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Sample records for fava beans vicia

  1. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  2. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway.

  3. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba production in Egypt Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba no Egito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. El-Metwally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential. The experiment included five treatments, composed of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and mixed at different rates, along with a control and six weed control treatments, including oxadiargyl, prometryn, hand hoeing treatments alone or mixed with the herbicides, and a nonweeded treatment (control.The herbicide treatments were not superior to the two hand-hoeing treatments. Using compost favored growth and yield of faba bean more than of weeds. Adding fertilizer also improved most yield parameters. Application of compost alone or combined with 50 or 100% of the recommended NPK rate improved faba bean growth in terms of net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, and leaf weight ratio as components of relative growth rate. This improvement in growth resulted in increase of seed yield, yield components and protein of faba bean. Faba bean yield performance improved under interactive fertilizer effects and weed control treatments as growth improved, as a result of nutrient release from fertilizers and weed control.Dois experimentos em condições de campo foram conduzidos em duas épocas sucessivas - 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 - para determinar se o manejo pode melhorar a competitividade do feijão-fava contra plantas daninhas e contribuir para um maior potencial de produção. Os experimentos incluíram cinco tratamentos, compostos de: fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais, isoladamente ou em mistura em diferentes doses, além do tratamento controle, e seis tratamentos de controle de plantas daninhas, incluindo tratamentos usando oxadiargyl, prometryn, manualmente ou misturados com os herbicidas e um tratamento sem plantas daninhas (controle. Os tratamentos com os herbicidas não foram superiores aos dois tratamentos manuais (hand hoeing

  4. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  5. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  6. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M C; Van Tassell, M L; Martínez-Bustos, F; Singh, M; Castaño-Tostado, E; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2012-06-01

    Of 20 Lactobacillus and 8 Bifidobacterium species examined, only Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 was able to ferment starch from fava beans. Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh-style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) were manufactured with 3 combinations of probiotics: L. rhamnosus GG only, B. breve only, or both L. rhamnosus GG and B. breve. During 4 wk of storage at 4°C, the addition of fava bean starch to the cheese was not found to cause significant differences in the viability of either probiotic strain. However, the microstructure and texture of Panela cheese were altered, resulting in a much softer product. A sensory panel showed that the presence of added fava bean starch in Panela cheese was less desirable to consumers, whereas probiotic supplementation had no effect on perceived taste or appearance. Panela cheese could be a suitable food for inclusion of probiotic bacteria.

  7. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  8. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  9. Climatic Characteristics Analysis of Fava Bean Cultivation in Linxia Area%临夏地区蚕豆种植的气候特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡广珍; 马旭洁; 王琨; 张淑芳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the geographical environment and the characteristics of climatic resources in Linxia area, by using the historical meteorological data of Linxia area, the author analyzed the weather conditions (light, heat and moisture) in the growth period of fava bean, and the climate characteristics in the critical growth period of fava bean, formulated the climatic regionalization indexes of fava bean, and then divided four different types of suitable planting regions for fava bean. Finally, this paper discussed the developmental potential of planting fava bean in Linxia area from the aspects of climatic resources, land area, economic benefit and so on.%从临夏地区的地理环境、气候资源特征入手,利用临夏的历史气象资料,分析了蚕豆生长期的光、热、水气候条件以及蚕豆生长关键期的气候特征,制定了蚕豆气候区划指标并划分了4种不同类型的适宜种植区.从气候资源、土地面积、经济效益等方面对临夏地区种植蚕豆的发展潜力进行了研究.

  10. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  11. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats

  12. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Breeding Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yang; Xuxiao Zong; Haobing Li; Tony Leonforte; Sukhjiwan Kaur; Ana Torres; Jeff Paull; Annathurai Gnanasambandam; Michael Materne

    2012-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly...

  13. Motor effects of broad beans (Vicia faba) in Parkinson's disease: single dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, P A; Bogetic, Z; Secombei, J W; Martin, H D; Balazs, N D; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-06-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) are a natural source of L-dopa. To investigate a possible role for this substance in the treatment of Parkinsonian motor oscillations, we carried out single dose studies of Vicia faba pod mixture plus carbidopa in six patients. Motor responses of equivalent magnitude to those of conventional L-dopa medication occurred in five cases with mean onset of 39 min and mean duration of 104 min. Vicia faba meals produced comparable L-dopa blood levels to fasting standard tablet doses and recovery studies yielded 0.25% L-dopa per weight of bean pod mixture. Vicia faba contains sufficient L-dopa to be pharmacologically active in patients with Parkinson's disease and can potentially be incorporated into dietary strategies to manage Parkinsonian motor oscillations.

  14. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  15. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesare Castellini; Elisa Cestola; Federico Sirri; Alessandro Dal Bosco; Cecilia Mugnai; Francesca Perella

    2010-01-01

    .... The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed...

  16. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  17. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  18. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  19. Observations on micronuclei ultrastructure within broad bean (Vicia faba) meristem after. gamma. ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, V.; Sparchez, C.; Craciun, C.; Uray, Z. (Center for Biological Research, Cluj-Napoca (Roumania))

    1981-06-01

    The root meristem of broad bean (Vicia faba) fourth day old was irradiated with ..gamma.. ray in doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 rad. After 24 hours the root tip was fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmic acid and after that embedded in W vestopal. On several sections micronuclei were present and their ultrastructure could be studied. From ultrastructural point of view the heterochromatinic micronuclei are acentric chromosomal fragments and the euchromatinic ones probably not. A clear separation between micronuclei and other fragments of the normal nucleus was proved.

  20. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of native rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youseif, Sameh H; Abd El-Megeed, Fayrouz H; Ageez, Amr; Cocking, Edward C; Saleh, Saleh A

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic diversity of forty-two Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of faba bean grown in Egypt, was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of three chromosomal housekeeping loci and one nodulation gene (nodA). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the strains were related to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A maximum likelihood (ML) tree built from the concatenated sequences of housekeeping proteins encoded by glnA, gyrB and recA, revealed the existence of three distinct genospecies (I, II and III) affiliated to the defined species within the genus Rhizobium/Agrobacterium. Seventeen strains in genospecies I could be classified as R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. Whereas, a single strain of genospecies II was linked to R. etli. Interestingly, twenty-four strains of genospecies III were identified as A. tumefaciens. Strains of R. etli and A. tumefaciens have been shown to harbor the nodA gene and formed effective symbioses with faba bean plants in Leonard jar assemblies. In the nodA tree, strains belonging to the putative genospecies were closely related to each other and were clustered tightly to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae, supporting the hypothesis that symbiotic and core genome of the species have different evolutionary histories and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia.

  1. Transformation Fava Beans by Agrobacterium using Chitinase, Glucanase and CryIA (b genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Gorji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two plasmid vectors that are appropriate for plant transformation were made by preparation of gene cassettes for β-1, 3-glucanase from barley, chitinase from bean and cryIA (b from Bacillus thuringiensis (BT. Each of these genes were cloned under the control of the CaMV35S  promoter and the Nos terminator in pBI121 binary vector. pBI-Chi  and pBI-Glu and recombinant plasmid vectors were constructed via cloning of chitinase , β-1,3- glucanase and cryIA (b genes, respectively, instead of the gus gene in T-DNA region of pBI121 vector. Construction of pBI-ChiGlu recombinant plasmid vector was performed by means of cloning both of the complete chitinase and glucanase gene cassettes in pBI121 vector, with the intention of production synergistic effects against fungal infection.pBI-ChiBt  recombinant plasmid vector containing both of the complete chitinase and Bt gene cassettes was also constructed in order to contemporaneous plants resistance to pest pathogens and fungal in a single transformation event. pBI-ChiGlu and pBI-ChiBt that have been  introduced into the A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that was subsequently used for  transformation. Results indicate that embryogenic calli are well appropriate as objective material for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in Faba bean.Seventeen well established shoots  were transferred to new MLS medium including suitable  antibiotics.Finally six independent transgenic plants were successfully rooted on kanamycin-containing  selection media and then transferred to soil after 20 days .Four plants out of six putative transgenic plants displaied to contain the end part of the chit transgene and nos terminator.The corresponding  piece, 700 bp of the chit gene, was amplified using specific primer.These putative transgenic plants were also be measured for the presence of the bgn13.1 and cryIA (b genes by PCR using specific primers.Two  pieces with expected sizes (1221 bp and 640

  2. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  3. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  4. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  5. Dose-independent effect of misonidazole in fractionated irradiations of hypoxic Vicia faba bean roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, M.T. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1984-04-01

    The radiosensitization of 5 mM misonidazole (Miso) was measured in Vicia faba bean roots with regimens of single, three, six and twelve fractions of 250 kVp X-rays. To inhibit cell division, the beans were kept at a constant temperature of 3.5/sup 0/C during irradiation and between fractions that were spaced 24 hours apart. The doses in various regimens were graded such that they ranged between 27 and 350, and 42 and 513 cGy per fraction in Miso-treated and non-treated regimens, respectively, under hypoxia. The sensitivity enhancement ratio (s.e.r.) was constant throughout the dose range employed with an average value of 1.62. The s.e.r. increased to 2.3 when measured with single doses at 19/sup 0/C. It is concluded that the s.e.r. is dose-independent and that temperature enhances the effectiveness of the drug.

  6. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  7. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  8. The Impact of Processing on Antioxidant Activity of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Luo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of 70% acetone extracts of raw and processed seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba. L was evaluated by various in vitro antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal ion chelating, &beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and antihemolytic activities. The total phenolics and tannin contents were higher in the extract of seeds processed by autoclaving with 1% ash solution (3.6 and 1.9/100 g extract, respectively. In general, all the extracts of processed seeds exhibited higher activity in various antioxidant systems, when compared to raw seeds but significant differences were noticed between processing methods. The extract of seeds autoclaved with 1% sugar solution showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC507.4 mg/mL. Interestingly, the extract of dry heated seeds registered higher inhibition of hemolysis (76.8% compared to standards butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA (61.8% and α-tocopherol (52.6% at the concentration of 500 &mug/mL.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  10. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor) and pea seeds (Pisum sativum) as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Gatta; M.L. Martini; Casini, L.; G.B. Liponi

    2010-01-01

    18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor) and Pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing) animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d) and a decreasing amo...

  11. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  12. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  13. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet contain

  14. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  15. Effect of sulfite on DNA synthesis on the meristem of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braendle, R.; Erismann, K.H.

    1973-01-01

    Sulfite inhibited DNA synthesis in the root meristem of Vicia faba L. seedlings. TH Thymidine fixation, which was reduced by half, was determined by autoradiography. The rate of mitosis was reduced by almost half.

  16. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  17. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  18. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  19. Liver and muscle proteolytic activity in field bean (Vicia faba L.) fed birds. Effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián, S; Rodríguez, M L; Larralde, J

    1987-09-01

    Liver and muscle proteolytic activities (cathepsin A and D) were measured in growing male chickens fed ad libitum over periods of 30 and 60 days on 20% protein diets containing either heated soybean (HSB, control) or raw field bean (RFB, Vicia faba L.) as the main sources of protein. Vitamin E (250 mg/100 g diet) was added or not to the RFB diet. It has been found that in comparison to control HSB-fed animals, RFB-fed birds showed a significant reduction in the rate of growth, together with a significant increase in the activities of both cathepsins A and D in liver and muscle. The addition of vitamin E to the RFB diet had no significant effect on either weight gain or liver and muscle proteolytic activities. The possible nature of these effects is discussed.

  20. Effect of Flower Removal on Senescence and Metabolism of Faba BeanVicia Faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaMingzhong

    1999-01-01

    In pot experiments of Xichang,China,during 1989-1994,visual scnescence symptoms and associated changes in constituent contents and activities of leaves of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)were compared in respones to flower removal.the leaves from upper, middle and lower positions were sampled six times during reproductive development phase.At 70 DAP flower removal had caused 37%-189% and 82%-197% increase of green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant respectively.Flower removal led to a significant increase in the chlorophyll,soluble surar and protein contents and the catalase activity.The leaf cell relative electroconductivity of those plants was maintained at a lower level,relative to the control,during the late growing stage.These results certainly implied that the leaves of flower removal plants were still fully functional at a very late growing stage,consequently the plants increased many new branches per plant.

  1. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  2. Oospora populations of Peronospora viciae: quantification, germinability andsurvival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Peronospora viciae causes downy mildew on pea, field and broad bean. Two pathogens can be distinguished, P. viciae f.sp. pisi on pea (Pisum sativum) and P. viciae f. sp. fabae on field and broad bean (Vicia faba). These pathogens form resting spores, called oospores, in their host plant tissue. The

  3. The Effect of Weeds Interference Time and Plant Density on Weeds Control and Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dabaghzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broad bean (Vicia faba L. belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the most important protein plant in the world. Although broad bean used as cover crop is able to deal with weeds, but the evidence show that yield of the plant decreased 32-82% because of competition with weeds. Using crop density is one of the ecological approaches in weed management. Broad bean density can produce biomass, weed competition, seed yield and ultimately influence the economic yield. Many reports show that increasing crop density reduced negative effects of weeds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weeds interference and different densities of broad bean on density and biomass of weeds and broad bean seed yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete block, with four replications, during 2009-2010 in a field experiment at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz. Weeds interference was investigated on 5 levels, including V5, V9, V13 broad-bean phonological stages, full season weeding and full season weeds interference selected as main plots, and broad-bean density on 3 levels: including 8, 11 and 14 plants m-2 as subplots. Density, dry weight and diversity of weeds and seed yield of broad bean were evaluated. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weeds including wild beet, field bindweed and mallow had the highest occurrence (26.35, 21.17 and 18.46 plants m-2 respectively in V9 broad-bean phonological stage, where the peak abundance of weeds was observed. The frequency of mallow, clover and yellow alfalfa were high until V5 broad-bean phonological stage, but in the next stages, they were replaced by other weeds and sorrel. It was also observed that the environmental factors can affect composition of weeds, for example, as the temperature increased in the early spring, an increase in the density of field bindweed was recorded. In the treatment of 8 plants

  4. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  5. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output

    OpenAIRE

    Gullón, P.; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatt...

  6. Dual action of phosphonate herbicides in plants affected by herbivore--model study on black bean aphid Aphis fabae rearing on broad bean Vicia faba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipok, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    The interactions between plants, herbicides and herbivore insects were studied as an aspect of possible side effect of the using of phosphonate herbicides. The experimental system was composed of phosphonate herbicides, broad bean Vicia faba (L.) plants and black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Scopoli). Two means of herbicide application, namely standard spraying and direct introduction of the herbicide into stem via glass capillary, were examined. The results obtained for N-2-piridylaminomethylene bisphosphonic acid and its derivatives show 10 times higher inhibition of the plant growth if glass capillary mode was used. When plants were infested by aphids 24h after the use of herbicide, a significant decrease in plant growth rate was observed in relation to plants treated with herbicides alone. Moreover, the sensitivity of aphids towards glyphosate, N-2-piridylaminomethylene bisphosphonic acid and its 3-methyl derivative introduced to artificial diet indicated that these herbicidal phosphonates possessed also insecticidal activity if applied in a systemic manner. Additionally, olfactometer measurements revealed that aphids preferred intact V. faba leaves over those that had been treated with sublethal doses of herbicides. The results achieved in these experiments indicate that the use of phosphonate herbicides decreases plant resistance and influences the number of aphids accompanied with treated plants. Regarding these facts it can be concluded that the combined effect of herbicide-induced stress and insect herbivory reduced plant fitness and thus should be considered as also a factor enabling the reduction of herbicide doses.

  7. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  8. Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faDa cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diets either contained 8.37o f-ishmeal,207o faba beans plus 7.9%, soybean oilcake meal (SBOK) or ... The feed conversion ratio of pigs on the lupin ... pigs as a conscquence of the presence of antinutritional l-actors. .... content of sweet lupin seed was 607o higher than taba bean seed, ..... anaf ysis of food products.

