is known that stretching and intensification of a hairpin vortex by mean shear play an important role to create a hairpin vortex packet, which generates the large Reynolds shear stress associated with skin-friction drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to suppress the mean shear at the wall for high efficient drag reduction (DR), in the present study, we explore an active flow control concept using streamwise shear control (SSC) at the wall. The longitudinal control surface is periodically spanwise-arranged with no-control surface while varying the structural spacing, and an amplitude parameter for imposing the strength of the actuating streamwise velocity at the wall is introduced to further enhance the skin-friction DR. Significant DR is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations, although a further increase in the parameters amplifies the turbulence activity in the near-wall region. In order to study the direct relationship between turbulent vortical structures and DR under the SSC, temporal evolution with initial eddies extracted by conditional averages for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 events are examined. It is shown that the generation of new vortices is dramatically inhibited with an increase in the parameters

  15. Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).

  16. SPIV investigations of correlation between streamwise vorticity and velocity in the wake of a vortex generator in a boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2013-01-01

    The current work describes the experimental parametric study of streamwise vortices generated in a boundary layer by a rectangular vane (commonly named vortex generator) mounted perpendicularly to the wall and at an angle to the oncoming flow. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements ...

  17. Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.

  18. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.

    2016-01-05

    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.

  19. Attached flow structure and streamwise energy spectra in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, S.; Vassilicos, J. C.; Cuvier, C.; Laval, J.-P.; Stanislas, M.; Foucaut, J.-M.

    2018-05-01

    On the basis of (i) particle image velocimetry data of a turbulent boundary layer with large field of view and good spatial resolution and (ii) a mathematical relation between the energy spectrum and specifically modeled flow structures, we show that the scalings of the streamwise energy spectrum E11(kx) in a wave-number range directly affected by the wall are determined by wall-attached eddies but are not given by the Townsend-Perry attached eddy model's prediction of these spectra, at least at the Reynolds numbers Reτ considered here which are between 103 and 104. Instead, we find E11(kx) ˜kx-1 -p where p varies smoothly with distance to the wall from negative values in the buffer layer to positive values in the inertial layer. The exponent p characterizes the turbulence levels inside wall-attached streaky structures conditional on the length of these structures. A particular consequence is that the skin friction velocity is not sufficient to scale E11(kx) for wave numbers directly affected by the wall.

  20. Spatial averaging of streamwise and spanwise velocity measurements in wall-bounded turbulence using ∨- and ×-probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Jimmy; Baidya, Rio; Hutchins, Nicholas; Monty, Jason P; Marusic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of finite dimensions of ∨- and ×-probes is investigated for the measurement of mean and variances of streamwise and spanwise velocities in wall-turbulence. The probes are numerically simulated using a Direct Numerical Simulation database of channel flow at a friction Reynolds number (Re τ ) of 934 by varying the probe parameters, namely, the wire-lengths (l), the angle between the wires (θ) and the spacing between the wires (Δs). A single inclined wire is first studied to isolate the effect of l and θ. Analytical expressions for the variances of the streamwise and spanwise velocities are derived by applying a linear-box-type filter to the unfiltered velocity field for both ∨- and ×-probes (at θ = 45°, and arbitrary l and Δs). A similar expression for the streamwise variance in the case of a single inclined wire (for arbitrary l and θ) is also derived. These analytical expressions, supplemented with a model for the correlation over the wire-length, compare favourably with the numerical simulation results, and more importantly explain various trends that are observed in the variances with varying parameters. Close to the wall (where the errors are generally higher) the errors in spanwise variances of the ×-probes are much lower than the ∨-probes, owing to an ‘error-cancelling’ mechanism present in ×-probes due to the effect of l and Δs, as well as due to the procedure of recovering the velocities from two wires. The errors in the streamwise variances are comparable for both ∨- and ×-probes. On the other hand, mean velocities are measured with almost no error by the ∨-probe, whereas the ×-probe induces finite errors in mean velocities due to the fact that the two wires experience different mean velocities in ×-probes unlike ∨-probes. These results are explained using the corresponding analytical results, which also show that under the effect of a linear filter, measured variances depend only on the fluctuating velocities

  1. Filtered Rayleigh scattering mixing measurements of merging and non-merging streamwise vortex interactions in supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground, Cody R.; Gopal, Vijay; Maddalena, Luca

    2018-04-01

    By introducing large-scale streamwise vortices into a supersonic flow it is possible to enhance the rate of mixing between two fluid streams. However, increased vorticity content alone does not explicitly serve as a predictor of mixing enhancement. Additional factors, particularly the mutual interactions occurring between neighboring vortical structures, affect the underlying fundamental physics that influence the rate at which the fluids mix. As part of a larger systematic study on supersonic streamwise vortex interactions, this work experimentally quantifies the average rate of mixing of helium and air in the presence of two separate modes of vortex interaction, the merging and non-merging of a pair of co-rotating vortices. In these experiments vortex-generating expansion ramps are placed on a strut injector. The freestream Mach number is set at 2.5 and helium is injected as a passive scalar. Average injectant mole fractions at selected flow planes downstream of the injector are measured utilizing the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique. The filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements reveal that, in the domain surveyed, the merging vortex interaction strongly displaces the plume from its initial horizontal orientation while the non-merging vortex interaction more rapidly mixes the helium and air. The results of the current experiments are consistent with associated knowledge derived from previous analyses of the two studied configurations which have included the detailed experimental characterization of entrainment, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity of both modes of vortex interaction.

  2. Cugini's syndrome in statu nascendi. Oratio contra morem prevalentem et pro chronobiologica ratione ad pressione sanguinis curandam. A plea against the prevailing custom and in favor of a chronobiological approach to treating blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F; Beaty, L; Kumagai, Y; Halberg, E; Halberg, J; Lee, J; Schwartzkopff, O; Otsuka, K

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the circadian amplitude (A) of blood pressure (BP) had been reported to precede a rise in the circadian BP average (MESOR, M), as pre-hypertension in the stroke-prone Okamoto rat. In humans, children with a positive family history of high BP and/or related cardiovascular disease had, on average, a larger BP-A than children with a negative family history, and an elevated BP-A was associated with intermediate values of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI), whereas an elevation in BP-M was only observed for larger LVMI values. Against this background, with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ABPM) interpreted chronobiologically, Pietro Cugini (University La Sapienza of Rome, Italy) has reported an elevation of both the circadian BP-M and BP-A as occurring with a minimal change (hypertensive) retinopathy. He determined by cosinor the extent of predictable BP change within a day as BP-2A, estimated by the least squares fit of a 24-hour cosine curve to the data. As compared to controls without retinopathy, he found a retinal end-organ involvement associated with average systolic (S) / diastolic (D) BP-Ms of 124/76 vs. 112/72 mmHg, with corresponding SBP/DBP-As of 12/10 vs. 8/7 mmHg. We refer to "Cugini's syndrome", suggesting the need for clarification, preferably in longitudinal studies, of any generalizable sequence in end-organ involvement, that may occur in the course of the development of some human Vascular Variability Disorders (VVDs) of unknown etiology, that include an elevation of the circadian BP-A and/or BP-M, concomitantly or separately in a sequence with the BP-A increase preceding that in BP-M, as in models of high BP in the rat or vice versa. Seven-day half-hourly or hourly around-the-clock monitoring of BP and HR variability interpreted chronobiologically, C-ABPM, as a minimum, is recommended for routine medical care to detect VVDs consisting of 1. MESOR-hypertension, MH; 2. Circadian Hyper-Amplitude-Tension, CHAT (BP overswing); 3. odd

  3. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.

    2017-04-03

    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.

  4. Mean streamwise velocity measurements in a triple jet of equilateral triangular configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, G.H. (Menoufia Univ. (Egypt). Coll. of Engineering); Sundararajan, T. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rathakrishnan, E. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Multijet flows arise in several applications such as jet engine/rocket combustors, the thrust augmenting ejectors for VTOL/STOL aircraft, and industrial gas burners. In order to achieve proper combustion, thrust development, and reduction in the noise level, it is often desirable to control the inter-mixing between the jets and also the entrainment of the surrounding atmosphere. This, in turn, requires a detailed study of the behavior of high speed jets in multijet configuration. The situation of interest here is an array of three axisymmetric nozzles set in a common end wall with equal spacing in a triangular configuration. The reason why this particular configuration has been chosen is that it promotes bending of the jet axes toward each other, thus leading to greater mixing. In the present study, experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of stagnation pressure ratio and nozzle spacing upon the mean flow characteristic of compressible jets in triangular configuration. The individual flow features of the vertex jet and the base twin jet are analyzed and their contributions to the axis switching as well as the overall triple jet behavior are highlighted.

  5. Transition due to streamwise streaks in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Transition induced by stationary streaks undergoing transient growth in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow is studied using numerical computations. While the possibility of strong transient growth of small-amplitude stationary perturbations in supersonic boundary layer flows has been demonstrated in previous works, its relation to laminar-turbulent transition cannot be established within the framework of linear disturbances. Therefore, this paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite amplitude streaks in the downstream region, and then studies the modal instability of those streaks as a likely cause for the onset of bypass transition. The nonmodal evolution of linearly optimal stationary perturbations in a supersonic, Mach 3 flat plate boundary layer is computed via the nonlinear plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE) for stationary perturbations, or equivalently, the perturbation form of parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. To assess the effect of the nonlinear finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane-marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by the spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of transition is estimated using an N -factor criterion based on modal amplification of the secondary instabilities of the streaks. In the absence of transient growth disturbances, first mode instabilities in a Mach 3, zero pressure gradient boundary layer reach N =10 at Rex≈107 . However, secondary instability modes of the stationary streaks undergoing transient growth are able to achieve the same N -factor at Rex<2 ×106 when the initial streak amplitude is sufficiently large. In contrast to the streak instabilities in incompressible flows, subharmonic instability modes with twice the fundamental spanwise wavelength of the streaks are found to have higher amplification ratios than the streak instabilities at fundamental

  6. Essential Development of Streamwise Vortical/Secondary Flows in All Ducts with Corners or Slope Discontinuities in Perimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Hassan; Vidal, Alvaro; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Schlatter, Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fully-developed turbulent flow through various straight ducts with sharp or rounded corners of various radii were performed to study influence of corner geometry on secondary flows. Unexpectedly, increased rounding of corners in rectangular ducts does not lead to monotonic trend towards pipe case. Instead, secondary vortices relocate close to regions of wall-curvature change. This behavior is connected to inhomogeneous interaction between near-wall bursting events, which are further characterized in this work with definition of their local preferential direction, and vorticity fluxes. Although these motions are relatively weak compared to streamwise velocity their effect on turbulence statistics and shear-stress distribution is very important and has not been sufficiently documented or fully understood. Flow through spanwise-periodic channels, with sinusoidal function to define the geometry of wall, yw = +/- h + A cos(ωz) , was also studied as model flow that is parametrically changed using A and ω, while taking advantage of many resulting symmetries. Consequences on experimental facilities and comparisons between experiments and various numerical and theoretical models are discussed revealing the uniqueness of pipe flow.

  7. The Influence of Chordwise Flexibility on the Flow Structure and Streamwise Force of a Sinusoidally Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David Arthur

    Many natural flyers and swimmers need to exploit unsteady mechanisms in order to generate sufficient aerodynamic forces for sustained flight and propulsion. This is, in part, due to the low speed and length scales at which they typically operate. In this low Reynolds number regime, there are many unanswered questions on how existing aerodynamic theory for both steady and unsteady flows can be applied. Additionally, most of these natural flyers and swimmers have deformable wing/fin structures, three dimensional wing planforms, and exhibit complex kinematics during motion. While some biologically-inspired studies seek to replicate these complex structures and kinematics in the laboratory or in numerical simulations, it becomes difficult to draw explicit connections to the existing knowledge base of classical unsteady aerodynamic theory due to the complexity of the problems. In this experimental study, wing kinematics, structure, and planform are greatly simplified to investigate the effect of chordwise flexibility on the streamwise force (thrust) and wake behavior of a sinusoidally pitching airfoil. The study of flexibility in the literature has typically utilized flat plates with varying thicknesses or lengths to change their chordwise flexibility. This choice introduces additional complexities when comparing to the wealth of knowledge originally developed on streamlined aerodynamic shapes. The current study capitalizes on the recent developments in 3D printer technology to create accurate shapes out of materials with varying degrees of flexibility by creating two standard NACA 0009 airfoils: one rigid and one flexible. Each of the two airfoils are sinusoidally pitched about the quarter chord over a range of oscillation amplitudes and frequencies while monitoring the deformation of the airfoil. The oscillation amplitude is selected to be small enough such that leading edge vortices do not form, and the vortical structures in the wake are formed from the trailing

  8. On the estimation of wall pressure coherence using time-resolved tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Stefan; Scarano, Fulvio; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional time-resolved velocity field measurements are obtained using a high-speed tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on a fully developed flat plate turbulent boundary layer for the estimation of wall pressure fluctuations. The work focuses on the applicability of tomographic PIV to compute the coherence of pressure fluctuations, with attention to the estimation of the stream and spanwise coherence length. The latter is required for estimations of aeroacoustic noise radiation by boundary layers and trailing edge flows, but is also of interest for vibro-structural problems. The pressure field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation for incompressible flows, where the source terms are provided by time-resolved velocity field measurements. Measured 3D velocity data is compared to results obtained from planar PIV, and a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) at similar Reynolds number. An improved method for the estimation of the material based on a least squares estimator of the velocity derivative along a particle trajectory is proposed and applied. Computed surface pressure fluctuations are further verified by means of simultaneous measurements by a pinhole microphone and compared to the DNS results and a semi-empirical model available from literature. The correlation coefficient for the reconstructed pressure time series with respect to pinhole microphone measurements attains approximately 0.5 for the band-pass filtered signal over the range of frequencies resolved by the velocity field measurements. Scaled power spectra of the pressure at a single point compare favorably to the DNS results and those available from literature. Finally, the coherence of surface pressure fluctuations and the resulting span- and streamwise coherence lengths are estimated and compared to semi-empirical models and DNS results.

  9. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: budgets of Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritselis, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re b = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10 −5 ) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10 −5 ). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually control the

  11. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    of the ensuing work examined only corollary implications of this observation. We treat the observation as a research question and ask: when and why are reliable organizations favored by evolutionary forces? Using a simple theoretical model, we direct attention at a minimal set of variables that are implicated...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  12. Entropy Generation in Steady Laminar Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. McEligot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper in Entropy [1] we hypothesized that the entropy generation rate is the driving force for boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Subsequently, with our colleagues we have examined the prediction of entropy generation during such transitions [2,3]. We found that reasonable predictions for engineering purposes could be obtained for flows with negligible streamwise pressure gradients by adapting the linear combination model of Emmons [4]. A question then arises—will the Emmons approach be useful for boundary layer transition with significant streamwise pressure gradients as by Nolan and Zaki [5]. In our implementation the intermittency is calculated by comparison to skin friction correlations for laminar and turbulent boundary layers and is then applied with comparable correlations for the energy dissipation coefficient (i.e., non-dimensional integral entropy generation rate. In the case of negligible pressure gradients the Blasius theory provides the necessary laminar correlations.

  13. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  14. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  15. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Most favored lender usury preemption. 560.110... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored... permits its most favored lender to charge late fees, then a savings association located in that state may...

  16. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 7.20 Section... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR... a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or herself, or for another person...

  17. Validation of favor code linear elastic fracture solutions for finite-length flaw geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    One of the current tasks within the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the continuing development of the FAVOR (Fracture, analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) computer code. FAVOR performs structural integrity analyses of embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with stainless steel cladding, to evaluate compliance with the applicable regulatory criteria. Since the initial release of FAVOR, the HSST program has continued to enhance the capabilities of the FAVOR code. ABAQUS, a nuclear quality assurance certified (NQA-1) general multidimensional finite element code with fracture mechanics capabilities, was used to generate a database of stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for a range of axially and circumferentially oriented semielliptical inner-surface flaw geometries applicable to RPVs with an internal radius (Ri) to wall thickness (w) ratio of 10. This database of SIRCs has been incorporated into a development version of FAVOR, providing it with the capability to perform deterministic and probabilistic fracture analyses of RPVs subjected to transients, such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS), for various flaw geometries. This paper discusses the SIFIC database, comparisons with other investigators, and some of the benchmark verification problem specifications and solutions

  18. Reaching the limits of reciprocity in favor exchange: The effects of generous, stingy, and matched favor giving on social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng

    2018-06-01

    Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Autoras africanas: A favor de las mujeres=African authors: In favor of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Suárez Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La cultura occidental produce binomios de poder fuertemente inscritos en el lenguaje y el imaginario colectivo. Las subversiones aparecen primero en la zona dominante, como el feminismo, que se extiende, posteriormente, a otros feminismos, igualmente lógicos y reivindicativos, pero con menos capacidad de visibilización en un mundo globalizado. Las mujeres de grupos minorizados que han conseguido acceder a la educación han levantado sus voces y utilizado su potencial creativo a favor de las silenciadas de su cultura, a las que no alcanzaban el feminismo blanco occidental. Amma Darko, Bessie Head y Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie son algunos de los nombres que encabezan un movimiento africano feminista, que prioriza la libertad individual de las mujeres y les hace sentirse orgullosas de ser africanas.   Abstract Western culture produces binaries of power that are deeply inscribed both in language and in the collective imaginarium. Subversions tend to appear in the more affluent class, as is the case with feminism, which later extend to other feminisms, equally important and vindicatory, but with fewer opportunities to become visible within a globalized world. Many women from minoritized groups have had access to education, have been able to use their creative force and have become the voice of many silent women who were not included in the successive waves of Western feminisms. Amma Darko, Bessie Head and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are but a few names at the forefront of African feminism, a movement that fights for the individual rights of women and makes them feel proud of their Africanism.

  20. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  1. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  2. Impact of the initial streamwise inclination of a double jet emitted within a cool crossflow on its temperature field and pollutants dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhouane, A.; Mahjoub Said, Nejla; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, G. le; Bournot, P. [IUSTI, UMR 6595, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)

    2009-04-15

    An experimental study and a numerical modeling are carried out simultaneously on a twin inclined jets' configuration issuing into a cooler crossflow. The main purpose of this study is to track the overall evolution of the jets among the surrounding flow and then determine the thermal and mass transfer features that characterize the resulting flowfield. The experimental data are depicted by means of a particle image velocimetry technique; whereas the numerical three-dimensional model is simulated through the resolution of the different governing Navier-Stokes' equations by means of the finite volume method. Two different closure models were tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and the Reynolds stress model (RSM) second order model. The introduction of the latter in such a configuration brings some valuable improvement since it allows the detection of the slightest variations within the domain and then describes the least occurring mechanisms. The confrontation of the differently processed numerical results with the experimentally tracked data comforted our opinion since it proved the better efficiency of the RSM model for the description of the handled flow; that's why we adopted it for the rest of the paper. Once the validation obtained, we proceeded to the evaluation of the influence of the initial streamwise inclination of the emitted jets on the engendered thermal field and on the pollutants' dispersion. For the matter, we tested the following angles: 30 , 45 , 60 and 90 . After that, we represented the temperature variation along different directions in order to detail its behavior in all of them and at different levels. This characterization is highly recommended since it may promote the efficiency of several applications (mainly the cooling applications). We also evaluated the influence of this same parameter; the initial inclination; on the pollutants' dispersion due to the high and alarming importance of the problem on the

  3. [Biological and social correlates of favorable and unfavorable neurosis course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsembaev, K T

    2003-01-01

    Four hundred ninety seven patients with neurosis of Astana (Kazakhstan) community, 116 men and 381 women, have been studied. The patients were traced in 5-year follow up study. Favorable and unfavorable types of the disorder were established, the latter being characterized by transforming into neurotic personality development. The influence of endogenous and environmental factors on neurosis prognosis was examined. To elaborate adequate measures for preventing neurotic personality development, criteria for favorable and unfavorable prognosis of neurotic disorders were suggested.

  4. Promising reciprocity: When proposing a favor for a request increases compliance even if the favor is not accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Ruiz, Clément; Pascual, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor. We conclude that individuals were led to help those who respected the putative norm of reciprocity in their social interaction.

  5. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  6. Riblet drag reduction in mild adverse pressure gradients: A numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model several differently sized scalloped riblets using LES. • Riblets were modeled in both ZPG and mild APG and compared to each other and to a baseline (flat plate) case. • Scalloped riblets in the mild APG reduce drag only slightly more than those in ZPG. • Maximum values of streamwise turbulence intensities, streamwise vorticity, and TKE are proportional to riblet width. • Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence energy production scale with riblet drag reduction. - Abstract: Riblet films are a passive method of turbulent boundary layer control that can reduce viscous drag. They have been studied with great detail for over 30 years. Although common riblet applications include flows with Adverse Pressure Gradients (APG), nearly all research thus far has been performed in channel flows. Recent research has provided motivation to study riblets in more complicated turbulent flows with claims that riblet drag reduction can double in mild APG common to airfoils at moderate angles of attack. Therefore, in this study, we compare drag reduction by scalloped riblet films between riblets in a zero pressure gradient and those in a mild APG using high-resolution large eddy simulations. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship between drag reduction and pressure gradient, we simulated several different riblet sizes that encompassed a broad range of s"+ (riblet width in wall units), similarly to many previously published experimental studies. We found that there was only a slight improvement in drag reduction for riblets in the mild APG. We also observed that peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamwise vorticity scale with riblet width. Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence kinetic energy production however scale with the ability of the riblet to reduce skin-friction.

  7. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  8. Instability waves and transition in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Rikhi; Zaki, Tamer A.; Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Transition to turbulence in incompressible adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) boundary layers is investigated by direct numerical simulations. Purely two-dimensional instability waves develop on the inflectional base velocity profile. When the boundary layer is perturbed by isotropic turbulence from the free stream, streamwise elongated streaks form and may interact with the instability waves. Subsequent mechanisms that trigger transition depend on the intensity of the free-stream disturbances. All evidence from the present simulations suggest that the growth rate of instability waves is sufficiently high to couple with the streaks. Under very low levels of free-stream turbulence (˜0.1 % ), transition onset is highly sensitive to the inlet disturbance spectrum and is accelerated if the spectrum contains frequency-wave-number combinations that are commensurate with the instability waves. Transition onset and completion in this regime is characterized by formation and breakdown of Λ vortices, but they are more sporadic than in natural transition. Beneath free-stream turbulence with higher intensity (1-2 % ), bypass transition mechanisms are dominant, but instability waves are still the most dominant disturbances in wall-normal and spanwise perturbation spectra. Most of the breakdowns were by disturbances with critical layers close to the wall, corresponding to inner modes. On the other hand, the propensity of an outer mode to occur increases with the free-stream turbulence level. Higher intensity free-stream disturbances induce strong streaks that favorably distort the boundary layer and suppress the growth of instability waves. But the upward displacement of high amplitude streaks brings them to the outer edge of the boundary layer and exposes them to ambient turbulence. Consequently, high-amplitude streaks exhibit an outer-mode secondary instability.

  9. Evolutionary inference across eukaryotes identifies specific pressures favoring mitochondrial gene retention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben; Johnston, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Since their endosymbiotic origin, mitochondria have lost most of their genes. Although many selective mechanisms underlying the evolution of mitochondrial genomes have been proposed, a data-driven exploration of these hypotheses is lacking, and a quantitatively supported consensus remains absent. We developed HyperTraPS, a methodology coupling stochastic modelling with Bayesian inference, to identify the ordering of evolutionary events and suggest their causes. Using 2015 complete mitochondri...

  10. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  11. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his parents... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall...

  12. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  13. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  14. A significant shift in favor of nuclear energy since 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A new opinion poll shows a general trend in Europe in favor of nuclear energy: 44% of the people interrogated are for nuclear energy while only 37% were for in 2005. About 40% of the people against nuclear energy would change their mind if a safe and definitive solution for the management of radioactive waste was found. The survey also shows that more people are aware of the assets of nuclear energy in terms of energy independence and greenhouse gas emission. The countries where the support is the strongest are the Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (64%), Sweden (62%) and Finland (61%). In France, the biggest nuclear energy producer in Europe, the rate of favorable opinion for nuclear energy remains constant at 52%. (A.C.)

  15. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  16. Menor valor: ¿oferta más favorable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La más importante transformación establecida por la Ley 1150 de 2007 en la contratación estatal radicó en la determinación del menor valor como la oferta más favorable para las entidades estatales, cuando se trate de la adquisición o suministro de bienes y servicios de características técnicas uniformes y de común utilización. Por ello, reviste de gran importancia realizar un análisis desde el punto de vista jurídico y normativo, que permita establecer si la mutación sufrida al concepto de oferta más favorable trajo consigo los fines perseguidos por la reforma, o en su defecto fue perjudicial la solución, al afectar el deber de selección objetiva, los principios de la contratación estatal de igualdad, eficacia, transparencia, planeación y equilibrio financiero del contrato y el principio constitucional de la libre competencia. Para de esta forma establecer si el modelo del menor valor como criterio de la oferta más favorable resulta eficiente jurídicamente en el campo de la contratación estatal, y si las reglas establecidas en la actualidad permiten el desarrollo armónico del sistema establecido por la Ley 1150 de 2007.

  17. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  19. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  20. More evidence in favor of light dark matter particles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Ascasibar, Yago

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work, it was found that the light dark matter scenario could be a possible explanation to the 511 keV emission line detected at the center of our galaxy. Here, we show that hints of this scenario may also have been discovered in particle physics experiments. This could explain the discrepancy between the measurement of the fine structure constant and the value referenced in the CODATA. Finally, our results indicate that some of the light dark matter features could be tested in accelerators. Their discovery might favor N=2 supersymmetry

  1. Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and favorable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D; Tevis, Sarah E; Kent, K Craig

    2014-10-01

    Patient satisfaction with the health care experience has become a top priority for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. With resources and efforts directed at patient satisfaction, we evaluated whether high patient satisfaction measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys correlates with favorable outcomes. Medical centers were identified from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011 to 2012. Variables included hospital characteristics, process measure compliance, and surgical outcomes. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate for variables associated with high patient satisfaction (defined as hospitals that scored above the 50th percentile of top box scores). We identified 171 hospitals with complete data. The following variables were significantly associated with high overall patient satisfaction: large hospitals, high surgical volume, and low mortality (P patient satisfaction. Low mortality index was consistently found to be associated with high satisfaction across 9 of 10 HCAHPS domains. We found that hospital size, surgical volume, and low mortality were associated with high overall patient satisfaction. However, with the exception of low mortality, favorable surgical outcomes were not consistently associated with high HCAHPS scores. With existing satisfaction surveys, we conclude that factors outside of surgical outcomes appear to influence patients' perceptions of their care.