  9. Effect of faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor inclusion in starter and growing diet on performance, carcass and meat characteristics of organic slow-growing chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbThsits rpaacpetr assesses the effect of faba bean (Vicia Faba minor, in partial substitution of soybean, on productive performance, carcass and meat traits of slow-growing chickens readed under the organic method. Faba bean was used in both starter (1-21 d and growing/finisher diets (22-120 d. One thousand birds were fed two different diets containing respectively, soybean or faba bean as the main protein source for the entire rearing period. The birds of each group were slaughtered at 120 d of age. The productive performance of group F was the worst, with a higher mortality rate, indicating that faba bean diets are not able to cover the nutritional requirements of birds mainly in the first rearing period. The main carcass and meat qualitative traits, were not affected by the treatment, whereas minor modification regards saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  12. Produção de feijão-fava em função do uso de doses de fósforo Lima bean production as a result of the application of phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    , respectivamente, devem ser as recomendadas para aplicação no solo em estudo, visando a produção de grãos verdes e secos de feijão-fava.Phosphorus is an important mineral nutrient for vegetables. This work was conducted at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia, Brazil, from December/2001 to July/2002, aiming to evaluate the effect of levels of P2O5 on the yield of lima bean, cv. "Orelha de Vó". The experimental design was a randomized block with five treatments (0; 100; 200; 300; 400 and 500 kg ha-1 of P2 O5, and four replications. Each plot consisted of 40 plants spaced 1.0 m between rows and 0.50 m between plants in each row. The estimated maximum yield of green and dry beans (5.2 and 2.7 t ha-1, respectively corresponded, to the dosages of 309 and 302 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The levels 291 kg ha-1 and 281 kg ha-1 of P2O5 provided, respectively, the greater economic return for the yield of green (4.1 t ha-1 and dry (1.8 t ha-1 beans. The most economic levels included more than 80% of those dosages responsible for the maximum yields and indicated the economic viability of phosphorus utilization on lima bean crop. The P2O5 levels which promoted the maximum yield and the maximum economic return for green and dry beans yield were respectively, with 57.1; 56.3; 55.0 and 53.8 mg dm-3 of available P for the extractor of Melich 1. The lima bean response to the phosphorus fertilization in soils with similar fertility used in the present study, for green and dry beans yield, will be reduced at levels of available P superior to 55.0 and 53.8 mg dm-3. The average concentration of P in the leaves of lima bean, 120 days after sowing, in function of levels of P2O5 was of 3.4 g kg-1. For the soil of this study the application of 291 and 281 kg ha-1 of P2O5 is more recommended to establish the lima bean respectively, for green and dry beans yield.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  14. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco; surveying, identification, and ecological aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron mi

  15. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  16. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  17. Potential impact of CO{sub 2} leakage from carbon capture and storage systems on field bean (Vicia faba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Traboulsi, M.; Sjoegersten, S.; Colls, J.; Black, C. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Steven, M. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Geography, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Capture and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be essential to reduce emissions to the atmosphere and aid mitigation of global climate change. However, leakage from transport pipelines or carbon capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs may pose risks to vegetation and contribute to rising atmospheric concentrations [CO{sub 2}]. This study examined effects on seedling emergence and growth when field bean plants (Vicia faba cv. Wizard) grown under field conditions were subjected to elevated soil [CO{sub 2}] for 39 days after planting. The strong negative correlation between soil [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 2}] during the injection period created a hypoxic soil environment under conditions of elevated soil [CO{sub 2}]. The damaging impact of this treatment became apparent early in the experiment as no seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] >50% emerged, even after injection was discontinued. Some seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] <50% produced seedlings, but many did not survive. Seedling emergence and survival in the gassed plots was greatest at [CO{sub 2}] of 5-20%, but root and shoot growth was reduced relative to control plants. Seedling emergence and growth were negatively related to soil [CO{sub 2}] and positively related to [O{sub 2}], although it is not known which was more important in inducing the observed effects. These findings suggest that leakage of CO{sub 2} from transport pipelines or CCS sites may greatly reduce seedling emergence and crop establishment in the vicinity of such infrastructures. (Author)

  18. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly proteinaceous pulse crop. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate and characterize the phenolic compounds in different tissues of this pulse and their ant oxidative activities. Fairly good amount of phenolics were observed in all tissues extract which was quite evident from their high FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power value. It was further, observed that the extract prepared from its seeds presented a potent radical scavenger activity as indicated by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, whereas the tannin-free extract indicated loss of ant oxidative activities. The seed extract also interacted with superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals as well as the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide. Thus, our results provide evidence that the extract prepared from different tissues of faba bean shows antioxidant and radical scavenging activities largely because of its condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins.

  20. 马铃薯间作蚕豆的边行效应及增产机理%Marginal Effects and Mechanism of Increasing Yield of Fava Beans and Potatoes Intercropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马子林

    2014-01-01

    对靠近马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)的蚕豆(Vicia faba)边行的地表温度、相对湿度、形态指标及产量构成因子进行了比较试验,并对蚕豆与马铃薯不同间作模式的产量与经济效益进行了对比。结果表明,蚕豆边行越靠近马铃薯,地表温度越高,蚕豆的有效分枝数越多,根瘤越多越大且分布广而密集,有效根瘤也越多,且单株荚数与单株产量也越高,而株高和地表相对湿度降低。蚕豆与马铃薯不同间作模式中,以8行蚕豆+3垄马铃薯间作模式的马铃薯与蚕豆的总产量和纯收入最高。%Different boundary lines of broad bean(Vicia faba) near the potato(Solanum tuberosum) were compared with different potato and faba bean from test components for surface soil moisture and temperature, plant traits and yield, and the ntercropping yield and economic benefit. The results showed that when broad bean was closer to potato, the temperature is higher, the effective branch, root and nodule number was more, the root was more widely distributed and intensive. The pod number per plant and grain yield per plant was higher, while plant height and surface relative humidity was less. Under different modes of potato and faba bean intercropping, the total output of the intercropping with 8 rows of broad bean and 3 ridges of potatoes was the highest.

  1. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean(Vicia faba L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamene; Temesgen; Gemechu; Keneni; Tadese; Sefera; Mussa; Jarso

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years(2009–2011). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant(P ≤ 0.001) and(P ≤ 0.01), respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively.Genotypic superiority index(Pi) and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters,including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2 di, bi, S(2)i, Wi, σ2i, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in2013 for wide production and named "Gora". Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but rather

  2. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamene Temesgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P ≤ 0.001 and (P ≤ 0.01, respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2di, bi, Si(2, Wi, σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few

  3. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamene Temesgen; Gemechu Keneni; Tadese Sefera; Mussa Jarso

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P≤0.001) and (P≤0.01), respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi) and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS,α,λ, S2di, bi, Si(2), Wi,σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0%seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but

  4. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean

  5. Nutritional and antinutritional attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms growing in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amresh; Nidhi; Prasad, N; Sinha, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Eleven germplasms of faba bean seeds from four agroclimatic regions of Bihar, India, have been investigated to estimate their nutritional (soluble protein, free amino acids, starch, reducing and non reducing sugar, total soluble sugar) and antinutritional (total extractable phenol and condensed tannin/proanthocyanidin) parameters. These parameters were found in varying concentration in all genotypes studied. The highest concentration of total extractable phenol and proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) (2.56 and 1.59 % leucocyanidin equivalents respectively on dry matter basis) were found in Samastipur while the lowest from Patna (0.95 and 0.426 % leucocyanidin equivalent on dry matter basis). The different nutritional parameters were also found to be in variable concentration among different germplasms viz. total soluble protein ≈ 20-32 %, free amino acids ≈ 188-348 mg/100 g, starch ≈ 27-33 %, reducing sugars ≈ 85-188 mg/100 g, non reducing sugars ≈ 0.7-1.7 % and total soluble sugars ≈ 0.8-1.9 %.

  6. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  7. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  8. Nitrogen Fixation (C(2)H(2) Reduction) by Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Nodules and Bacteroids under Water-Restricted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, V; Trinchant, J C; Rigaud, J

    1990-03-01

    Water potentials of leaves and nodules of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivated on a sandy mixture were linearly and highly (r(2) = 0.99) correlated throughout a water deprivation of plants. A decrease of 0.2 megapascal of the nodule water potential (Psi(nod)) induced an immediate 25% inhibition of the highest level of acetylene reduction of broad bean nodules attached to roots. This activity continued to be depressed when water stress increased, but the effect was less pronounced. Partial recovery of optimal C(2)H(2) reduction capacity of mildly water stressed nodules (Psi(nod) = -1.2 megapascals) was possible by increasing the external O(2) partial pressure up to 60 kilopascals. The dense packing of the cortical cells of nodules may be responsible for the limitation of O(2) diffusion to the central tissue. Bacteroids isolated from broad bean nodules exhibited higher N(2) fixation activity with glucose than with succinate as an energy-yielding substrate. Bacteroids from stressed nodules appeared more sensitive to O(2), and their optimal activity declined with increasing nodule water deprivation. This effect could be partly due to decreased bacteroid respiration capacity with water stress. Water stress was also responsible for a decrease of the cytosolic protein content of the nodule and more specifically of leghemoglobin. The alteration of the bacteroid environment appears to contribute to the decline in N(2) fixation under water restricted conditions.

  9. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  11. Reaction of faba bean genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani and resistance stability Reação de genótipos de fava a Rhizoctonia solani e estabilidade da resistência

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    Iraildes P Assunção

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of faba bean (Phaseolus lunatus is limited due to the occurrence of Rhizoctonia canker, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In order to select materials with potential for use in faba beans breeding programs and/or disease integrated management, 72 genotypes were evaluated and also stability of the disease resistance in relation to different pathogen isolates, inoculum densities and soil type. The seeds were sown in soil infested with the pathogen by the addition of colonized substrate (rice grains. The evaluation of genotypes was done after 15 days, using a note scale to discriminate the genotypes into five reaction classes. None of the 72 genotypes showed immunity to R. solani and only four genotypes (F-42, F-49, F-53 and F-58 behaved as highly resistant. The reactions presented by these genotypes varied according to the R. solani isolate, inoculum density and soil used. The genotype F-58 showed more stable resistance to pathogen isolates and inoculum densities. The genotype F-53 showed resistance stability in soils collected in different locations, remaining highly resistant in all situations. The genotype F-58 did not show high resistance to only one tested soil. Therefore, the genotypes F-58 and F-53 are promising sources of resistance to R. solani and should be indicated in areas infested by the pathogen.A produção de fava (Phaseolus lunatus é limitada pela ocorrência da rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar materiais com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 72 genótipos de fava e verificada a estabilidade da resistência em relação a diferentes isolados do patógeno, densidades de inóculo e tipos de solo. As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o patógeno pela incorporação de substrato (grãos de arroz colonizado. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de

  12. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  13. Quality Analysis of Broad Bean(Vicia faba Linn.) Varieties%不同蚕豆品种的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严清彪; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同蚕豆(Vicia faba Linn.)品种的品质差异.[方法]对111个不同蚕豆品种的种子蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行了测定.[结果]蛋白质含量优异的品种有13个,单宁含量优异的品种有20个,钙含量优异的品种有16个,硒含量优异的品种有18个,通过对蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行排序比对,筛选3个单项优质的品种分别为法7(1638)、青海83-26-12,2005-00,3个多项优质品种分别为H8096-3、青海马牙-1-1和伊拉克45-1.[结论]该研究可为进一步研究和加工利用蚕豆提供参考依据.%The purpose was to study the differences of quality of different broad bean varieties. [ Method ] The content of seed protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium of 111 kinds of broad bean varieties were measured. [ Result] The results showed that among the 111 different broad beans varieties, 13 varieties were high in protein content, 20 varieties were high in tannins content, 16 varieties were high in calcium content, and 18 varieties were high in selenium content. Though the sort and comparison of the content of protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium, 3 varieties were found to be single high-quality varieties; Fa7(1638) , Qinhai83-26-12, and2005-00, 3varieties were found to be multiply-quality varieties; H8096-3 , Qinhaiyama-1-1, and Iraq45-1. [ Conclusion] The study provides a reference basis for deeply researching, machining and utilizing of broad bean.

  14. 供水及丁香酚对间作小麦蚕豆生长速率及籽粒产量的影响%Effect of Eugenol and Water Application on Crop Growth Rate and Grain Yield of Wheat Fava Bean Intercropping Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 柴强; 赵财; 刘辉娟; 周海燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the manual control regulation of intercropping system that existed allelochemicals, pot experiment was carried out to research the effect of eugenol on crop growth rate and grain yield of wheat faba/bean intercropping system at water application of 75%, 60% and 45% field capacity. The results showed that eugenol could inhibite the crop growth rate (CGR)of fava bean in the seedling-beginning flower and pod setting-mature period of faba bean, except sole faba bean with 75% water supply level and the intercropped faba bean with 60% water supply level, increased water supply can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the sole faba bean, but the inhitory action of eugenol on the intercropped fava bean exacerbate, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action; eugenol could inhibite the wheat CGR after seedling period, increasing water supply can not alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the wheat CGR at the stage of flowering to maturity. Compared to weighted average sole grain yield, intercropped grain yield was increased by 24.92%~52.74% under the same water supply. Other treatments showed mat allelopathy has inhibitory effect on the grain yield of two crops except 45%water supply level. Intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the allelopathy of eugeno on the wheat, fava bean grain yield.%为了寻求人工调控存在化感物质间作群体的理论依据,通过盆栽试验,探讨不同供水水平下(田问持水量的75%、60%和45%),小麦根系分泌物丁香酚对单作和间作蚕豆、小麦生长速率(Crop Growth Rate,CGR)及籽粒产量的影响.结果表明:在蚕豆苗期-始花期、结荚-成熟期2个生育阶段,丁香酚对蚕豆生长速率整体表现为抑制作用,但结荚-成熟期75%供水水平下的单作、60%供水水平下的问作除外,增加供水缓解了单作蚕豆的

  15. Development of a new diagnostic marker for growth habit selection in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, C M; Atienza, S G; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2007-11-01

    Faba bean varieties with determinacy of the apical meristem are relevant to green production. A diagnostic CAPS (cleavage amplification polymorphic sequence) marker for determinate growth habit (ti) in faba bean was previously developed by Avila et al. (Mol Breed 17:185-190, 2006) but was effective only on a limited range of cultivars or genotypes. In this study, we studied the reasons for this limited application and developed a new marker useful for most faba bean-breeding programs. By designing a new set of primers, the complete genomic Vf_TFL1 sequences from different genotypes contrasting for the character were obtained and additional base changes associated with the ti phenotype were identified. The comparison among faba bean sequences showed that the previous CAPS marker was based on a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) at position 469 in the intron 2-3, a silent mutation. On the contrary, a SNP at position 26 that distinguishes determinate and indeterminate growth habit genotypes lead to an amino acid change (Leu-9 to Arg) in the determinate growth habit genotypes that could account for the ti phenotype. A dCAPS marker based on this SNP that creates a TaqI site in the ti allele was developed. The marker was 100% successful in predicting ti phenotypes in a broad range of faba bean germplasm representing all major cultivars historically grown in Europe. The outcome confirms the utility of the new dCAPS in worldwide marker-assisted selection programs.

  16. Occurrence of broad bean (Vicia faba L. diseases in Olsztyn-Elbąg and Bydgoszcz Provinces

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    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1981-1985, there were conducted studies of the healthiness of broad bean,'Nadwiślański' variety, cultivated in different soil and climate conditions of the two regions: i.e. Bydgoszcz - comparatively warmer and drier, and Olsztyn-Elbląg - colder and moister. It was found that the main reason for a premature broad bean leaves dry in up in the Olsztyn-Elbląg Region was caused by the fungi Cercospora and Botrytis, and in the Bydgoszcz Region - the root rot which occurs here to a greater extent. Root gangrene was greater intensity in drier and lighter soils. Rotting broad bean roots were most frequently occupied by the fungi of the Fusarium family (ca. 70%. The prevailing species were Fusarium oxysporum, next F. solani and more rarely F. culmorum and F. avenaceum. Climate conditions and soil species affected considerably the species composition of the root fungi.

  17. Phenolics, phytic acid, and phytase in Canadian-grown low-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Luc, Geneviéve; Leprelle, Claire; Drover, John C G; Harrison, Judith E; Olson, Mark

    2011-04-27

    Thirteen low-tannin faba bean genotypes grown at two locations in north central Alberta in 2009 were evaluated to investigate the variation in seed characteristics, phenolic and phytate contents, and phytase and antioxidant activities and to elucidate the relationship of these components as a breeding strategy. Seed characteristics including color were predominantly genotype dependent. The faba bean genotypes with total phenolic content ranging from 5.5 to 41.8 mg of catechin equiv/g of sample was linearly related to tannin content and the best predictor of antioxidant activity. Phytic acid content and phytase activity varied significantly among genotypes and between locations, ranging from 5.9 to 15.1 g/kg and from 1606 to 2154 FTU/kg sample, respectively. Multivariate data analysis performed on 19 components analyzed in this study using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis demonstrate that differences in seed characteristics, phenolic components, phytic acid, and phytase are major factors in segregating faba bean genotypes. The relatively low phytic acid content and high phytase activity of these low-tannin faba bean genotypes are beneficial/essential traits for their use in human and animal nutrition.

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  19. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  1. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  2. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and yield component in some of broad bean (Vicia faba l. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean is a grain legume and grown for its high protein content in the seed. It is also serves as a rotational crop which play great role in controlling disease epidemics in areas were cereal mono-cropping is abundant. Yield in faba bean, similar to the other crops, is a complex trait and constitute by many of morphological and physiological traits. This study was carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 in two region of Iran including Guilan and Lorestan provinces. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications and ten genotypes. The results of combined analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the studied traits. The results indicated also environment effect and environment × genotype interaction effects were significant or highly significant for all of the traits. The highest seed yield were determined for genotype 1 (3159.9 and 4016.9 kg ha-1 at 2012 and 2013, respectively in Guilan and genotype 5 (495.44 kg ha-1 in Lorestan. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were positive significant correlation coefficients between seed yield and seed length (LS, seed width (WS, pod length (PL and hundred seed weight (HSW in Guilan province at two cropping season. Path coefficient analysis indicated that traits containing number of pod per plant, number of steam per plant, pod length, seed length/width ratio and hundred seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on dry seed yield in studied faba bean genotypes. Attention should be paid to some of characters such as pod length, hundred seed weight, number of pods per plant and number of stems per plant for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. It could be

  3. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Diab, Eiman E.; Elfadil E. Babiker

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin conte...

  5. Chemical composition and ultrastructure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) nodule endodermis in comparison to the root endodermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaus; Peiter, Edgar; Koch, Kerstin; Schubert, Sven; Schreiber, Lukas

    2002-05-01

    Ultrastructure and development of apoplastic barriers within indeterminate root nodules formed by Vicia faba L. were examined by light and electron microscopy. The nodule outer cortex is separated from the inner cortex by a heavily suberized nodule endodermis, which matures in submeristematic regions and possesses suberin lamellae. Unsuberized passage cells are present near vascular strands, which are surrounded by a vascular endodermis attached on the inner side of the nodule endodermal cell walls. The vascular endodermis appears immediately below the meristematic apex in developmental state I (Casparian bands), gradually develops suberin lamellae, and attains developmental state II at the base of the nodule. For chemical analysis apoplastic barrier tissues were dissected after enzymatic digestion of non-impregnated tissues. Root epidermal and endodermal cell walls as well as nodule outer cortex could be isolated as pure fractions; nodule endodermal cell walls could not be separated from vascular endodermal cell walls and enclosed xylem vessels. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were applied for quantitative and qualitative analysis of suberin and lignin in isolated cell walls of these tissues. The suberin content of isolated endodermal cell walls of nodules was approximately twice that of the root endodermal cell walls. The suberin content of the nodule outer cortex and root epidermal cell walls was less than one-tenth of that of the nodule endodermal cell wall. Substantial amounts of lignin could only be found in the nodule endodermal cell wall fraction. Organic solvent extracts of the isolated tissues revealed long-chain aliphatic acids, steroids, and triterpenoid structures of the lupeol type. Surprisingly, extract from the outer cortex consisted of 89% triterpenoids whereas extracts from all other cell wall isolates contained not more than 16% total triterpenoids. The results of ultrastructural and chemical

  6. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  7. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes.

  8. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch (S

  9. Physiological response of vicia faba to prohexadione-calcium under saline conditions Resposta fisiológica de vicia faba a prohexadiona-cálcio sob condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bekheta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activities of oxidative enzymes (indole acetic acid oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, endogenous hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins (AsZeatin, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, amino acid proline and vegetative growth parameters were used as indicators to explain the physiological role of the growth retardant prohexadione-calcium on Vicia faba seedlings 40 days after sowing under salinity stress for 30 days. The obtained results show that soaking faba bean seeds prior to sowing at different concentrations of prohexadione-calcium (0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm significantly increased the activities of indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase and peroxidase enzymes, but decreased the catalase enzyme activity as compared with their respective control. Application of prohexadione-Ca caused markedly decreases in the endogenous contents of gibberellins and indole acetic acid (IAA but increased the levels of natural growth inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins in the shoots of faba bean seedlings. All the prohexadione-Ca concentrations increased the contents of amino acid proline, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars in faba bean seedlings grown under salt stress. Application of prohexadione-Ca decreased significantly seedling height and shoot fresh weight but significantly increased shoot dry weight.Mudanças nas atividades de enzimas oxidativas (oxidase, peroxidase e catalase do ácido indol-acético, hormônios endógenos (ácido giberélico (GA3, ácido indol-acético (AIA, ácido abscísico (ABA e citocininas (AsZeatin, pigmentos fotossintéticos (clorofila a, clorofila b e carotenóides, carboidratos totais, açúcares solúveis totais, aminoácido prolina e parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo foram usados como

  10. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p < 0,05) differences in N- and mineral-retentions (Ca, P, Na, K) between the treatments. The stronger alkalinity found in urine after feeding the field bean mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  11. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.

  13. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate symbiotic characteristics between the crop and the rhizobia in ... adaptable rhizobial strains that enhance faba bean productivity, the weak symbiotic properties observed during isolation and nodulation status survey ..... Agroecosystem, 75: 247-255. ... Sciences Division International Livestock Center for Africa.

  14. Lima beans production and economic revenue as function of organic and mineral fertilization Produção do feijão-fava e retorno econômico em função da adubação organomineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana U Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L. are alternative food and income sources for the population of Northeastern Brazil. In this region, lima beans are consumed either as green or dry grains. However, low yields have been observed, a challenge that could be overcome by adequate organic and mineral fertilization. This work intended to assess lima beans yield, cultivar Raio de Sol, as affected by doses of cattle manure in the presence and absence of mineral NPK fertilization. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil, from September, 2004 to May, 2005. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications, 40-plant plots, spaces of 1.00 x 0.50 between and within rows, respectively. Treatments were displayed in a 6 x 2 factorial, corresponding to manure doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 and presence and absence of NPK. Green and dry grain, and pod yields were analysed, as well as the economic revenue for pods and dry grains. To measure the economic efficiency, pods and dry grains were employed as the exchange units. Maximum pod yields (12.6 and 11.2 t ha-1 were achieved with 21.4 and 23 t ha-1 of manure, with and without NPK, respectively. Highest green grain yields (11.1 and 9.9 t ha-1 were obtained with 21.3 and 22.9 t ha-1 of manure, with and without NPK, respectively. The highest yield of dry grains (3.5 t ha-1 was obtained with 26.6 t ha-1 of manure combined with NPK. In the absence of NPK, the use of cattle manure resulted in an average dry grain yield of 2.0 t ha-1. The maximum economic efficiency for pod production was reached with 17 and 18.6 t ha-1 of manure, with predicted net incomes of 2.88 and 3.36 t ha-1 of pods, in the presence and absence of NPK, respectively. For dry grains, the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 23 t ha-1 of manure, in the presence of NPK, which produced a net revenue of 2.12 t ha-1 of dry grains.O feijão-fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma

  15. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p < 0.001). Feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the pancreas and the proventriculus and gizzard (PG) of the birds. Supplementing diets with the enzyme mixture improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion efficiency, AMEn and all nutrient utilisation coefficients despite the tannins in diets. The enzyme mixture reduced ileal digesta viscosity (p < 0.001) and the weight of pancreas, total GIT and PG (p < 0.05) of the birds. It can be concluded that the feeding value of field beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  16. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  17. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 蚕豆产量研究与高产育种%Yield Analysis and High Yield Breeding of Faba Bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世友; 缪亚梅

    2004-01-01

    对近30余年蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)产量研究与高产育种技术进行了总结,蚕豆产量研究表明:生物学产量是经济产量形成的物质基础,两者间存在高度正相关;产量构成因素对产量的形成均有较高的正向作用,但产量构成因素的改良受单株荚、粒数与粒重间负相关的制约;收获指数与籽粒产量间呈现极显著的正相关.还对蚕豆高产育种中高结荚率、早熟性的选择以及如何协调荚、粒数与粒重间的关系进行了讨论.

  19. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chengrun, E-mail: chengrunwang@163.com [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Tian, Yuan [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  20. Eff ect of microwave fi eld on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Pysz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave fi eld is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave fi eld on the activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein quality of three varieties of broad bean seeds. Material and methods. The study was performed on dry seeds of broad bean varieties Windsor White, Bachus and Basta. The seeds were soaked and heated in a microwave. The seeds absorbed different energy doses from 500 J/g, through 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750 to 2000 J/g. The study material prepared in this way was tested for trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility and in vitro protein digestibility. The results were analysed by the one-way analysis of variance. Results. Microwave heating resulted in decreased activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein solubility and increased digestibility of protein in all tested varieties of broad bean seeds. With increasing doses of the microwave fi eld energy a decrease in protein solubility was observed. Satisfactory reduction in trypsin inhibitors at the level of 70-75% and highest protein digestibility were obtained by using a microwave fi eld with energy dose of 1000 J/g of seeds. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the optimal dose of microwave energy fi eld which will produce a relatively low activity of trypsin inhibitors and the highest protein digestibility together with maintaining solubility of broad been seeds was 1000 J/g seed.

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels. PMID:25506300

  3. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. El-Komy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant and Giza 40 (susceptible. Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels.

  5. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC SOIL FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH SOME FOLIAR FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROAD BEAN (VICIA FABA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husain JASIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at the field of Agriculture College, Al-Qasim Green University at the agricultural season 2014/2015 to study the effect of two soil fertilizers (compound 18-18-18- at the rate of 200 kg.ha-1and sheep manure as organic fertilizer at the rate of 10 tons.ha-1 as well as control, and their interaction with foliar fertilizer of sea weed extract and urea as well as control (without the spray on broad bean plants. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replication. The experimental unit contained 3 ridges (3m long and 80 cm apart, planted on both sides at distance of 25 cm in saline soil (9.6dS.m-1. The results showed that chemical or organic soil fertilization led to increase plant height, plant branches number, plant leaves, leaf chlorophyll content and leaf percentage content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium significantly compared to control treatment. Add compost Chemical. On the other foliar fertilizer caused a significant increase in all traits above compared to control (without spraying. The interaction between soil and foliar fertilizers had a significant effect on all traits above.

  7. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  8. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn

  9. 氯化盐和激素对发芽蚕豆中γ-氨基丁酸富集的影响%Effects of chloride salts and hormones on γ-aminobutyric acid enrichment in germinated faba beans( Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 杨润强; 李岩; 韩永斌; 顾振新

    2012-01-01

    Effects of CaCl2,NaCl,gibberellic acid(GA3)and abscisic acid (ABA) on glutamate decarboxylase(GAD) ,diamine oxidases (DAO)and -γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)of germinated faba beans ( Vicia faba L. ) , together with the contribution rate of polyamines (Pas) degradation to the enrichment of GABA were studied. The results showed that CaCl2, NaCl and GA3, except ABA, could increase the content of GABA in germinated faba beans under hypoxia stress. It was indicated that the optimal culture components for GABA en richment were:NaCl at a concentration of 37.1 mmol·L-1 ,CaCl2 at a concentration of 7. 3 mmol·L-1 and GA3 at a concentration of 27. 0 μmol·L-1. Under those conditions,the content of GABA was the highest,reaching(6. 14±0. 12) mg·g-1 ,which was 1. 58 times of the control. And the contribution rate of Pas degradation to enrichment of GABA ranged from 37.6% to 38.9% .%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)为试材,研究CaCl2 、NaCl、赤霉素(GA3)和脱落酸(ABA)对发芽蚕豆谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)、二胺氧化酶(DAO)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的影响,以及多胺(PAs)降解对GABA富集的贡献率.结果表明:低氧胁迫下,除ABA外,CaCl2、NaCl和GA3处理均可提高发芽蚕豆GABA含量;培养液组分中NaCl、CaCl2、GA3浓度分别为37.1 mmol·L-1、7.3 mmol·L-1和27.0 μmol·L-1时,发芽蚕豆中GABA富集量(6.14±0.12) mg·g-1是对照的1.58倍;PAs降解对GABA富集的贡献率为37.6%~ 38.9%.

  10. Badania wpływu herbicydów i nawożenia mineralnego na zawartość kwasów tłuszczowych w nasionach bobiku (Vicia faba [Influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the fatty acids content in the seeds of the field bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sykut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the herbicides Afalon (active substance Linuron. Gesatop 50 (active substance simazine, Aretit (active substance dinoseb acetate was tested concomitantly with two NPK fertilization levels on the crude lipid content and the fatty acids composition of field bean seeds.

  11. Assessment of arsenic toxicity using Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Yi, Huilan; Yi, Min

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and is a potential human carcinogen. Its carcinogenicity has been demonstrated in several models. In this study, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and common onion (Allium cepa L.), two plant species which are commonly used for detecting the genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants, were used to measure possible genotoxic effect of arsenite (0.3-30 mg/l). Present results showed that arsenite (As(III)) induced micronuclei (MN) formation in both Allium and Vicia root tips. MN frequency significantly increased in Vicia root cells exposed to 0.3-10 mg/l arsenite and in Allium root cells exposed to 1-30 mg/l arsenite, which indicated that Vicia root tip cells are more sensitive to arsenite than Allium. Mitotic index (MI) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and showed significant differences in Vicia/Allium roots among treatments and the control, after exposure to 1-30 mg/l arsenite for at least 4 h. In the present study, MN frequency was positively associated with lipid peroxidation, which indicated that arsenite exposure can induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in plant cells. The results also suggested that Vicia/Allium root micronucleus (MN) assays are simple, efficient and reproducible methods for the genotoxicity monitoring of arsenic water contamination.

  12. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  13. 发芽对蚕豆中植酸和不同价态铁含量的影响%The Effect of Germination on Phytic Acid and Iron Content of Different Valence State in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽洧; 王丽君; 郁志芸

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆为研究对象,探讨了发芽过程中植酸和铁在蚕豆不同部位含量分布及变化情况。植酸随发芽时间延长含量在不断减少,发芽至第8天,子叶中植酸含量减少50%。在发芽过程中,铁含量在子叶中最高,其次是胚轴,而胚根和胚芽中含量最低。蚕豆发芽过程中铁的化学价态发生改变,其中有利于人体吸收的二价铁的比例显著增加。因此,通过发芽处理可提高蚕豆中铁的生物有效性。%Phytic acid and iron content in faba bean fractions during germination are investigat ed. Germination is an effective approach to reducing phytic acid in cotyledon and phytic acid is removed by 50% in cotyledon of the bean on the eighth day during germination. The cotyledon has the highest content of Fe, followed by embryonic axis, radicle and plumula. During germi nation, some mechanisms of faba bean can lead to the changing of iron chemical forms. By this mechanism the content of soluble ferrous iron increases obviously. So germination is a good way to improve the iron bioactivity in faba bean.

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  15. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  16. Effects of Different Germination Conditions on Phytase Activity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)%不同发芽条件对蚕豆植酸酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽洧; 解卫华; 马娟; 郁志芸

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,研究发芽过程中植酸酶在蚕豆不同部位的变化和性质.发芽蚕豆不同部位植酸酶活性呈现先高后低的变化趋势,子叶植酸酶在发芽第6天达最高值.超声波处理对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽植酸酶活性有一定促进作用,其中以15min超声波处理对胚根和胚芽植酸酶活性影响最大,5min处理、10min处理和15min处理均对子叶植酸酶活性有显著影响.在发芽过程中不同光照对蚕豆进行处理,不论胚根、子叶还是胚芽,黑暗处理植酸酶活性高于光照处理.核酸抑制剂放线菌素(Act-D)和蛋白质抑制剂环已酰胺(CHM)对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽中的植酸酶活性有一定影响,其中以CHM的抑制效果最为明显.%Phytase activity and property in different faba bean fractions during germination were investigated with faba bean as the testing piece. The phytase activity appeared a change trend of increasing first then decreased with the maximum value at the sixth day during germination in cotyledon. Ultransonic treatments had facilitations on phytase activity in cotyledon, radicle and plumule among which 15 min treatment has the biggest effect on phytase activity in radicle and plumule. 5 min treatment, 10 min treatment and 15 min treatment had obvious effects on phytase activity in cotyledon. Whether cotyledon,radicle and plumule,faba bean during darkness treatment had higher phytase activity than that of different illuminations during germination. Act - D and CHM had certain effects on cotyledon, radicle and plumule of phytase activity in faba bean, among which, the CHM had the largest inhibition effect on phytase activity.