  2. Science Curriculum Components Favored by Taiwanese Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping; Changlai, Miao-Li

    2005-09-01

    The new 1-9 curriculum framework in Taiwan provides a remarkable change from previous frameworks in terms of the coverage of content and the powers of teachers. This study employs a modified repertory grid technique to investigate biology teachers' preferences with regard to six curriculum components. One hundred and eighty-five in-service and pre-service biology teachers were asked to determine which science curriculum components they liked and disliked most of all to include in their biology classes. The data show that the rank order of these science curriculum components, from top to bottom, was as follows: application of science, manipulation skills, scientific concepts, social/ethical issues, problem-solving skills, and the history of science. They also showed that pre-service biology teachers, as compared with in-service biology teachers, favored problem-solving skills significantly more than manipulative skills, while in-service biology teachers, as compared with pre-service biology teachers, favored manipulative skills significantly more than problem-solving skills. Some recommendations for ensuring the successful implementation of the Taiwanese 1-9 curriculum framework are also proposed.

  3. Positive Surgical Margins in Favorable-Stage Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Catherine E; Drew, Peter A; Morris, Christopher G; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Mendenhall, William M; Amdur, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    The significance of positive margin in favorable-stage well-differentiated thyroid cancer is controversial. We report outcomes of positive-margin patients with a matched-pair comparison to a negative-margin group. A total of 25 patients with classic-histology papillary or follicular carcinoma, total thyroidectomy +/- node dissection, stage T1-3N0-1bM0, positive surgical margin at primary site, adjuvant radioactive iodine (I-131), and age older than 18 years were treated between 2003 and 2013. Endpoints were clinical and biochemical (thyroglobulin-only) recurrence-free survival. Matched-pair analysis involved a 1:1 match with negative-margin cases matched for overall stage and I-131 dose. Recurrence-free survival in positive-margin patients was 71% at 10 years. No patient was successfully salvaged with additional treatment. Only 1 patient died of thyroid cancer. Recurrence-free survival at 10 years was worse with a positive (71%) versus negative (90%) margin (P=0.140). Cure with a microscopically positive margin was suboptimal (71%) despite patients having classic-histology papillary and follicular carcinoma, favorable stage, and moderate-dose I-131 therapy.

  4. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.H.

    1977-11-01

    A reconnaissance study of middle and upper Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary and silicic volcanic rocks in Malheur County, Oregon, indicates that, based upon the data available: (1) it is unlikely that sandstone-type uranium deposits exist in sedimentary rocks of north-central Malheur County; and (2) favorable uranium environments are more likely to exist in and adjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers and plugs. Some rhyolites in the northern part of the county contain marginally anomalous uranium abundances (6 to 8 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 ), compared with similar rocks in southeastern Oregon. Available uranium from these rocks, as determined by nitric-acid leaching, approaches 50 to 75 percent of the total chemical U 3 O 8 present. One Pliocene rhyolite vitrophyre sample from Duck Butte in western Malheur County contains 9 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 . The uranium contents of these rhyolites approach those found in silicic plugs spatially related to uranium deposits in the Lakeview district, Oregon (Erikson and Curry, 1977). It is possible that undiscovered epithermal and (or) supergene uranium deposits may exist in favorable wall rocks subjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers (Duck Butte), calderas (McDermitt caldera to the south and others identified in western Owyhee County, Idaho), and silicic plugs (as in the Lakeview district). With the exception of one small uranium anomaly found in unconsolidated sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation, the sedimentary rocks observed in the study area did not possess abnormal radioactivity or exhibit evidence of uranium mobility and enrichment. Carbonaceous trash is uncommon in these rocks. Gently dipping sandstone members of the Deer Butte Formation (upper Miocene) and local channel sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation (Pliocene) may have once been the most permeable rocks in the Tertiary section; but, there is no evidence to suggest that they were conduits for uranium-bearing solutions

  5. Renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty in canine model: a favorable biomaterial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Salehipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of canine renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Ten adult dogs participated in this study. After induction of anesthesia each animal underwent bed side urodynamic study, bladder capacity and bladder pressure was recorded. Then via mid line incision abdominal cavity was entered, right kidney was identified and its capsule was dissected. Bladder augmentation was done by anastomosing the renal capsule to the bladder. After 6 months bed side urodynamic study was performed again and changes in bladder volume and pressure were recorded. Then the animals were sacrificed and the augmented bladders were sent for histopathology evaluation. Results: Mean maximum anatomic bladder capacity before cystoplasty was 334.00±11.40cc which increased to 488.00±14.83cc post-operatively (p=0.039. Mean anatomic bladder pressure before cystoplasty was 19.00±1.58cmH2O which decreased to 12.60±1.14cmH2O post-operatively (p=0.039. Histopathology evaluation revealed epithelialization of the renal capsule with urothelium without evidence of fibrosis, collagen deposits or contracture. Conclusions: Our data shows that renal capsule is a favorable biomaterial for bladder augmentation in a canine model.

  6. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  7. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  8. Interaction Heterogeneity can Favorably Impact Colloidal Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ian C.; Crocker, John C.; Sinno, Talid

    2017-10-01

    Colloidal particles with short-ranged attractions, e.g., micron-scale spheres functionalized with single-stranded DNA oligomers, are susceptible to becoming trapped in disordered configurations even when a crystalline arrangement is the ground state. Moreover, for reasons that are not well understood, seemingly minor variations in the particle formulation can lead to dramatic changes in the crystallization outcome. We demonstrate, using a combination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium computer simulations, that interaction heterogeneity—variations in the energetic interactions among different particle pairs in the population—may favorably impact crystal nucleation. Specifically, interaction heterogeneity is found to lower the free energy barrier to nucleation via the formation of clusters comprised preferentially of strong-binding particle pairs. Moreover, gelation is inhibited by "spreading out over time" the nucleation process, resulting in a reduced density of stable nuclei, allowing each to grow unhindered and larger. Our results suggest a simple and robust approach for enhancing colloidal crystallization near the "sticky sphere" limit, and support the notion that differing extents of interaction heterogeneity arising from various particle functionalization protocols may contribute to the otherwise unexplained variations in crystallization outcomes reported in the literature.

  9. Occurrence of clinical mastitis and environmental factors favoring its incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical mastitis (CM, in high production Holstein cows, as well as the environmental factors that favoring its incidence. The average milk production of 305 days, according to the class of mastitis was estimated by the method of least squares. The frequencies of clinical mastitis (CM events were analyzed according to the calving sequences (1-6, year of calving, season and stage of lactation, and infected quarter (right anterior, left anterior, right posterior, left posterior. The frequency of CM ranged from 11.39% in the first calving to 21.18% in the third. 58.56% of mastitis cases occurred in the wet season, and 41.44% occurred in the dry season. The final lactation stage (200 to 300 days was the period with the highest occurrence of CM (45.33%. The quarter posterior had a higher frequency CM (54.25%. Animals with higher levels of milk production of 305 days showed highest occurrence of CM. We must find a balance between milk production and mastitis in order to increase profitability. The study of the periods of greatest frequency clinical mastitis events is essential for dairy farming, to direct a program to control this disease.

  10. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  11. Heterolytic dissociative adsorption state of dihydrogen favored by interfacial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenjun; Hu, Hanshi; Xu, Hu; Li, Yong; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The atomic-scale insight into dihydrogen on MgO(001) surface deposited on molybdenum substrate with interfacial defects was investigated in detail by employing density functional methods Here we report novel dissociative adsorption behaviors of single hydrogen molecule on the usually inert oxide surfaces, with consideration of two types of dissociation schemes. The heterolytic dissociation state -Mg(H)-O(H)- of dihydrogen is impossible to obtain on neighboring O-Mg sites of perfect bulk MgO(001) terraces. Unusually, the hydrogen molecule can form heterolytic fragmentation states on metal supported MgO(001) films with very low activation barrier (0.398 eV), and the heterolytic dissociation state is much more favorable than homolytic dissociation state both energetically and kinetically in all cases. Electronic properties and bonding attribution of adsorbates and the oxide-metal hybrid structure are revealed by analyzing density of states, differential charge densities, orbital interaction and electron localization function. The characteristic changes to the property and activity of magnesia (001) can have potential application in catalytic reactions.

  12. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  13. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  14. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  15. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layer subjected to adverse pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Kono, Amane; Houra, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of DNS. • The detailed turbulent statistics and structures in various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having APG are discussed. • It is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification. • In the case of strong stable stratification with or without APG, the flow separation is observed in the downstream region. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate and observe turbulent heat transfer structures and statistics in thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers subjected to a non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). DNSs are carried out under conditions of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stratifications with a non-equilibrium APG, in which DNS results reveal heat transfer characteristics of thermally-stratified non-equilibrium APG turbulent boundary layers. In cases of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers affected by APG, heat transfer performances increase in comparison with a turbulent boundary layer with neutral thermal stratification and zero pressure gradient (ZPG). Especially, it is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification (WSBL). Thus, the analysis for both the friction coefficient and Stanton number in the case of WSBL with/without APG is conducted using the FIK identity in order to investigate contributions from the transport equations, in which it is found that both Reynolds-shear-stress and the mean convection terms

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is...

  18. A Favorable Course of Palliative Sedation: Searching for Indicators Using Caregivers' Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, T.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Deliens, L.; Ribbe, M.W.; Swart, S.J.; Loer, S.A.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses.Results:Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases),

  19. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  20. A parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monty, J.P.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.

    2011-01-01

    There are many open questions regarding the behaviour of turbulent boundary layers subjected to pressure gradients and this is confounded by the large parameter space that may affect these flows. While there have been many valuable investigations conducted within this parameter space, there are still insufficient data to attempt to reduce this parameter space. Here, we consider a parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers where we restrict our attention to the pressure gradient parameter, β, the Reynolds number and the acceleration parameter, K. The statistics analyzed are limited to the streamwise fluctuating velocity. The data show that the mean velocity profile in strong pressure gradient boundary layers does not conform to the classical logarithmic law. Moreover, there appears to be no measurable logarithmic region in these cases. It is also found that the large-scale motions scaling with outer variables are energised by the pressure gradient. These increasingly strong large-scale motions are found to be the dominant contributor to the increase in turbulence intensity (scaled with friction velocity) with increasing pressure gradient across the boundary layer.

  1. Favoring the unfavored: Selective electrochemical nitrogen fixation using a reticular chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hiang Kwee; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Lee, Yih Hong; Liu, Chong; Phang, In Yee; Han, Xuemei; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Ling, Xing Yi

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical nitrogen-to-ammonia fixation is emerging as a sustainable strategy to tackle the hydrogen- and energy-intensive operations by Haber-Bosch process for ammonia production. However, current electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) progress is impeded by overwhelming competition from the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across all traditional NRR catalysts and the requirement for elevated temperature/pressure. We achieve both excellent NRR selectivity (~90%) and a significant boost to Faradic efficiency by 10 percentage points even at ambient operations by coating a superhydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) layer over the NRR electrocatalyst. Our reticular chemistry approach exploits MOF's water-repelling and molecular-concentrating effects to overcome HER-imposed bottlenecks, uncovering the unprecedented electrochemical features of NRR critical for future theoretical studies. By favoring the originally unfavored NRR, we envisage our electrocatalytic design as a starting point for high-performance nitrogen-to-ammonia electroconversion directly from water vapor-abundant air to address increasing global demand of ammonia in (bio)chemical and energy industries.

  2. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arguments in Favor of Moving to a Sustainable Business Model in the Apiary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panța Nancy Diana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.

  4. Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Kathleen T; Jackson, Edwin K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gillespie, Delbert G; Puccio, Ava M; Clark, Robert SB; Dixon, C Edward; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a weak adenosine receptor antagonist, can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on the experimental model or neurologic disorder. However, its contribution to pathophysiology and outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans is undefined. We assessed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites (theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline) by high-pressure liquid chromatography/ultraviolet in 97 ventricular CSF samples from an established bank, from 30 adults with severe TBI. We prospectively selected a threshold caffeine level of ≥1 μmol/L (194 ng/mL) as clinically significant. Demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, admission blood alcohol level, and 6-month dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were assessed. Mean time from injury to initial CSF sampling was 10.77±3.13 h. On initial sampling, caffeine was detected in 24 of 30 patients, and the threshold was achieved in 9 patients. Favorable GOS was seen more often in patients with CSF caffeine concentration ≥ versus theobromine and paraxanthine were also associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.018 and 0.056, respectively). Caffeine and its metabolites are commonly detected in CSF in patients with severe TBI and in an exploratory assessment are associated with favorable outcome. We speculate that caffeine may be neuroprotective by long-term upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors or acute inhibition of A2a receptors. PMID:17684518

  5. A favorable course of palliative sedation: searching for indicators using caregivers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, Tijn; Rietjens, Judith A C; Deliens, Luc; Ribbe, Miel W; Swart, Siebe J; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2015-03-01

    Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses. Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases), reached the intended sedation depth significantly quicker (P sedation (P = .015 physicians' cases), and had a shorter total duration of sedation compared (P sedation course. A favorable course during palliative sedation seems more probable when health care professionals report on a (relatively) shorter time to reach the required depth of sedation and when a deeper level of sedation can be obtained. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  7. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varó, I.; Redón, S.; Garcia-Roger, E.M.; Amat, F.; Guinot, D.; Serrano, R.; Navarro, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  8. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  9. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  10. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  11. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  12. Health care provider experience with canagliflozin in real-world clinical practice: favorability, treatment patterns, and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolge SC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan C Bolge,1 Natalia M Flores,2 Shu Huang,3 Jennifer Cai1 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, 2Kantar Health, Foster City, CA, 3Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Purpose: This study describes how health care providers approach canagliflozin for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the real world.Patients and methods: An Internet-based questionnaire was completed by 101 endocrinologists, 101 primary care physicians, and 100 nurse practitioners/physician assistants (NP/PAs. Health care providers were required to have experience prescribing or managing patients using canagliflozin to be included in the study. Health care providers compared canagliflozin with other T2DM medication classes on clinical characteristics, costs, and patient satisfaction. Confidence in canagliflozin was also measured. Health care providers reported their canagliflozin prescribing experience and good candidate characteristics for treatment. Finally, providers reported on patient outcomes among those receiving canagliflozin. All variables were compared across provider type.Results: Health care providers reported higher favorability for canagliflozin for blood pressure and body weight compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and higher favorability for effect on blood pressure, body weight, treatment satisfaction, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c compared with sulfonylureas (SUs, with differences observed for effect on blood pressure. Health care providers reported being very/extremely confident (55%–74% with canagliflozin as a second- to fourth-line treatment. The top 3 characteristics reported by the providers, in terms of describing a good candidate for canagliflozin, include those concerned about their weight, insurance coverage/affordability, and avoiding injectable treatments. Finally, providers reported often/always observing patients’ lowering or controlling HbA1c (82%–88% and improvement in overall

  13. Coronary diastolic pressure-flow relation and zero flow pressure explained on the basis of intramyocardial compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the controversy about the mechanisms determining the high zero flow pressures and the further interpretation of coronary diastolic pressure flow relations, this paper takes a stand in favor of intramyocardial compliance as the primary cause of the high zero flow pressures. An attempt has been

  14. A generalização a partir do tratamento com fricativas: ambientes favoráveis versus ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros The generalization through the treatment with fricatives: favorable environments versus unfavorable and neutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar a ocorrência e os tipos de generalização observados a partir do tratamento das fricativas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ em dois grupos de crianças, um utilizando palavras com contextos fonológicos favoráveis e outro os contextos pouco favoráveis e neutros. Seis crianças com desvio fonológico e idades entre 4:7 e 7:8 participaram do estudo com a autorização dos responsáveis. Realizaram-se avaliações fonoaudiológicas e complementares para o diagnóstico do desvio fonológico. Os sujeitos foram pareados de acordo com a gravidade do desvio, sexo, faixa etária e aspectos do sistema fonológico em relação aos fonemas alterados. Metade das crianças foi tratada com palavras em que os fonemas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ encontravam-se em ambientes fonológicos favoráveis e a outra metade com ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros. Foram realizadas oito sessões e, após estas, nova avaliação de fala foi realizada para verificar os tipos de generalização obtidos. Os percentuais de generalizações foram comparados entre os grupos por meio do teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney (pThe aim of this study was to analyze and compare the occurrence and the types of generalization observed through the treatment of the fricatives /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ in two groups of children, one using words with favorable phonological contexts and another with unfavorable and neutral contexts. Six children with phonological disorder between 4:7 and 7:8 year-old participated in the study, with their parents' authorization. There were speech-language and complementary evaluations to diagnose the phonological disorder. The subjects were matched according to the severity of the phonological disorder, sex, age and aspects of the phonological system in relation to the altered phonemes. Half the children were treated with words in which the phonemes /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ were in favorable phonological environments and the other half with unfavorable

  15. Smoking Counteracts the Favorable Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. Purpose To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI, which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the area northeast of Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.; Edmond, C.L.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Rock and steam-sediment samples were collected to define areas favorable for uranium deposits northeast of Gunnison, Colorado. Areas considered most favorable for further exploration are: (1) the Bronco Mountain area, approximately 10 mi south of Taylor Park Reservoir, (2) the area near the Big Red mine, and (3) the area 5 mi north-northeast of Taylor Park Reservoir. On the basis of known deposits in the Marshall Pass and Cochetopa districts, fault contacts between Precambrian granites and Paleozoic or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are favorable structural sites

  17. Major Deficiencies Preventing Favorable Audit Opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented favorable audit opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements, and to identify the actions taken or under way...

  18. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  19. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  20. WHn under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Ashcroft, N W; Labet, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Roald; Strobel, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH n (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH 4 are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH 2 becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH 6 at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH 2 shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH 4 the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH 6 . In WH 8 H 2 units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH 4 and WH 6 lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found. (paper)

  1. Fracture Analysis of Vessels. Oak Ridge FAVOR, v06.1, Computer Code: Theory and Implementation of Algorithms, Methods, and Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yin, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The current regulations to insure that nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) maintain their structural integrity when subjected to transients such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events were derived from computational models developed in the early-to-mid 1980s. Since that time, advancements and refinements in relevant technologies that impact RPV integrity assessment have led to an effort by the NRC to re-evaluate its PTS regulations. Updated computational methodologies have been developed through interactions between experts in the relevant disciplines of thermal hydraulics, probabilistic risk assessment, materials embrittlement, fracture mechanics, and inspection (flaw characterization). Contributors to the development of these methodologies include the NRC staff, their contractors, and representatives from the nuclear industry. These updated methodologies have been integrated into the Fracture Analysis of Vessels -- Oak Ridge (FAVOR, v06.1) computer code developed for the NRC by the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FAVOR, v04.1, code represents the baseline NRC-selected applications tool for re-assessing the current PTS regulations. This report is intended to document the technical bases for the assumptions, algorithms, methods, and correlations employed in the development of the FAVOR, v06.1, code.

  2. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  4. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.

    1978-05-01

    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  6. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Gabler

    Full Text Available The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration, competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also

  7. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  8. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content

  9. Social-and-economic mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshkina, Tatiana; Mottaeva, Angela; Andreeva, Larisa; Larinina, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the matters of investment attractiveness of regions. The factors making the regional investments possible. The authors argue, that social-and-economic development of regions is connected with the formation of the financial mechanism, representing the set of forms and methods of the organization, planning and stimulation of financial-and-economic activity in the certain social-and-economic space. The proper mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered. Besides, the ways of elimination of limiting factors in formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered.

  10. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, D.G.; Jones, C.A.; Gallagher, G.L.; Young, P.; Dubyk, W.S.

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably identified... pertaining to the accident and its investigation to the servicing GSA IFMS fleet management center. The GSA...

  12. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  13. Favorable effects of skeletal muscle on bone are distinguished according to gender and skeletal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Kim

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Higher RASM was significantly associated with lower risk for osteoporosis and the areas at the femur neck and total hip appeared to more likely be affected positively by muscle. Moreover, because males showed faster muscle loss with aging than females, the bones of males may be more prone to favorable effects of muscle.

  14. Does campaign finance imply political favors? The case of the 1998 Brazilian elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that campaign contributions are strongly associated with expectations of future firm-specific political favors. Using a novel dataset, we find that during the 1998 elections in Brazil higher campaign contributions to federal deputies were robustly associated

  15. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are

  16. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness:

  17. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Walz (Amy L.); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); S. Gadd (Samantha); D.S. Gerhard (Daniela S.); M.A. Smith (Malcolm A.); J.M. GuidryAuvil (Jamie M.); D. Meerzaman (Daoud); Q.-R. Chen (Qing-Rong); C. Hsu (ChihHao); C. Yan (Chunhua); C. Nguyen (Cu); Y. Hu (Ying); R. Bowlby (Reanne); D. Brooks (Denise); Y. Ma (Yussanne); A.A. Mungall (Andrew J.); R.A. Moore (Richard A.); J. Schein (Jacqueline); M.A. Marra (Marco A.); V. Huff (Vicki); J.S. Dome (Jeffrey); Y.-Y. Chi (Yueh-Yun); C.G. Mullighan (Charles); J. Ma (Jing); D.A. Wheeler (David A.); O.A. Hampton (Oliver A.); N. Jafari (Nadereh); N. Ross (Nicole); J.M. Gastier-Foster (Julie); E.J. Perlman (Elizabeth J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/. 2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates

  18. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  19. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance, profit-sharing, stock bonus or other employee welfare or benefit plan maintained by a former... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. 73.735-503 Section 73.735-503 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.

  1. Reynolds stress structures in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2018-04-01

    Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage

  2. Most children with eosinophilic esophagitis have a favorable outcome as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, M; Jacobs, J W; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Wo, J M

    2017-01-01

    The disease progression of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from childhood into adulthood is unclear. To determine the clinical outcome of patients who were diagnosed with EoE as children, and who now are young adults. Children (adults (≥18 years old) were identified, and a structured telephone interview was conducted to obtain follow-up data on symptom prevalence (dysphagia to solids and liquids, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, and heartburn/regurgitation), food impaction, medication usage, health-care utilization, and resolution of atopy/food allergies. A favorable outcome was defined if EoE symptoms were resolved or improved by subjects' assessment. Unfavorable outcomes was defined as symptoms same or worse. Clinical variables that predicted a favorable outcome as an adult were examined. Mayo Dysphagia Scale (MDQ-30: scored 0-100) was administered to validate the outcome assessment. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio and unpaired t-test were used. Fifty-eight subjects (64% male) who met study criteria were enrolled. Mean age at diagnosis was 12 years (range 4-17) and mean duration of follow-up was 8.3 years (2-16). As children, the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (54%), dysphagia (33%), and vomiting (24%). As young adults, 47 subjects (81%) had a favorable outcome. Total MDQ-30 scores were 4.6 (0-30) and 14.1 (0-50) in subjects with favorable outcome and unfavorable outcome, respectively (P = 0.015). Two-thirds of subjects did not use steroids or proton pump inhibitors in the preceeding 12 months. Male children with EoE were four times more likely to have a favorable outcome as young adults compared with female children. Females were more likely to report nausea/vomiting as young adults (odds ratio 3.23, CI 0.97-10.60). Of all presenting symptoms in EoE children, dysphagia was the most likely to persist into adulthood (odds ratio 6.29, CI 1.85-21.38). Eighty one percent of EoE children had a favorable outcome as young adults. Most patients

  3. Probabilistic approach to the analysis of reactor pressure vessel integrity during a pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamec, P.

    2000-12-01

    Following a general summary of the issue, an overview of international experience (USA; Belgium, France, Germany, Russia, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, and the UK; and probabilistic PTS assessment for the reactor pressure vessel at Loviisa-1, Finland) is presented, and the applicable computer codes (VISA-II, OCA-P, FAVOR, ZERBERUS) are highlighted and their applicability to VVER type reactor pressure vessels is outlined. (P.A.)

  4. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte very favorable and favorable, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Richard B; Schlembach, Pamela J; Jones, Dan; Chronowski, Gregory M; Ha, Chul S; Younes, Anas; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2002-03-15

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD) is rare and has a natural history different from that of classic Hodgkin disease. There is little information in the literature regarding the role of chemotherapy in patients with early-stage LPHD. The objective of this study was to examine recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and patterns of first recurrence in patients with LPHD who were treated with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. From 1963 to 1996, 48 consecutive patients ages 16-49 years (median, 28 years) with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 30 patients) or Stage II (n = 18 patients), very favorable (VF; n = 5 patients) or favorable (F; n = 43 patients) LPHD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (EORTC-GELA) criteria, received radiotherapy alone (n = 37 patients) or received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 11 patients). The percentages of patients with VF disease (11% vs. 9% in the radiotherapy group vs. the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group, respectively) or F disease (89% vs. 91%, respectively) within the two treatment groups were similar (P = 1.00). A median of three cycles of chemotherapy with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) or with mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP) was given initially to six patients and five patients, respectively. A median total radiotherapy dose of 40 grays (Gy) given in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy was delivered to both treatment groups. The median follow-up was 9.3 years, and 98% of patients were observed for > or = 3.0 years. RFS was similar for patients who were treated with radiotherapy alone and patients who were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (10-year survival rates: 77% and 68%, respectively; P = 0.89). The OS rate also was similar for the two groups (10-year survival rates: 90% and 100%, respectively; P = 0

  5. Are meteorological conditions favoring hail precipitation change in Southern Europe? Analysis of the period 1948-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Merino, A.; Melcón, P.; García-Ortega, E.; Fernández-González, S.; Berthet, C.; Dessens, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, one of the variables currently under investigation is related to the detection of possible changes in hail precipitation. In this work, we analyze hail frequencies in one of the most affected areas by this phenomenon in Europe, southern France. Here, an extensive hail detection network has been in operation since 1988. In general, the detection of hailfall is very uncertain. To overcome the constraints of scarcity and poor standardization of hail detection and monitoring systems, some relationships between hailstorm occurrence and synoptic, mesoscale or thermodynamic atmospheric characteristics have been proposed in different areas. Therefore, we analyzed meteorological fields at synoptic scale that are related to the formation of hailstorms in the study area, i.e., geopotential height at 500 hPa, sea level pressure, and lapse-rate between 850 and 500 hPa. These fields describe the state of the atmosphere at low and mid levels, and facilitate the evaluation of thermal and dynamic instability. Using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen estimator, we examined trends in the three fields during the period 1948-2015 and their spatial patterns, revealing an evolution toward synoptic environments that favor hail precipitation in the Mediterranean region.

  6. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  7. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  8. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  9. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Yang, Lijuan; Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-10-11

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit.

  10. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  11. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingao Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  12. Do professional norms in the banking industry favor risk-taking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Alain; Fehr, Ernst; Maréchal, Michel André

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the banking industry has witnessed several cases of excessive risk-taking that frequently have been attributed to problematic professional norms. We conduct experiments with employees from several banks in which we manipulate the saliency of their professional identity and subsequently measure their risk aversion in a real stakes investment task. If bank employees are exposed to professional norms that favor risk-taking, they should become more willing to take risks when thei...