  17. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  18. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  19. Cd胁迫下绿豆和箭舌豌豆叶片抗氧化系统的变化%The Change of Antioxidant System in Leaves of Mung Bean (Phaseolus aureus ) and Common Vetch ( Vicia sativa ) Seedlings Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬琴; 沈振国; 徐朗莱

    2012-01-01

    研究了Cd胁迫下绿豆(Phaseolus aureus)和箭舌豌豆(Vicia sativa)幼苗的生长,叶片内过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、超氧化岐化酶(SOD)、愈创木酚过氧化物酶(GPOD)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)的同工酶活性,还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)和抗坏血酸( ASC)以及Cd含量的变化.结果显示,100 μmol·L-l Cd胁迫9d期间,随着Cd胁迫时间的延长,绿豆和箭舌豌豆幼苗主根的伸长量和其根系干重显著降低(P<0.05),根表面出现越来越明显的褐色,绿豆叶表面出现可见的褐色斑点;两种植物叶片的CAT、APX和SOD同工酶活性以及绿豆叶片的GR活性呈先升后降的趋势,而两种植物叶的GPOD活性明显增加;在箭舌豌豆叶片中,GR活性随Cd暴露时间的延长而增加,而GSH先降后升;在绿豆叶片中,GSH和ASC随Cd暴露时间的延长而降低;与此同时,两种植物叶片中Cd的含量也随Cd胁迫时间的延长而增加,和箭舌豌豆相比,绿豆叶片中Cd含量增加更多.结果表明,箭舌豌豆有较强的抗氧化能力.%The effects of cadmium(Cd) on the plant growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants in leaves of mung bean(Phaseolus aureus) and common vetch(Vicia saliva) were investigated using hydriponic experiments. Cadmium at 100 μmol·L-1 significantly decreased the main root elongation and roots dry weight, and increased activities of superoxide, dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), ascorbate peroxidase(APX) and guaiacol peroxidase(GPOD) in the leaves of both species. Activity of glutathione reductase(GR) in V. Sativa leaves increased, and content of ascorbic acid( ASC ) remained unchanged with Cd exposure time, whereas reduced glutathione(GSH) appeared to decrease for initial 6 days and then increased. But in P. Aureus leaves, activity of GR and contents of GSH and ASC decreased with Cd exposure time. Compared to P. Aureus, V. Saliva had higher activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR, and

  20. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  1. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  2. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  3. ROLE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON GERMINATION INDEXES AND ENZYME ACTIVITY OF VICIA FABA SEEDS GROWN UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Awatif A. Mohsen; Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Wael F. S. Ghoraba

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2) in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995) or distilled water (control) for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress duri...

  4. BEAN (VICIA FAB/1) IN SOME 'YIELD-DEPLETED' AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDIES OF RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND FERTILIZER. TREATMENT ..... Number! in the same column followed by different letters are significantly different at 5% level (Duncan's multiple range ... However, in most cases both T5 and T6 ...

  5. Embryological studies of reciprocal crosses between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Zenkteler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to asses the reciprocal crossability between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis. Flower buds or only ovaries of several varietes and genotypes were cross-pollinated in vivo (green house and field and in vitro. Only few pollen tubes passed the style and entered into the ovary. On the whole number of 5320 cross pollinated in vivo and in vitro flowers and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis only 78 globular hybrid embryos were observed. After cross pollination in vivo of 3860 flower buds and ovaries of Vicia faba globular embryos developed in 124 ovules. The highest number of globular embryos were obtained when the Vicia faba line 1/33 was pollinated with Vicia narbonensis lines P3, P5, 150, SE.Embryogenesis proceeded till the 6-10 day after pollination, however, karyological disturbances in the cells of embryos and endosperm were often noticed at earlier stages. In vitro pollen grains of Vicia faba germinated on stigmas and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis, a significant increase in the growth of pollen tubes was noticed after ovary pollination. The technique of in vitro pollination was not suitable for Vicia faba as the inoculated explants died shortly after transferring onto the medium. The results indicate that finding a more suitable genotype for crossing may give a chance to obtain higher number of embryos (example line 1/33 - thus sufficient number for culturing them on media.

  6. Antibiose de acessos de feijão-fava infestados com gorgulhos (Zabrotes subfasciatus em três gerações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edmir Girão Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-fava, Phaseolus lunatus L., além de ser uma importante fonte proteica para populações do nordeste brasileiro, contribui também para aumento da renda familiar das mesmas. Um dos problemas da cadeia produtiva desta espécie é o ataque de insetos durante o período de armazenamento, causado principalmente pelo gorgulho Zabrotes subfasciatus. Através de teste de confinamento avaliou-se 23 acessos de feijão-fava infestados com Z. subfasciatus, durante três gerações do inseto, objetivando buscar fontes de resistência antibiótica. A pesquisa foi conduzida em laboratório sob condições ambientais controladas. Após confinar um casal deste inseto juntamente com dez grãos de cada acesso de feijão fava por sete dias, avaliou-se o peso seco dos insetos, número de ovos, viáveis e inviáveis, emergência de adultos e período médio de desenvolvimento. Observou-se que houve efeito da troca brusca de substrato alimentar/oviposição na postura das fêmeas, houve influencia dos acessos no peso, oviposição, mortalidade e período médio de desenvolvimento dos insetos, fatos que caracterizaram o acesso UFPI 468 altamente suscetível, o acesso UFPI 701 como o mais resistente e os acessos UFPI 121, UFPI 222, UFPI 281, UFPI 504, UFPI 579, UFPI 689 Rajada, UFPI 701 e UFPI 720 como moderadamente resistentes à Z. subfasciatus.Antibiosis of lima beans access infested with weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus in three generationsAbstract: The lima beans, Phaseolus lunatus L., is an important protein source for the Brazilian northeastern people. It also contributes to the income rise of those families income. One of the problems in the productive chain of this specie is the pest attack during the storage time. This situation is mainly caused by Z. subfasciatus. Twenty three lima beans accesses infested by Z. subfasciatus were evaluated during three generations of weevil through confinement test. This procedure aimed to find resistance against this

  7. Influence of aluminium chloride and sulphate on the root meristem of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 M aluminium chloride and aluminium sulphate concentrations on the mitotic activity of the root meristem of the bean Vicia faba L. was investigated after 24 h of incubation. A mito-depressive action of the tested compounds, irreversible at higher concentrations was observed. The tested substances induced chromosome aberrations (fragmentation and bridges in anaphase or telophase, micronuclei, binuclear cells and inhibited elongation of roots. The results of topochemical analysis are described.

  8. Bioatividade de extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais em sementes de feijão-fava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.C Nobre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a bioatividade de extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais em sementes de Phaseolus lunatus L. (feijão-fava via comportamento fisiológico e fitossanitário. Foram utilizadas sementes de feijão-fava da variedade Anduzinha tratadas com seis extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais a 5% (Ocimun gratissimum, Plectranthus neachilus, Vernonia condensata, Cymbopogom citratus, Equisetum sp., e Piper aduncum L., juntamente com a testemunha (água destilada. A bioatividade foi determinada pelo comportamento fisiológico e sanitário avaliados por meio dos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento de raiz na primeira e última contagem, e teste de sanidade. Realizou-se a análise de variância e teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. O extrato aquoso de cavalinha (Equisetum sp. promoveu a melhor qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-fava. Houve maior incidência de fungos nas sementes de feijão-fava que receberam o extrato de boldinho (Plectranthus neachilus.

  9. Structure of the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia (L. Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries on the abaxial surface of stipules were investigated in the Vicia angustifolia, Vicia sativa, Vicia sepium and Vicia grandiflora. In V. angustifolia nectaries were also located on the calyx surface. Nectaries were consisted of secretory hairs and 2-31ayers of subepidermal cells. Secretory hair was built of four cells of head, one stalk cell and basal cell. Head cells showed character of transfer cells because of walls ingrowths and dense cytoplasm with numerous mitochondria.

  10. PROGRESSO E ARRANJO ESPACIAL DO MOSAICO DOURADO EM FAVA

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    MARCONDES ARAÚJO DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Golden mosaic, caused by Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV, causes severe losses to faba beans (Phaseolus lunatus L. growers in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed at analyzing the temporal and spatial aspects of the disease at two experimental plots (A and B with 1360 m2 each cultivated with faba beans located in Rio Largo, Alagoas. The evaluation of the disease incidence was done by visual in-spection of all plants at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. The epidemics were compared with respect to initial incidence (yo, maximum incidence (ymax, rate of disease progression (RDP, and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The spatial pattern of the disease was analyzed by isopath mapping, ordi-nary runs, fitting the beta-binomial distribution and spatial autocorrelation. The analysis of the progress curves showed that the epidemic was significantly (P≤0.05 faster in plot B, probably associated with increased expo-sure to whitefly populations from areas external to assay. The within rows aggregation increased along with the period after planting and the increase in the disease incidence in both areas. In plot A, there was a slight pre-dominance of aggregation within the rows while, in plot B, the across rows aggregation of sick plants was prevalent.

  11. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

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    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  12. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

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    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  13. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

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    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  14. Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sabiá na germinação de sementes de fava Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in seed germination of Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma planta medicinal que pode ser utilizada em sistemas agroflorestais. É empregada na composição de pastagens arbóreas, em faixas entre plantações, para enriquecer capoeiras e ainda pode ser empregada como cerca viva. A fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma das quatro espécies do gênero Phaseolus exploradas comercialmente, seu consumo é preferencialmente na forma de grãos verdes cozidos ou na forma de conserva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso do sabiá sobre a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de fava. As sementes de fava foram postas para germinar em caixas plásticas, onde foram semeadas entre o substrato vermiculita, e em seguida colocados em germinador a 25 ºC e sob luz contínua. O substrato foi umedecido, com o extrato aquoso de folhas jovens de sabiá, nas concentrações de 25; 50; 75 e 100%, além da testemunha umedecida apenas com água destilada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação além do comprimento da raiz primária. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. No estudo da regressão polinomial foi empregada a equação que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sen (n/1000,5. Conclui-se que as diferentes concentrações do extrato de folhas jovens de sabiá utilizadas não prejudicaram a germinação das sementes de fava.The Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a medicinal plant that can be used in agroforestry systems, is also employed in the composition of pasture trees in strips between fields, to enrich brush fields and as a hedge. The Phaseolus lunatus L. is one of four species of the genus Phaseolus exploited commercially; its

  15. Searching for Variability in the Gamma-ray Sky using the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Daniel; Buehler, Rolf; Ajello, Marco; Giomi, Matteo; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the second Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA) catalog, consisting of a search for week long variability above 100 MeV using the new Pass 8 data selection. The catalog includes over 2000 flares, spanning 6 years of the Fermi mission, with hundreds of flares that are not associated with any known catalog source. FAVA was designed to efficiently search for variable sources over a wide range of energies and timescales. Unlike a traditional likelihood analysis, the analysis performed by FAVA uses the mission averaged emission as a background, and is as such independent of any model for the diffuse gamma-ray emission. This makes the FAVA analysis especially sensitive to variable sources in the Galactic plane. This analysis is also computationally inexpensive, allowing for blind searches for flux variations over the entire sky. We will present some of the interesting flares identified through this analysis, and highlight those that are typically missed through traditional analysis methods. We will also present the new public FAVA webpage, which is designed to alert the community of new gamma-ray flares in real time and allow users to create relative flux light curves for any position on the sky; a task that is currently computationally intensive to perform over long intervals using traditional analysis tools.

  16. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  17. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  18. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4.

  19. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

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    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  1. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  2. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  3. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

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    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  4. Rare earth elements minimal harvest year variation facilitates robust geographical origin discrimination: The case of PDO "Fava Santorinis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivelos, Spiros A; Danezis, Georgios P; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2016-12-15

    This study examines the trace and rare earth elemental (REE) fingerprint variations of PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) "Fava Santorinis" over three consecutive harvesting years (2011-2013). Classification of samples in harvesting years was studied by performing discriminant analysis (DA), k nearest neighbours (κ-NN), partial least squares (PLS) analysis and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) using rare earth elements and trace metals determined using ICP-MS. DA performed better than κ-NN, producing 100% discrimination using trace elements and 79% using REEs. PLS was found to be superior to PNN, achieving 99% and 90% classification for trace and REEs, respectively, while PNN achieved 96% and 71% classification for trace and REEs, respectively. The information obtained using REEs did not enhance classification, indicating that REEs vary minimally per harvesting year, providing robust geographical origin discrimination. The results show that seasonal patterns can occur in the elemental composition of "Fava Santorinis", probably reflecting seasonality of climate.

  5. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  6. DESENVOLVIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-FAVA (Phaseulus lunatus L. SOB DÉFICIT HÍDRICO CULTIVADO EM AMBIENTE PROTEGIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Eudes de Sousa Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do déficit hídrico sobre o desenvolvimento do feijão-fava em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos sob casa de vegetação, com cobertura de polietileno de baixa densidade de 15 µm de espessura, na área experimental do Colégio Agrícola de Teresina da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI, Teresina-PI, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC e os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de indução do estresse hídrico de 50% da evapotranspiração do feijão-fava, sendo estes: estresse hídrico na fase vegetativa I; estresse hídrico na fase vegetativa II; estresse hídrico na fase reprodutiva III;Estresse hídrico na fase reprodutiva IV; estresse hídrico nas fases vegetativa I e II; Estresse hídrico nas fase vegetativa e reprodutiva II, III e IV; estresse hídrico nas fases reprodutiva III e IV; estresse hídrico na fases vegetativa e reprodutiva I, II e III; estresse hídrico nas fases vegetativa e reprodutiva I, II, III e IV e um tratamento sem estresse hídrico. Foram avaliadas, índice de área foliar, teor de clorofila e abortamento de flores e vagens. O déficit hídrico afetou o desenvolvimento do feijão-fava, diminuindo o índice de área foliar, índice de clorofila, e aumentando o abortamento de flores e vagens. O feijão-fava foi mais sensível ao estresse hídrico quando o mesmo deu-se em mais de uma fase de desenvolvimento.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) and white mustard (Synapis alba L.), on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm) and in homogeneous cult...

  8. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  9. Assessment of the genotoxicity of {sup 137}Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minouflet, Marion [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: marion.minouflet@terre.unige.ch; Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Badot, Pierre-Marie [Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale, EA 3184 USC INRA, Universite de Franche-Comte, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon cedex (France); Cotelle, Sylvie [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including {sup 137}Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of {sup 137}Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to {sup 137}Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid {sup 137}Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive {sup 137}Cs pollution.

  10. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  11. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  12. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Milena; GOSPODAREK, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg−1 and 18 g kg−1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Pl...

  13. Role of Ascorbic Acid on Germination Indexes and Enzyme Activity of Vicia faba Seeds Grown under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif A. Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2 in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995 or distilled water (control for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress during germination period. The radicle and plumule lengths were inhibited at high dose of NaCl but, ascorbic acid application to salt-treated seeds seemed to increase radicle and plumule elongation. The radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were gradually decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations but, a noticeable increase of radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were reached in seedlings treated with ascorbic acid. The pigment biosynthesis was substantially affected by salt treatment. Addition of ascorbic acid to stressed seedlings more or less furthered the inhibitory effects of salinity. Salinity enhanced the accumulation of reducing sugars in both radicle and plumule of Vicia faba seedlings as compared with control. Ascorbic acid treatment furthered the stimulatory effects of NaCl. Salinity gradually lowered the protein content of plumules. Ascorbic acid treatments raised the accumulation of protein contents in radicle to a great extent compared to those subjected only to NaCl. Plumule alkaloid content was lowered by low and moderate levels of NaCl. Coupling ascorbic acid to salt treated seeds induced a highly significant increase in alkaloid content of plumules compared to its corresponding controls. Sodium chloride treatments to Vicia faba seeds for two days caused a drastic suppression of α- and β-amylase activities. Ascorbic acid application to non-salinized seeds seemed without effects whereas, the salt-treated seeds showed more or less

  14. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  15. Vicia (Leguminosae en el norte de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se rehabilita el nombre Vicia macrograminea y se aclaran interpretaciones erróneas de algunas especies, como V. epetiolaris, V. graminea var. transiens y V. stenophylla. Se amplía el área de dispersión de V. graminea var. transiens y se propone una nueva variedad para la ciencia: Vicia epetiolaris var. microcarpa. Se confirma la presencia de V. andicola y V. setifolia en el NO de la Argentina. Se incluye una clave e ilustraciones para diferenciar las especies estudiadas.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  17. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  18. Einflüsse des Ackerbohnenkäfers (Bruchus rufimanus) und von Bodenpathogenen auf Feldaufgang und Ertrag bei bunt- und weißblühenden Ackerbohnensorten (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We compared field emergence and yield of a white- and a coloured-flowered variety of faba bean (Vicia faba) in relation to Bruchus rufimanus seed damage in a factorial, hand sown mini-plot field experiment. Further manipulating factors at sowing were, foot root rot inoculation with a 4-species Fusarium-mixture, a seed dressing with powdered testa material of the coloured-flower variety and sowing depth. In both varieties Fusarium-inoculation was the most detrimental and significant factor to ...

  19. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  20. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  1. Effect of nitroxin and humic acid on yield and yield components of faba bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholdi Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality and quantity improvement of crops using organic matter and low-cost method in the field is very important. Bio-fertilizer nitroxin and humic acid can increase root and shoot biomass through improved intake of nutrition and they can lead to quality and quantity improvement of product. An experiment was carried out as a completely randomized block design with 4 treatments to study the effect of nitroxin and humic acid on faba bean (Vicia faba L. traits. Trial treatments included control, nitroxin, humic acid and nitroxin + humic acid. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of combination of nitroxin + humic acid was significant (p< 1% on some traits such as stem height and yield of faba bean. The highest yield (2,315 kg ha-1 was obtained under nitroxin + humic acid treatment.

  2. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  3. [Chemical composition of seeds and testa of Vicia faba L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J

    1995-03-01

    Different chemical components were analysed in the seeds and in testa of Vicia faba. The seeds contain a relatively high crude protein (27.5%), a low crude fat (3.36%) content; and the lignin concentration is low (2.65%). The testa of the seeds has a very high fibre concentration and is a significant Ca-source (1.86 g/kg). The higher macroelement concentrations in the seeds were measured from K, P and Mg. The main microelements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) have significant higher concentrations in the seed than in the testa. The amino acid composition of seeds is positive (compared to data of white lupine), the rate of essential amino acids is good. The concentrations of the examined antinutritive organic constituents, especially of alkaloids, are low. On the basis of chemical analysis, the production and utilisation of seeds of Vicia faba is recommended.

  4. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  5. EVALUATION OF BEANS DEHULLER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M echanical/Production Engineering Department. Federal ... of food production, there has been more demand for beans as part of our .... hopper, dehulling unit, power unit and the ma- chine frame. - ... Operation of the machine. The machine ...

  6. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  7. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - pulses; Healthy eating - beans and legumes; Weight loss - beans and legumes; Healthy diet - beans and legumes; ... My Plate.gov. Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods. Updated January 12, 2016. www.choosemyplate.gov/vegetables- ...

  8. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Análise morfológica e fitoquímica da fava d anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O Brasil possui a flora arbórea mais diversificada do mundo, no entanto, a falta de diretrizes técnicas e de conscientização ecológica na sua exploração tem acarretado prejuízos ambientais irreparáveis. Com a expansão da fronteira agrícola nas regiões de Cerrado muitas espécies arbóreas encontram-se ameaçadas de extinção, entre elas, Dimorphandra mollis Benth., planta medicinal conhecida popularmente como fava d anta. Sua importância fármaco-agronômica é devido à presença nos frutos de flavon...

  10. Produtividade e morfologia de vagens e sementes de variedades de fava no Estado da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Djail

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade da fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. e descrever a morfologia de suas vagens e sementes. Oito variedades de fava (Amarela-cearense, Boca-de-moça, Branquinha, Mororó, Olho-de-ovelha, Olho-de-peixe, Orelha-de-vó, Raio-de-sol foram avaliadas em experimento de campo no período de julho a dezembro de 1999, em Bananeiras, PB. Todas as variedades apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado trepador e vagens compridas, de forma oblonga e recurvada, com número de sementes variando de duas a quatro. A variedade com vagens de maior comprimento (89,9 mm e maior peso de 100 sementes (79,5 g foi a Orelha-de-vó. As variedades Olho-de-ovelha e Orelha-de-vó apresentaram a maior e menor produtividade média de 0,852 e 0,293 t ha-1 de sementes, respectivamente. Com base na variação do número de dias para florescimento e colheita, as variedades foram classificadas em precoce (Amarela-cearense, Olho-de-peixe e Orelha-de-vó, intermediária (Boca-de-moça, Branquinha, Mororó e Olho-de-ovelha e tardia (Raio-de-sol. As variedades Olho-de-ovelha, Branquinha, Boca-de-moça, Amarela-cearense, Mororó e Olho-de-peixe são as mais promissoras para cultivos de sequeiro, com irrigação suplementar.

  11. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  12. Root hair deformation activity of nodulation factor and their fate on Vicia sativa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Geurts, R.; Franssen, H.; Spaink, H.P.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    We used a semiquantitative root hair deformation assay for Vicia sativa (vetch) to study the activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae nodulation (Nod) factors. Five to 10 min of Nod factor-root interaction appears to be sufficient to induce root hair deformation. The first deformation is visibl

  13. High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important food legume crop, grown for human consumption globally including in China, Turkey, Egypt and Ethiopia. Although genetic gain has been made through conventional selection and breeding efforts, this could be substantially improved through the application of molecular methods. For this, a set of reliable molecular markers representative of the entire genome is required. Results A library with 125,559 putative SSR sequences was constructed and characterized for repeat type and length from a mixed genome of 247 spring and winter sown faba bean genotypes using 454 sequencing. A suit of 28,503 primer pair sequences were designed and 150 were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 94 produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 32 faba bean genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, the expected heterozygocities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000, and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.0908 to 0.8410. The validation by UPGMA cluster analysis of 32 genotypes based on Nei's genetic distance, showed high quality and effectiveness of those novel SSR markers developed via next generation sequencing technology. Conclusions Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts.

  14. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  15. Treatments for reducing total vicine in Egyptian faba bean (Giza 2 variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, M A; Foda, Y H; Abu Salem, F M; Abd Allah, Z S

    1988-01-01

    The response of faba bean 'Vicia faba' (Giza 2 variety) towards soaking conditions differed greatly since the absorbed quantities of water (either by the whole or the decorticated forms) are a function of their chemical constituents. On the other hand, 28.45% of the total vicine (vicine & convicine) present in the whole faba bean samples was extracted after soaking for 72 h at room temperature. Subsequently, other soaking mediums, i.e., 0.5% sodium carbonate and/or 1% acetic acid were used in an attempt to increase the level of vicine elimination. Percentage removal of total vicine in whole faba bean was higher in the acidic (61.31%) than the alkaline (38.40%) medium under the conditions tested, i.e., at room temperature for 72 hours. The rates of vicine + convicine elimination in decorticated faba bean for the acidic acid and alkaline soaking media were 78.46 and 79.13%, respectively. The solubility ratio of total vicine relative to soaking solutions (H2O:Na2CO3:Acetic acid) was 1:1.35:2.16 in the whole broad bean and 1:2.41:2.39 in the decorticated samples. The residual amounts of total vicine (78.33% and 77.27%) present after stewing under normal and under pressure cooking conditions could be expected to be decreased to 30.33% for the former and 29.92% for the later after 72 h of soaking. Regression analysis was used to estimate the theoretical zero point of vicine elimination from faba bean through soaking in 1% acetic acid.

  16. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  17. Characterization of root-nodule bacteria isolated from Vicia faba and selection of plant growth promoting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Chebil, Samir; Gtari, Maher; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2013-06-01

    A collection of 104 isolates from root-nodules of Vicia faba was submitted to 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP typing. A representative sample was further submitted to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Isolates were assigned to 12 genera. All the nodulating isolates (45 %) were closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA2370(T) (99.34 %). The remaining isolates, including potential human pathogens, failed to nodulate their original host. They were checked for presence of symbiotic genes, P-solubilization, phytohormone and siderophore production, and then tested for their growth promoting abilities. Results indicated that 9 strains could induce significant increase (41-71 %) in shoot dry yield of faba bean. A Pseudomonas strain was further assessed in on-farm trial in combination with a selected rhizobial strain. This work indicated that nodule-associated bacteria could be a valuable pool for selection of effective plant growth promoting isolates. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of nodules in increasing risks related to pathogenic bacteria should not be neglected and needs to be investigated further.

  18. NMR imaging of root water distribution in intact Vicia faba L plants in elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Prior, S.A. (GE Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1993-04-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] on water distribution in the intact roots of Vicia faba L. bean seedlings grown in natural soil was studied noninvasively with proton ([sup 1]H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Exposure of 24-d-old plants to atmospheric CO[sub 2] enriched air at 650 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3] produced significant increases in water imaged in upper roots, hypogeal cotyledons and lower stems in response to a short-term drying-stress cycle. Above ground, drying produced negligible stem shrinkage and stomatal resistance was unchanged. In contrast, the same drying cycle caused significant depletion of water imaged in the same upper root structures in control plants subject to ambient CO[sub 2] (350 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3]), and stem shrinkage and increased stomatal resistance. The results suggest that inhibition of transpiration caused by elevated CO[sub 2] does not necessarily result in attenuation of water transport from lower root structures. Inhibition of water loss from upper roots and lower stem in elevated CO[sub 2] environments may be a mitigating factor in assessing deleterious effects of greenhouse changes on crops during periods of dry climate.

  19. Botrytone, a new naphthalenone pentaketide produced by Botrytis fabae, the causal agent of chocolate spot disease on Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Villegas-Fernández, Angel M; Andolfi, Anna; Melck, Dominique; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-09-14

    A strain of Botrytis fabae isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants displaying clear chocolate spot disease symptoms produced phytotoxic metabolites in vitro. The phytotoxins isolated from the culture filtrate organic extract were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new naphthalenone pentaketide, named botrytone, was isolated and characterized as (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,5,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-naphthalenone together with other well-known closely related naphthalenones such as regiolone and cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. When tested on leaves of the host plant, with the cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones assayed in mixture, regiolone demonstrated the highest level of phytotoxicity together with cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. Botrytone showed moderate phytotoxic activity at 1 mg/mL and was still phytotoxic at 0.5 mg/mL.

  20. Bradyrhizobium spp. Strains in Symbiosis with Pigeon Pea cv. Fava-Larga under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rufini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Optimization of symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes has been extensively studied, seeking agricultural sustainability. To evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. cv. Fava-Larga, experiments were conducted in Leonard jars (axenic conditions, pots with soil, and in the field. Ten strains were tested in Leonard jars, and three strains, in addition to BR 29, were selected according to their ability to promote the growth of pigeon pea, for further tests in pots with different soil types (Inceptsol and Oxisol and in the field (Oxisol. Treatments were compared with strains BR 2003 and BR 2801 (approved as inoculants for pigeon pea, with a non-inoculated control with mineral N fertilization, and with another non-inoculated control (absolute control with low mineral N concentration (Leonard jars or without mineral N fertilization (soil. The efficiency of Bradyrhizobium strains in axenic conditions varies among strains, being higher when pigeon pea cv. Fava-Larga establishes symbiosis with the strains UFLA 03-320, UFLA 03-321, UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003. The soil type influences the symbiotic efficiency of Bradyrhizobium-pigeon pea in soil in the greenhouse, mainly in Inceptsol, in which strains UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003 increased N accumulation in the plant. The strain UFLA 03-320 increased shoot dry matter and N accumulation in the shoot equivalent to the mineral N treatment under field conditions. UFLA 03-320, BR 29, UFLA 03-321, and UFLA 04-212 promoted yields similar to those of the reference strain (BR 2801, and of the mineral N treatment with 70 kg ha-1 urea-N. These results confirm that pigeon pea establishes efficient symbiosis, which provides the N required for its growth. All strains, except for BR 2003, show potential for recommendation as inoculants for grain production. The strain UFLA 03

  1. Cytotaxonomy of the genus Vicia (Fabaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Jalilian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the relationships among 40 taxa belonging to 13 sections of the genus Vicia occurring in Iran using chromosomal (mitotic studies. Based on the results of this study, there are 37 diploid (2n=10, 12 and 14 and 3 tetraploid (2n=28 taxa for the flora of Iran. Based on these observations three basic chromosome numbers (x=5, 6 and 7 were determined in the Iranian gene pool of Vicia. There are some ploidy reports for V. cracca and V. villosa subsp. dasycarpa in the world but in this study just has been seen diploid cytotypes in Iran. Most of karyotypes in the genus showed submetacentric (sm. (54.38%, subtelocentric (st. (26.31%, metacentric (14.38% and telocentric (3.15% chromosomes which mostly longest and shortest ones are submetacentric and subtelocentric, respectively. Stebbins’ karyotype classes were of 2A, 3A, 4A, 3B and 4B which in this system are considered as relatively primitive and therefore symmetrical karyotypes. Highest value of TF% (37.57 and lowest value of A1 (0.39 belonged to V. narbonensis as symmetrical karyotype and highest value of A1 (0.82 and highest value of TF% (13.15 belonged to V. michauxii as asymmetrical karyotype in Iran.

  2. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  3. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  4. Silver nanoparticles synthesis mediated by newly isolates of Bacillus spp., nanoparticles characterization and their activity against Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus and human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam K.F. Elbeshehy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular agents produced by newly isolated bacterial strains were able to catalyze the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The most effective isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. persicus and B. licheniformis using molecular identification. DLS analysis revealed that the AgNPs synthesized by the above strains were in the size range of 77-92 nm. TEM observations shown that the nanoparticles were coated with a capping agent, which was probably involved in nanoparticles stabilization allowing their perfect dispersion in aqueous solutions. FTIR analyses indicated the presence of proteins in the capping agent of the nanoparticles and suggested that the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of peptide hydrolysates (originated from the growth medium is coupled to the reduction of silver ions. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy confirmed the above results. The nanoparticles, especially those synthesized by B. licheniformis, were stable (zeta potential ranged from -16.6 to -21.3 mV and showed an excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity against important human pathogens and a considerable antiviral activity against the Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus. The significance of the particular antiviral activity is highlighted, given the significant yield reduction in fava bean crops resulting from Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus infections, in many African countries.

  5. The effect of various sapropel concentrations on content and fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments of bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarosiškio lake sapropel impact on beans (Vicia faba L. photosynthesis parameters (content of chlorophylls and chlorophyll a fluorescence was investigated in this study. Plants were sown in 1 L volume pots by 5 seeds with light loamy soil and grown in growth chambers. Considering sapropel composition, 2.2; 3.1 and 4 t/ha dry sapropel concentrations were chosen for investigation. Sapropel affected plants were compared with plants grown in unfertilised and with synthetic fertiliser fertilised soils. On 14th day of experiment, when the plants reached two leaves growths stage (BBCH 12, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of investigated plants were measured. Then plants were grown for 4 weeks more and at stem elongation stage (BBCH 31 chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured repeatedly and also the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids were investigated. The efficiency II photosystem of bean increased by increasing sapropel concentration in soil, but insignificantly (p>0.05. Photosynthesis performance index was increasing (r=0.91; p<0.05 up to 3.1 t/ha sapropel concentration increase at BBCH 12 growth stage. The same tendency was detected for electron transfer rate of bean (r=0.9; p<0.05 at this growth stage, but at later stage (BBCH 31 it slightly lowered (r=-0.02; p>0.05. At BBCH 12 stage the highest non photochemical quenching (NPQ value was measured in control beans, while at BBCH 31 stage, opposite trend was noticed (r=0.86; p <0.05. At BBCH 31 growth stage sapropel concentration increase made bean chlorophyll content to decrease, but insignificantly (r=-0.18, p>0.05, and the changes in carotenoid contents were similar to chlorophyll a+b.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.4.16585

  6. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓徽

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Vicia faba root tip cells.

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjiwan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of genetic diversity is important for characterisation of crop plant collections in order to detect the presence of valuable trait variation for use in breeding programs. A collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes was evaluated for intra- and inter-population diversity using a set of 768 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, of which 657 obtained successful amplification and detected polymorphisms. Gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC values varied between 0.022–0.500 and 0.023–1.00, with averages of 0.363 and 0.287, respectively. The genetic structure of the germplasm collection was analysed and a neighbour-joining (NJ dendrogram was constructed. The faba bean accessions grouped into two major groups, with several additional smaller sub-groups, predominantly on the basis of geographical origin. These results were further supported by principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA, deriving two major groupings which were differentiated on the basis of site of origin and pedigree relationships. In general, high levels of heterozygosity were observed, presumably due to the partially allogamous nature of the species. The results will facilitate targeted crossing strategies in future faba bean breeding programs in order to achieve genetic gain.