  13. Quantum-chemical studies on the favored and rare tautomers of neutral and redox adenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyńska, Ewa D; Makowski, Mariusz; Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Kolczyńska, Katarzyna; Stępniewski, Tomasz M; Hallmann, Małgorzata

    2013-02-21

    All possible twenty-three prototropic tautomers of neutral and redox adenine (nine amine and fourteen imine forms, including geometric isomerism of the exo ═NH group) were examined in vacuo {DFT(B3LYP)/6-311+G(d,p)}. The NH → NH conversions as well as those usually omitted, NH → CH and CH → CH, were considered. An interesting change of the tautomeric preference occurs when proceeding from neutral to reduced adenine. One-electron reduction favors the nonaromatic amine C8H-N10H tautomer. This tautomeric preference is similar to that (C2H) for reduced imidazole. Water molecules (PCM model) seem to not change this trend. They influence solely the relative energies. The DFT vertical detachment energy in the gas phase is positive for each tautomer, e.g., 0.03 eV for N9H-N10H and 1.84 eV for C8H-N10H. The DFT adiabatic electron affinity for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → reduced C8H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 0.18 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). One-electron oxidation does not change the tautomeric preference in the gas phase. The aromatic amine N9H-N10H tautomer is favored for the oxidized molecule similarly as for the neutral one. The DFT adiabatic ionization potential for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → oxidized N9H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 8.12 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). Water molecules (PCM model) seem to influence solely the composition of the tautomeric mixture and the relative energies. They change the energies of the oxidation and reduction processes by ca. 2 eV.

  14. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  15. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  16. Comparison of job stress and obesity in nurses with favorable and unfavorable work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Karen L; Park, Sungae

    2012-08-01

    To compare obesity-related factors between female nurses with favorable work schedules (WSs) and unfavorable WSs. In a cross-sectional study, 1724 female nurses were stratified by WS (favorable vs unfavorable). For each schedule type, the odds of obesity were related to health behaviors, home demands, and job stress using logistic regression models. Among nurses with unfavorable WSs, healthy behaviors (exercise, sleep) were inversely associated with obesity, whereas for those with favorable WSs, obese nurses reported significantly more unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38), more physical lifting of children/dependents (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), having more nurse input into their jobs (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44), yet less boss support at work (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99). Considering impacts of WSs on obesity and potential obesity-related health outcomes, healthful scheduling should be provided to nurses.

  17. The Study of Relationship Between Work Teams and Favoring Knowledge Management (Case: Bank Keshavarzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamze Jamshidi Kohsari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a process that has been recently generated as an activity which isvery important in the dynamic environment, and in the competitive scene. We believe that KM is aprocess which its organizational knowledge is created from the individual knowledge of themembers of the organization. The relevant studies have indicated that organizing based on workteams could be considered a way to create the appropriate context for KM. However, thisorganizing based on work teams is not enough; it only has the necessary characteristics of the workteams that favor KM. Moreover, based on studies done, we distinguish which characteristics ofwork teams favor the KM process in its different phases (i.e. creation, transfer and integration. Inthis study, we conducted multiple regression and analysis of variance.Complementary skills (H2 and a climate of trust (H3 in work teams were more importantfactors that favor the management of organizational knowledge.This research is based on the Zarraga and Perez studies in 2006.

  18. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-07-26

    Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. The principle of "user pays" seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee exemption policies, sometimes influenced

  19. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  20. LES of the adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Pullin, D.I.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at high Re is studied. • Wall-model LES works well for nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layer. • Relationship of skin-friction to Re and Clauser pressure parameter is explored. • Self-similarity is observed in the velocity statistics over a wide range of Re. -- Abstract: We describe large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flat-plate turbulent boundary layer in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the domain of the flow coupled to a wall model that explicitly accounts for the presence of a finite pressure gradient. The LES are designed to match recent experiments conducted at the University of Melbourne wind tunnel where a plate section with zero pressure gradient is followed by section with constant adverse pressure gradient. First, LES are described at Reynolds numbers based on the local free-stream velocity and the local momentum thickness in the range 6560–13,900 chosen to match the experimental conditions. This is followed by a discussion of further LES at Reynolds numbers at approximately 10 times and 100 times these values, which are well out of range of present day direct numerical simulation and wall-resolved LES. For the lower Reynolds number runs, mean velocity profiles, one-point turbulent statistics of the velocity fluctuations, skin friction and the Clauser and acceleration parameters along the streamwise, adverse pressure-gradient domain are compared to the experimental measurements. For the full range of LES, the relationship of the skin-friction coefficient, in the form of the ratio of the local free-stream velocity to the local friction velocity, to both Reynolds number and the Clauser parameter is explored. At large Reynolds numbers, a region of collapse is found that is well described by a simple log-like empirical relationship over two orders of magnitude. This is expected to be useful for constant adverse-pressure

  1. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  2. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  3. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States

  4. 2005 DAtF winter meeting - pleading in favor of a sensible energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The year's Winter Meeting of Deutsches Atomforum, which was held under the general heading of 'Pleading in Favor of a Sensible Energy Mix', dealt with the large variety of aspects and perspectives of this important key topic, also with respect to the sustainability factors, environment, economy, and social aspects. Twelve contributions, or statements, by representatives from politics, industry, society, and research covered different aspects of a 'sensible energy mix'. A round of politicians debated the subject controversially. The meeting, which was attended by more than 250 participants, thus opened 2005 with an interesting presentation of present and future topics of the power supply debate. (orig.)

  5. A case of invasive papillary breast carcinoma: Fierce façade with favorable prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare, distinct variant comprising approximately less than 1-2% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast carcinoma and is usually found in postmenopausal women with a more favorable prognosis. We report an unusual case in a 45-year-old perimenopausal female who came with a complaint of lump in right breast for duration of 1 year. A simple mastectomy was undertaken for histopathological study and immunohistochemistry (IHC which showed characteristic features of an invasive papillary breast carcinoma. We present this case in view of its rarity and to highlight this clinicopathological subtype for its good prognosis and to avoid overtreatment.

  6. Varieties of granitic uranium deposits and favorable exploration areas in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Ragland, P.C.; Nishimori, R.K.; Greenberg, J.K.; Hauck, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. First is an overview of the basic igneous processes that cause concentration of uranium and the types of rocks in which these deposits are most likely to occur. Second is a discussion of the source of uranium and the tectonic environments in which uranium-rich igneouos rocks are likely to form. Third is an application of these principles to the delineation of favorable belts for uranium exploration in crystalline rocks in the eastern United States. The paper is restricted to a discussion of those deposits in which high-uranium concentrations are caused by magmatic processes. 114 refs

  7. IMPACT OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SYMBOL IN PRODUCING FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas NASERI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.

  8. Artroplastía de superficie en cadera. Resultados iniciales favorables en pacientes selectos. [Hip resurfacing arthroplasty: favorable initial results in selected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín Comba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados clínicos y radiológicos iniciales de una serie consecutiva de pacientes selectos tratados en nuestra institución con un único diseño de artroplastia de superficie, comparando además la tasa de revisión temprana con un grupo control de pacientes tratados en el mismo lapso con una artroplastia total de cadera no cementada. Material y ­Métodos Cuarenta y siete pacientes de sexo masculino (49 caderas con diagnóstico de artrosis de cadera que fueron tratados quirúrgicamente con una artroplastia híbrida de superficie, entre noviembre de 2006 y julio de 2009. La edad promedio fue de 44,5 años (rango de 21 a 57. En todos los casos, la indicación de la artroplastia de superficie se realizó en pacientes jóvenes con alta expectativa funcional y siguiendo estrictos criterios de selección radiológicos. Se efectuó un seguimiento clínico y un meticuloso análisis radiológico. Resultados La escala funcional posoperatoria de Merle D’Aubigné-Postel fue, en promedio, de 17,3 puntos a los 43 meses de seguimiento promedio (rango 24-62 meses. El 85% de los pacientes refirió que practicaba alguna actividad deportiva con una escala UCLA promedio de 9,5 (rango 8-10. Un paciente requirió una cirugía de revisión (2,04% por fractura de cuello femoral. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto a la tasa de revisión temprana comparando con el grupo control (p = 0,55. Conclusiones En nuestra experiencia inicial con artroplastia de superficie, obtuvimos resultados a corto plazo favorables, en una serie de hombres con artrosis y alta demanda funcional, estrictamente seleccionados.

  9. Derivation of Zagarola-Smits scaling in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This Rapid Communication derives the Zagarola-Smits scaling directly from the governing equations for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG TBLs). It has long been observed that the scaling of the mean streamwise velocity in turbulent boundary layer flows differs in the near surface region and in the outer layer. In the inner region of small-velocity-defect boundary layers, it is generally accepted that the proper velocity scale is the friction velocity, uτ, and the proper length scale is the viscous length scale, ν /uτ . In the outer region, the most generally used length scale is the boundary layer thickness, δ . However, there is no consensus on velocity scales in the outer layer. Zagarola and Smits [ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-4950 (1998)] proposed a velocity scale, U ZS=(δ1/δ ) U∞ , where δ1 is the displacement thickness and U∞ is the freestream velocity. However, there are some concerns about Zagarola-Smits scaling due to the lack of a theoretical base. In this paper, the Zagarola-Smits scaling is derived directly from a combination of integral, similarity, and order-of-magnitude analysis of the mean continuity equation. The analysis also reveals that V∞, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, is a proper scale for the mean wall-normal velocity V . Extending the analysis to the streamwise mean momentum equation, we find that the Reynolds shear stress in ZPG TBLs scales as U∞V∞ in the outer region. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of the mass and mean momentum balance in the outer region of ZPG TBLs.

  10. Fracture risk assessment for the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hsoung-Wei; Huang, Chin-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • The PTS loading conditions consistent with the USNRC's new PTS rule are applied as the loading condition for a Taiwan domestic PWR. • The state-of-the-art PFM technique is employed to analyze a reactor pressure vessel. • Novel flaw model and embrittlement correlation are considered in the study. • The RT-based regression formula of NUREG-1874 was also utilized to evaluate the failure risks of RPV. • For slightly embrittled RPV, the SO-1 type PTSs play more important role than other types of PTS. - Abstract: The fracture risk of the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel of a Taiwan domestic nuclear power plant has been evaluated according to the technical basis of the U.S.NRC's new pressurized thermal shock (PTS) screening criteria. The ORNL's FAVOR code and the PNNL's flaw models were employed to perform the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis associated with plant specific parameters of the domestic reactor pressure vessel. Meanwhile, the PTS thermal hydraulic and probabilistic risk assessment data analyzed from a similar nuclear power plant in the United States for establishing the new PTS rule were applied as the loading conditions. Besides, an RT-based regression formula derived by the U.S.NRC was also utilized to verify the through-wall cracking frequencies. It is found that the through-wall cracking of the analyzed reactor pressure vessel only occurs during the PTS events resulted from the stuck-open primary safety relief valves that later reclose, but with only an insignificant failure risk. The results indicate that the Taiwan domestic PWR pressure vessel has sufficient structural margin for the PTS attack until either the current license expiration dates or during the proposed extended operation periods.

  11. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  12. Role of Green Spaces in Favorable Microclimate Creating in Urban Environment (Exemplified by Italian Cities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finaeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article represents a brief analysis of factors that influence the development of an urban green space system: territorial and climatic conditions, cultural and historical background as well as the modern strategy of historic cities development. The introduction defines the concept of urban greening, green spaces and green space distribution. The environmental parameters influenced by green spaces are determined. By the example of Italian cities the principles of the urban greening system development are considered: the historical aspects of formation of the urban greening system in Italian cities are analyzed, the role of green spaces in the formation of the urban environment structure and the creation of a favorable microclimate is determined, and a set of measures aimed at its improvement is highlighted. The modern principles of urban greening systems development and their characteristic features are considered. Special attention is paid to the interrelation of architectural and green structures in the formation of a favorable microclimate and psychological comfort in the urban environment; various methods of greening are considered by the example of existing architectural complexes depending on the climate of the area and the landscape features. The examples for the choice of plants and the application of compositional techniques are given. The results represent the basic principles of developing an urban green spaces system. The conclusion summarizes the techniques aimed at the microclimate improvement in the urban environment.

  13. CD73 Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Patients with Nonmuscle-Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian S. Wettstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. CD73 is a membrane associated 5′-ectonucleotidase that has been proposed as prognostic biomarker in various solid tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate CD73 expression in a cohort of patients with primary bladder cancer in regard to its association with clinicopathological features and disease course. Methods. Tissue samples from 174 patients with a primary urothelial carcinoma were immunohistochemically assessed on a tissue microarray. Associations between CD73 expression and retrospectively obtained clinicopathological data were evaluated by contingency analysis. Survival analysis was performed to investigate the predictive value of CD73 within the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors in regard to progression-free survival (PFS. Results. High CD73 expression was found in 46 (26.4% patients and was significantly associated with lower stage, lower grade, less adjacent carcinoma in situ and with lower Ki-67 proliferation index. High CD73 immunoreactivity in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors (n=158 was significantly associated with longer PFS (HR: 0.228; p=0.047 in univariable Cox regression analysis. Conclusion. High CD73 immunoreactivity was associated with favorable clinicopathological features. Furthermore, it predicts better outcome in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors and may thus serve as additional tool for the selection of patients with favorable prognosis.

  14. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Favorable effect of moderate dose caffeine on the skeletal system in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Pytlik, Maria; Zych, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Nowińska, Barbara; Sliwiński, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine present in coffee, has been postulated to be responsible for an increased risk of osteoporosis in coffee drinkers; however, the data are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on the skeletal system of rats with normal and decreased estrogen level (developing osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency). The experiments were carried out on mature nonovariectomized and ovariectomized Wistar rats, divided into control rats and rats receiving caffeine once daily, 20 mg/kg p.o., for 4 wk. Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium and phosphorus content, histomorphometric parameters, and bone mechanical properties were examined. Caffeine favorably affected the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, slightly inhibiting the development of bone changes induced by estrogen deficiency (increasing bone mineralization, and improving the strength and structure of cancellous bone). Moreover, it favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone. There were no significant effects of caffeine in rats with normal estrogen levels. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that low-to-moderate caffeine intake may exert some beneficial effects on the skeletal system of mature organisms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  17. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  18. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  19. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  20. Evidence favoring an internally generated dynamo in the H chondrite parent planetesimal from the Forest Vale meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzin, B. L.; Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2016-12-01

    Chondritic meteorites are traditionally assumed to originate from undifferentiated asteroids due to their unmelted texture and composition. This implies that their parent bodies should not have formed a core or generated a dynamo. However, recent measurements of the H chondrite Portales Valley (Bryson et al., this meeting) observed post-accretional remanent magnetization interpreted as a record of a core dynamo, indicating that some chondrite parent bodies were partially differentiated. However, it has been proposed that the H chondrites may have been magnetized instead by a crustal remanent field. If this crustal magnetization was imparted by an early external source, such as nebular fields or even the solar wind, then the magnetization of H chondrites may not require a core dynamo. To test this hypothesis, we measured the magnetic properties of the Forest Vale H4 ordinary chondrite. Forest Vale cooled quickly (10000 K/My) and so would have acquired magnetization that represents the bulk of the H chondrite parent body's crust during the first 10 My of the solar system. Based on alternating field and pressure demagnetization experiments of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization, we conclude that Forest Vale contains no ancient magnetization and, due to its poor intrinsic magnetic recording properties, is unable to acquire a magnetization that is stable against even weak shocks (0.2 GPa). Furthermore, we show that a crust composed of Forest-Vale-like material magnetized by the upper limit field intensities expected for the nebula and solar wind fields (50 μT and 1 μT, respectively) produces an insufficient crustal remanent field (<2.5 μT and <0.045 μT, respectively) to explain the paleointensity recorded by Portales Valley ( 10 μT). Thus, we conclude that the field that magnetization Portales Valley is unlikely to be from a crustal remanence magnetized by early external fields, favoring a partially differentiated asteroid

  1. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  2. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  3. Capturing the Energy of Peer Pressure: Insights from a Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies indicate that adolescents smoke to obtain a desirable image, rather than from direct pressure from peers. Suggestions for using peer influence to make favorable changes in health behaviors are offered. (DF)

  4. Multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the subduction zone parameters favoring the occurrence of giant megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; Sandri, L.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Piromallo, C.; Heuret, A.

    2018-03-01

    The observed maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes is highly variable worldwide. One key question is which conditions, if any, favor the occurrence of giant earthquakes (Mw ≥ 8.5). Here we carry out a multivariate statistical study in order to investigate the factors affecting the maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes. We find that the trench-parallel extent of subduction zones and the thickness of trench sediments provide the largest discriminating capability between subduction zones that have experienced giant earthquakes and those having significantly lower maximum magnitude. Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed spatial distribution of giant earthquakes cannot be explained by pure chance to a statistically significant level. We suggest that the combination of a long subduction zone with thick trench sediments likely promotes a great lateral rupture propagation, characteristic of almost all giant earthquakes.

  5. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is there a Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Favorable Surgical Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501

  8. Consistent Dalitz plot analysis of Cabibbo-favored D+ → K bar ππ+ decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niecknig, Franz; Kubis, Bastian

    2018-05-01

    We resume the study of the Cabibbo-favored charmed-meson decays D+ → K bar ππ+ in a dispersive framework that satisfies unitarity, analyticity, and crossing symmetry by construction. The formalism explicitly describes the strong final-state interactions between all three decay products and relies on pion-pion and pion-kaon phase shift input. For the first time, we show that the D+ →KSπ0π+ Dalitz plot obtained by the BESIII collaboration as well as the D+ →K-π+π+ Dalitz plot data by CLEO and FOCUS can be described consistently, exploiting the isospin relation between the two coupled decay channels that provides better constraints on the subtraction constants.

  9. Tunable Degradation Rate and Favorable Bioactivity of Porous Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds by Introducing Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bone scaffolds should possess suitable physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities. In this study, porous calcium sulfate (CaSO4 scaffolds were fabricated successfully via selected laser sintering (SLS. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp, a bioactive material with a low degradation rate, was introduced into CaSO4 scaffolds to overcome the overquick absorption. The results demonstrated that nHAp could not only control the degradation rate of scaffolds by adjusting their content, but also improve the pH environment by alleviating the acidification progress during the degradation of CaSO4 scaffolds. Moreover, the improved scaffolds were covered completely with the apatite spherulites in simulated body fluid (SBF, showing their favorable bioactivity. In addition, the compression strength and fracture toughness were distinctly enhanced, which could be ascribed to large specific area of nHAp and the corresponding stress transfer.

  10. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  11. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  12. Evaluating Environmental Favorability for Tropical Cyclone Development with the Method of Point-Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Nolan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented to determine the favorability for tropical cyclone development of an atmospheric environment, as represented by a mean sounding of temperature, humidity, and wind as a function of height. A mesoscale model with nested, moving grids is used to simulate the evolution of a weak, precursor vortex in a large domain with doubly periodic boundary conditions. The equations of motion are modified to maintain arbitrary profiles of both zonal and meridional wind as a function of height, without the necessary large-scale temperature gradients that cannot be consistent with doubly periodic boundary conditions. Comparisons between simulations using the point-downscaling method and simulations using wind shear balanced by temperature gradients illustrate both the advantages and the limitations of the technique. Further examples of what can be learned with this method are presented using both idealized and observed soundings and wind profiles.

  13. Does the insurance effect of public and private transfers favor financial deepening? Evidence from rural Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests CCTs and remittances may protect poor households from income risk. We present a theoretical framework that explores how this ‘insurance’ effect can change households’ decision to apply for a loan via changes in credit demand and supply. Empirical evidence from poor rural households in Nicaragua shows CCTs did not affect loan requests while remittances increased them. The risk protection provided by remittances seems stronger, relative to CCTs, such that improvements on borrowers’ expected marginal returns to a loan or on creditworthiness more than offset decreasing returns to additional income. This suggests those transfers that best protect households from income risk favor financial deepening in the context of segmented markets.

  14. Favorable Risk Selection in Medicare Advantage: Trends in Mortality and Plan Exits Among Nursing Home Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Jung, Hye-Young; Rahman, Momotazur

    2016-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA. Among beneficiaries with nursing home use, disenrollment from Medicare Advantage plans declined from 20% to 12%, but it remained 6 times higher than the switch rate from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage. These findings suggest that the MMA was not associated with reductions in favorable risk selection, as measured by mortality, nursing home use, and switch rates. PMID:27516452

  15. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  16. Subcellular location of astrocytic calcium stores favors extrasynaptic neuron-astrocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, Ilya; Gavrilov, Nikolay; Turlapov, Vadim; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Neuron-astrocyte interactions are important for brain computations and synaptic plasticity. Perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs) contain a high density of transporters that are responsible for neurotransmitter clearance. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are thought to trigger Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores in PAPs in response to synaptic activity. Our ultrastructural study revealed that PAPs are actually devoid of Ca(2+) stores and have a high surface-to-volume ratio favorable for uptake. Astrocytic processes containing Ca(2+) stores were located further away from the synapses and could therefore respond to changes in ambient glutamate. Thus, the anatomic data do not support communication involving Ca(2+) stores in tripartite synapses, but rather point to extrasynaptic communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved DNA electrophoresis in conditions favoring polyborates and lewis acid complexation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Singhal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial compression among the longer DNA fragments occurs during DNA electrophoresis in agarose and non-agarose gels when using certain ions in the conductive buffer, impairing the range of fragment sizes resolved well in a single gel. Substitutions using various polyhydroxyl anions supported the underlying phenomenon as the complexation of Lewis acids to DNA. We saw significant improvements using conditions (lithium borate 10 mM cations, pH 6.5 favoring the formation of borate polyanions and having lower conductance and Joule heating, delayed electrolyte exhaustion, faster electrophoretic run-speed, and sharper separation of DNA bands from 100 bp to 12 kb in a single run.

  18. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  19. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  20. Intermittent spatial separation of diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter favors acidic and weakly acidic reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In small hiatal hernias, the size of the hernia is variable. Intermittent complete reduction can be observed with high-resolution manometry as a transition from a double-peak (hernia) to a single-peak (reduced) high-pressure zone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether

  1. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Marshall, Aaron M; Hernandez, Laura L; Buckley, Arthur R; Horseman, Nelson D

    2009-01-01

    The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation, inappropriate cell survival). This occurs

  2. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  3. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  4. Prostate Cancer Diagnosed After Repeat Biopsies Have a Favorable Pathological Outcome but Similar Recurrence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Corona, Ernesto; Ohori, Makoto; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Reuter, Victor E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.; Eastham, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether repeat prostate biopsies are associated with more favorable prognoses, less extensive disease or higher rates of IC in patients who are ultimately diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with RRP. Materials and Methods We examined standard clinical and pathological data on 1,357 patients treated with RRP from 1983 to 2001. In addition, we noted the rate of IC in a subgroup of 847 patients in whom tumor volume was measured. Results Cancer was found in 1,042 patients (77%) at the first biopsy, in 227 (17%) at the second biopsy, in 59 (4%) at the third biopsy and in 29 (2%) at the fourth or later biopsy. Patients with 2 or greater biopsies had a higher rate of clinical T1c stage cancer and larger prostates than patients with only 1 biopsy (each p <0.0001). After RRP patients with 1 biopsy had a lower rate of organ confined tumors (61% vs 75%, p <0.0001), and a higher rate of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and Gleason sum 7 or greater than other patients. IC was found in 10% of patients with 1 biopsy and 18% of those with 2 or greater biopsies (p = 0.018). Despite these more favorable pathological outcomes there was no difference in biochemical recurrence rate. Conclusions Although we found that a greater number of biopsies was related to a better pathological outcome after RRP, the number of biopsies did not predict disease recurrence. The increasing number of biopsies currently being performed, especially in patients with larger prostates, likely results in higher rates of IC. PMID:16469581

  5. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  6. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  7. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  8. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  10. Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.

  11. Favorable Attitudes Towards Serosorting are Associated With Overall Less Frequent Condom Use Among Young Black Men Having Sex Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2018-01-01

    This study determined whether YBMSM endorsing serosorting are less likely to use condoms. A questionnaire assessed men’s attitudes towards serosorting with a three-item scale; various sexual risk behaviors were measured using a 90-day recall period. Favorable attitudes toward serosorting were associated with a greater likelihood of condomless sex as a top (P<.001) and as a bottom (P<.001), as well as a lower likelihood of using condoms with main partners (P=.003). Findings suggest that YBMSM having favorable attitudes toward serosorting may be more likely to report condomless sex than their counterparts without favorable attitudes. PMID:26433647

  12. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, Michael C; Petridou, Barbara; Peyrat, Jean Phillipe; Révillion, Françoise; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Daxenbichler, Günter; Marth, Christian; Doppler, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015) and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026). In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002). This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF-I is a feature of differentiated and less malignant tumors

  13. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxenbichler Günter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. Methods We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015 and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026. In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002. Conclusion This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF

  14. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  15. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  16. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  17. Blood group antigen A type 3 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R

    2016-02-01

    Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential climate change favored expansion of a range limited species, Haematostaphis barteri Hook f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Koundouonon Moutouama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding impact of climate change on range breadth of rare species can improve the ability to anticipate their decline or expension and take appropriate conservation measures. Haematatostaphis barteri is an agroforestry species of the Sudanian centre of endemism in Africa. We investigeted impact of climate change on range of suitable habitats for this species in Benin,using the Maximum Entropy algorithm under R software. Five environmental variables were used with the regional climate model under the new Representation Concentration Pathways (RCP. Moisture Index of the Moist Quarter and Slope variability had the greatest predictive importance for the range of suitable habitats for H. barteri. Its Potential breadth was found to be currently limited to the Atacora Mountain Chain (AMC and covers 0.51% of national territory. Climate change was projected to favor expansion of suitable habitats for H. barteri by 0.12% and 0.05%, respectively for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These habitats were however mostly out of the local protected areas network. Climate change would extend range of habitats for H. barteri. Observed protection gaps suggest need for integrating this species into formal in situ, on-farm or ex situ conservation schemes.

  19. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  20. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Seasonal resource conditions favor a summertime increase in North Pacific diatom-diazotroph associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Christopher L; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Karl, David M; Inomura, Keisuke; Follows, Michael J

    2018-02-15

    In the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), an annual pulse of sinking organic carbon is observed at 4000 m between July and August, driven by large diatoms found in association with nitrogen fixing, heterocystous, cyanobacteria: Diatom-Diazotroph Associations (DDAs). Here we ask what drives the bloom of DDAs and present a simplified trait-based model of subtropical phototroph populations driven by observed, monthly averaged, environmental characteristics. The ratio of resource supply rates favors nitrogen fixation year round. The relative fitness of DDA traits is most competitive in early summer when the mixed layer is shallow, solar irradiance is high, and phosphorus and iron are relatively abundant. Later in the season, as light intensity drops and phosphorus is depleted, the traits of small unicellular diazotrophs become more competitive. The competitive transition happens in August, at the time when the DDA export event occurs. This seasonal dynamic is maintained when embedded in a more complex, global-scale, ecological model, and provides predictions for the extent of the North Pacific DDA bloom. The model provides a parsimonious and testable hypothesis for the stimulation of DDA blooms.