  8. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  9. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba and pea (Pisum sativum. To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI, and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP. We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  11. Sistematización de la empresa "Favas Tech" dedicada a la generación de soluciones neurotecnologicas utilizando el dispositivo Emotiv Epoc

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Mena, Ricardo Fabián

    2014-01-01

    1. Problema de investigación. --2. Marco Teórico. --3. Metodología del trabajo. --4. Análisis e interpretación de resultados. --5. Propuesta. --6. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones. Tecnología y Mercadeo La presente investigación tiene como objetivo sistematizar la empresa de soluciones neurotecnológicas ?FAVAS TECH? para lo cual se analizaron interfaces no tradicionales como el dispositivo Emotiv-EPOC seguido por el respectivo plan de negocios. Para reforzar conocimientos tecnológicos y f...

  12. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed H. Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2 using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH. A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448. A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  13. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  14. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  15. Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of ethiopian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Agegnehu

    Full Text Available The effects of phosphorus fertilizer and weed control on yield and major yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L. were studied on Nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Factorial combinations of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 as triple super phosphate (TSP and two levels of weeding (W1 = no weeding and W2 = hand weeding once six weeks after crop emergence were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that highly significant positive responses of number of pods per plant, total biomass and seed yields of faba bean to phosphorus fertilizer and weeding treatments were noted. Phosphorus level × weed control interaction over three years significantly (P ≤ 0.05 affected faba bean seed yield at Rob Gebeya but not at Welmera. Phosphorus application at the rates of 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 resulted in mean seed yield increases compared to the control of 20, 41 and 53%, respectively on the average of locations; 13, 33 and 51%, respectively at Welmera, and 26, 48 and 55%, respectively at Rob Gebeya.Weeding once increased mean seed yields of faba bean by 25% on the average (35 and 17% at Welmera and Rob Gebeya, respectively compared to unweeded check. Seed yield was positively correlated with total biomass and number of pods per plant (r = 0.95*** and 0.75***, respectively at Welmera, and (r = 0.94*** and 0.55**, respectively at Rob Gebeya. The results of economic analysis indicated that the highest marginal rate of return was obtained from weeding once six weeks after crop emergence and application of 20 kg P ha-1, which is economically the most feasible alternative on Nitisols of central Ethiopian highlands.

  16. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in soils with increasing heavy metal contamination: abundance, plasmid profiles, diversity and metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.; Turner, A.; Beynon, J.L.; Giller, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae were investigated from plots of a long-term sewage sludge experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, which represented a gradient of increasing metal contamination. The number of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae decreased from 105 cells g¿1 soil in uncontaminat

  17. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  18. Mutagenic Effects of Pesticides Detected by Micronucleus on Different Vicia faba Linn%用微核技术检测农药对不同蚕豆的诱变效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁霞; 王跃华; 苟兴华; 苟小军; 邬晓勇; 李文娴

    2011-01-01

    根据发芽率、微核率参数从3种蚕豆种子中筛选最佳的微核实验材料,采用微核技术研究4种农药对蚕豆根尖细胞的诱变效应.结果表明:广元蚕豆种子是最佳的微核实验材料.4种农药单独使用时,农药浓度与微核率呈剂量-效应关系,敌敌畏的诱变效应最大,除它杀虫剂的诱变效应最小.4种农药的最佳使用浓度为:敌敌畏1.9 mg/L,敌杀死-溴氰菊酯2.5mg/L,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐1.4 mg/L,除它强力广谱高效杀虫剂2.3 mg/L.%To screen the best Vicia faba for the micronucleus experiment,three broad bean seeds were selected according to the germination rate and the micronucleus rate parameters. Four kinds of pesticides were used to inducce the Vicia faba root-tip by the technology of micronucleus. The results showed that: Cuangyuan bean seed was the best Micronucleus test material. When each of the four pesticides was used alone,the pesticide concentration and micronuclei in a dose-response relationship. The maximum mutagenic effect was the dichlorvos and Chuta was the minimum. The best concentrations of four kinds of pesticides were: dichlorvos 1.9 mg/L,deitamethrin 2. 5 mg/L,dyloxvolaton 1.4 mg/L and ememectin benzoate 2.3 mg/L.

  19. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  20. Joint effects of microwave and chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of microwave and chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Viciafaba root tip were studied. Micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic index, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by microwave and CrO3. The results showed that the micronucleus frequency decreased, and that the mitotic index and chromosomal aberration frequency showed linear dose responses to CrO3, in treatment of microwave for 5 s. In microwave of 25 s, the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency increased with increase of CrO3 concentration. We concluded that microwave and CrO3 had antagonistic effect on the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tip cells, but had synergetic effect on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells.

  1. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  2. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  3. Evaluation for fresh consumption of new broad bean genotypes with a determinate growth habit in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baginsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad bean (Vicia faba L. [unranked] major (Harz Beck is usually consumed dry. In Chile, however, broad bean is grown as a vegetable crop with indeterminate genotypes. The new 'Alarga', 'Retaca' and 'Verde Bonita' broad bean genotypes, which have a determinate growth habit, were evaluated in six irrigated environments in central Chile at three locations (Rancagua, Talca, and Talagante and on two planting dates (F1 and F2; 1-mo apart. The aim was to characterize their yield and select the best-yielding genotypes in terms of pod yield (PY and fresh grain yield (GY. The best location(s to produce fresh pods and fresh grain were also identified and described. Fresh grain yield and components were measured and the genotype x environment interaction (GxE was analyzed. Pod yield differed among genotypes; 'Verde Bonita' and 'Retaca' had the highest PY (15 500 kg ha-1, 8% higher than 'Alarga'. There was a GxE interaction for GY and 'Retaca' had its highest yield in Talca on the two planting dates and in Rancagua when planted late (F2. Mean GY of 'Retaca' was 3900 kg ha-1 with the highest number of grains per 1 m² (NG. The best GY was related to a higher seasonal photothermal quotient (ranging from 1.15 to 1.82 MJ m-2 d-1 °C-1, r = 0.90, P d" 0.001. The lowest GY was in Talagante on F1. Genotypes differed in yield composition; 'Retaca' had many small pods giving many seeds per unit area and 'Verde Bonita' had large pods yielding fewer grains per unit area. The 'Retaca' genotype is preferred by the frozen broad bean industry, whereas 'Verde Bonita' is preferred by the fresh broad bean market.

  4. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  5. Performance of faba bean genotypes with Orobanche foetida Poir. and Orobanche crenata Forsk. infestation in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche foetida Poir. and O. crenata Forsk. are major constraints to faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivation in Tunisia. To evalúate the different levels of resistance of seven small-seeded faba bean genotypes to these parasitic weed species, three trials were conducted in fields infested and non-infested with O. foetida in the Oued Beja Agricultural Experimental Unit and O. crenata in an experimental field at Ariana of the National Institute of Agricultural Research during three cropping seasons. Compared to the susceptible cv. Bad'i, the seven genotypes showed moderate to high levels of resistance to both Orobanche species. The number and dry weight of emerged broomrapes and underground tubercles recorded on the new improved genotypes were lower than those recorded on released and resistant 'Najeh' and 'Baraca'. The parasitism index on the new genotypes varied from 2-6 times less than susceptible 'Bad'i' in both Oued-Beja and Ariana. Yield reduction due to O.foetida infection varied from 13.5% on genotype XAR-VF00.13-89-2-1-1-1-1 to 59.7% on 'Baraca', whereas the yield loss was about 92% on the susceptible control. Parasitic infection did not affect dry grain protein accumulation in the tested genotypes.

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  7. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  8. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  9. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  10. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    . occidentalis utilizan la planta en forma temporal y oportunista en Prepuna, mientras que la presencia de F. gemina en Puna es esporádica. Se amplía el número de especies de tisanópteros asociadas al cultivo de haba en ArgentinaThysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina. The different phenological stages of Vicia faba provide food resources and substrates for the development of a significant diversity of insects. This study aimed to identify the complex of anthophyllous thrips, analyze the species population fluctuations, to obtain some bioecological aspects and the role they play in this association. The study and sampling was conducted during the flowering-fruiting bean crop stages in two phytogeographical regions of Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479m asl on a weekly basis, from October-December 1995-1996 and Puna (3 367m asl every two weeks, from December 2007-March 2008. Each sample consisted of 25 flowers taken at random; only at Prepuna a complementary sampling of three hits per plant (n=10 plants was conducted. Observations were made on oviposition sites, admission to the flower, pupation sites, feeding behavior and injuries caused. In Prepuna, the Thysanoptera complex consisted of Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei and Thrips tabaci; in Puna, the specific diversity was restricted to F. australis and F. gemina. Although the planting-harvest period in both areas did not match, the fluctuations in populations showed the same pattern: as flowering progressed, the number of thrips coincided with the availability of food resources. In both areas, F. australis was the dominant species and maintained successive populations; it layed eggs in flower buds, and larvae hatched when flowers opened; feeding larvae and adults brought about silvery stains with black spots. In Prepuna, F. australis went through the mobile immature stages on flowers, while quiescent stages were on the ground; in the Puna, all

  11. Intoxicação experimental pelas favas de Stryphnodendron obovatum (Leg. Mimosoideae em bovinos. 2. Achados anátomo e histopatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marilene F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar as alterações anátomo e histopatológicas da intoxicação experimental por Stryph-nodendron obovatum Benth. (fam. Leg. Mimosoideae, as favas desta árvore foram administradas, por via oral, a 17 bovinos jovens. Destes, cinco morreram, sendo que apenas um deles recebeu 60g/kg das favas, em dose única, e quatro as receberam em doses repetidas (10g/kg durante 8 dias, 20g/kg durante 3 dias, 30g/kg durante 2 dias e 40g/kg durante 2 dias. Macroscopicamente, as lesões se caracterizaram por avermelhamento e aderência das papilas, desprendimento do epitélio e congestão da própria, sobretudo no rúmen e com menor intensidade no retículo e no omaso. No abomaso havia congestão difusa ou focal e grandes áreas com erosões/ulcerações. No intestino delgado observaram-se congestão da mucosa e placas de Peyer muito vermelhas e bem delimitadas e no intestino grosso leve a moderada congestão. Os linfonodos mesentéricos apresentavam-se avermelhados, ao corte. Histologicamente verificaram-se, desde a cavidade oral até o omaso, áreas de acantose, espongiose, paraqueratose, hiperqueratose, necrose e degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar, com formação de vesículas ou pústulas intra-epiteliais, por vezes contendo queratinócitos acantolíticos, e desprendimento epitelial nestas áreas. Congestão e hemorragias focais foram observadas em todo trato digestivo, porém eram mais acentuadas no abomaso e no intestino delgado.

  12. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  13. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  14. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  15. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  16. Variabilidade genética de populações de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis da região norte do Estado de Minas Gerais Genetic variability of fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis populations ine northern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth é uma planta nativa do Cerrado brasileiro utilizada na extração da rutina, quercetina e ramnose, produtos usados nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de cosméticos. O norte do Estado de Minas Gerais produz cerca de 23% da rutina nacional. A obtenção dessa espécie tem sido de forma predatória pelos extrativistas, e estudos da variabilidade genética dessas populações podem fornecer subsídios para estratégias de conservação e manutenção da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade genética dessa planta por meio da técnica de RAPD. Para isso, foram coletadas folhas jovens de fava d'anta em sete localidades diferentes (Januária, Patis, Mirabela, Lontra, CAA, Jequitaí e Morro Alto da região Norte de Minas Gerais. Nessa análise, testaram-se 43 primers. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA indicou que 10,3% e 89,7% da variação genética foi distribuída entre e dentro das populações, respectivamente. A diversidade genética de Nei (Ĥe variou de 0,1736 (população de Morro Alto a 0,2867 (população de Mirabela. Já a análise genética permitiu a construção de um dendrograma com formação de grupos distintos, cujas informações poderão ser utilizadas na criação de um banco de germoplasma e contribuir para a preservação da espécie.Fava D'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth is a native plant of the Brazilian open pasture used in the extraction of the active principles rutin, quercetin and ramnose, products used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The exploitation of the fava d'anta for the extraction of these principles has been carried out through predatory exploration, and the study of the genetic variability could be important to provide strategies of conservation and maintenance of the species. The objective of this work was to analyze the genetic diversity of this species by means of the RAPD technique. Young fava d'anta leaves were harvested in

  17. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  18. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  19. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  20. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  1. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  2. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  3. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  4. Identification of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the existence and localization of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba by using a probe of polyclonal antibody against the human integrin (avb3/b5). Western blot results showed that three integrins-like of about 47.3, 43.7 and 41.1 ku were detected from the preparation of membrane fragments of purified guard cell protoplasts. Further research with immunofluorescent scanning micro-scopy indicated that those integrins-like were localized on plasma membrane of guard cells, most nearing the dorsal wall, which is consistent with the reception of signals from epidermal cells to guard cells. Thus our results indicate, for the first time, that integrins-like are present at guard cell plasma membrane of Vicia faba.

  5. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Viciafaba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Viciafaba root tip cells.

  6. Isolation and expression of an aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghuan; HAO Fushun; CHEN Hui; CAI Jinghui; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of aquaporins on stomatal movement, we isolated a full length cDNA of aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 ( Vicia faba plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GenBank accession number: AY667436), which encodes for a 290-amino-acid polypeptide, from Vicia faba leaf epidermis by 5′/3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The analyses of VfPIP1 transmembrane regions and amino acid sequence show that VfPIP1 owns six membrane-spanning domains and the special plasma membrane signature sequences GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VF/YN, and it should be a member of PIP1 subfamily. The results of in situ hybridization and Northern blot indicate that VfPIP1 is strongly expressed in guard cells and induced by ABA. Hereby, VfPIP1 may be involved in the water-transmembrane movement of guard cells.

  7. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. ... The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African oil bean were ..... fermented vegetable proteins. World.

  8. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2016-12-29

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Phens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  9. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  10. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  11. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  12. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  13. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  14. PROPRIEDADES DE EMULSÃO DA FARINHA E DO CONCENTRADO PROTÉICO DE FEIJÃO-GUANDU (Cajanus flavus DC. CULTIVAR FAVA-LARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paschoal BATISTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Com grãos decorticados de feijão-guandu (cajanus flavus DC. cultivar fava-larga, contendo 24,4% de proteína, foi preparado concentrado protéico, com rendimento de 17,6%. O concentrado protéico obtido apresentou conteúdo médio de 73,76% de proteína. Suspensões protéicas de concentrado protéico contendo 100 mg de proteína (N x 6,25 são capazes de emulsionar 35,7g de óleo. Emulsões obtidas da farinha de feijão-guandu, bem como de concentrado protéico, foram armazenadas em temperatura ambiente (25ºC e a 4°C, a fim de avaliar sua estabilidade. Foram avaliados, também, o efeito da concentração iônica, do pH, da diluição e do tratamento térmico na capacidade de emulsão do concentrado protéico de feijão-guandu decorticado. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Feijão-guandu; Cajanus flavus DC.; farinha; concentrado protéico; propriedades de emulsão; estabilidade.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  16. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  17. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  18. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  19. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  20. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  1. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  2. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  3. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  4. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  5. Radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by turnips and broad beans via leaf and root absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Paniagua, J.M.; Rufo, M. [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, E. Politecnica - Uex, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres, (Spain); Sterling, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Barandica, J. [Departamento Ecologia, F. De Biologia, UCM Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    One of the immediate consequences of massive radioisotope release into the atmosphere is contamination of the biosphere. This contamination can affect plants either by direct deposition onto the leaves, or by contaminating the soil followed by absorption by the roots. Knowledge of the efficacy of the two routes of radionuclide incorporation into the food chain is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms by which radioactive contamination reaches man. The present work analyzes the incorporation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via root and leaf uptake into the parts consumed by man, for two very different crops: turnip (Brassica napus) and broad bean (Vicia faba). The root uptake studies consider the available soil fraction for these two radionuclides, and indicate greater availability for {sup 85}Sr than for {sup 134}Cs which is fixed rapidly in the soil. For the study of leaf uptake, leaves were contaminated at three different stages of plant growth; the results indicate an inverse dependence of the transfer coefficients on the time elapsed from the moment of the contamination to harvesting of the edible parts.

  6. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  7. Vacuolar biogenesis and aquaporin expression at early germination of broad bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Galina V; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Sinkevich, Irina A; Lityagina, Snejana V; Maurel, Christophe; Obroucheva, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    A key event in seed germination is water uptake-mediated growth initiation in embryonic axes. Vicia faba var. minor (broad bean) seeds were used for studying cell growth, vacuolar biogenesis, expression and function of tonoplast water channel proteins (aquaporins) in embryonic axes during seed imbibition, radicle emergence and growth. Hypocotyl and radicle basal cells showed vacuole restoration from protein storage vacuoles, whereas de novo vacuole formation from provacuoles was observed in cells newly produced by root meristem. cDNA fragments of seven novel aquaporin isoforms including five Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIP) from three sub-types were amplified by PCR. The expression was probed using q-RT-PCR and when possible with isoform-specific antibodies. Decreased expression of TIP3s was associated to the transformation of protein storage vacuoles to vacuoles, whereas enhanced expression of a TIP2 homologue was closely linked to the fast cell elongation. Water channel functioning checked by inhibitory test with mercuric chloride showed closed water channels prior to growth initiation and active water transport into elongating cells. The data point to a crucial role of tonoplast aquaporins during germination, especially during growth of embryonic axes, due to accelerated water uptake and vacuole enlargement resulting in rapid cell elongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  9. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  10. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  11. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  12. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  13. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  15. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  16. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: Potential involvement of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0–20 µM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10 µM. In addition, at th...

  17. Symbiotic Autoregulation of nifA Expression in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Marta; Palacios, José M.; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2004-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791, the nifA gene is part of a gene cluster (orf71 orf79 fixW orf5 fixABCX nifAB) separated by 896 bp from an upstream and divergent truncated duplication of nifH (ΔnifH). Symbiotic expression analysis of genomic nifA::lacZ fusions revealed that in strain UPM791 nifA is expressed mainly from a σ54-dependent promoter (PnifA1) located upstream of orf71. Th...

  18. Exposure of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum to copper-induced genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souguir, D; Ferjani, E; Ledoigt, G; Goupil, P

    2008-11-01

    The potential genotoxicity of Cu(2+) was investigated in Vicia faba and Pisum sativum seedlings in hydroponic culture conditions. Cu(2+) caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequencies in both plant models. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects of this heavy metal on V. faba root meristems. Cu(2+) induced chromosomal alterations at the lowest concentration used (2.5 mM) when incubated for 42 h, indicating the potent mutagenic effect of this ion. A spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities was observed in V. faba root meristems, illustrating the genotoxic events leading to micronuclei formation.

  19. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

  1. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  2. Eficiência de óleos essenciais na qualidade sanitária e fisiológica em sementesde feijão-fava (Phaseolus lunatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.S. GOMES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A espécie Phaseolus lunatus L., conhecida popularmente como feijão-fava constitui uma das alternativas de renda e alimentação para a população da região Nordeste do Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados são as doenças que provocam grandes perdas na produção de sementes. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão na redução da incidência de fungos associados às sementes de feijão-fava, e sua interferência na qualidade fisiológica. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão nas concentrações de 0; 1; 1,5 e 2 mL. L-1 e fungicida (Captan®. Foram utilizadas 200 sementes por tratamento. Para análise da qualidade sanitária das sementes foi adotado o método de incubação em placas de Petri contendo dupla camada de papel-filtro umedecida com ADE, sob temperatura de 20 ±2 ºC, por 7 dias. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada com base nos testes de germinação, emergência e vigor das sementes. Para o teste germinação foi empregado método de rolo de papel germitest e na emergência osemeio foi realizado em bandejas plásticas contendo areia lavada esterilizada, em condição de casa de vegetação, e após 9 dias da instalação foi determinado o vigor com base nos resultados de índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência; comprimento da parte aérea, raiz primária e plântula; e teor de massa seca da partes aérea, raízes e plântulas de feijão-fava. O delineamento experimental foi interiamente casualizados, em esquama de fatorial simples (3x4+1 (óleos essenciais x concentrações + fungicida, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os óleos essenciais de copaíba e manjericão reduziram consideravelmente o percentual de incidência dos fungos associados as sementes de feijão-fava. O óleo essencial de cravo-da-índia na concetração de 2 mL. L-1, reduziu a

  3. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X X; Kosier, B; Priefer, U B

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv. viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  4. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  5. Transfer and loss of naturally-occuring plasmids among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid transfer among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils from a long-term experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three replicate samples each of four sterilized soils with total Zn contents of 54, 104, 208 and

  6. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  7. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.

  8. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  9. Método para la obtención de germinados de haba y lenteja (Vicia faba L y Lens esculenta) / Method for obtaining sprouts bean and lentil (Vicia faba L and Lens esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Lee, Ximena

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto se propone como método de obtención de germinados de lenteja el que menos altere las semillas física y químicamente para su germinación, el método comienza con el remojo de semillas durante doce horas en agua, luego el escurrido y depósito de las semillas en frascos de vidrio de boca angosta por un periodo de cuatro días realizando enjuagues diarios (dos). Una vez obtenidos brotes de mas o menos tres centímetros de largo en sus tallos, se almacenan en bolsas de polietileno de...

  10. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  11. factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean ... Constraints that affect quantities of beans marketed by farmers include levels of production and .... A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure ...

  12. Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potency of Traditional Insecticide Materials against Stored Bean Weevil, ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... apply traditional insecticide materials in the protection of bean from insect pests.

  13. Small Scale Farmers' Knowledge on Grain Losses from Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bruchid, Pesticides Safe Use and Implication on Food .... whether bean bruchids is major pest, how much damage it causes, knowledge of .... The dry bean stored in inadequate environment deteriorates so easily especially in areas where.

  14. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  15. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kökten, Kağan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stearic acids as the major component of their fatty acids, among the saturated acids, with small amounts of myristic, palmitoleic and margaric acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids found in the oilseeds were oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. In this study, the total saturated fatty acids of Vicia species were between 18.5 and 22.4% while the total unsaturated fatty acids were between 71.1 and 80.3%.

    Las semillas oleaginosas de seis especies de Vicia (Leguninoas fueron investigadas por su proteína, contenido en taninos y composición en ácidos grasos. El contenido de proteína en las semillas vario entre un 21.87%-31.33%. El contenido de taninos en las semillas vario entre un 0.13%- 1.07%. La composición de ácidos grasos de estas seis diferentes especies fue determinada por GC mediante los esteres metílicos de sus ácidos grasos. Las semillas oleaginosas de las especies de Vicia contienen ácidos palmítico y esteárico como componentes mayoritarios entre los ácidos grasos saturados, con pequeñas cantidades de ácido mirístico, ácido palmitoleico y ácido margárico. Los ácidos grasos insaturados mayoritarios encontrados en las semillas oleaginosas fueron el ácido oleico, ácido linoleico y ácido linolénico. En este estudio, el contenido total de ácidos grasos saturado de las especies de Vicia vario entre 18.5 y 22.4% mientras que el de insaturados vario entre 71.1 y 80.3%.

  16. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  17. Potencial germinativo de sementes de fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae sob diferentes procedências, datas de coleta e tratamentos de escarificação Germinative potential of fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae seeds from different locations and collection dates under distinct scarification treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais que possuem sementes duras e impermeáveis à água freqüentemente apresentam problemas para germinar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar tratamentos pré-germinativos em laboratório que permitam abreviar, aumentar e uniformizar a germinação das sementes de Dimorphandra mollis, além de avaliar essa germinação em diferentes épocas e locais de coleta. Foram coletadas sementes de D. mollis em quatro municípios do norte de Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela e Jequitaí, em duas datas distintas: agosto e setembro de 2004. As sementes foram submetidas a cinco tratamentos de escarificação: lixamento, imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 10 e por 20 min, imersão em água quente a 70 ºC e controle (sementes intactas. Nos testes de germinação, um delineamento experimental casualizado foi utilizado, com 10 repetições de 10 sementes de cada tratamento, localidade e data de coleta. Os efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos na germinação das sementes foram avaliados através da análise de variância e teste t. Após a análise, constatou-se que as sementes coletadas em agosto (X= 47,8 ± 6,8%, na localidade de Montes Claros (X= 41,7 ± 9,7%, e escarificadas mecanicamente (X= 83,0 ± 8,2% denotaram maior potencial germinativo. Nesse sentido, sementes de fava-d'anta apresentam dormência imposta pelo tegumento, com potencial germinativo maior no tratamento com lixa. Além disso, o grau de maturação das sementes e fatores ecológicos locais parecem interferir na germinação das sementes da espécie estudada.Forest species with hard and impermeable seeds often have problems to germinate. The present work aimed to select pre-germinative treatments in laboratory to homogenize the germination of Dimorphandra mollis seeds and to compare the germination rates of seeds collected from different periods and locations. D. mollis seeds were collected at four different regions in northern Minas Gerais: Montes Claros

  18. Effect of high temperature treatment of Vicia faba roots on the oxidative stress enzymes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filek, M; Baczek, R; Niewiadomska, E; Pilipowicz, M; Kościelniak, J

    1997-01-01

    The following types of superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been found in the leaves of Vicia faba: one isoenzyme of Mn-SOD and four isoenzymes of Cu/Zn-SOD. The treatments of roots with boiling water caused an increase of SOD activity in the leaves. The highest increase was measured after 5 s of the treatment. It was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase activity. Analysis of cell fractions' revealed an increase of SOD activity in the plastids and mitochondria isolated from the leaves of those plants whose roots were heat-treated. However, there was no distinct change of SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction. The possibility of an electric wave intervention inducing oxidative stress in the leaves is discussed.

  19. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  20. Differences in uptake and distribution patterns between zinc and cadmium in Vicia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Hechun; LIU Congqiang

    2010-01-01

    Vicia villosa is an annual legume plant. Field-growing experiments were performed on six plots under different soil conditions. Variations in the concentrations of Zn and Cd in tissues were investigated. Differences in distribution patterns between Zn and Cd appeared during growing: the concentrations of Zn in roots in sandstone-derived soils were relatively higher than those in limestone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Zn by roots should be similar to those of iron (Fe). However, the concentrations of Cd in roots in limestone-derived soils were higher than those in sandstone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Cd by roots should be similar to those of manganese (Mn). On the contrast, the distribution patterns of Zn were similar to those of Mn, while the distribution patterns of Cd were similar to those of Fe in tissues, indicating that the uptake patterns of Zn and Cd were different from distribution patterns.

  1. Effect of drought and salinity stresses on germination indices of vetch (Vicia villosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ghaderi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the important issues in the arid and semi-arid regions is the water deficit and soil salinity. Therefore, selecting tolerant species to salinity and drought especially in seed germination and emergence stage is important. In the present study the effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination of vetch (Vicia villosa L. which is palatable forage was investigated. The germination percentage, germination rate, plumule and radicle, seed vigor and alometric coefficient under both stresses were recorded. A completely randomised design was carried out using six salinity treatments (control distilled water, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mM NaCl and six drought treatments (control, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 MPa polyethylene glycol 6000. For each treatment 15 seeds in Petri dish were placed as replicate and put in Gerrminator for two weeks. Results showed that both stresses significantly (P

  2. [The role of nitric oxide in ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Qiu, Li-Yan; Zhao, Fang-Gui; Hou, Li-Xia; Liu, Xin

    2007-08-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene on Vicia faba L. stomatal movement were studied. The results showed that NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) 10 micromol/L and ethylene 0.04% could induce stomatal closure distinctly and they could promote stomatal closure when treated together. When treated with AVG (an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis), c-PTIO (a specific scavenger of NO) and NaN(3) (an inhibitor of NR), the effects of NO- and ethylene-induced stomatal closure were inhibited but the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) had little effect. We presumed that there was coordinative effect between NO and ethylene in regulation of stomatal closure; ethylene could induce stomatal closure by regulating the production of nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO.

  3. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  4. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  5. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that

  6. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  7. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  8. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  9. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  10. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  11. SÃntese e caracterizaÃÃo de gÃis de galactomanana de fava danta (Dimorphandra gardneriana) para aplicaÃÃo biolÃgica

    OpenAIRE

    Aliny Abreu de Sousa Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    As sementes da espÃcie Dimorphandra gardneriana foram utilizadas como matÃria-prima para a obtenÃÃo de galactomananas e a eficiÃncia do processo foi determinada pelo rendimento em polissacarÃdeo obtido. A goma de fava danta foi purificada pelo mÃtodo de Fehling com a finalidade de reduzir, principalmente, proteÃnas. Esse tratamento propiciou uma reduÃÃo de 36% de proteÃna e uma considerÃvel reduÃÃo na viscosidade, o que està condizente com a reduÃÃo da massa molar dessa amostra. A goma de fav...

  12. Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Gaby, A M

    1998-10-01

    The biological effects of supplementing broad bean (Vicia faba) or corn (Zea maize) meal protein with black cumin (Nigella sativa) cake protein as well as their amino acid composition were investigated. The percentage of total protein content of Nigella cake was 22.7%. Lysine is existent in abundant amounts in faba meal protein, while leucine is the most abundant in corn meal protein (chemical score = 156) and valine is higher in Nagella cake protein. compared with rats fed sole corn or faba meal protein, substitution of 25% of corn or faba meal protein with Nigella cake protein in the diet remarkably raised the growth rate of rats and resulted in significant higher levels of rat total serum lipids and triglycerides. Also, the supplemented diet caused significant increases in serum total protein and its two fractions albumin and globulin and insignificantly increase the activity of serum phosphatases and transaminases within normal ranges. The supplementation did not have any adverse nutritional effects in the levels of lipid fractions in the serum.

  13. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  14. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  15. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  16. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. 

  17. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  18. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  19. Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test on the mutagenicity of water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Q; Chen, Y

    1996-01-16

    The possible mutagenicity of the water-soluble contents of cigarette smoke (WSCS) was evaluated by using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test. The results showed significant changes in micronucleus frequency which were caused by each different concentration of WSCS. This indicates that the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test might be used as one kind of mutagenic detection method for cigarette smoke. A comparative evaluation on the mutagenicity of 10 brands of cigarettes was carried out. Results confirmed that various degrees of mutagenicity were found for all of the brand cigarettes, among them, Huaihai was the highest, while Camellia was the lowest. The micronucleus frequencies were reduced by adding tea polyphenol, nicotinamide adenine, vitamin C and sodium selenite to the WSCS. The results suggest that these added substances might reduce the genetic injury induced by cigarette smoke.

  20. Post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression by Hfq and RNase E complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghua Zhang; Guofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae strain 8401/pRL1JI, the NifA gene is part of a gene cluster (fixABCXNifAB). In this study, results showed that in R. leguminosarum by. viciae 8401/pRLI1I, host factor required (Hfq), and RNase E were involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression. It was found that Hfq-dependent RNase E cleavage of NifA mRNA was essen-tial for NifA translation. The cleavage site is located at 32 nucleotides upstream of the NifA translational start codon. A possible explanation based on predicted RNA secondary structure of the NifA 5'-untranslated region was that the cleavage made ribosome-binding sites accessible for translation.