  2. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium resources in Juab County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.

    1978-02-01

    The best potential for large, low-grade uranium deposits in Juab County is in the hydrothermally altered vitric tuffs of Pliocene age. The lateral extent of the altered tuffs may be determined by subsurface studies around the perimeter of the volcanic centers in the Thomas Range and the Honeycomb Hills. Because the ring-fracture zone associated with collapse of the Thomas caldera was a major control for hydrothermal uranium deposits, delineation of the northern and eastern positions of the ring-fracture zone is critical in defining favorable areas for uranium deposits. A small, medium-grade ore deposit in tuffaceous sand of Pliocene age at the Yellow Chief mine in Dugway Dell is unique in origin, and the probability of discovering another deposit of this type is low. A deposit of this type may be present under alluvial cover in the northwestern Drum Mountains along the southern extension of the ring-fracture zone of the Thomas caldera. Festoonlike iron oxide structures and uranium deposition within permeable sandstone horizons indicate that the Yellow Chief deposit was formed by recent ground-water circulation. Granitic intrusive rocks in the Deep Creek Range and in Desert Mountain contain isolated epigenetic vein-type deposits. These rocks could be a source of arkosic sediments buried in adjacent valleys. The Pleistocene lacustrine sediments and playa lake brines may contain concentrations of uranium leached from uranium-rich rocks

  3. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  5. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for small lung tumors with a moderate dose. Favorable results and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, V.; Nestle, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    Background: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SBRT, SABR) is being increasingly applied because of its high local efficacy, e.g., for small lung tumors. However, the optimum dosage is still under discussion. Here, we report data on 45 lung lesions [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastases] in 39 patients treated between 2009 and 2010 by SABR. Patients and methods: SABR was performed with total doses of 35 Gy (5 fractions) or 37.5 Gy (3 fractions) prescribed to the 60% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume. Three-monthly follow-up CT scans were supplemented by FDG-PET/CT if clinically indicated. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months. Local progression-free survival rates were 90.5% (all patients), 95.0% (NSCLC), and 81.8% (metastases) at 1 year. At 2 years, the respective local progression-free survival rates were 80.5%, 95.0%, and 59.7%. Overall survival rates were 71.1% (all patients), 65.4% (NSCLC), and 83.3% (metastases) at 1 year. Overall survival rates at 2 years were 52.7%, 45.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. Acute side effects were mild. Conclusion: With the moderate dose schedule used, well-tolerated SABR led to favorable local tumor control as in other published series. Standardization in reporting the dose prescription for SABR is needed to allow comparison of different series in order to determine optimum dosage. (orig.)

  6. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gershberg, R. E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Bakhchisaray region, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  7. Chlorophyll a is a favorable substrate for Chlamydomonas Mg-dechelatase encoded by STAY-GREEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kaori; Shimoda, Yousuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Ito, Hisashi

    2016-12-01

    Mg removal from chlorophyll by Mg-dechelatase is the first step of chlorophyll degradation. Recent studies showed that in Arabidopsis, Stay Green (SGR) encodes Mg-dechelatase. Though the Escherichia coli expression system is advantageous for investigating the properties of Mg-dechelatase, Arabidopsis Mg-dechelatase is not successfully expressed in E. coli. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SGR (CrSGR) has a long, hydrophilic tail, suggesting that active CrSGR can be expressed in E. coli. After the incubation of chlorophyll a with CrSGR expressed in E. coli, pheophytin a accumulated, indicating that active CrSGR was expressed in E. coli. Substrate specificity of CrSGR against chlorophyll b and an intermediate molecule of the chlorophyll b degradation pathway was examined. CrSGR exhibited no activity against chlorophyll b and low activity against 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a, consistent with the fact that chlorophyll b is degraded only after conversion to chlorophyll a. CrSGR exhibited low activity against divinyl chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a', and no activity against chlorophyllide a, protochlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 2 , and Zn-chlorophyll a. These observations indicate that chlorophyll a is the most favorable substrate for CrSGR. When CrSGR was expressed in Arabidopsis cells, the chlorophyll content decreased, further confirming that SGR has Mg-dechelating activity in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu A. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/−; Pten+/−, Pten+/−, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells.

  9. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  10. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  11. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B decays to a scalar meson and a D meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhi-Tian; Li, Ying [Yantai University, Department of Physics, Yantai (China); Liu, Xin [Jiangsu Normal University, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this work, we attempt to study the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B → anti DS (''S'' denoting the scalar meson) decays within the perturbative QCD approach at the leading order and the leading power. Although the light scalar mesons are widely perceived as primarily the four-quark bound states, in practice it is hard for us to make quantitative predictions based on the four-quark picture for light scalars. Hence, we calculate the decays with light scalars in the two-quark model. For the decays with scalar mesons above 1 GeV, we have explored two possible scenarios, depending on whether the light scalars are treated as the lowest lying q anti q states or four-quark particles. In total, we calculated the branching fractions of 72 decay modes, and most of them are in the range 10{sup -4}-10{sup -7}, which are measurable in the on-going LHCb experiment and the forthcoming Belle-II experiment. Moreover, since in the standard model these decays occur only through tree operators and have no CP asymmetries, any deviation will be a signal of new physics beyond the standard model. Despite large uncertainties induced by nonperturbative parameters and corrections of high order and high power, our results and discussions will be useful for the on-going LHCb and the forthcoming Belle-II experiments. (orig.)

  12. School Psychologists' Management of Administrative Pressure to Practice Unethically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.; Weisz, Gaston; Lefkowitz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In their role as child advocates, school psychologists strive to promote policies and practices that increase the availability of necessary academic and mental health services and enhance the well-being of children. However, administrative pressure to disregard ethical and legal mandates in favor of decisions that would prioritize the needs of the…

  13. Nuclear morphometry and prognosis in favorable histology Wilms' tumor: A prospective reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, N E; Partin, A W; Lee, B R; Guthrie, K A; Beckwith, J B; Green, D M

    1999-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of a previously published nuclear morphometry discriminant function to predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. We identified 218 patients with stage I-IV Wilms' tumor of favorable histology who were entered onto the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS) between January 1, 1990 and April 15, 1994. The nuclear morphometry score was calculated for each patient as follows: MV(f) = (0.02 x AGE) + (1.17 x SNRF) + (90.6 x LEFD) - 94, with AGE denoting age at diagnosis in months, SNRF the skewness of the nuclear roundness factor, and LEFD the lowest value of nuclear ellipticity as measured by the feret diameter method. Relative risks of relapse were estimated for the total score and for each of its components. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" as a predictor of relapse. By contrast with previously published results, neither the SNRF nor the LEFD made any contribution to the prediction of disease-free survival. Sensitivity and specificity of the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" were 71% and 56%, respectively. Re-evaluation of a published nuclear morphometry score showed that it did not predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. The earlier study very likely overestimated the predictive power of nuclear morphometry by using the same data set both to develop the score and to evaluate its properties. Because of the huge number of combinations of nuclear morphometry measurements that may enter into the multivariate discriminant function, use of appropriate statistical methods is essential to estimate accurately the sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  15. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  16. α-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host α-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ≤4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host α-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the α-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of α-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, β-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid α-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of α-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote α-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation in the upper Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke

    2013-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the upper Yangtze River Valley (YRV) have recently become an increasingly important focus in China because they often cause droughts and floods. Unfortunately, little is known about the climate processes responsible for these events. This paper investigates factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation events in the upper YRV. Our results reveal that a weakened South China Sea summer monsoon trough, intensified Eurasian-Pacific blocking highs, an intensified South Asian High, a southward subtropical westerly jet and an intensified Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) increase atmospheric instability and enhance the convergence of moisture over the upper YRV, which result in more extreme precipitation events. The snow depth over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) in winter and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over three key regions in summer are important external forcing factors in the atmospheric circulation anomalies. Deep snow on the Tibetan Plateau in winter can weaken the subsequent East Asian summer monsoon circulation above by increasing the soil moisture content in summer and weakening the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia. The positive SSTA in the western North Pacific may affect southwestward extension of the WNPSH and the blocking high over northeastern Asia by arousing the East Asian-Pacific pattern. The positive SSTA in the North Atlantic can affect extreme precipitation event frequency in the upper YRV via a wave train pattern along the westerly jet between the North Atlantic and East Asia. A tripolar pattern from west to east over the Indian Ocean can strengthen moisture transport by enhancing Somali cross-equatorial flow.

  18. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    achieved by alcohol-preferring P rats as a result of chronic voluntary exposure may have favorable vs. detrimental effects on lipid profiles in this genetic line, consistent with data supporting beneficial cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption.

  19. Professional development programs in health promotion: tools and processes to favor new practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  20. Contextualized Contribution of Kindness to Favorable Goal- and Circumstantial-Driven Neuropsychological Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kindness involves care and non-judgmental understanding toward someone. As a prosocial inclination, kindness would increase the possibility of favorable interaction with the environment, with a successful adjustment of one's response in novel or challenging circumstances, taking into account rules or goals. This adjustment ability is commonly referred to as executive functions, dependent on the prefrontal and parietal functioning, still under development during late adolescence. This study aimed to investigate if kindness would relate with the executive functions. If so, it would correlate more with measures of self-regulation, mainly dependent on the medial prefrontal corticosubcortical circuits. Also, among self-regulating processes, kindness would be more associated with autonomic responses—choices guided by one's understanding/intention - than with adaptive responses—changes on one's choices triggered by unfavorable circumstances. A sample of 46 (31 female; 18 to 21 years-old healthy college students from the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro attended a clinical interview and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Kindness was measured by the Compassion Scale subscore. Generalized non-linear models for each neuropsychological variable were executed on R, followed by an estimation of weighted parameters for each factor. Significant models which included kindness (weighted parameter Pc > 74 and all of their psychosocial or sociodemographic factors on their maximum expression (Pc > 74 were identified. In a contextualized joint influence with other psychosocial and sociodemographic factors, kindness fits equally goal- and circumstantial- self-regulation, as well as integrative organization of information. Kindness is a principle that optimizes a refreshing and prosocial interaction with the environment. As it anticipates sharing and cooperation behaviors, it might have a primordial function on individual and social

  1. Favorable Vascular Actions of Angiotensin-(1-7) in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction. In contrast to the harmful vascular actions of angiotensin (Ang) II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 product Ang-(1-7) has shown to exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in experimental models through stimulation of the Mas receptor. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7) on vasodilator tone and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstriction in obese patients. Intra-arterial infusion of Ang-(1-7) (10 nmol/min) resulted in significant increase in unstimulated forearm flow ( P =0.03), an effect that was not affected by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 (10 nmol/min; P >0.05). In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, however, forearm flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during Ang-(1-7) administration compared with saline (both P >0.05). During infusion of regular insulin (0.15 mU/kg per minute), by contrast, endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced by Ang-(1-7) ( P =0.04 versus saline), whereas endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside was not modified ( P =0.91). Finally, Ang-(1-7) decreased the vasodilator response to endothelin A receptor blockade (BQ-123; 10 nmol/min) compared with saline (6±1% versus 93±17%; P obese patients Ang-(1-7) has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also to blunt endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone. These findings provide support for targeting Ang-(1-7) to counteract the hemodynamic abnormalities of human obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Muhammad M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD age was 32(9 year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002. Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p vs. 8[4,9], p vs. 5[2,7], p  Conclusions We conclude that: 1 most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2 mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3 there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4 financial (especially in females and medical (especially in males incentives reduced preference.

  3. Favorable circulatory system outcomes as adjuvant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsienhsueh Elley Chiu

    Full Text Available This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG,and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases.We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9 system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment and those who did not.The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437 because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission.We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.

  4. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  5. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  6. Origins of pressure-induced protein transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikian, Tigran V; Macgregor, Robert B

    2009-12-18

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pressure-induced protein denaturation can be analyzed based on the pressure-dependent differences in the apparent volume occupied by amino acids inside the protein and when they are exposed to water in an unfolded conformation. We present here an analysis for the peptide group and the 20 naturally occurring amino acid side chains based on volumetric parameters for the amino acids in the interior of the native state, the micelle-like interior of the pressure-induced denatured state, and the unfolded conformation modeled by N-acetyl amino acid amides. The transfer of peptide groups from the protein interior to water becomes increasingly favorable as pressure increases. Thus, solvation of peptide groups represents a major driving force in pressure-induced protein denaturation. Polar side chains do not appear to exhibit significant pressure-dependent changes in their preference for the protein interior or solvent. The transfer of nonpolar side chains from the protein interior to water becomes more unfavorable as pressure increases. We conclude that a sizeable population of nonpolar side chains remains buried inside a solvent-inaccessible core of the pressure-induced denatured state. At elevated pressures, this core may become packed almost as tightly as the interior of the native state. The presence and partial disappearance of large intraglobular voids is another driving force facilitating pressure-induced denaturation of individual proteins. Our data also have implications for the kinetics of protein folding and shed light on the nature of the folding transition state ensemble.

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How common are pressure sores ... likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in ...

  8. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  11. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  12. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  13. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  14. A modeling of the structure and favorable H-docking sites and defects for the high-pressure silica polymorph stishovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Cox, D. F.; Ross, N. L.

    Employing first-principles methods, the docking sites for H were determined and H, Al, and vacancy defects were modeled with an infinite periodic array of super unit cells each consisting of 27 contiguous symmetry nonequivalent unit cells of the crystal structure of stishovite. A geometry optimization of the super-cell structure reproduces the observed bulk structure within the experimental error when P1 translational symmetry was assumed and an array of infinite extent was generated. A mapping of the valence electrons for the structure displays mushroom-shaped isosurfaces on the O atom, one on each side of the plane of the OSi3 triangle in the nonbonded region. An H atom, placed in a cell near the center of the super cell, was found to dock upon geometry optimization at a distance of 1.69 Å from the O atom with the OH vector oriented nearly perpendicular to the plane of the triangle such that the OH vector makes a angle of 91° with respect to [001]. However, an optimization of a super cell with an Al atom replacing Si and an H atom placed nearby in a centrally located cell resulted in an OH distance of 1.02 Å with the OH vector oriented perpendicular to [001] as observed in infrared studies. The geometry-optimized position of the H atom was found to be in close agreement with that (0.44, 0.12, 0.0) determined in an earlier study of the theoretical electron density distribution. The docking of the H atom at this site was found to be 330 kJ mol-1 more stable than a docking of the atom just off the shared OO edge of the octahedra as determined for rutile. A geometry optimization of a super cell with a missing Si generated a vacant octahedra that is 20% larger than that of the SiO6 octahedra. The valence electron density distribution displayed by the two-coordinate O atoms that coordinate the vacant octahedral site is very similar to those displayed by the bent SiOSi angles in coesite. The internal distortions induced by the defect were found to diminish rather rapidly with distance, with the structure annealing to that observed in the bulk crystal to within about three coordination spheres.

  15. Streamwise Fluctuations of Vortex Breakdown at High Reynolds Numbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connelly, Jonathan S

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterization of the dependence on the flow geometry of the stream wise fluctuations of the stagnation point of vortex breakdown in axisymmetric tubes and over delta wing aircraft...

  16. Axisymmetric Synthetic Jet Actuators with Large Streamwise Dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Jozef; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2013), s. 2862-2877 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * resonance frequency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2013 http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/1.J052504

  17. Streamwise-Localized Solutions with natural 1-fold symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Willis, Ashley; Hof, Björn

    2014-11-01

    It has been proposed in recent years that turbulence is organized around unstable invariant solutions, which provide the building blocks of the chaotic dynamics. In direct numerical simulations of pipe flow we show that when imposing a minimal symmetry constraint (reflection in an axial plane only) the formation of turbulence can indeed be explained by dynamical systems concepts. The hypersurface separating laminar from turbulent motion, the edge of turbulence, is spanned by the stable manifolds of an exact invariant solution, a periodic orbit of a spatially localized structure. The turbulent states themselves (turbulent puffs in this case) are shown to arise in a bifurcation sequence from a related localized solution (the upper branch orbit). The rather complex bifurcation sequence involves secondary Hopf bifurcations, frequency locking and a period doubling cascade until eventually turbulent puffs arise. In addition we report preliminary results of the transition sequence for pipe flow without symmetry constraints.

  18. Ugandan Women's View of the IUD: Generally Favorable but Many Have Misperceptions About Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twesigye, Rogers; Buyungo, Peter; Kaula, Henry; Buwembo, Dennis

    2016-08-11

    Between 2001 and 2006, IUD use in Uganda stagnated at 0.2% among women of reproductive age (WRA) ages 15-49. By 2011, IUD use had increased slightly to 0.4%. Recent studies report a significant increase in IUD use to 3.8%, but it is still low. Because the IUD is a little-used method in Uganda, we assessed the acceptability of the IUD by surveying women about their perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,505 WRA exiting public and private health facilities in Uganda. We collected information on women's attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the IUD, as well as their perceptions about its availability. We classified women's responses according to a behavior change framework with 3 summary constructs: opportunity (structural factors that influence behavior), ability (skills to perform the behavior), and motivation (self-interest in adopting the behavior). As these 3 types of factors are more favorable to the desired behavior (in this case, use of the IUD), individuals are more likely to perform the behavior. Cross-tabulations compared the percentage results of perceptions and knowledge by key background characteristics. Most (87.8%) of the surveyed women had heard of the IUD, and nearly two-thirds had a positive attitude toward the method. But a lower percentage (38.6%) had accurate information about the IUD and more than half (51.6%) did not think the method was available in a nearby facility. More than half of the women believed incorrectly that the IUD can damage the womb (57%), that it reduces sexual pleasure (54%), and that it can cause cancer (58%). Current use of family planning or of a modern method specifically was positively associated with awareness and accurate knowledge and beliefs about the IUD. Married women had significantly higher awareness of the IUD than single women, and they had better knowledge and belief scores. The type of facility used for health care services (public

  19. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  20. Lower-energy radiofrequency thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prediction of a favorable treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ryozo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated short- and long-term results of lower-energy radiofrequency transurethral thermotherapy (TURT) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and we investigated the predictors for a favorable treatment outcome. A total of 106 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia underwent TURT, with TP10 used on 65 patients and Thermex I used on 41 patients. The assessment protocol consisted of international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, urodynamic study, dates of additional treatments and prostate examinations using transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Kaplan Meier survival analyses and logrank tests were used to assess an additional treatment-free period. At 3 months, the mean IPSS and QOL index had significantly decreased from 14.9 to 8.5 and from 4.2 to 2.5, respectively. Mean maximum flow rate had slightly but significantly increased from 11.4 to 11.9 ml per second. In accordance with guidelines proposed by the Japanese Urological Association, the overall clinical efficacy rate was 26.4%, including excellent, 7.5% and good, 18.9%. The efficacy rate was maintained for up to three years (29%) after the treatments in 31 patients who were able to be completely reevaluated. High IPSS and QOL index score were the predictors for short-term treatment outcome. Of the 106 patients, 76 were assessed by MRI before and 10 to 14 days after the treatment. The ranges of post-treatment-increased T2 signal were inversely associated with prostate volume. Kaplan Meier analysis indicated that 55% of the patients remained on TURT monotherapy five years after the treatment. Additional treatment-free periods were significantly longer in patients with an IPSS of 15 or less, with a QOL index of 4 or less, with a maximum flow rate of 10 ml per second or more, with a transition zone ratio of less than 0.4, or with a Schaefer obstruction grade of II or less at baseline. In conclusion, lower-energy radiofrequency

  1. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    for which active growth could be expected, and phylotypes that are most likely in the state of endospores, in all the sites. In summary, our results suggest that diversified survival strategies, including sporulation and metabolic adaptations, explain the biological success of EFF in geothermal and natural springs, and that multiple extreme environmental factors favor the prevalence of EFF.

  2. FADS1 rs174549 Polymorphism May Predict a Favorable Response to Chemoradiotherapy in Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Yan, Lingjun; Qiu, Yu; Lin, Lisong; Cai, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene variant is a novel susceptibility marker for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma identified by a recent genome-wide association study, but it is still unclear whether this genetic variant continues to influence oral cancer recurrence or death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and its interaction with postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the prognosis of oral cancer. A prospective cohort study involving 304 oral cancer patients with surgical resection was conducted in Fujian, China. Demographic and clinical data (adjuvant therapy types, histologic types, clinical stage, etc.) were extracted from medical records, and follow-up data were obtained by telephone interviews. We collected 5 to 8 mL of venous blood from all patients for DNA extraction, and rs174549 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assays (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). A Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to assess the association between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as overall survival, in oral cancer. Carrying the AA genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PFS: The hazard ratio was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.93) for the codominant model and 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.94) for the recessive model. Moreover, better PFS was particularly obvious in patients who had received chemoradiotherapy. A positive multiplicative interaction between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and chemoradiotherapy was observed for PFS (P = .036). No significant association was found between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and overall survival. Our study suggests, for the first time, that FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism is a potentially independent and favorable factor in predicting oral cancer PFS especially for patients who undergo chemoradiotherapy, and it may serve as a potential target for individualized treatment in the future

  3. Favorable neonatal outcomes among immigrants in Taiwan: evidence of healthy immigrant mother effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Liao, Hua-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chang, Pei-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-07-01

    . Evidence of a healthy immigrant mother effect on neonatal health is clear. Despite lower parental education, advancing paternal age, and spatial distribution disparity, babies born to married immigrant mothers in Taiwan had favorable neonatal outcomes.

  4. Are Press Depictions of Affordable Care Act Beneficiaries Favorable to Policy Durability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    status, age, gender, and race/ethnicity appear to receive little attention. Existing literature suggests that these portrayal patterns may both support and limit ACA durability. In favor of durability is that ACA beneficiaries are depicted in terms that have been associated with deservingness in past American social policy--particularly being cast as workers and insiders. Yet, the results also give three reasons for caution. First, ACA insurance-losers are also portrayed as deserving. Second, it is unclear how the portrayal patterns found may impact the durability of the ACA's efforts to cut insurance disparities by age, health status, and especially race/ethnicity. Third, portrayals' strong casting of beneficiaries as workers, and limited attention to beneficiaries' economic heterogeneity and to young adults, may do little to help cultivate beneficiary political engagement around the ACA.

  5. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR.

  6. «En favor de las víctimas de la guerra»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal representation given to Cardinal Gomá in December 1936, sending Ildebrando Antoniutti as apostolic delegate in humanitarian mission in July, remained at its lowest level relations between the Holy See with the government of Franco. The situation changed in 1937. The nuncio Gaetano Cicognani did not arrive until June 1938. Discrete steps of a secret diplomacy advised in September 1937 to formalize the relationship, at its lowest. Antoniutti and Pablo de Churruca were named Responsible of Affairs, in Burgos, and to the Holy See, in a respective way. The collective letter of the bishops helped to improve the image of «national» Spain before the Catholics in other countries. The doctrinal position in which these facts were inserted was fixed at three encyclicals published in March 1937. They condemned the religious persecution of communism, nazism and the fear of a desire to runaway of the persecution forgiving people and fighting for justice for the working classesLa representación oficiosa dada al cardenal Gomá en diciembre de 1936, el envío Ildebrando Antoniutti como delegado apostólico en julio en misión humanitaria, mantuvieron bajo mínimos las relaciones de la Santa Sede con el Gobierno de Franco. La situación no cambió en 1937. El nuncio Gaetano Cicognani no llegó hasta junio de 1938. Los pasos discretos de una diplomacia secreta aconsejaron en septiembre de 1937 formalizar las relaciones, en su nivel más bajo. Antoniutti y Pablo de Churruca fueron nombrados encargados de negocios, en Burgos y ante la Santa Sede. La carta colectiva de los obispos ayudó a mejorar la imagen los nacionales ante los católicos de otros países. La posición doctrinal en que se insertan estos hechos quedó fijada en las tres encíclicas publicadas en marzo de 1937. En ella se denuncia la persecución religiosa del comunismo, el temor al nazismo y el deseo de salir de la persecución personando y luchando por la justicia a favor de las clases

  7. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2008-01-01

    operation. Finally, I will end the paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR.

  8. Message sidedness in advertising: the moderating roles of need for cognition and time pressure in persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti

    2011-08-01

    Persuasion has been extensively researched for decades. Much of this research has focused on different message tactics and their effects on persuasion (e.g., Chang & Chou, 2008; Lafferty, 1999). This research aims to assess whether the persuasion of a specific type of message is influenced by need for cognition (NFC) and time pressure. The 336 undergraduates participated in a 2 (message sidedness: one-sided/two-sided) × 3 (time pressure: low/moderate/high) between-subjects design. Results indicate that two-sided messages tend to elicit more favorable ad attitudes than one-sided messages. As compared with low-NFC individuals, high-NFC individuals are likely to express more favorable ad attitudes, brand attitudes and purchase intention. Moderate time pressure tends to lead to more favorable ad attitudes than low time pressure and high time pressure. In addition, moderate time pressure is likely to elicit more favorable brand attitudes and purchase intentions than high time pressure, but does not elicit more favorable brand attitudes and purchase intentions than low time pressure. Furthermore, when high-NFC individuals are under low or moderate time pressure, two-sided messages are more persuasive than one-sided messages; however, message sidedness does not differentially affect the persuasion when high-NFC individuals are pressed for time. In contrast, one-sided messages are more persuasive than two-sided messages when low-NFC individuals are under low or high time pressure, and two-sided messages are more persuasive than one-sided messages when low-NFC individuals are under moderate time pressure. © 2011 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  10. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas basin, northeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; Strand, J.R.; Reid, B.E.; Phillips, W.R.

    1977-12-01

    Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The formation contains sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that are considered favorable for uranium deposition. Field investigations consisted of section measuring, rock sampling, and ground radiometric reconnaissance. North-south and east-west cross sections of the basin were prepared from well logs and measured sections. Petrographic, chemical, and spectrographic analyses were conducted on selected samples. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic information were used to determine depositional environments. The most favorable potential host rocks include red to pink, coarse-grained, poorly sorted, feldspathic to arkosic lenticular sandstones with stacked sandstone thicknesses of more than 20 ft and sandstone-to-shale ratios between 1:1 and 2:1. The sandstone is interbedded with mudstone and contains carbonaceous debris and anomalous concentrations of uranium locally. Areas of maximum favorability are found in a braided-stream, alluvial-plain depositional environment in the north-central part of the Las Vegas basin. There, carbonaceous material is well preserved, probably due to rapid subsidence and burial. Furthermore, uranium favorability is highest in the lower half of the formation because carbonaceous wood and plant fragments, as well as known uranium deposits, are concentrated in this zone. Piedmont deposits in the north and east, and meander-belt, alluvial-plain deposits in the south, are not considered favorable because of the paucity of uranium deposits and a minimum of carbonaceous material

  11. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, J.; Langford, F.F.; Ojakangas, R.W.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  12. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum Haya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP (N = 2327, a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10% experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not

  13. Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Justin; Wheatley, Matthew; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Osborne, Anwar; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Hung, Olivia; Butler, Javed; Ross, Michael

    2013-06-01

    ) among patients admitted from the OU (p time was not significantly different between the comparison groups at both 30 and 90 days of follow-up. Selected acute heart failure (HF) patients managed by a rapid treatment protocol in the OU demonstrated favorable hospital use, with discharged patients using fewer bed-days and demonstrating readmission rates that were not higher than admitted patients. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    less preferred mandated choice with medical incentive option (7[4,9] vs. 5[2,7], p < 0.001). There was no association between consenting options ranking scores and age, health status, education level, or knowing an organ donor or recipient. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2) mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3) there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4) financial (especially in females) and medical (especially in males) incentives reduced preference. PMID:23173834

  15. Favorable outcome of Fournier gangrene in two patients with diabetes mellitus on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Darlene; Regmi, Anil; Last, Reuben; Wiggins, Brenda; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2014-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG), a form of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitals, with high morbidity and mortality in the general population, carries the additional risk of involvement of the peritoneal catheter tunnel and peritoneal cavity in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe two men with diabetes who developed FG in the course of PD. Computed tomography showed no extension of FG to the abdominal wall, and spent peritoneal dialysate was clear in both patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage and early aggressive debridement followed by negative-pressure wound therapy and repeated debridement led to improvements in clinical status in both cases. Surgical closure and healing of the wound was achieved in one patient; the wound of the second patient is healing, but remains open. Both patients experienced prolonged hospitalization, with a serious decline in nutrition status. In patients on PD, FG can be treated successfully. However, additional measures are required to evaluate for potential involvement of the PD apparatus and the peritoneal cavity in the infectious process; and prolonged hospitalization, worsening nutrition, and multiple surgical interventions can result.

  16. EGFR mutations predict a favorable outcome for malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma with Tarceva therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haisheng; Wan, Yunyan; Tian, Guangyan; Liu, Qinghua; Kang, Yanmeng; Li, Yuye; Yao, Zhouhong; Lin, Dianjie

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of Tarceva treatment for malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by metastatic lung adenocarcinomas. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who failed first-line chemotherapy drug treatment were divided into a mutation and a non-mutation group according to the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Each patient received closed drainage combined with simple negative pressure suction after thoracoscopic talc poudrage pleurodesis and oral Tarceva treatment. Short-term and long-term clinical therapeutic effects of Tarceva were evaluated. The EGFR mutation rate in pleural metastatic tissues of lung adenocarcinoma acquired through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was higher compared to that in surgical resection specimens, plasma specimens and pleural effusion specimens compared to previously reported results. There were significant statistical differences in the average extubation time (ppleural effusion (ppleural effusion 4 weeks after surgery (ppleural hypertrophy in the mutation group was significantly higher compared to the non-mutation group (ppleural hypertrophy was significantly reduced (ppleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma with Tarceva therapy. Detection of EGFR mutations may determine the responsiveness of malignant pleural effusion to Tarceva treatment.

  17. Favorable Cardiovascular Health Is Associated With Lower Health Care Expenditures and Resource Utilization in a Large US Employee Population: The Baptist Health South Florida Employee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Guzman, Henry; Younus, Adnan; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur S; Veledar, Emir; Katzen, Barry; Calitz, Chris; Sanchez, Eduardo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-13

    To examine the association of favorable cardiovascular health (CVH) status with 1-year health care expenditures and resource utilization in a large health care employee population. Employees of Baptist Health South Florida participated in a health risk assessment from January 1 through September 30, 2014. Information on dietary patterns, physical activity, blood pressure, blood glucose level, total cholesterol level, and smoking were collected. Participants were categorized into CVH profiles using the American Heart Association's ideal CVH construct as optimal (6-7 metrics), moderate (3-5 metrics), and low (0-2 metrics). Two-part econometric models were used to analyze health care expenditures. Of 9097 participants (mean ± SD age, 42.7±12.1 years), 1054 (11.6%) had optimal, 6945 (76.3%) had moderate, and 1098 (12.1%) had low CVH profiles. The mean annual health care expenditures among those with a low CVH profile was $10,104 (95% CI, $8633-$11,576) compared with $5824 (95% CI, $5485-$6164) and $4282 (95% CI, $3639-$4926) in employees with moderate and optimal CVH profiles, respectively. In adjusted analyses, persons with optimal and moderate CVH had a $2021 (95% CI, -$3241 to -$801) and $940 (95% CI, -$1560 to $80) lower mean expenditure, respectively, than those with low CVH. This trend remained even after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions as well as across all demographic subgroups. Similarly, health care resource utilization was significantly lower in those with optimal CVH profiles compared with those with moderate or low CVH profiles. Favorable CVH profile is associated with significantly lower total medical expenditures and health care utilization in a large, young, ethnically diverse, and fully insured employee population. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrients, High Light and Shallow Depths Favor the Expansion of the Brown Macroalgae Turbinaria ornata in the Coral Reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, M.; Cordoba, G.; Rogers, J.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs provide food, recreation and economic resources for billions of people. Despite this importance, anthropogenic stressors including climate change and nutrification threaten coral reefs globally, causing phase-shifts to algal dominated ecosystems and loss of coral habitats. Throughout the tropical South Pacific, the brown macroalgae Turbinaria ornata is expanding its range and now dominates areas where corals used to thrive, especially shallow areas on fringing reefs of French Polynesia. Abiotic factors like light and nutrient availability could enhance the expansion of T. ornata by promoting its growth or by making it physically tougher, which could reduce herbivory pressure and enhance its survival in high energy zones. To understand the abiotic factors favoring growth and survival of T. ornata in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, we conducted a field experiment testing the effect of nutrients (+/- fertilizer), depth (1m within Turbinaria zone, 1.5m at border, 2m below depth distribution), and light (+/- shade) on the growth and toughness of T. ornata. Three-factor ANOVA showed that an interaction between nutrients and light favored T. ornata biomass accumulation (p=0.04). In addition, T. ornata from shallow depths were significantly tougher than those at intermediate depths (p=0.01). These results imply that nutrient enrichment combined with high light levels common in shallow coral reefs may promote growth and expansion of T. ornata to near-shore reef environments. Increased survival and population growth is likely further enhanced by increased toughness of T. ornata in shallow areas, which may limit herbivore grazing and improve survival in strong wave action or currents. Future research should examine whether reducing nutrient loading to coastal waters may limit the expansion of T. ornata in the South Pacific.

  19. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  20. Unit Reynolds number, Mach number and pressure gradient effects on laminar-turbulent transition in two-dimensional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian

    2018-05-01

    The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to

  1. Radiation therapy for chest wall recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy in a favorable subgroup of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R. Alex; Antell, Andrew; Schultz, Delray J.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term outcome after radiation therapy for local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy is generally poor. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term outcome for a potentially favorable subgroup of patients with chest wall recurrence. Methods and Materials: Of 71 patients with an isolated local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy, 18 were identified who met the following favorable selection criteria: 1) a disease-free interval after mastectomy of 2 years or more, 2) an isolated chest wall recurrence, and 3) tumor size < 3 cm or complete excision of the recurrent disease. All 18 patients were treated with local-regional irradiation between 1967 and 1988. Radiotherapy (RT) was delivered to the chest wall to a median total dose of 60 Gy (range 30-66 Gy). Four patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and six patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 8.4 years, nine of 18 patients were alive and free of disease. The 10-year actuarial overall and cause-specific survivals were 72% and 77%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival and local control were 42% and 86%, respectively. Conclusion: Treatment for a local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy in a favorable subgroup of patients results in a high rate of long-term survival as well as excellent local control. Aggressive treatment is warranted in this favorable subgroup of patients. 1998 Elsevier Science Inc

  2. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  3. Comorbidity and favorable neurologic outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in patients of 70 years and older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesems, Stefanie G.; Blom, Marieke T.; van der Pas, Martine H. A.; Hulleman, Michiel; van de Glind, Esther M. M.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Tan, Hanno L.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced age is reported to be associated with lower survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to establish survival rate and neurological outcome at hospital discharge after OHCA in older patients and evaluated whether pre-OHCA comorbidity was associated with favorable

  4. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of upper cretaceous, paleocene, and lower eocene rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.L.; Dunagan, J.F. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural basin of Laramide age. Previous work dealing with the Bighorn Basin was reviewed, and field investigations were carried out in the spring and summer of 1976. Subsurface data were collected and results of surface and subsurface investigations were evaluated with respect to uranium favorability. Precambrian plutonic and metamorphic rocks and Tertiary tuffaceous rocks in the Bighorn Basin and bordering uplifts are considered insignificant as source rocks, although the Wiggins Formation (White River equivalent) cannot be evaluated as a possible source because of a lack of data. Potential host rocks locally show only limited favorability. Lithology of strata exposed along the western and southern basin margins is more favorable than that of rocks in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but there is little organic material, pyrite, or other reducing agents in these rocks. Strata of the Lance, Polecat Bench, and Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin are considered generally unfavorable for sandstone uranium deposits

  5. The Bias in Favor of Venture Capital Finance in U.S. Entrepreneurial Education: At the Expense of Trade Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…

  6. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control-Part I: Non-Axisymmetrical Flow in Centrifugal Compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingyang; Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki; Huenteler, Joern; Li, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    This is Part I of a two-part paper documenting the development of a novel asymmetric flow control method to improve the stability of a high-pressure-ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressor. Part I focuses on the nonaxisymmetrical flow in a centrifugal compressor induced by the nonaxisymmetrical geometry of the volute while Part II describes the development of an asymmetric flow control method to avoid the stall on the basis of the characteristic of nonaxisymmetrical flow. To understand the asymmetries, experimental measurements and corresponding numerical simulation were carried out. The static pressure was measured by probes at different circumferential and stream-wise positions to gain insights about the asymmetries. The experimental results show that there is an evident nonaxisymmetrical flow pattern throughout the compressor due to the asymmetric geometry of the overhung volute. The static pressure field in the diffuser is distorted at approximately 90 deg in the rotational direction of the volute tongue throughout the diffuser. The magnitude of this distortion slightly varies with the rotational speed. The magnitude of the static pressure distortion in the impeller is a function of the rotational speed. There is a significant phase shift between the static pressure distributions at the leading edge of the splitter blades and the impeller outlet. The numerical steady state simulation neglects the aforementioned unsteady effects found in the experiments and cannot predict the phase shift, however, a detailed asymmetric flow field structure is obviously obtained.

  7. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. The probabilistic structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels under pressurized thermal shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingya, E-mail: chenmingya@cgnpc.com.cn [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Feng; Wang, Rongshan; Yu, Weiwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Donghui [State Nuclear Power Plant Service Company, 200237 Shanghai (China); Zhang, Guodong; Xue, Fei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, 215004 Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The methodology and the case study of the FAVOR software were shown. • The over-conservative parameters in the DFM were shown. • The differences between the PFM and the DFM were discussed. • The limits in the current FAVOR were studied. - Abstract: The pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event poses a potentially significant challenge to the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during the long time operation (LTO). In the USA, the “screening criteria” for maximum allowable embrittlement of RPV material, which forms part of the USA regulations, is based on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM). The FAVOR software developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is used to establish the regulation. As the technical basis of FAVOR is not the most widely-used and codified methodologies, such as the ASME and RCC-M codes, in most countries (with exception of the USA), proving RPV integrity under the PTS load is still based on the deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM). As the maximum nil-ductility-transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) of the beltline material for the 54 French RPVs after 40 years operation is higher than the critical values in the IAEA-TECDOC-1627 and European NEA/CSNI/R(99)3 reports (while still obviously lower than the “screening criteria” of the USA), it may conclude that the RPV will not be able to run in the LTO based on the DFM. In the FAVOR, the newest developments of fracture mechanics are applied, such as the warm pre-stress (WPS) effect, more accurate estimation of the flaw information and less conservation of the toughness (such as the three-parameter Weibull distribution of the fracture toughness). In this paper, the FAVOR software is first applied to show both the methodology and the results of the PFM, and then the limits in the current FAVOR software (Version 6.1, which represents the baseline for re-assessing the regulation of 10 CFR 50.61), lack of the impact of the constraint effect

  9. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  10. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective.

  11. To repair or not to repair: with FAVOR there is no question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetto, Anthony; Schulz, Kristian; Tabbone, Gilles; Himmelhaus, Michael; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In the mask shop the challenges associated with today's advanced technology nodes, both technical and economic, are becoming increasingly difficult. The constant drive to continue shrinking features means more masks per device, smaller manufacturing tolerances and more complexity along the manufacturing line with respect to the number of manufacturing steps required. Furthermore, the extremely competitive nature of the industry makes it critical for mask shops to optimize asset utilization and processes in order to maximize their competitive advantage and, in the end, profitability. Full maximization of profitability in such a complex and technologically sophisticated environment simply cannot be achieved without the use of smart automation. Smart automation allows productivity to be maximized through better asset utilization and process optimization. Reliability is improved through the minimization of manual interactions leading to fewer human error contributions and a more efficient manufacturing line. In addition to these improvements in productivity and reliability, extra value can be added through the collection and cross-verification of data from multiple sources which provides more information about our products and processes. When it comes to handling mask defects, for instance, the process consists largely of time consuming manual interactions that are error prone and often require quick decisions from operators and engineers who are under pressure. The handling of defects itself is a multiple step process consisting of several iterations of inspection, disposition, repair, review and cleaning steps. Smaller manufacturing tolerances and features with higher complexity contribute to a higher number of defects which must be handled as well as a higher level of complexity. In this paper the recent efforts undertaken by ZEISS to provide solutions which address these challenges, particularly those associated with defectivity, will be presented. From automation

  12. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  13. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  14. The linearized pressure Poisson equation for global instability analysis of incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilis, Vassilis

    2017-12-01

    The linearized pressure Poisson equation (LPPE) is used in two and three spatial dimensions in the respective matrix-forming solution of the BiGlobal and TriGlobal eigenvalue problem in primitive variables on collocated grids. It provides a disturbance pressure boundary condition which is compatible with the recovery of perturbation velocity components that satisfy exactly the linearized continuity equation. The LPPE is employed to analyze instability in wall-bounded flows and in the prototype open Blasius boundary layer flow. In the closed flows, excellent agreement is shown between results of the LPPE and those of global linear instability analyses based on the time-stepping nektar++, Semtex and nek5000 codes, as well as with those obtained from the FreeFEM++ matrix-forming code. In the flat plate boundary layer, solutions extracted from the two-dimensional LPPE eigenvector at constant streamwise locations are found to be in very good agreement with profiles delivered by the NOLOT/PSE space marching code. Benchmark eigenvalue data are provided in all flows analyzed. The performance of the LPPE is seen to be superior to that of the commonly used pressure compatibility (PC) boundary condition: at any given resolution, the discrete part of the LPPE eigenspectrum contains converged and not converged, but physically correct, eigenvalues. By contrast, the PC boundary closure delivers some of the LPPE eigenvalues and, in addition, physically wrong eigenmodes. It is concluded that the LPPE should be used in place of the PC pressure boundary closure, when BiGlobal or TriGlobal eigenvalue problems are solved in primitive variables by the matrix-forming approach on collocated grids.

  15. Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaug, J M.; Farber, D L; Blosch, L L; Craig, I M; Hansen, D W; Aracne-Ruddle, C M; Shuh, D K

    1998-01-01

    The phase transformation of(beta)-HMX ( and lt; 0.5% RDX) to the(delta) phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an optically sensitive second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al.[l] in 1978. However the stability field favors the(beta) polymorph over(delta) as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any sensible isotherm. In this experiment strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced(beta) - and gt;(delta) transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The room pressure and temperature(delta) - and gt;(beta) transition is not immediate although it seems to occur over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and so this paper describes our work in progress

  16. Pressure drops in low pressure local boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, Michel; Schleisiek, Karl

    1969-01-01

    For prediction of flow reduction in nuclear research reactors, it was necessary to establish a correlation giving the pressure drop in subcooled boiling for rectangular channels. Measurements of pressure drop on rectangular channel 60 and 90 cm long and with a coolant gap of 1,8 and 3,6 mm were performed in the following range of parameters. -) 3 < pressure at the outlet < 11 bars abs; -) 25 < inlet temperature < 70 deg. C; -) 200 < heat flux < 700 W/cm 2 . It appeared that the usual parameter, relative length in subcooled boiling, was not sufficient to correlate experimental pressure losses on the subcooled boiling length and that there was a supplementary influence of pressure, heat flux and subcooling. With an a dimensional parameter including these terms a correlation was established with an error band of ±10%. With a computer code it was possible to derive the relation giving the overall pressure drop along the channel and to determine the local gradients of pressure drop. These local gradients were then correlated with the above parameter calculated in local conditions. 95 % of the experimental points were computed with an accuracy of ±10% with this correlation of gradients which can be used for non-uniform heated channels. (authors) [fr

  17. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Farach-Carson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males

  18. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  19. Pressure effect on the structural transition of liquid Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanning; Wang Li; Wang Weimin; Liu Xiangfa; Tian Xuelei; Zhang Peng

    2004-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation within the framework of empirical tight-binding potential on the liquid structure of Au under different pressures during the rapid cooling process. The pair correlation function (PCF) and the pair analysis (PA) technique are used to reveal the structural characteristics of liquid Au under normal and high pressures. The split of the second peak of g(r) is associated with the glass transition at the cooling rate of 2.06x10 13 K/s under different pressures. The nearest distance is shortened under high pressures. High-pressure is in favor of FCC-type and BCC-type atomic clusters. The number of icosahedral structures increases in the high temperature region as pressure increase, while high-pressure is not preferable for icosahedra at low temperature. With the increase of the pressure, the possibility that the system forms crystalline structure is enhanced. The influence of a higher pressure on the microstructure of liquid metal is much clearer than that of a lower pressure

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  2. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  3. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  6. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  9. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  10. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  11. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  12. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially prone to pressure sores? play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  14. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  15. Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated derivatives could exert detrimental activities on mitochondria, which might trigger the mitochondrial route of apoptosis. Here, we draw attention to three particular problems: (1) ATP generation linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids demands more oxygen than glucose, thereby enhancing the risk for neurons to become hypoxic; (2) β-oxidation of fatty acids generates superoxide, which, taken together with the poor anti-oxidative defense in neurons, causes severe oxidative stress; (3) the rate of ATP generation based on adipose tissue-derived fatty acids is slower than that using blood glucose as fuel. Thus, in periods of extended continuous and rapid neuronal firing, fatty acid oxidation cannot guarantee rapid ATP generation in neurons. We conjecture that the disadvantages connected with using fatty acids as fuel have created evolutionary pressure on lowering the expression of the β-oxidation enzyme equipment in brain mitochondria to avoid extensive fatty acid oxidation and to favor glucose oxidation in brain.

  16. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  17. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  19. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why ... pressure sores? play_arrow Why is pressure relief so important when sitting in a wheelchair? play_arrow ...

  1. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  2. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  3. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  4. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  5. The experience of forming a favorable image of the territory through marketing: a review of foreign press

    OpenAIRE

    Bacherikova Mariya L.

    2017-01-01

    A favorable image of the territory is a factor of attracting investors, tourists and labor force. Using of image approach to foreign territory management practice is already producing positive effects, but there are some difficulties in Russia, particularly in the Far East. Authors explore scientific publications in a foreign press, describing various marketing techniques used to territorial image forming in foreign countries. The territorial image is its image from the point of view of diff...

  6. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  7. J-ACT II. Differences in rate of valid recanalization and of a favorable outcome by site of MCA occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Teruyuki

    2010-01-01

    The background and purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the effects of alteplase differ with occlusion site of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). An exploratory analysis was made of 57 patients enrolled on the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II). The residual vessel length (mm), determined on pretreatment MR angiography (MRA), was used to reflect the occluded site. The proportions of patients with valid recanalization (modified Mori grade 2-3) at 6 and 24 hours, and a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1 at 3 months) were compared between the groups dichotomized according to their lengths of residual vessel. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to elucidate the predictors of valid recanalization and a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that 5 mm was the practical cutoff length for the dichotomization. In patients with M1 length <5 mm (n=12), the frequencies of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours (16.6%/25.0%) were significantly low compared with those (62.2%/82.2%) of 45 patients with a residual M1 length of ≥5 mm and M2 occlusions (p=0.008 for 6 hours, p<0.001 for 24 hours). The proportion of a favorable outcome was also small in patients with M1 length <5 mm (8.3%), as compared to the others (57.8%, p=0.004). In logistic regression models, the site of MCA occlusion (<5 mm) was the significant predictor of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours and of a favorable outcome. In patients with acute MCA occlusion, residual vessel length <5 mm on MRA can identify poor responders. (author)

  8. Policies in favor of the bicycle development.; Politiques en faveur du developpement du velo. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Kerveillan, A.

    2001-07-01

    This study presents, ten cases of european towns which realized a policy in favor of the bicycle development. With the incitation to the displacement on foot and the public transportation, it is a good and efficient way of environmental quality. For each case, the following points are presented: global policy of the local government, technical aspects and organization, economic, environmental aspects and behavior, future orientations and contacts. (A.L.B.)

  9. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare

  10. The effect of "in favor of myself": preventive program to enhance positive self and body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12-14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented.

  11. A pressure-gradient mechanism for vortex shedding in constricted channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are performed for a Newtonian fluid in a channel having a symmetric constriction modeled by a two-parameter Gaussian distribution on both channel walls. The Reynolds number based on inlet half-channel height and mean inlet velocity ranges from 1 to 3000. Constriction ratios based on the half-channel height of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are considered. The results show that both the Reynolds number and constriction geometry have a significant effect on the behavior of the post-constriction flow field. The Navier–Stokes solutions are observed to experience a number of bifurcations: steady attached flow, steady separated flow (symmetric and asymmetric), and unsteady vortex shedding downstream of the constriction depending on the Reynolds number and constriction ratio. A sequence of events is described showing how a sustained spatially growing flow instability, reminiscent of a convective instability, leads to the vortex shedding phenomenon via a proposed streamwise pressure-gradient mechanism. PMID:24399860

  12. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  13. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  14. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Pressure (Or No Royal Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses how difficult the various problems of pressure, partial pressure, gas laws, and vapor pressure are for students. Outlines the evolution of the concept of pressure, the gas equation for a perfect gas, partial pressures, saturated vapor pressure, Avogadro's hypothesis, Raoult's law, and the vapor pressure of ideal solutions. (JR)

  16. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  17. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  18. Modeling steam pressure under martian lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2013-01-01

    Rootless cones on Mars are a valuable indicator of past interactions between lava and water. However, the details of the lava–water interactions are not fully understood, limiting the ability to use these features to infer new information about past water on Mars. We have developed a model for the pressurization of a dry layer of porous regolith by melting and boiling ground ice in the shallow subsurface. This model builds on previous models of lava cooling and melting of subsurface ice. We find that for reasonable regolith properties and ice depths of decimeters, explosive pressures can be reached. However, the energy stored within such lags is insufficient to excavate thick flows unless they draw steam from a broader region than the local eruption site. These results indicate that lag pressurization can drive rootless cone formation under favorable circumstances, but in other instances molten fuel–coolant interactions are probably required. We use the model results to consider a range of scenarios for rootless cone formation in Athabasca Valles. Pressure buildup by melting and boiling ice under a desiccated lag is possible in some locations, consistent with the expected distribution of ice implanted from atmospheric water vapor. However, it is uncertain whether such ice has existed in the vicinity of Athabasca Valles in recent history. Plausible alternative sources include surface snow or an aqueous flood shortly before the emplacement of the lava flow.

  19. Measurement of Off-Body Velocity, Pressure, and Temperature in an Unseeded Supersonic Air Vortex by Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2008-01-01

    A noninvasive optical method is used to make time-averaged (30 sec) off-body measurements in a supersonic airflow. Seeding of tracer particles is not required. One spatial component of velocity, static pressure, and static temperature are measured with stimulated Raman scattering. The three flow parameters are determined simultaneously from a common sample volume (0.3 by 0.3 by 15 mm) using concurrent measurements of the forward and backward scattered line shapes of a N2 vibrational Raman transition. The capability of this technique is illustrated with laboratory and large-scale wind tunnel testing that demonstrate 5-10% measurement uncertainties. Because the spatial resolution of the present work was improved to 1.5 cm (compared to 20 cm in previous work), it was possible to demonstrate a modest one-dimensional profiling of cross-flow velocity, pressure, and translational temperature through the low-density core of a stream-wise vortex (delta-wing model at Mach 2.8 in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel).

  20. Inhaled Beta Agonist Bronchodilator Does Not Affect Trans-diaphragmatic Pressure Gradient but Decreases Lower Esophageal Sphincter Retention Pressure in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, Leonardo M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Bigatao, Amilcar M; Jardim, Jose R; Patti, Marco G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have a high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) whose pathophysiology seems to be linked to an increased trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and not to a defective esophagogastric barrier. Inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators are a common therapy used by patients with COPD. This drug knowingly not only leads to a decrease in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure, favoring GERD, but also may improve ventilatory parameters, therefore preventing GERD. This study aims to evaluate the effect of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators on the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and the esophagogastric barrier. We studied 21 patients (mean age 67 years, 57 % males) with COPD and GERD. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry and esophageal pH monitoring. Abdominal and thoracic pressure, trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient (abdominal-thoracic pressure), and the LES retention pressure (LES basal pressure-transdiaphragmatic gradient) were measured before and 5 min after inhaling beta agonist bronchodilators. The administration of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators leads to the following: (a) a simultaneous increase in abdominal and thoracic pressure not affecting the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and (b) a decrease in the LES resting pressure with a reduction of the LES retention pressure. In conclusion, inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators not only increase the thoracic pressure but also lead to an increased abdominal pressure favoring GERD by affecting the esophagogastric barrier.

  1. The role of p53 in radiation therapy outcomes for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Mark A.; Gilchrist, Kennedy W.; Voytovich, Marta; Chappell, Richard J.; Verhoven, Bret M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Some prostate cancers may have molecular alterations that render them less responsive to radiation therapy; identification of these alterations before treatment might allow improved treatment optimization. This study investigated whether p53, a potential molecular determinant, could predict long-term radiation therapy outcome in a restricted group of relatively favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated uniformly with irradiation alone. Methods and Materials: This study included 53 patients previously treated with radiotherapy for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer. These patients were selected for relatively low pretreatment PSAs (≤21 ng/mL) and Gleason scores (≤7) to decrease the likelihood of nonlocalized disease, because disease localization was necessary to examine the efficacy of localized radiation therapy. The status of p53 was immunohistochemically assessed in paraffin-embedded pretreatment biopsy specimens, along with appropriate controls. This marker was selected based upon a usable mutation prevalence in early-stage prostate cancer and its potential linkage with radiation response via cell cycle, DNA repair, and cell death pathways. Correlation between p53 mutation and clinical outcome was analyzed in univariate and multivariate fashion and included conventional prognosticators, such as stage, grade, and PSA. Freedom from biochemical failure was determined using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology criteria. Limitations of prior studies were potentially avoided by requiring adequate posttreatment follow-up (median follow-up in nonfailing patients of 5.1 years), as well as pretreatment PSA and Gleason scores that suggested localized disease, and uniformity of treatment. Results: The total group of 53 favorable-to-intermediate-risk patients demonstrated an actuarial biochemical failure rate of 35% at 5 years. Forty percent of all specimens had a greater than 10% labeling index for p53 mutation, and

  2. Pressure vessel failure at high internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A RPV failure due to plastic instability was investigated using the ABAQUS finite element code together with a material model of thermal plasticity for large deformations. Not only rotational symmetric temperature distributions were studied, but also 'hot spots'. Calculations show that merely by the depletion of strength of the material - even at internal wall temperatures well below the melting point of the fuel elements of about 2000/2400 C - the critical internal pressure can decrease to values smaller than the operational pressure of 16 Mpa. (orig.)

  3. Lumpectomy Plus Tamoxifen or Anastrozole With or Without Whole Breast Irradiation in Women With Favorable Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Gnant, Michael; Kwasny, Werner; Tausch, Christoph; Handl-Zeller, Leonore; Pakisch, Brigitte; Taucher, Susanne; Hammer, Josef; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Gero; Schmid, Marianne; Sedlmayer, Felix; Stierer, Michael; Reiner, Georg; Kapp, Karin; Hofbauer, Friedrich; Rottenfusser, Andrea; Poestlberger, Sabine; Haider, Karin; Draxler, Wolfgang; Jakesz, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In women with favorable early breast cancer treated by lumpectomy plus tamoxifen or anastrazole, it remains unclear whether whole breast radiotherapy is beneficial. Methods and Material: Between January 1996 and June 2004, the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) randomly assigned 869 women to receive breast radiotherapy ± boost (n 414) or not (n = 417) after breast-conserving surgery (ABCSG Study 8A). Favorable early breast cancer was specified as tumor size <3 cm, Grading 1 or 2, negative lymph nodes, positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptor status, and manageable by breast-conserving surgery. Breast radiotherapy was performed after lumpectomy with 2 tangential opposed breast fields with mean 50 Gy, plus boost in 71% of patients with mean 10 Gy, in a median of 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was local relapse-free survival; further endpoints were contralateral breast cancer, distant metastases, and disease-free and overall survival. The median follow-up was 53.8 months. Results: The mean age was 66 years. Overall, there were 21 local relapses, with 2 relapses in the radiotherapy group (5-y rate 0.4%) vs. 19 in the no-radiotherapy group (5.1%), respectively (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio 10.2). Overall relapses occurred in 30 patients, with 7 events in the radiotherapy group (5-y rate 2.1%) vs. 23 events in the no-radiotherapy group (6.1%) (p = 0.002, hazard ratio 3.5). No significant differences were found for distant metastases and overall survival. Conclusion: Breast radiotherapy ± boost in women with favorable early breast cancer after lumpectomy combined with tamoxifen/anastrazole leads to a significant reduction in local and overall relapse

  4. Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile Is Associated With Lower Healthcare Costs and Resource Utilization: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Goals emphasize the value of optimizing risk factor status to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to quantify the overall and marginal impact of favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditure and resource utilization in the United States among those with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study population was derived from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Direct and indirect costs were calculated for all-cause healthcare resource utilization. Variables of interest included CVD diagnoses (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dysrhythmias, or heart failure), ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes, and CRF profile (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and obesity). Two-part econometric models were used to study expenditure data. The final study sample consisted of 15 651 MEPS participants (58.5±12 years, 54% female). Overall, 5921 (37.8%) had optimal, 7002 (44.7%) had average, and 2728 (17.4%) had poor CRF profile, translating to 54.2, 64.1, and 24.9 million adults in United States, respectively. Significantly lower health expenditures were noted with favorable CRF profile across CVD status. Among study participants with established CVD, overall healthcare expenditures with optimal and average CRF profile were $5946 and $3731 less compared with those with poor CRF profile. The respective differences were $4031 and $2560 in those without CVD. Favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower medical expenditure and healthcare utilization among individuals with and without established CVD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; González, Hugo; Franz, Dafne; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Osorio, Fabiola; Ugalde, Valentina; Lopez, Ernesto; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Alicia; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation. The reciprocal regulatory effect of DRD3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells favoring Th1 generation and impairing the acquisition of Th2 phenotype was also reproduced using in vitro approaches. Mechanistic analysis indicates that DRD3 signaling evokes suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 expression, a negative regulator of Th2 development, which indirectly favors acquisition of Th1 phenotype. Accordingly, DRD3 deficiency results in exacerbated eosinophil infiltration into the airways of mice undergoing house dust mite-induced allergic response. Interestingly, our results show that, upon chronic inflammatory colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients, DRD3 deficiency not only affects Th1 response, but also the frequency of Th17 cells, suggesting that DRD3 signaling also contributes to Th17 expansion under chronic inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DRD3-mediated signaling in CD4(+) T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of effector lineages, favoring the inflammatory potential of CD4(+) T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  7. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  8. The Effect of “In Favor of Myself”: Preventive Program to Enhance Positive Self and Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. Methods A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12–14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. Results The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. Conclusions In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented. PMID:24265681

  9. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  10. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  11. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  12. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  13. A favor del Plagio

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Arranz

    2007-01-01

    Yo no tengo nada contra el plagio. Ustedes, como lectores, seguramente tampoco. Bueno, tal vez prejuicios. Es lógico que los tengan con tanto artículo condenándolo. Hasta ahora, que yo sepa, nadie ha escrito para defenderlo. Los que sí tienen algo, parece ser, son los autores. Una minoría al fin y al cabo. Ya sé que hay que respetar el derecho de las minorías, pero el asunto del plagio, como tantos otros, deberíamos examinarlo con más detalle, y preguntarnos, por ejemplo, ¿por qué se molestan...

  14. A Favor del Plagio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arranz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Yo no tengo nada contra el plagio. Ustedes, como lectores, seguramente tampoco. Bueno, tal vez prejuicios. Es lógico que los tengan con tanto artículo condenándolo. Hasta ahora, que yo sepa, nadie ha escrito para defenderlo. Los que sí tienen algo, parece ser, son los autores. Una minoría al fin y al cabo. Ya sé que hay que respetar el derecho de las minorías, pero el asunto del plagio, como tantos otros, deberíamos examinarlo con más detalle, y preguntarnos, por ejemplo, ¿por qué se molestan tanto los autores cuando les plagian? ¿En nombre de qué?, sería también una buena pregunta. No me irán a decir a estas alturas que en nombre de la comunidad científica. A fin de cuentas el plagio beneficia la difusión de la ciencia. Los autores se molestan en nombre propio. Naturalmente tienen su derecho, no se lo vamos a discutir, pero, ¿no demuestra eso cierto narcisismo impropio de un científico? ¿La ciencia no es de todos?, como suelen decir en otras ocasiones.

  15. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  16. Pressurized water reactor with reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werres, L.

    1985-01-01

    The pressure vessel has a cylindrical jacket with a domed floor. A guide is arranged on the domed floor to even out the flow in the core. It consists of a cylindrical jacket, whose lower end has slots and fins. These fins are welded to the domed floor. (orig./PW)

  17. Pressurized water reactor with reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werres, L.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure vessel has a cylindrical jacket with a domed floor. A guide is arranged on the domed floor to even out the flow in the core. It consists of a cylindrical jacket, whose lower end has slots and fins. These fins are welded to the domed floor. (DG) [de

  18. Novel Pressure-Sensing Smart Insole System Used for the Prevention of Pressure Ulceration in the Insensate Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson R. Alfonso, BS, BA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Wounds of the foot challenge reconstructive surgeons to manage multiple factors: sensibility, stability, and durability. In this article, we focus on the insensate foot, which poses challenges to wound prevention with its propensity to develop pressure ulceration. The authors present the innovative use of a pressure-sensing smart insole system (SurroSense Rx, Orpyx Medical Technologies Inc., Calgary, Canada in the management of the insensate foot in a patient following foot reconstruction. The pressure-sensing smart insole system provided unique feedback to both patient and provider in ways that contributed to the prevention of pressure ulcer recurrence, as well as highlight the importance of prescribed footwear in both the affected and unaffected foot. Wearable real-time monitoring and feedback faces the challenge of patient adherence. Future studies are indicated to examine the specific behaviors that are associated with favorable outcomes and long-term behavior changes.

  19. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  20. Impact of collateral circulation status on favorable outcomes in thrombolysis treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufuer, Alimu; Wubuli, Atikaimu; Mijiti, Peierdun; Zhou, Jun; Tuerxun, Shabier; Cai, Jian; Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2018-01-01

    Collateral circulation affects the prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated by thrombolysis. The present study performed a systematic assessment of the impact of the collateral circulation status on the outcomes of patients receiving thrombolysis treatment. Relevant full-text articles from the Cochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and PubMed databases published from January 1, 2000 to November 1, 2016 were retrieved. The quality of the studies was assessed and data were extracted by 2 independent investigators. The random-effects model was used to estimate the impact of good vs. poor collateral circulation, as well as baseline characteristics, on the outcome within the series presented as risk ratios. Subgroup analyses explored the potential factors that may interfere with the effects of the collateral circulation status on the outcome. A total of 29 studies comprising 4,053 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. A good collateral circulation status was revealed to have a beneficial effect on favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin scale, 0-3 at 3-6 months; Pcollateral circulation. Good collateral circulation was also associated with a lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (Pcollateral circulation was demonstrated to have a favorable prognostic value regarding the outcome for patients with AIS receiving thrombolysis treatment. Assessment of collateral circulation and penumbra area during pre-treatment imaging within an appropriate time-window prior to thrombolytic therapy will therefore improve the identification of AIS patients who may benefit from thrombolysis treatment.

  1. Uranium favorability of precambrian rocks in the Badger Flats - Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.

    1976-10-01

    The area is approximately 1,800 square miles and extends from Cripple Creek northward to Fairplay and Bailey. The Precambrian rocks include the metamorphic sequences of the Idaho Springs Formation and the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, Silver Plume Granite, Pikes Peak Granite, and Redskin Granite. The known uranium deposits in the area include six vein deposits, three pegmatite occurrences, and one zone of probable secondary enrichment; they have not yielded any significant production. The vein deposits are probably the result of downward percolation of ground water. The zone of secondary uranium enrichment may have formed above a volcanic pipe, vein, or tuffaceous lake bed. Favorability in the area is considered good for both vein and large, disseminated, low-grade uranium deposits. On the bases of known uranium occurrences, favorable structures and host rocks, and a water-sampling program, recommendations are given for exploration. The occurrences in the area have substantial similarities with the Rossing deposit in South-West Africa and the Wheeler Basin uranium occurrence in Grand County, Colorado. 6 figures, 9 tables

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  4. High-pressure crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  5. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  6. Pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) pressure boundary problems is presented. Specifically exempted will be discussions of problems with pumps, valves and steam generators on the basis that they will be covered in other papers. Pressure boundary reliability is examined in the context of real or perceived problems occurring over the past 5 to 6 years since the last IAEA Reliability Symposium. Issues explicitly covered will include the status of the pressurized thermal-shock problem, reliability of inservice inspections with emphasis on examination of the region immediately under the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) cladding, history of piping failures with emphasis on failure modes and mechanisms. Since nondestructive examination is the topic of one session, discussion will be limited to results rather than techniques

  7. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2......BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...

  9. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations with dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.

    2010-08-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in

  10. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  11. Residual structure of Streptococcus mutans biofilm following complete disinfection favors secondary bacterial adhesion and biofilm re-development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Ohsumi

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion.

  12. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments against dermatophytes appear not to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Julie; Bontems, Olympia; Baudraz-Rosselet, Florence; Monod, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium onychomycoses are weakly responsive or unresponsive to standard onychomycosis treatments with oral terbinafine and itraconazole. To examine whether the use of terbinafine and itraconazole, which are highly effective in fighting Trichophyton onychomycoses, could be a cause of the high incidence of Fusarium nail infections. Polymerase chain reaction methods were used to detect both Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton spp. in nails of patients who had either received treatment previously or not. No significant microbiological differences were found between treated and untreated patients. In 24 of 79 cases (30%), Fusarium spp. was detected in samples of patients having had no previous antifungal therapy and when Trichophyton spp. grew in culture. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments do not appear to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in onychomycosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Estado neoliberal y acumulación por desposesión a favor del capital glocal financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Merchand Rojas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este trabajo es analizar por qué la acumulación por desposesión es una de lasmodalidades que se implementan indiscriminadamente en todos los órdenes de la economía mundial y representa la mejor forma para estabilizar el sistema capitalista a favor del capital financiero y en contra de la fuerza de trabajo. Las condiciones en que el capital se impone en cada espacio económico difieren en sus métodos y maneras de reproducirse; no obstante su carácter intrínseco de enajenar o externalizar lo internalizado en beneficio de pocos (sobre todo, de los dueños del capital se aplica por igual en todos los países, independientemente de si estamos hablado de un país de grado alto o bajo de desarrollo

  14. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  15. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  16. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Oligometastatic state predicts a favorable outcome for renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastasis under the treatment of sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolin; Gu, Weijie; Zhang, Hailiang; Zhu, Yao; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2016-05-03

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome. 22 patients were classified into oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with a median OS of 30.1 months (95%CI: 26.3 to 33.8 months). The 45 patients with non-oligometastatic state had a median OS of 12.7 months (95%CI: 9.43 to 16.0 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant difference between them (Log Rank test p<0.001). When we set patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases as a single group, there was still significant difference between oligometastatic state group and non-oligometastatic state groups. In multivariate Cox proportion hazard ratio analysis, metastatic states (p=0.012), MSKCC score (p=0.002), ECOG (p=0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (p=0.000) were significantly associated with prognosis. The integration of metastatic state into the MSKCC risk model improved the c-index from 0.651 to 0.752. 67 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center with bone metastatic RCC were divided into 2 metastatic states. One included those with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with less than 5 sites of bone metastasis. The other involved those patients with multiple bone metastases (at least 5 sites) or together with other sites of metastasis. Then patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases were set into a single group. RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome.

  18. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  19. Citation bias favoring positive clinical trials of thrombolytics for acute ischemic stroke: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-09-28

    Citation bias occurs when positive trials involving a medical intervention receive more citations than neutral or negative trials of similar quality. Several large clinical trials have studied the use of thrombolytic agents for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with differing results, thereby presenting an opportunity to assess these trials for evidence of citation bias. We compared citation rates among positive, neutral, and negative trials of alteplase (tPA) and other thrombolytic agents for stroke. We used a 2014 Cochrane Review of thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute stroke to identify non-pilot, English-language stroke trials published in MEDLINE-indexed journals comparing thrombolytic therapy with control. We classified trials as positive if there was a statistically significant primary outcome difference favoring the intervention, neutral if there was no difference in primary outcome, or negative for a significant primary outcome difference favoring the control group. Trials were also considered negative if safety concerns supported stopping the trial early. Using Scopus, we collected citation counts through 2015 and compared citation rates according to trial outcomes. Eight tPA trials met inclusion criteria: two were positive, four were neutral, and two were negative. The two positive trials received 9080 total citations, the four neutral trials received 4847 citations, and the two negative trials received 1096 citations. The mean annual per-trial citation rates were 333 citations per year for positive trials, 96 citations per year for neutral trials, and 35 citations per year for negative trials. Trials involving other thrombolytic agents were not cited as often, though as with tPA, positive trials were cited more frequently than neutral or negative trials. Positive trials of tPA for ischemic stroke are cited approximately three times as often as neutral trials, and nearly 10 times as often as negative trials, indicating the presence of

  20. Assessing the conditions favorable for the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Tuonamu area Qiangtang basin, Qinghai–Tibetan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianglin; Wang Jian; Fu Xiugen; Zheng Chenggang; Chen Yanting

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is a pioneer research on the exploration of gas hydrate in Qiangtang basin. ► The factors influencing the stable of gas hydrate in Tuonamu area were studied. ► Simulation shows that gas hydrate stable zone is about 300 m thick in target area. ► Source condition is the key factor for the formation of gas hydrate in this area. ► The areas around the deeper faults are favorable targets for gas hydrate. - Abstract: Qiangtang basin, which is located in the largest continuous permafrost area in Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, is expected to be a strategic area of gas hydrate exploitation in China. However, relatively little work has been done on the exploration of gas hydrate in this area. In this work, we evaluated the factors controlling the formation of gas hydrate in the Tuonamu area and provided a preliminary insight into gas hydrate distribution in it on the basis of the core samples, seismic data and laboratory analysis. It can be concluded that the source rock in the deeper formation would be dominant thermogenic source for the formation of gas hydrate in Tuonamu area. The thickness of gas hydrate stable zone in this area is about 300 m. The gas hydrate in the area most probably is in the form of gas-hydrate-water. The source condition is the key factor for the formation of gas hydrate and the gas hydrate layer would be mainly present in the form of interlayer in this area. The areas around the deeper faults are the favorable targets for the exploration of gas hydrate in the Tuonamu area.

  1. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  2. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  3. Promoção de atitudes ambientais favoráveis através de debates de dilemas ecológicos Promoting favorable attitudes toward the environment through debates of dilemmas with ecological content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Brasil Biaggio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propôs a promover atitudes ambientais favoráveis em adolescentes através de debates de dilemas com conteúdo ecológico. Os dilemas foram elaborados com base na teoria de julgamento moral de Kohlberg e na técnica de discussão de dilemas morais em grupo, criada por Blatt e Kohlberg. Dezesseis estudantes do primeiro ano do segundo grau de uma escola pública de Porto Alegre participaram do estudo, tendo sido aplicado nesses estudantes, como pré-teste e pós-teste, um questionário de dez itens sobre atitudes em relação à ecologia. As respostas dos participantes foram avaliadas numa escala de zero a dois pontos, indicando o grau de maturidade de atitudes em relação ao ambiente. O grau de participação nas discussões de dilemas também foi analisado. A análise dos dados indica que a técnica foi eficaz somente para os alunos considerados participativos nas discussões.This research study had the purpose of promoting favorable attitudes toward the environment in adolescents through debates of dilemmas with ecological content. The dilemmas were elaborated with basis on Kohlberg's theory of moral judgment and on Blatt and Kohlberg's group discussion technique. Sixteen students from the first year of high-school from a public school in Porto Alegre (Brazil, participated in the research study. These students were administred a ten-item questionnaire about attitudes regarding ecology, as pre-test and post-test. The participants responses were rated in a zero to two points scale, indicating the degree of maturity of attitudes regarding the environment. The degree of participation in the discussions was also analyzed. The analysis of data reveals that the technique worked only for those students considered high in participation in the discussions.

  4. Pressure Safety Orientation Live #769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Pressure Safety Orientation (course #769) introduces workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the Laboratory Pressure Safety Program and to pressure-related hazards. This course also affords a hands-on exercise involving the assembly of a simple pressure system. This course is required for all LANL personnel who work on or near pressure systems and are exposed to pressure-related hazards. These personnel include pressure-system engineers, designers, fabricators, installers, operators, inspectors, maintainers, and others who work with pressurized fluids and may be exposed to pressure-related hazards.

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  6. On Time Performance Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda; Wichner, David; Jakey, Abegael

    2013-01-01

    Within many operations, the pressures for on-time performance are high. Each month, on-time statistics are reported to the Department of Transportation and made public. There is a natural tendency for employees under pressure to do their best to meet these objectives. As a result, pressure to get the job done within the allotted time may cause personnel to deviate from procedures and policies. Additionally, inadequate or unavailable resources may drive employees to work around standard processes that are seen as barriers. However, bypassing practices to enable on-time performance may affect more than the statistics. ASRS reports often highlight on-time performance pressures which may result in impact across all workgroups in an attempt to achieve on-time performance. Reporters often provide in-depth insights into their experiences which can be used by industry to identify and focus on the implementation of systemic fixes.

  7. Downhole pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Sensor remains accurate in spite of varying temperatures. Very accurate, sensitive, and stable downhole pressure measurements are needed for vaiety of reservoir engineering applications, such as deep petroleum reservoirs, especially gas reservoirs, and in areas of high geothermal gradient.

  8. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  10. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is ... daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important things for someone with a spinal cord ...

  12. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) Subdural hematoma (bleeding between the covering of the brain and ... intracranial pressure Patient Instructions Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge Images Subdural hematoma Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References ...

  13. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  16. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture

  17. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  18. Reactor pressure vessel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butti, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A link and pin support system provides the primary vertical and lateral support for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel without restricting thermally induced radial and vertical expansion and contraction. (Auth.)

  19. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  20. Pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Design and mode of operation of the main PWR components are described: reactor core, pressure vessel and internals, cooling systems with pumps and steam generators, ancillary systems, and waste processing. (TK) [de

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  4. Reactor pressure vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 2, the general principles of reactor pressure vessel design are elaborated. Crack and fracture initiation and propagation are treated in some detail

  5. Krypton oxides under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Łata, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300?GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamical...

  6. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  7. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  8. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. The influence of chemistry concentration on the fracture risk of a reactor pressure vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pin-Chiun [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Hsoung-Wei, E-mail: hwchou@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ferng, Yuh-Ming [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Probabilistic fracture mechanics method was used to analyze a reactor pressure vessel. • Effects of copper and nickel contents on RPV fracture probability under PTS were investigated and discussed. • Representative PTS transients of Beaver Valley nuclear power plant were utilized. • The range of copper and nickel contents of the RPV materials were suggested. • With different embrittlement levels the dominated PTS category is different. - Abstract: The radiation embrittlement behavior of reactor pressure vessel shell is influenced by the chemistry concentration of metal materials. This paper aims to study the effects of copper and nickel content variations on the fracture risk of pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients. The probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) code, FAVOR, which was developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, is employed to perform the analyses. A Taiwan domestic PWR pressure vessel assumed with varied copper and nickel contents of beltline region welds and plates is investigated in the study. Some PTS transients analyzed from Beaver Valley Unit 1 for establishing the U.S. NRC's new PTS rule are applied as the loading condition. It is found that the content variation of copper and nickel will significantly affect the radiation embrittlement and the fracture probability of PWR pressure vessels. The results can be regarded as the risk incremental factors for comparison with the safety regulation requirements on vessel degradation as well as a reference for the operation of PWR plants in Taiwan.

  10. On the physical mechanisms governing self-excited pressure surge in Francis turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, A; Favrel, A; Landry, C; Yamamoto, K; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    The required operating range for hydraulic machines is continually extended in an effort to integrate renewable energy sources with unsteady power outputs into the existing electrical grid. The off-design operation however brings forth unfavorable flow patterns in the machine, causing dynamic problems involving cavitation, which may represent a limiting factor to the energy production. In Francis turbines it is observed that the self-excited oscillation of a vortex rope in the draft tube cone prevents the delivery of maximum power when required. This phenomenon is referred to as full load pressure surge and has been the object of extensive research during the past decades. Several contributions deepened its understanding through measurement and simulation of the local flow properties and the global stability parameters. The draft tube pressure level and the runner outlet swirl are identified as key variables in the modelling of the vortex rope dynamics. Recently, a cyclic appearance of blade cavitation has been observed at overload conditions in a multiphase numerical simulation coupling the runner and the draft tube. From the analysis of the simulation it becomes obvious that the cyclic appearance of blade cavitation has a direct effect on the runner outlet swirl, thus introducing an additional interaction mechanism that is not accounted for in formerly published models. For the presented work, the results of this numerical study are confirmed experimentally on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. Several wall pressure measurements in the draft tube cone are performed, together with high speed visualizations of the vortex rope and the blade cavitation. The flow swirl is calculated based on Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements. A possible mechanism explaining the coupling between the self-excited pressure and vortex rope oscillation and the cyclic appearance of the blade cavitation is proposed. Furthermore, the streamwise propagation speed of the flow

  11. MEASUREMENT OF FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS DURING A VENTILATION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.S. Prosser, PE; I.M. Loomis, PE, PhD

    2003-01-01

    During the course of a ventilation survey, both airflow quantity and frictional pressure losses are measured and quantified. The measurement of airflow has been extensively studied as the vast majority of ventilation standards/regulations are tied to airflow quantity or velocity. However, during the conduct of a ventilation survey, measurement of airflow only represents half of the necessary parameters required to directly calculate the airway resistance. The measurement of frictional pressure loss is an often misunderstood and misapplied part of the ventilation survey. This paper compares the two basic methods of frictional pressure drop measurements; the barometer and the gauge and tube. Personal experiences with each method will be detailed along with the authors' opinions regarding the applicability and conditions favoring each method

  12. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying pressure denaturation of a protein by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarupria, Sapna; Ghosh, Tuhin; García, Angel E; Garde, Shekhar

    2010-05-15

    Many globular proteins unfold when subjected to several kilobars of hydrostatic pressure. This "unfolding-up-on-squeezing" is counter-intuitive in that one expects mechanical compression of proteins with increasing pressure. Molecular simulations have the potential to provide fundamental understanding of pressure effects on proteins. However, the slow kinetics of unfolding, especially at high pressures, eliminates the possibility of its direct observation by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Motivated by experimental results-that pressure denatured states are water-swollen, and theoretical results-that water transfer into hydrophobic contacts becomes favorable with increasing pressure, we employ a water insertion method to generate unfolded states of the protein Staphylococcal Nuclease (Snase). Structural characteristics of these unfolded states-their water-swollen nature, retention of secondary structure, and overall compactness-mimic those observed in experiments. Using conformations of folded and unfolded states, we calculate their partial molar volumes in MD simulations and estimate the pressure-dependent free energy of unfolding. The volume of unfolding of Snase is negative (approximately -60 mL/mol at 1 bar) and is relatively insensitive to pressure, leading to its unfolding in the pressure range of 1500-2000 bars. Interestingly, once the protein is sufficiently water swollen, the partial molar volume of the protein appears to be insensitive to further conformational expansion or unfolding. Specifically, water-swollen structures with relatively low radii of gyration have partial molar volume that are similar to that of significantly more unfolded states. We find that the compressibility change on unfolding is negligible, consistent with experiments. We also analyze hydration shell fluctuations to comment on the hydration contributions to protein compressibility. Our study demonstrates the utility of molecular simulations in estimating volumetric properties

  14. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkati, Maroie; Williams, Scott G.; Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat; Dyk, Sylvia van; See, Andrew; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable

  15. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkati, Maroie [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott G., E-mail: scott.williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dyk, Sylvia van [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); See, Andrew [Ballarat Austin Radiation Oncology Centre, Ballarat (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable

  16. Nestin predicts a favorable prognosis in early ampullary adenocarcinoma and functions as a promoter of metastasis in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lai, Ming-Derg; Hsu, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Nestin exhibits stemness characteristics and is overexpressed in several types of cancers. Downstream signaling of nestin [cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)] functions in cancer to modulate cellular behaviors. We studied the function of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cDNA microarray of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma was compared with normal duodenum. CDK5 and Rac1 were assessed by western blotting. We hypothesized that nestin/CDK5/Rac1 signaling behaves different in early and advanced cancer. We found that the presence of nestin mRNA was increased in the early stages of cancer (T2N0 or T3N0) and advanced cancer with lymph node metastasis (T4N1). A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the IHC staining. Weak nestin expression was correlated with favorable characteristics of cancer, decreased incidence of local recurrence and lower risk of recurrence within 12 months after surgery. Patients with weak nestin expression had the most favorable recurrence‑free survival rates. Patients with mild to strong nestin expression exhibited an advanced behavior of cancer and increased possibility of cancer recurrence. The reciprocal expression of nestin and RAC1 were explored using a cDNA microarray analysis in the early stages of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Increased level of CDK5 with simultaneously decreased expression of Rac1 was detected by western blotting of ampullary adenocarcinoma in patients without cancer recurrence. The activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, combined with the stemness characteristics of nestin, formed a complex network in advanced ampullary adenocarcinoma. Our study demonstrated that nestin performs a dual role in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Appropriate amount of nestin enhances CDK5 function to suppress Rac1 and excessive nestin/CDK5 participates in multiple oncogenic pathways to promote cancer invasiveness

  17. Apología y censura: posibles autores de las crónicas favorables a Pedro I de Castilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González de Fauve, María Estela

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The present historiography considers that from the times of Pedro I of Castile, favorable stories to this king must have existed which were destroyed after the triumph of the Trastámara dynasty, only interested in making sure a negative picure of the ";Cruel"; king was shown. In this work we have analyzed possible authors of the chronicles called ";true"; versus Ayala's ";false";, as well as the Relación de la vida del Rey D. Pedro attributed to Gracia Dei. The research allows us to conclude that various characteristics attributed to these characters, as well as the authorship of the chronicles they are adscripted to, are part of an advertising campaign started in the sixteenth century by one branch of the Castilla lineage that looks for the reaffirmation as legitimate descendants of Pedro I.



    La historiografía actual considera que, desde la época de Pedro I de Castilla, debieron existir obras favorables a este rey que fueron destruidas, tras el triunfo de la dinastía Trastámara, interesada en que sólo se difundiera una imagen negativa del rey ";Cruel";.En este trabajo analizamos los posibles autores de esas crónicas llamadas “verdaderas” frente a la “fingida” de Ayala, así como la Relación de la vida del Rey D.Pedro... atribuida a Gracia Dei . La investigación nos permite concluir que varias de las características atribuidas a estos personajes, así como la autoría de las crónicas que se les atribuyen, forman parte de una campaña propagandística iniciada en el siglo XVI por una rama del linaje de los Castilla que busca reafirmarse como descendencia legítima de Pedro I.

  18. Alcances y dimensiones del plagio en la narrativa de Alberto Laiseca: alrededor de Por favor ¡plágienme!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández González

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A través de la lectura crítica de Por Favor ¡Plágienme! (1991, texto clave para la comprensión del universo estético y creativo de Alberto Laiseca, este artículo plantea reflexiones sobre el enfoque singular que su obra narrativa aporta al problema del plagio en la literatura contemporánea y postula, al mismo tiempo, la posibilidad de pensar la obra de Laiseca en tensa –y paródica– relación con la tradición literaria argentina y su canon. Esta lectura permitirá operar críticamente sobre el dispositivo central de la literatura laisecana, que consiste en desestabilizar los discursos teóricos disponibles sobre aspectos aplicables a su poética, como el del horizonte conceptual del plagio. Desde aquí se volverá posible pensar en los motivos por los cuales una crítica literaria hegemónica tiene hasta el momento poco diálogo con la obra de quien es, sin embargo, uno de los autores contemporáneos más prolíficos de la literatura argentina. Through the critical reading of Por Favor ¡Plágienme! (1991, a key text for understanding the aesthetic and creative universe of Alberto Laiseca, this article enquires into the unique approach that his narrative opens to the issue of plagiarism in contemporary literature. The article also postulates thinking Laiseca’s work in a tense –and parodic– relationship with the Argentinian literary tradition and its canon. This reading will operate on the central device of “Laisecan” literature, which consists on destabilizing available theoretical discourses over aspects that can be applied to his poetics, as the conceptual horizon of plagiarism. From here it will be possible to consider why a hegemonic literary criticism has had little dialogue with the work of someone who is, however, one of the most prolific contemporary writers of Argentinian literature.

  19. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.

  20. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Taking Care of Pressure Sores [Download this pamphlet: "Taking Care of Pressure Sores" - ( ... may not show up right away. Stages of pressure sores and how to care for them: STAGE ONE ...

  1. Reotemp Pressure Indicator - Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-01-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4)

  2. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  3. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  4. Pressure Effect on Entrance Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Couch, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts.......The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts....

  5. A fully synthetic human Fab antibody library based on fixed VH/VL framework pairings with favorable biophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, Thomas; Schuster, Ingrid; Deppe, Dorothée; Siegers, Katja; Strohner, Ralf; Herrmann, Tanja; Berenguer, Marion; Poujol, Dominique; Stehle, Jennifer; Stark, Yvonne; Heßling, Martin; Daubert, Daniela; Felderer, Karin; Kaden, Stefan; Kölln, Johanna; Enzelberger, Markus; Urlinger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the design, generation and testing of Ylanthia, a fully synthetic human Fab antibody library with 1.3E+11 clones. Ylanthia comprises 36 fixed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy (VH)/variable light (VL) chain pairs, which cover a broad range of canonical complementarity-determining region (CDR) structures. The variable Ig heavy and Ig light (VH/VL) chain pairs were selected for biophysical characteristics favorable to manufacturing and development. The selection process included multiple parameters, e.g., assessment of protein expression yield, thermal stability and aggregation propensity in fragment antigen binding (Fab) and IgG1 formats, and relative Fab display rate on phage. The framework regions are fixed and the diversified CDRs were designed based on a systematic analysis of a large set of rearranged human antibody sequences. Care was taken to minimize the occurrence of potential posttranslational modification sites within the CDRs. Phage selection was performed against various antigens and unique antibodies with excellent biophysical properties were isolated. Our results confirm that quality can be built into an antibody library by prudent selection of unmodified, fully human VH/VL pairs as scaffolds. PMID:23571156

  6. Analysis of “Favorable Growth Element” Based on Rare Earth-aluminum Composite Mechanism of Compound Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Baohong; Zeng, Qihui; Zhao, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Under the background that failure resulted in by high temperature once only aluminum oxide is used as the gasoline additive. This paper, with the purpose to solve this problem, is to synthesize AcAl oxide for gasoline additive. In order to get the rare-earth-aluminum oxide, first, a complex model of rare earth oxide based on theories about ion coordination is established. Then, by the complex model, the type of “compound growth unit” when rare earth elements join the hydrothermal conditions and the inclination that “diversification” might probably happen are deduced. Depending on the results got by complex model, this paper introduces the type of compound and its existence conditions of “Compound growth unit” owned by stable rare-earth-aluminum oxide. By adjusting the compositions of modifier, compound materials of rare earth-aluminum oxide used for gasoline additive is made. By XRD test, aperture test, adsorption test and desorption test, the theoretical deduction is proved to be right. From the experiment, it is concluded that: a dense environment is the pre-condition to form rare-earth-aluminum polymer, which is also an essential condition for the polymer to update to a favorable growth unit and produce mesoporous rare-earth-aluminum oxide with high activity.

  7. Interatomic potential to predict the favored and optimized compositions for ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S. Y.; Cui, Y. Y.; Dai, Y.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2012-01-01

    Under the framework of smoothed and long range second-moment approximation of tight-binding, a realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Cu-Zr-Hf ternary metal system. Applying the constructed potential, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart over the entire composition triangle of the system (as a function of alloy composition). Simulations not only reveal that the origin of metallic glass formation but also determine, in the composition triangle, a quadrilateral region, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed to define the energy differences between the crystalline solid solutions and disordered states as the driving force for amorphization and the corresponding calculations pinpoint an optimized composition locating at an composition of Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 , around which the driving force for metallic glass formation reaches its maximum, suggesting that the ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses designed to have the compositions around Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 could be more stable than other alloys in the system. Moreover, for the Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 metallic glass, the Voronoi tessellation calculations reveal some interesting features of its atomic configurations and coordination polyhedra distribution.

  8. Expression of the c-Met oncogene by tumor cells predicts a favorable outcome in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanhui; Plattel, Wouter; van den Berg, Anke; Rüther, Nele; Huang, Xin; Wang, Miao; de Jong, Debora; Vos, Hans; van Imhoff, Gustaaf; Viardot, Andreas; Möller, Peter; Poppema, Sibrand; Diepstra, Arjan; Visser, Lydia

    2012-04-01

    The c-Met signaling pathway regulates a variety of biological processes, including proliferation, survival and migration. Deregulated c-Met activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of many human malignancies. We studied the function and prognostic significance of c-Met and hepatocyte growth factor protein expression in patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Expression of c-Met and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Prognostic values were defined in cohorts of German and Dutch patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Functional studies were performed on Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. Expression of c-Met was detected in the tumor cells of 52% (80/153) of the patients and expression of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, in 8% (10/121) of the patients. c-Met expression correlated with a 5-year freedom from tumor progression of 94%, whereas lack of expression correlated with a 5-year freedom from tumor progression of 73% (Pfreedom from tumor progression. In functional studies activation with hepatocyte growth factor did not affect cell growth, while the c-Met inhibitor SU11274 suppressed cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Although functional studies showed an oncogenic role of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway in cell cycle progression, expression of c-Met in tumor cells from patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma strongly correlated with a favorable prognosis in two independent cohorts.

  9. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  10. Determination of the most favorable experimental conditions for obtaining asphalt emulsions modified with discarded polymers in the reconstruction of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward Ugalde, Hector Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The most favorable experimental conditions are determined for the production of asphalt emulsions modified with tire scrap rubber, petroleum material and recycled asphalt in the reconstruction of flexible pavements in a slow breaking process. Asphalt emulsions are made with 65% V/V of fluidized asphalt at different conditions of operation and composition of soap solution. The equipment of a centrifugal pump and a colloidal mill are used. Two different compositions are employed to make soap solutions. The best conditions to prepare the asphalt emulsions in the pilot plant have been: a stirring speed of 2100 rpm in the centrifugal pump and a speed of 3300 rpm of the colloidal mill. Asphaltic grouts made with asphalt emulsion modified to 1% m/m of rubber have shown the best coverage in the stripping test, evidencing little asphalt release, high adhesion of the asphalt on the aggregate and good stability. Asphalt emulsions with rubber are recommended with a granulometry that passes the No. 200 mesh for rubber and use the indicated equipment to carry out the process of asphalt modification to obtain better results in the performance of asphalt emulsion [es

  11. Approaches to the creation of favorable conditions for innovative activity development in the history of the development of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Sviridova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At different stages of economic development interest in terms of improvement of innovative activity on the part of researchers is different. It is mediated by the level of economic development: if in the beginning of XX century, foreign researchers, problems of economic development based on innovative activities are considered as processes of innovation, the classical theory of economic development with the creation of favorable conditions for rational activity was due to the individualistic behavior of the subject when an individual keeping in mind only their own interest, to pursue their own benefit. But supporters of Keynesianism showed that a stable growth rate in the economy is ensured by the use of factors of production, i.e. full utilization of the workforce with a combination of guaranteed and natural factors. Post-Keynesians (John Robinson, N. Kaldor, L. Pasinetti and John Krigel, suggested his own concept of economic development, which was based from the point of view of development of innovations in the factors of the combination of technological progress and institutional factors. Modern researchers enabling environment improvement innovation associate them with technocratic and industrial development. Development. At the same technocratic development includes the development of technical and intellectual processes in the economy. Conditions of improvement of innovative activity is a complex interaction between the innovators (enterprises, laboratories, research institutes, educational institutions, individuals, investors, manufacturers of competitive products (services and infrastructure of their interaction among themselves and the market. The main condition for all these factors of improvement of innovative activity are investments.

  12. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhihua; Zhou Yang; Chen Yiwang; Nie Huarong; Wang Yang; Li Fan; Zheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  13. Is cooperation viable in mobile organisms? Simple Walk Away rule favors the evolution of cooperation in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C. Athena

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the ‘Walk Away’ rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and ‘Walk Away’ from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple ‘Walk Away’ rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that ‘Walk Away’ dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms. PMID:21666771

  14. BRAF inhibition is associated with enhanced melanoma antigen expression and a more favorable tumor microenvironment in patients with metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Piris, Adriano; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Cooper, Zachary A.; Lezcano, Cecilia; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Mitra, Devarati; Boni, Andrea; Newton, Lindsay P.; Liu, Chengwen; Peng, Weiyi; Sullivan, Ryan J; Lawrence, Donald P.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Overwijk, Willem W.; Lizée, Gregory; Murphy, George F.; Hwu, Patrick; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.; Wargo, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects BRAF inhibition on the tumor microenvironment in patients with metastatic melanoma. Experimental Design Thirty-five biopsies were collected from 16 patients with metastatic melanoma pretreatment (day 0) and at 10-14 days after initiation of treatment with either BRAF inhibitor alone (vemurafenib) or BRAF + MEK inhibition (dabrafenib + trametinib), and were also taken at time of progression. Biopsies were analyzed for melanoma antigens, T cell markers, and immunomodulatory cytokines. Results Treatment with either BRAF inhibitor alone or BRAF + MEK inhibitor was associated with an increased expression of melanoma antigens and an increase in CD8+ T cell infiltrate. This was also associated with a decrease in immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-6 & IL-8) and an increase in markers of T cell cytotoxicity. Interestingly, expression of exhaustion markers TIM-3 and PD1 and the immunosuppressive ligand PDL1 were increased on treatment. A decrease in melanoma antigen expression and CD8 T cell infiltrate was noted at time of progression on BRAF inhibitor alone, and was reversed with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition. Conclusions Together, this data suggests that treatment with BRAF inhibition enhances melanoma antigen expression and facilitates T cell cytotoxicity and a more favorable tumor microenvironment, providing support for potential synergy of BRAF-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Interestingly, markers of T cell exhaustion and the immunosuppressive ligand PDL1 are also increased with BRAF inhibition, further implying that immune checkpoint blockade may be critical in augmenting responses to BRAF-targeted therapy in patients with melanoma. PMID:23307859

  15. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-({epsilon}-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Zhihua; Zhou Yang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Nie Huarong, E-mail: niehr@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Yang [First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 17 Yongwaizheng Road, Nanchang 330006 (China); Li Fan; Zheng Yan [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Electrospun poly-({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0 Degree-Sign , the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  16. Concordant association validates MGMT methylation and protein expression as favorable prognostic factors in glioma patients on alkylating chemotherapy (Temozolomide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Qasim, Iqbal; Zahoor, Wani; Shah, Parveen; Bhat, Abdul R; Sanadhya, Dheera; Shah, Zafar A; Naikoo, Niyaz A

    2018-04-30

    O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and its subsequent loss of protein expression has been identified to have a variable impact on clinical outcome of glioma patients indicated for chemotherapy with alkylating agents (Temozolomide). This study investigated methylation status of MGMT gene along with in situ protein expression in malignant glioma patients of different histological types to evaluate the associated clinical outcome vis-a-vis use of alkylating drugs and radiotherapy. Sixty three cases of glioma were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and protein expression by immunostaining (IHC). Methylation status of MGMT and loss of protein expression showed a very high concordant association with better survival and progression free survival (PFS) (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed both MGMT methylation and loss of protein as significant independent prognostic factors in glioma patients with respect to lower Hazard Ratio (HR) for better OS and PFS) [p < 0.05]. Interestingly concordant MGMT methylation and lack of protein showed better response in TMZ therapy treated patient subgroups with HR of 2.02 and 0.76 (p < 0.05). We found the merits of prognostication of MGMT parameters, methylation as well as loss of its protein as predictive factors for favorable outcome in terms of better survival for TMZ therapy.

  17. Uranium favorability of tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats, Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.; Mickle, D.G.

    1976-10-01

    Uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats--Elkhorn Thrust area of central Colorado is closely related to a widespread late Eocene erosion surface. Most uranium deposits in the area are in the Eocene Echo Park Alluvium and Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, which were deposited in paleodrainage channels on or above this surface. Arkosic detritus within the channels and overlying tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Antero and Florissant Formations of Oligocene age and silicic tuffs within the volcanic units provide abundant sources of uranium that could be concentrated in the channels where carbonaceous debris facilitates a reducing environment. Anomalous soil, water, and stream-sediment samples near the Elkhorn Thrust and in Antero basin overlie buried channels or are offset from them along structural trends; therefore, uranium-bearing ground water may have moved upward from buried uranium deposits along faults. The area covered by rocks younger than the late Eocene erosion surface, specifically the trends of mapped or inferred paleochannels filled with Echo Park Alluvium and Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, and the Antero Formation are favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits

  18. Alternative paths to success in a parasite community: within-host competition can favor higher virulence or direct interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Hawlena, Hadas; Lively, Curtis M

    2013-03-01

    Selection imposed by coinfection may vary with the mechanism of within-host competition between parasites. Exploitative competition is predicted to favor more virulent parasites, whereas interference competition may result in lower virulence. Here, we examine whether exploitative or interference competition determines the outcome of competition between two nematode species (Steinernema spp.), which in combination with their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus spp.), infect and kill insect hosts. Multiple isolates of each nematode species, carrying their naturally associated bacteria, were characterized by (1) the rate at which they killed insect hosts, and by (2) the ability of their bacteria to interfere with each other's growth via bacteriocidal toxins called "bacteriocins." We found that both exploitative and interference abilities were important in predicting which species had a selective advantage in pairwise competition experiments. When nematodes carried bacteria that did not interact via bacteriocins, the faster killing isolate had a competitive advantage. Alternatively, nematodes could gain a competitive advantage when they carried bacteria able to inhibit the bacteria of their competitor. Thus, the combination of nematode/bacterial traits that led to competitive success depended on which isolates were paired, suggesting that variation in competitive interactions may be important for maintaining species diversity in this community. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. "Grupo" de artesanato: espaço favorável à promoção da saúde mental "Grupo" de artesanía: espacio favorable a la promoción de la salud mental Artisan group: a favorable space promoting mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Glaciela da Cruz Scardoelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em um grupo de artesanato de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de Maringá - PR, no período de março a agosto de 2009. Objetivou-se compreender os motivos de inserção de mulheres no grupo de artesanato. Para coleta de dados utilizaram-se a observação participante e entrevista aberta. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 11 mulheres. Os dados foram analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo, de onde emergiram três categorias: Propiciando a promoção da saúde mental; Encontrando um espaço que promove a fala, a escuta e a partilha e; Buscando um espaço de ensino/aprendizado. Observamos que participar do grupo vem contribuindo para melhoria da qualidade de vida destas mulheres que se encontravam em situação de sofrimento emocional, oferecendo condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento do ponto de vista psicossocial.Estudio descriptivo de abordaje cualitativo, realizado en un grupo de artesanía de una Unidad Básica de Salud del municipio de Maringá - PR, durante el periodo de marzo a agosto de 2009. El objetivo fue comprender los motivos de inserción de mujeres en el grupo de artesanía. Para la colecta de datos, se utilizó la observación participativa y una entrevista abierta realizada a domicilio. Los sujetos del estudio fueron 11 mujeres. Los datos fueron analizados según la técnica de análisis de contenido, de donde emergieron tres categorías: Proporcionar la promoción de la salud mental; Búsqueda de un espacio para hablar, escuchar y compartir y; Búsqueda de un espacio de educación/aprendizado. Observamos que la participación del grupo viene contribuyendo para la mejoría de la calidad de vida de estas mujeres que se encontraban en situación de sufrimiento emocional, ofreciendo condiciones favorables para su desarrollo psicosocial.Current paper deals with a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach with regard to an artisan group of a Health

  20. Pressure anisotropy and radial stress balance in the Jovian neutral sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Mauk, B. H.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    By examining particle and magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, signatures were found indicating that the (greater than about 28 keV) particle pressure parallel to the magnetic field is greater than the pressure perpendicular to the field within the nightside neutral sheet (three nightside neutral sheet crossings, with favorable experimental conditions, were used). By incorporating the pressure anisotropy into the calculation of radial forces within the hightside neutral sheet, it is found that (1) force balance is approximately achieved and (2) the anisotropy force term provides the largest contribution of the other particle forces considered (pressure gradients and the corotation centrifugal force). With regard to the problem of understanding the balance of radial forces within the dayside neutral sheet (McNutt, 1984; Mauk and Krimigis, 1987), the nightside pressure anisotropy force is larger than the dayside pressure gradient forces at equivalent radial distances; however, a full accounting of the dayside regions remains to be achieved.

  1. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2002-04-01

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  2. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure piping... tests conducted in accordance with this section shall be either hydrostatic tests or pneumatic tests. (1... times the maximum allowable working pressure. (2) When a pneumatic test is conducted on a pressure...

  3. Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical foundation of acoustic radiation pressure in plane wave beams is reexamined. It is shown from finite deformation theory and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest Adiabatic Principle that the Brillouin stress tensor (BST) is the radiation stress in Lagrangian coordinates (not Eulerian coordinates) and that the terms in the BST are not the momentum flux density and mean excess Eulerian stress but are simply contributions to the variation in the wave oscillation period resulting from changes in path length and true wave velocity, respectively, from virtual variations in the strain. It is shown that the radiation stress in Eulerian coordinates is the mean Cauchy stress (not the momentum flux density, as commonly assumed) and that Langevin's second relation does not yield an assessment of the mean Eulerian pressure, since the enthalpy used in the traditional derivations is a function of the thermodynamic tensions - not the Eulerian pressure. It is shown that the transformation between Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities cannot be obtained from the commonly-used expansion of one of the quantities in terms of the particle displacement, since the expansion provides only the difference between the value of the quantity at two different points in Cartesian space separated by the displacement. The proper transformation is obtained only by employing the transformation coefficients of finite deformation theory, which are defined in terms of the displacement gradients. Finite deformation theory leads to the result that for laterally unconfined, plane waves the Lagrangian and Eulerian radiation pressures are equal with the value (1/4)(2K) along the direction of wave propagation, where (K) is the mean kinetic energy density, and zero in directions normal to the propagation direction. This is contrary to the Langevin result that the Lagrangian radiation pressure in the propagation direction is equal to (2K) and the BST result that the Eulerian radiation pressure in that direction

  4. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  5. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  6. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  7. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  8. 沁水盆地中部断层发育区煤层气开发有利块段优选%Favorable sections optimization about coalbed methane on developing fault blocks in central of Qinshui Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小明; 李志恒; 王延斌; 吴建光

    2017-01-01

    查明断层发育区煤层气开发的有利块段是准确井位部署、减少工程盲目投资的重要保障.根据沁水盆地中部柿庄南区块煤层气勘探开发资料,应用构造拉平法和波叠加理论对3 #煤层经历燕山期、喜马拉雅早期、喜马拉雅晚期后的底板形迹恢复,并划分出18个块段.根据气/水分异现象、构造曲率法、煤体结构观测法等得出了多期构造运动作用后不同块段内储层压力、渗透率的差异.在此基础上评价出煤层气开发的有利块段、较有利块段.结果表明:多期构造运动形成的正断层附近气体逸散、煤体破碎是造成其附近煤层气井产量低的主要原因;断层间隔区域底板相对高值块段渗透率低、储层压力低,产气潜力小;底板相对低值块段渗透率低、储层压力相对高,产气潜力中等;底板相对中值块段渗透率较好,产气潜力好.现场煤层气井的实际产气数据验证了理论分析的准确性.该研究成果为断层发育区煤层气有利块段优选提供了一种思路和借鉴.%Finding out favorable CBM development sections in developing fault areas can deploy wells placement accurately and reduce the blind investment.According to the data on the southern of Shizhuang area,the floor traces were recovered about 3 # coal seam after tectonic movement like stage of Yanshan,the early stage of Himalayan and the late stage of Himalayan by tectonic leveling method and wave superposition theory,the areas were divided into 18 blocks.According to the gas/water differentiation phenomenon,structural curvature method,coal structure observation method,the differences about the coal reservoir pressure and permeability after the tectonic movement effects were obtained.Then the favorable block and favorable block of CBM development were evaluated.The results show that:the escaping gas and formed coal near normal faults are the main reasons for low gas production.The relative high

  9. Development of the Cerro solo deposit and uranium favorability of the San Jorge Gulf Basin, province of Chubut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the future the uranium exploration activities of CNEA would tend to improve the knowledge of geology and uranium favorability; to perform prospection tasks, and research and development in exploration technologies, to contribute to be in a position to meet the requirements of the country in the long term. On the other hand, a strong growth of nuclear capacity is expected in the first two decades of the next century. Based on its promising grade, the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit was selected in 1990 by the CNEA to carry out an assessment project. The intensive exploration level was accomplished, as follows: definition of general characteristics of the main orebodies; detailed geologic studies; estimation of resources with adequate data; and preliminary selection of mining-milling methods to estimate the potential profitability of the project. The deposit belongs to the sandstone type. The mineralized layers are distributed into the fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the cretaceous Chubut Group, lying 50 to 130 m deep Resources of the deposit, with an average grade of 0.3% U, in tonnes of recoverable uranium at costs of up to $80/kg U, are: Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR): 800 t U, Estimated Additional Resources, Category I (EAR-I): 2100 t U. Follow-up drilling programmes are being performed at present in some of the target sites defined in the paleochannel that hosts the Cerro Solo deposit, in order to establish the hypothetical resources of the area. The sites were determined as a result of the exploration that CNEA conducted in the Pichinan uranium district. Recently a regional research project was formulated, for the detailed exploration in the San Jorge Gulf Basin, where the Chubut Group is distributed. 17 refs, 4 figs

  10. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Wang, Zheng; Bao, Zhaoshi; Yan, Wei; You, Gan; Wang, Yinyan; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Quangeng; Jiang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3) promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated. A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months) and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months). The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status. Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA). In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients. Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  11. Dopamine receptor D3 expressed on CD4+ T cells favors neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hugo; Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; Elgueta, Daniela; Franz, Dafne; Bernales, Sebastián; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2013-05-15

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells infiltrate into the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. SN-infiltrated CD4(+) T cells bearing inflammatory phenotypes promote microglial activation and strongly contribute to neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, altered expression of dopamine receptor D3 (D3R) in PBLs from PD patients has been correlated with disease severity. Moreover, pharmacological evidence has suggested that D3R is involved in IFN-γ production by human CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we examined the role of D3R expressed on CD4(+) T cells in neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SN using a mouse model of PD. Our results show that D3R-deficient mice are strongly protected against loss of dopaminergic neurons and microglial activation during 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. Notably, D3R-deficient mice become susceptible to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration and microglial activation upon transfer of wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, RAG1 knockout mice, which are devoid of T cells and are resistant to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration, become susceptible to MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons when reconstituted with WT CD4(+) T cells but not when transferred with D3R-deficient CD4(+) T cells. In agreement, experiments analyzing activation and differentiation of CD4(+) T cells revealed that D3R favors both T cell activation and acquisition of the Th1 inflammatory phenotype. These findings indicate that D3R expressed on CD4(+) T cells plays a fundamental role in the physiopathology of MPTP-induced PD in a mouse model.

  12. Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide: A favorable metal-free catalyst for the N2O reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sharifi, Fahimeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-11-01

    The structural and catalytic properties of Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al-/Si-GO) are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. The relatively large adsorption energy together with the small Alsbnd O or Sisbnd O binding distances indicate that the epoxy groups over the GO surface can strongly stabilize the single Al or Si atom. Hence, Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be utilized in catalytic reduction of N2O by CO molecule. It is found that the adsorption and decomposition of N2O molecule over Si-GO is more favorable than over Al-GO, due to its larger adsorption energy (Eads) and charge transfer (qCT) values. On the other hand, the CO molecule is physically adsorbed over both surfaces, with relatively small Eads and qCT values. Therefore, at the presence of N2O and CO molecules as the reaction gas, the Al or Si atom of the surface should be dominantly covered by N2O molecule. Our results indicate that the N2O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over Al-/Si-GO surface, where the N2 molecule can be easily released from the surface. Then, the activated oxygen atom (Oads) which remains over the surface reacts with the CO molecule to form the CO2 molecule via the reaction Oads + CO → CO2. Based on the calculated activation energies, it is suggested that both Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N2O molecule at ambient conditions.

  13. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J.; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  14. Charge compensation mechanisms in favor of the incorporation of the Eu3+ ion into the ZnO host lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, M.; Bekhti-Siad, A.; Hebali, K.; Bouhani-Benziane, H.; Sahnoun, M.

    2018-05-01

    Eu3+ doped phosphors with charge compensation are potential candidates of red emitting phosphors for lamp applications. Charge compensation improves the luminescence performance of the material. The charge compensation can most probably be achieved by three possible mechanisms: (a) two Zn2+ ions are replaced by one Eu3+ ions and one monovalent cation, 2Zn2+ →Eu3++ Li+, where Li+ is acting as a charge compensator; (b) the charge compensation is provided by a zinc vacancy (VZn) defects, 3Zn2+ → 2Eu3++ VZn, the subscript Zn denotes an ion in a normal zinc site in the lattice; (c) two Zn2+ ions are replaced by one Eu3+ ions with the presence of interstitial oxygen (Oi), 2Zn2+ → 2Eu3++ Oi. Electronic structures of the crystals corresponding to the three models are evaluated by the first-principles quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory. It is found that the charge compensator defects make Eu3+ doping in ZnO energetically more favorable. They break the local symmetry around the Eu3+ ion and lead to deep states below the empty upper band, the conduction band that could facilitate intra-4f shell transitions, which can obviously improve the emission intensity of Eu3+-doped ZnO. Therefore, the effect of these defects on the host crystals electronic band states relative to the Eu3+ states is reported, since both electron transfer and electronically energy transfer processes enhance the performance of optoelectronic devices based on this material. These theoretical insights are helpful for designing rare-earth doped oxide materials with high photoluminescence (PL) performance.

  15. MEL-N16: A Series of Novel Endomorphin Analogs with Good Analgesic Activity and a Favorable Side Effect Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Long; Wang, Yuan; Zhou, Jingjing; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xianghui; Wang, Zhaojuan; Yang, Dongxu; Mou, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2017-10-18

    Opioid peptides are neuromodulators that bind to opioid receptors and reduce pain sensitivity. Endomorphins are among the most active endogenous opioid peptides, and they have good affinity and selectivity toward the μ opioid receptor. However, their clinical usage is hindered by their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their poor in vivo activity after peripheral injection. In order to overcome these defects, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel endomorphin analogs with multiple site modifications. Radioligand binding, cAMP accumulation, and β-arrestin-2 recruitment assays were employed to determine the activity of synthesized endomorphin analogs toward opioid receptors. The blood-brain barrier permeability and antinociceptive effect of these analogs were determined in several rodent models of acute and persistent pain. In addition, the side effects of the analogs were examined. The radioligand binding assay and functional activity examination indicated that the MEL-N16 series of compounds were more active agonists against μ opioid receptor than were the parent peptides. Notably, the analogs displayed biased downstream signaling toward G-protein pathways over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. The analogs showed highly potent antinociceptive effects in the tested nociceptive models. In comparison with endomorphins, the synthesized analogs were better able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and exerted their pain regulatory activity in the central nervous system after peripheral injection. These analogs also have lower tendency to cause side effects than morphine does at similar or equal antinociceptive doses. The MEL-N16 compounds have highly potent and efficacious analgesic effects in various pain models with a favorable side effect profile.

  16. Subboiling Moist Heat Favors the Selection of Enteric Pathogen Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 078 Spores in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging enteric pathogens could have not only more antibiotic resistance or virulence traits; they could also have increased resistance to heat. We quantified the effects of minimum recommended cooking and higher temperatures, individually on a collection of C. difficile isolates and on the survival probability of a mixture of emerging C. difficile strains. While minimum recommended cooking time/temperature combinations (63–71°C allowed concurrently tested strains to survive, higher subboiling temperatures reproducibly favored the selection of newly emerging C. difficile PCR ribotype 078. Survival ratios for “ribotypes 078” :  “other ribotypes” (n=49 : 45 isolates from the mid-2000s increased from 1 : 1 and 0.7 : 1 at 85°C (for 5 and 10 minutes, resp. to 2.3 : 1 and 3 : 1 with heating at 96°C (for 5 and 10 minutes, resp. indicating an interaction effect between the heating temperature and survival of C. difficile genotypes. In multistrain heating experiments, with PCR ribotypes 027 and 078 from 2004 and reference type strain ATCC 9689 banked in the 1970s, multinomial logistic regression (P<0.01 revealed PCR ribotype 078 was the most resistant to increasing lethal heat treatments. Thermal processes (during cooking or disinfection may contribute to the selection of emergent specific virulent strains of C. difficile. Despite growing understanding of the role of cooking on human evolution, little is known about the role of cooking temperatures on the selection and evolution of enteric pathogens, especially spore-forming bacteria.

  17. High expression of BCL-2 predicts favorable outcome in non-small cell lung cancer patients with non squamous histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostou, Valsamo K; Boffa, Daniel; Gettinger, Scott; Detterbeck, Frank; Homer, Robert J; Dougenis, Dimitrios; Rimm, David L; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Lowery, Frank J; Zolota, Vassiliki; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Gopinath, Arun; Liceaga, Camil; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Frangia, Konstantina; Tanoue, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Bcl-2 promotes cell survival by inhibiting adapters needed for the activation and cleavage of caspases thus blocking the proteolytic cascade that ultimately dismantles the cell. Bcl-2 has been investigated as a prognostic factor in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with conflicting results. Here, we quantitatively assessed Bcl-2 expression in two large and independent cohorts to investigate the impact of Bcl-2 on survival. AQUA ® , a fluorescent-based method for analysis of in situ protein expression, was used to measure Bcl-2 protein levels and classify tumors by Bcl-2 expression in a cohort of 180 NSCLC patients. An independent cohort of 354 NSCLC patients was used to validate Bcl-2 classification and evaluate outcome. Fifty % and 52% of the cases were classified as high expressers in training and validation cohorts respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas were more likely to be high expressers compared to adenocarcinomas (63% vs. 45%, p = 0.002); Bcl-2 was not associated with other clinical or pathological characteristics. Survival analysis showed that patients with high BCL-2 expression had a longer median survival compared to low expressers (22 vs. 17.5 months, log rank p = 0.014) especially in the subset of non-squamous tumors (25 vs. 13.8 months, log rank p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis revealed an independent lower risk for all patients with Bcl-2 expressing tumors (HR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.75, p = 0.0003) and for patients with non-squamous tumors (HR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.31-0.81, p = 0.005). Bcl-2 expression defines a subgroup of patients with a favorable outcome and may be useful for prognostic stratification of NSCLC patients

  18. Host modulation by a parasite: how Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion.

  19. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3 promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated.A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months. The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status.Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA. In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  20. A new scalar resonance at 750 GeV: towards a proof of concept in favor of strongly interacting theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Minho; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We interpret the recently observed excess in the diphoton invariant mass as a new spin-0 resonant particle. On theoretical grounds, an interesting question is whether this new scalar resonance belongs to a strongly coupled sector or a well-defined weakly coupled theory. A possible UV-completion that has been widely considered in literature is based on the existence of new vector-like fermions whose loop contributions — Yukawa-coupled to the new resonance — explain the observed signal rate. The large total width preliminarily suggested by data seems to favor a large Yukawa coupling, at the border of a healthy perturbative definition. This potential problem can be fixed by introducing multiple vector-like fermions or large electric charges, bringing back the theory to a weakly coupled regime. However, this solution risks to be only a low-energy mirage: large multiplicity or electric charge can dangerously reintroduce the strong regime by modifying the renormalization group running of the dimensionless couplings. This issue is also tightly related to the (in)stability of the scalar potential. First, we study — in the theoretical setup described above — the parametric behavior of the diphoton signal rate, total width, and one-loop β functions. Then, we numerically solve the renormalization group equations, taking into account the observed diphoton signal rate and total width, to investigate the fate of the weakly coupled theory. We find that — with the only exception of few fine-tuned directions — weakly coupled interpretations of the excess are brought back to a strongly coupled regime if the running is taken into account.

  1. Pressure test method for reactor pressure vessel in construction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masakado; Ushiroda, Koichi; Miyahara, Ryohei; Takano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Sato, Keiya.

    1998-01-01

    Plant constitutional parts as targets of both of a primary pressure test and a secondary pressure test are disposed in communication with a reactor pressure vessel, and a pressure of the primary pressure test is applied to the targets of both tests, so that the primary pressure test and the second pressure test are conducted together. Since the number of pressure tests can be reduced to promote construction, and the number of workers can also be reduced. A pressure exceeding the maximum pressure upon use is applied to the pressure vessel after disposing the incore structures, to continuously conduct the primary pressure test and the secondary pressure test joined together and an incore flowing test while closing the upper lid of the pressure vessel as it is in the construction field. The number of opening/closing of the upper lid upon conducting every test can be reduced, and since the pressure resistance test is conducted after arranging circumference conditions for the incore flowing test, the tests can be conducted collectively also in view of time. (N.H.)

  2. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....

  3. Plasma sheet pressure anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, G.S.; Hones, E.W. Jr; Bame, S.J.; Asbridge, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The ecliptic plane components of the pressure tensors for low-energy ( or =1.2 approximately 25% of the time. Due to the low energy density of the electrons, however, this anisotropy is not itself sufficient to balance the tension of the magnetic field

  4. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  6. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  7. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  8. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboel, P H; Bartek, J; Andresen, M

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods...

  9. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  10. Putting oysters under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is the most commercially important food processing technology in use now and is anticipated to remain of equal or greater importance during the next five to 10 years. This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of HPP for oysters to improve their sa...

  11. Fascination at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  12. ISCHIECTOMY FOR PRESSURE SORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Cozen, Lewis; Aldes, John

    1960-01-01

    Ischiectomy with primary closure was carried out in five paraplegic patients with pressure sores. This operation, less extensive than the wide excision with full thickness graft that is now widely advocated, was successful in four of the five cases. In the fifth case none of the several attempts to heal the sores was in the least successful. PMID:18732351

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of ...

  14. Sensing pressure for authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; White, N.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    The use of signals resulting from tapping a rhythm on a pressure sensor is explored for authentication. The features used for authentication can be divided into rhythm and waveform features. This paper studies the use of waveform features. A verification scheme based on prototype waveforms is

  15. Preventing pressure ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a prolonged time. This pressure reduces blood supply to that area. Lack of blood supply can cause the skin tissue in this area ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. [Prevention of pressure ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kenichi

    2009-12-01

    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.

  17. Positive airway pressure treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it. After using PAP regularly, you may notice: Better concentration and memory Feeling more alert and less sleepy during the day Improved sleep for your bed partner Being more productive at ... and a better mood Normal sleep patterns Lower blood pressure (in ...

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in a few hours? play_arrow What's ... play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family ...

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cushion? play_arrow What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  20. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. Magnetic measurements under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zentková, M.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Mihalik, M.; Mihalik, M.; Zentko, A.; Kamarád, Jiří; Mitróová, Z.; Mat`aš, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, 8/S (2006), s. 29-32 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrostatic pressure * Prussian blue analogues * AC susceptibility * intermetallic compound * ferromagnetism * errimagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  3. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Pressure Print en español Cómo lidiar con la presión de grupo "Come on! ALL of us are cutting ... and they learn from you. It's only human nature to listen to and learn from ... another student in your science class taught you an easy way to remember ...

  4. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  5. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  8. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  9. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy: Favorable results shown after eighteen months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Loukianou, Dimitrios Brouzas, Eleni Georgopoulou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michael ApostolopoulosEye Department, University of Athens, Athens, GreecePurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® as a treatment option for radiation maculopathy secondary to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.Case: A 61-year-old woman presented with a gradual decrease in left eye visual acuity (VA 29 months after proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. On presentation, her best-corrected VA (BCVA was 2/10 in the left eye and the intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg. Fundoscopy revealed cystoid macular edema, intraretinal hemorrhages, epiretinal membrane in the posterior pole, and residual tumor scar with exudative retinal detachment and hard exudates in the periphery of the superotemporal quadrant. A treatment with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® was recommended. The injections were performed on a six-weekly basis.Results: The central retinal thickness prior to the treatment was 458 μm. After the first intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, the retinal thickness at the centre of the fovea was reduced to 322 μm. After the third injection, the central retinal thickness was 359 μm and 18 months after presentation, it reduced to 334 μm. The BCVA increased to 3/10 after the intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and remained stable during the follow-up period. The intraocular pressure was within normal range during the follow-up period.Conclusion: Bevacizumab should be regarded as a treatment option for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. By reducing the central retinal thickness, intravitreal bevacizumab can improve VA or ameliorate further decline caused by radiation maculopathy.Keywords: bevacizumab (Avastin®, choroidal melanoma, macular edema, radiation retinopathy

  10. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  11. Social media for message testing: a multilevel approach to linking favorable viewer responses with message, producer, and viewer influence on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Jeon, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of social media for message testing, this study connects favorable viewer responses to antismoking videos on YouTube with the videos' message characteristics (message sensation value [MSV] and appeals), producer types, and viewer influences (viewer rating and number of viewers). Through multilevel modeling, a content analysis of 7,561 viewer comments on antismoking videos is linked with a content analysis of 87 antismoking videos. Based on a cognitive response approach, viewer comments are classified and coded as message-oriented thought, video feature-relevant thought, and audience-generated thought. The three mixed logit models indicate that videos with a greater number of viewers consistently increased the odds of favorable viewer responses, while those presenting humor appeals decreased the odds of favorable message-oriented and audience-generated thoughts. Some significant interaction effects show that videos produced by laypeople may hinder favorable viewer responses, while a greater number of viewer comments can work jointly with videos presenting threat appeals to predict favorable viewer responses. Also, for a more accurate understanding of audience responses to the messages, nuance cues should be considered together with message features and viewer influences.

  12. Favorable outcomes in locally advanced and node positive prostate cancer patients treated with combined pelvic IMRT and androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Narrang, Amol; Tafjord, Gunnar; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Russnes, Kjell Magne; Stensvold, Andreas; Hole, Knut Håkon; Tran, Phuoc; Eilertsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The most appropriate treatment for men with prostate cancer and positive pelvic nodes, N+, is an area of active controversy. We report our 5-years outcomes in men with locally advanced prostate cancer (T1-T4N0-N1M0) treated with definitive radiotherapy encompassing the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (intensity modulated radiotherapy, IMRT) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Of the 138 consecutive eligible men all living patients have been followed up to almost 5 years. Survival endpoints for 5-year biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression proportional hazards models were constructed for all survival endpoints. The RTOG morbidity grading system for physician rated toxicity was applied. Patients with locally advanced T3-T4 tumors (35 %) and N1 (51 %) have favorable outcome when long-term ADT is combined with definitive radiotherapy encompassing pelvic lymph nodes. The 5-year BFFS, RFS, PCSS and OS were 71.4, 76.2, 94.5 and 89.0 %, respectively. High Gleason sum (9–10) had a strong independent prognostic impact on BFFS, RFS and OS (p = 0.001, <0.001, and 0.005 respectively). The duration of ADT (= > 28 months) showed a significant independent association with improved PCSS (p = 0.02) and OS (p = 0.001). Lymph node involvement was not associated with survival endpoints in the multivariate analysis. The radiotherapy induced toxicity seen in our study population was moderate with rare Grade 3 GI side effects and up to 11 % for Grade 3 GU consisting mainly of urgency and frequency. Pelvic IMRT in combination with long-term ADT can achieve long-lasting disease control in men with N+ disease and unfavorable prognostic factors. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0540-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Ugandan Women’s View of the IUD: Generally Favorable but Many Have Misperceptions About Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twesigye, Rogers; Buyungo, Peter; Kaula, Henry; Buwembo, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Between 2001 and 2006, IUD use in Uganda stagnated at 0.2% among women of reproductive age (WRA) ages 15–49. By 2011, IUD use had increased slightly to 0.4%. Recent studies report a significant increase in IUD use to 3.8%, but it is still low. Because the IUD is a little-used method in Uganda, we assessed the acceptability of the IUD by surveying women about their perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods: In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,505 WRA exiting public and private health facilities in Uganda. We collected information on women’s attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the IUD, as well as their perceptions about its availability. We classified women’s responses according to a behavior change framework with 3 summary constructs: opportunity (structural factors that influence behavior), ability (skills to perform the behavior), and motivation (self-interest in adopting the behavior). As these 3 types of factors are more favorable to the desired behavior (in this case, use of the IUD), individuals are more likely to perform the behavior. Cross-tabulations compared the percentage results of perceptions and knowledge by key background characteristics. Results: Most (87.8%) of the surveyed women had heard of the IUD, and nearly two-thirds had a positive attitude toward the method. But a lower percentage (38.6%) had accurate information about the IUD and more than half (51.6%) did not think the method was available in a nearby facility. More than half of the women believed incorrectly that the IUD can damage the womb (57%), that it reduces sexual pleasure (54%), and that it can cause cancer (58%). Current use of family planning or of a modern method specifically was positively associated with awareness and accurate knowledge and beliefs about the IUD. Married women had significantly higher awareness of the IUD than single women, and they had better knowledge and belief scores. The type of

  14. Patients with acephalic spermatozoa syndrome linked to SUN5 mutations have a favorable pregnancy outcome from ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianzheng; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhu, Fuxi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2018-01-10

    Are Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 5 (SUN5) mutations associated with the outcomes of ICSI in patients with acephalic spermatozoa syndrome (ASS)? Despite highly abnormal sperm morphology, ASS patients with SUN5 mutations have a favorable pregnancy outcome following ICSI. ASS is a rare cause of infertility characterized by the production of a majority of headless spermatozoa, along with a small proportion of intact spermatozoa with an abnormal head-tail junction. Previous studies have demonstrated that SUN5 mutations may cause ASS. Several studies showed that ICSI could help patients with ASS father children. This retrospective cohort study included 11 infertile ASS males with SUN5 mutations. Five of them underwent five ICSI cycles. Their ICSI results were compared to men with ASS without SUN5 mutations (n = 3) and to men with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) (n = 9). All ICSI treatments were completed between Jan 2011 and May 2017. Sanger DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in SUN5. Clinical and biological data were collected from patients at the fertility center. Sanger sequencing validated 11 patients with SUN5 mutations. Three novel mutations in SUN5 (c.829C>T [p.Q277*]; c.1067G>A [p.R356H]; c.211+1 insGT [p.S71Cfs11*]) were identified in three patients. The rates of fertilization, good-quality embryos and pregnancy for five patients with SUN5 mutations following ICSI were 81.5%, 81.8% and 100%, respectively. The rates of fertilization and good-quality embryos in patients with MMAF were significantly lower compared with ASS patients (65.6 versus 82.4%, P = 0.039 and 53.6 versus 85.2%, P = 0.031, respectively). There were no differences in ICSI results between ASS patients with and without SUN5 mutations. Only a small number patients with SUN5 mutations was available because of its rare incidence. Patients with ASS can be effectively treated with ICSI. SUN5 mutations may be one of the genetic causes of ASS. This study

  15. Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide: A favorable metal-free catalyst for the N2O reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sharifi, Fahimeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction of N 2 O by CO molecule is investigated over Al- and Si-decorated graphene oxides (Al-/Si-GO). • The N 2 O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over both surfaces. • Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N 2 O molecule at ambient conditions. - Abstract: The structural and catalytic properties of Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al-/Si-GO) are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. The relatively large adsorption energy together with the small Al−O or Si−O binding distances indicate that the epoxy groups over the GO surface can strongly stabilize the single Al or Si atom. Hence, Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be utilized in catalytic reduction of N 2 O by CO molecule. It is found that the adsorption and decomposition of N 2 O molecule over Si-GO is more favorable than over Al-GO, due to its larger adsorption energy (E ads ) and charge transfer (q CT ) values. On the other hand, the CO molecule is physically adsorbed over both surfaces, with relatively small E ads and q CT values. Therefore, at the presence of N 2 O and CO molecules as the reaction gas, the Al or Si atom of the surface should be dominantly covered by N 2 O molecule. Our results indicate that the N 2 O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over Al-/Si-GO surface, where the N 2 molecule can be easily released from the surface. Then, the activated oxygen atom (O ads ) which remains over the surface reacts with the CO molecule to form the CO 2 molecule via the reaction O ads + CO → CO 2 . Based on the calculated activation energies, it is suggested that both Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N 2 O molecule at ambient conditions.

  16. Niacin extended-release/simvastatin combination therapy produces larger favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein particles than atorvastatin monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth PP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter P Toth1, Kamlesh M Thakker2, Ping Jiang2, Robert J Padley21University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, and CGH Medical Center, Sterling, 2Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USABackground: The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of niacin extended-release in combination with simvastatin (NER/S versus atorvastatin monotherapy on high-density lipoprotein (HDL particle number and size in patients with hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia from the SUPREME study.Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of patients (n = 137 who completed the SUPREME study and who had lipid particle number and size measurements at both baseline and at week 12 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Following ≥4 weeks without lipid-modifying therapy (washout period, the patients received NER/S 1000/40 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by NER/S 2000/40 mg/day for 8 weeks, or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in HDL particle number and size from baseline to week 12 were compared between the NER/S and atorvastatin treatment groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Distribution of HDL particle subclasses at week 12 was compared between the treatment groups using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test.Results: Treatment with NER/S resulted in a significantly greater percent reduction in small HDL particle number at week 12 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy (-1.8% versus 4.2%, P = 0.014, and a numerically greater percent increase in large HDL particle number (102.4% versus 39.2%, P = 0.078 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. A significantly greater percent increase in HDL particle size from baseline at week 12 was observed with NER/S compared with atorvastatin (6.0% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001. NER/S treatment also resulted in a significant shift in HDL particle size from small and medium at baseline to large at week 12 (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with NER/S resulted in larger favorable changes in number and size of HDL particle

  17. Brand Cigarillos: Low Price but High Particulate Matter Levels-Is Their Favorable Taxation in the European Union Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasel, Julia; Boll, Michael; Schulze, Michaela; Mueller, Daniel; Bundschuh, Matthias; Groneberg, David A; Gerber, Alexander

    2015-08-06

    Second hand smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) contributes considerably to indoor air contamination and constitutes a health risk for passive smokers. Easy to measure, PM is a useful parameter to estimate the dosage of ETS that passive smokers are exposed to. Apart from its suitability as a surrogate parameter for ETS-exposure, PM itself affects human morbidity and mortality in a dose-dependent manner. We think that ETS-associated PM should be considered an independent hazard factor, separately from the many other known harmful compounds of ETS. We believe that brand-specific and tobacco-product-specific differences in the release of PM matter and that these differences are of public interest. To generate ETS of cigarettes and cigarillos as standardized and reproducible as possible, an automatic second hand smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed and placed in a glass chamber. L&M cigarettes ("without additives", "red label", "blue label"), L&M filtered cigarillos ("red") and 3R4F standard research cigarettes (as reference) were smoked automatically according to a self-developed, standardized protocol until the tobacco product was smoked down to 8 mm distance from the tipping paper of the filter. Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) in a plot of PM2.5 against time were measured, and compared. CmeanPM2.5 were found to be 518 μg/m(3) for 3R4F cigarettes, 576 μg/m(3) for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 448 μg/m(3) for L&M "blue label", 547 μg/m(3) for L&M "red label", and 755 μg/m(3) for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). AUCPM2.5-values were 208,214 μg/m(3)·s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 204,629 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "without additives" ("red"), 152,718 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "blue label", 238,098 μg/m(3)·s for L&M "red label" and 796,909 μg/m(3)·s for L&M filtered cigarillos ("red"). Considering the large and significant differences in particulate matter emissions between cigarettes and cigarillos, we think that a favorable

  18. Tax havens under international pressure: How do they react?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Pieretti; Giuseppe Pulina

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature about tax havens by providing a more comprehensive analysis of their role. The aim is to analyze how low-tax jurisdictions can react to growing international pressure exerted, by high-tax countries, to enforce compliance with anti aggressive tax planning standards. To this end, we model how a small tax haven tries to be attractive to multinationals located in a high-tax region by providing aggressive tax planning services and/or a favorable environment...

  19. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  20. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.S.; Ekberg, O.; Lasson, A.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)