  1. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  2. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  3. Dipteryx lacunifera seed oil: characterization and thermal stability Óleo de sementes de fava de morcego: caracterização e estabilidade térmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Queiroga Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke is an oleaginous legume with high oil and protein content that can be used in human nutrition. The specie is a native of the Piauí and Maranhão state in the north east of Brazil. The measure physico-chemical properties of the oil are specific density, refractive index, acid, peroxide, iodine and saponification values of 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% oleic acid, 2.81, 70.80 and about 179, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil showed the presence of 20.6% saturated, 65.1% monounsaturated and 14.3% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C17:0 were present in trace (A Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke (fava de morcego é uma leguminosa oleaginosa com elevado conteúdo em proteínas e óleo podendo ser usada na nutrição humana. A espécie é nativa dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão do nordeste do Brasil. Mensurações das propriedades físico-químicas do óleo densidade especifica, índice de refração, acidez, peróxidos, iodo e saponificação foram 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% ácido oléico, 2.81, 70.80 e 179, respectivamente. A análise do óleo por cromatografia gasosa mostrou a presença de 20.6% de ácidos graxos saturados, 65.1% de monoinsaturados e 14.3% poliinsaturados. Os ácidos graxos C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 e C17:0 estão presentes em quantidades de traços (<0.01% enquanto os C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0 e C24:0 estão em concentrações de 10.3, 5.4, 3.4, 0.9 e 0.6%, respectivamente, dos ácidos graxos totais. O conteúdo dos ácidos graxos insaturados C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 e C22:2 foram 65.1, 14.1, 0.3% e traço (0.01%, respectivamente. A análise térmica (TG/DTG revelou que a decomposição térmica do óleo ocorre em dois estágios correspondentes aos ácidos graxos insaturados e saturados. O óleo quando aquecido na temperatura de 180º C por 400 min mostrou menor perda massa que o óleo comercial de soja, girassol e milho. A curva DSC indicou um evento endotérmico com

  4. Faba Bean Can Adapt to Chocolate Spot Disease by Pretreatment with Shikimic and Salicylic Acids through Osmotic Adjustment, Solutes Allocation and Leaf Turgidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of shikimic and salicylic acids at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.7 mM, respectively, or their combination as phenolic compounds and Ridomil MZ at the concentration of 250 g/100 L as a fungicide on osmotic pressure (OP, solutes allocation, organic acids, inorganic ions and relative water content were quantified in Vicia faba leaves infected by Botrytis fabae. Pathogen induced noticeable decrease in osmotic pressure, total soluble sugar (TSS and inorganic osmolytes (i.e. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- while caused obvious increase in proline, total soluble nitrogen (TSN and organic acids (i.e. Keto and citric acids in water extract of the leaf of faba bean plants. Furthermore, pathogen caused marked decrease in relative water content (RWC of infected leaves and as a consequence the saturation water deficit (SWD was increased. Exogenous application of shikimic acid, salicylic acid or their combination could counteract the adverse effects of B. fabae on osmotic adjustment by inducing additional increase in proline, total soluble sugars, total soluble nitrogen and organic acids which in turn increase the osmotic pressure as well as relative water content in leaves of infected plants. Recovery of osmotic adjustment as well as leaf turgidity of infected host by using these chemical inducers may encourage the using of them as protective control means. The results of the present study showed also that the application of chemical inducers such as shikimic and salicylic acids or their interaction increased the resistance of Vicia faba against the chocolate spot disease.

  5. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  6. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  7. 我国蚕豆育种进展%Advances in the Breeding of Vicia faba L.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建群; 杨梅; 李洋; 陈丽君; 余东梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the advances in research on genetic resources, breeding objectives, genetic regularities and breeding methods of Vicia faba L. The goal of breeding Vicia faba L. Was stable yield, high yield, great quality and resistance, the collection, research and utilization of genetic resources should be strengthened, the genetic map was established to combine the new and traditional breeding technology; it was proposed to encourage the seed company joining in the select breeding of Viciafaba L. .%系统地回顾了我国在蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)种质资源、育种目标、遗传规律和育种方法等方面中取得的进展;认为我国蚕豆育种的目标是稳产、高产、优质、抗逆性强,应该加强对种质资源的收集、研究、利用,建立蚕豆遗传图谱,将现代育种技术与传统育种方法相结合;提出了鼓励种子公司加入到蚕豆新品种选育中的设想.

  8. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  9. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  10. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  11. Eff ect of microwave fi eld on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Pysz; Szymon Polaszczyk; Teresa Leszczyńska; Ewa Piątkowska

    2012-01-01

    Background. In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave fi eld is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave fi eld on the activity of trypsin i...

  12. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  13. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  14. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that locust bean processing is a .... quality if no chemical substances such as wood ash additives as preservatives are added as processing catalysts ..... Plant Food 25. Pp. 245-250. Okafor ...

  15. BEANS GROWN IN AN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-10

    Oct 10, 2002 ... EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATION ON YIELD OF MAI-ZE AND CLIMBING. BEANS GROWN IN .... maize are planted at high and low plant densities, respectively ..... performance of the system be initiated in future. For a relay ...

  16. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu, A.

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting

  17. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  18. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  19. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  20. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  1. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  2. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  3. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  4. Intoxicação aguda e abortos em cobaias pelas favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Leg. Mimosoideae Acute poisoning and abortions in guinea pigs by the pods of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Leg. Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Bonel-Raposo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a toxicidade aguda e o efeito abortivo de favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum. Em um experimento frutos da árvore foram administrados a 4 grupos de 3 cobaias cada. Outro grupo de 3 cobaias foi utilizado como controle. Para os Grupos 1 e 2 foram administradas 5 e 10g de favas por kg de peso vivo, respectivamente, em doses únicas. Para os Grupos 3 e 4 foram administradas 10 e 15g/kg, respectivamente, divididas em doses diárias de 5g/kg. Uma cobaia do Grupo 2 e uma do Grupo 4 morreram 12 e 18 horas após o final da administração da planta. As lesões macroscópicas consistiam hemorragias no estômago e intestinos delgado e grosso, fígado aumentado e vesícula biliar distendida. Histologicamente, o fígado apresentava severa vacuolização e necrose dos hepatócitos periportais. Em outro experimento, ração contendo 4% de favas de E. contortisiliquum foi administrada a dois grupos de 4 cobaias 35 dias após o acasalamento. Das 8 cobaias, 4 abortaram 6-15 dias após o início da ingestão. As outras 4 cobaias não estavam prenhes. Duas cobaias controle pariram normalmente. Todas as cobaias foram eutanasiadas no final do experimento. Histologicamente, as cobaias que ingeriram as favas apresentaram, no fígado, necrose hemorrágica periportal de moderada a severa. Todos os fetos apresentavam graus variáveis de autólise. Em 4 fetos que foram estudados histologicamente não foram observadas lesões significantes. As lesões agudas observadas nas cobaias são semelhantes às observadas na intoxicação por favas de E. contortisiliquum em bovinos e às da intoxicação experimental com saponinas da árvore.Os resultados do experimento em cobaias prenhes demostram o efeito abortivo de E. contortisiliquum e sugerem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada para estudar o efeito abortivo da planta ou de princípios ativos identificados na mesma.The objective was to study the acute toxicity and the abortive

  5. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  6. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  7. ESTUDIO DE LA CALIDAD PROTEICA Y DEL CONTENIDO DE ENERGÍA METABOLIZABLE DEL HABA (VICIA FABA*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Bermudez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determínate the faba bean CEP, the possible role of bis hemaglutinine on this valué and to know the metabolizable energy in this legume we made two experiments in the poultry section of the experimental Center of Tibaitatá. In each experiment we used 45 chickens in random distribution in groups of five. In the first experiment we used diets whose proteic source was respectively isolated soybean protein (control diet, raw faba bean, and faba bean treated with steam in an autoclave. The results obtained show a low utilization of food when the ratio was prepared with faba beans, probably due to the aminoacids imbalance, also it produced hypertrophia of the páncreas due probably to the presence of antitriptyc agents which were not destroyed by the heat treatment. The nutritional valué of the faba bean protein increase 67o with the inactivation of the favine, although it is still lower (27% compared with the control diet. In the second experiment we obtain relatively high valúes for the faba beans metabolical useful energy compared with other legume valúes like ajonjolí, which shows us that this bean is a good energy supplier.

  8. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  9. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Wan; LI; Peijun; ZHOU; Qixing; SUN; Tieheng; TAI; Peid

    2005-01-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity,malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 μg · g-1 CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  10. Effects of Glomus mosseae on the toxicity of heavy metals to Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-hong; LIN Ai-jun; CHEN Bao-dong; WANG You-shan; SMITH Sally E; SMITH F Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of Vicia faba and toxicity induced by heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in a field soil contaminated by a mixture of these metals. There was also uninoculation treatment (NM) simultaneously. Mycorrhizal (GM) plants have significantly increased growth and tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals compared with NM plants. P uptake was significantly increased in GM plants. Mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the transportation of HMs from root to shoot by immobilizing HMs in the mycorrhizal, shown by increasing the ratios of HMs from root to shoot. Oxidative stress, which can induce DNA damage, is an important mechanism of heavy metal toxicity. GM treatment decreased oxidative stress by intricating antioxidative systems such as peroxidases and non-enzymic systems including soluble protein. The DNA damage induced by heavy metals was detected using comet assay, which showed DNA damage in the plants was decreased by the GM treatment.

  11. Effect of soybean, Vicia faba, and vitamin C on the carcinogenicity of DMBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Aaser, A A; Zakhary, N I; el-Guindy, S M; Hafiez, A R; Halawa, F; Mokhtar, N

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 10 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), administered to rats through intragastric intubation, was sufficient to induce many biochemical and histopathological changes in their mammary tissue. Significant increases were observed in the activity levels of the enzymes acid ribonuclease, 5-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphatase, and beta-glucuronidase in mammary tissue homogenates of DMBA-treated rats after an experimental period of five months. Histopathological studies of the mammary tissue also revealed malignant epithelial tumors (cribriform carcinoma) induced among 85% of the treated rats, with an incidence of 4 tumors in 12 mammary glands. Nevertheless, administration of 30% soybean in the diet of rats or 5,000 ppm ascorbic acid in their drinking water in addition to DMBA revealed a significant chemoprotective effect against the carcinogenesis induced by DMBA alone. This chemoprotective effect was demonstrated by the normalization of the activity levels of the enzymes studied in mammary tissue homogenates, because most of the enzymes were maintained at near the levels in the control animals. The incidence and number of tumors were also decreased. Cribriform carcinoma was observed in 50% of the rats, and the incidence of the affected glands was 2 in 12 mammary glands among both groups. On the other hand, a less chemoprotective effect was observed due to Vicia faba administration.

  12. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  13. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  14. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress in Vicia faba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; He, F; Jia, W

    2001-08-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentration in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentration in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA nor Ca(2+)channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-permeable sulfhydryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma protein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  15. Accumulation of nickel ions in seedlings of Vicia sativa L. and manifestations of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanishchev, V V; Abramova, E A

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of nickel ions in the roots and shoots of vetch seedlings (Vicia sativa L.) at increasing concentrations of nickel chloride in the medium was studied. It was shown that the accumulation of nickel in the shoots was increased when the concentration of nickel chloride in the medium was more than 50 μM. The bioconcentration factor and sustainability index for vetch seedlings were calculated under the experimental conditions. The obtained results were similar to parameters for other plants, grown on a nutrient medium or soil substrate. First, the obtained results allowed estimate the limits of nickel chloride concentrations for four of five zones, which correspond to the theoretical concept of dose-response curves in the studies on the influence of physiologically essential heavy metals on plants (Prasad 2010). Some parameters of oxidative stress caused by the presence of nickel chloride in the medium were shown. It seems that at low nickel concentrations in the medium in vetch seedlings the increase of several biochemical parameters (catalase activity and proline) caused by the high amylase activity in seeds.

  16. Microtubules Are Essential for Guard-Cell Function in Vicia and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Eisinger; David Ehrhardt; Winslow Briggs

    2012-01-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells.Guard cells expressing GFPtubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed.Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed,whether induced by transfer to darkness,ABA,hydrogen peroxide,or sodium hydrogen carbonate.Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment.GFP-EB1,marking microtubule growing plus ends,showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure.Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined,microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules.Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled,although with a large net loss in total fluorescence.Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure.Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function.These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  17. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  18. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  19. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC, rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  20. Structure and chromosomal localization of DNA sequences related to ribosomal subrepeats in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, F; Cremonini, R; Zolfino, C; Tucci, G F; D'Ovidio, R; Delre, V; DePace, C; Scarascia Mugnozza, G T; Cionini, P G

    1991-05-01

    Subrepeating sequences of 325 bp found in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of Vicia faba and responsible for variations in the length of the polycistronic units for rRNA were isolated and used as probes for in situ hybridization. Hybridization occurs at many regions of the metaphase chromosomes besides those bearing rRNA genes, namely chromosome ends and all the heterochromatic regions revealed by enhanced fluorescence after quinacrine staining. The DNA homologous to the 325 bp repeats that does not reside in the IGS was isolated, cloned and sequenced. It is composed of tandemly arranged 336 bp elements, each comprising two highly related 168 bp sequences. This structure is very similar to that of the IGS repeats and ca. 75% nucleotide sequence identity can be observed between these and the 168 bp doublets. The most obvious difference lies in the deletion, in the former, of a 14 bp segment from one of the two related sequences. It is hypothesized that the IGS repeats are derived from the 336 bp elements and have been transposed to ribosomal cistrons from other genome fractions. The possible relations between these sequences and others with similar structural features found in other species are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of several methods for breaking dormancy of bitter vetch seeds (Vicia ervilia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhi Hossein Reza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effects of different treatments on breaking dormancy and germination of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L. freshly harvested seeds for seeding immediately. Partial scarified seeds (30 seconds with sandpaper were subjected to different treatments including: GA3 (250, 500 and 750 ppm, KNO3 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% w/v, cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 days, sulfuric acid (25, 50 and 75 seconds, hot water (90°C; for 2.5 and 5 minutes, hydropriming via seed soaking in distilled water (4 and 8 hours and mechanical scarification. Among the mentioned treatments, cold stratification for 6 days had a best effect on germination related parameters final germination percentage, mean germination time and vigour indexthan the other periods. In contrast to scarification with acid and hot water, mechanical scarification improved germination parameters but this effect was lower than the cold stratification. The results suggest that bitter vetch seed has both physical and physiological dormancy.

  2. Characterization of the urease gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Annita; Cadahia, Esther; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Moderate levels of urease activity (ca. 300 mU mg(-1)) were detected in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 vegetative cells. This activity did not require urea for induction and was partially repressed by the addition of ammonium into the medium. Lower levels of urease activity (ca. 100 mU mg(-1)) were detected also in pea bacteroids. A DNA region of ca. 9 kb containing the urease structural genes ( ureA, ureB and ureC), accessory genes ( ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG), and five additional ORFs ( orf83, orf135, orf207, orf223, and orf287) encoding proteins of unknown function was sequenced. Three of these ORFs ( orf83, orf135 and orf207) have a homologous counterpart in a gene cluster from Sinorhizobium meliloti, reported to be involved in urease and hydrogenase activities. R. leguminosarum mutant strains carrying Tn 5 insertions within this region exhibited a urease-negative phenotype, but induced wild-type levels of hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in bacteroids. orf287 encodes a potential transmembrane protein with a C-terminal GGDEF domain. A mutant affected in orf287 exhibited normal levels of urease activity in culture cells. Experiments aimed at cross-complementing Ni-binding proteins required for urease and hydrogenase synthesis (UreE and HypB, respectively) indicated that these two proteins are not functionally interchangeable in R. leguminosarum.

  3. Cellular distribution of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in Vicia faba L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, V.; Assmann, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-binding proteins within Vicia faba was investigated. Both CaM and CaM-binding proteins were found to be differentially distributed among organs, tissues, and protoplast types. CaM levels, on a per protein basis, were found to be the highest in leaf epidermis, containing 3-fold higher levels of CaM than in total leaf. Similarly, guard cell and epidermal cell protoplasts were also found to have higher levels of CaM than mesophyll cell protoplasts. 125I-CaM blot overlay assays were performed to qualitatively examine CaM-binding proteins in these protoplast types as well as in whole tissues and organs. CaM-binding proteins with Mr 52,000, 78,000, and 115,000 were common in all metabolically active plant parts. Unique CaM-binding protein bands were detected in guard cell protoplasts (Mr 39,000, 88,000), stems (Mr 45,000, 60,000, 64,000), and roots (Mr 62,000), suggesting the presence of specialized CaM-dependent processes in these cells and organs.

  4. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  5. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  6. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  7. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  8. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  9. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  10. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  11. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

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    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  12. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  13. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  14. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  15. PI3P 和 NO 在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭中的关系%The interactions of PI3P and NO in UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊彩明; 王静; 胡洁; 贺军民

    2015-01-01

    By stomatal bioassay and measurement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO)level in guard cells,the interactions of NO and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)[the product of phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)]in UV-B-induced stomatal closure were studied in the epidermal strips of abaxial surface of broad bean(Vicia faba L.)leaves.The results showed that both the NO production in guard cells and stomatal closure induced by UV-B were significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (WM)and LY294002 (LY).Meanwhile,exogenous NO-relea-sing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP)could completely reverse the inhibitory effect of LY and WM on the UV-B-induced stomatal closure,and WM and LY could not inhibit exogenous SNP-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.These results indicate that PI3P acts upstream of NO in the signal transduction pathway of UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片下表皮为材料,结合气孔开度分析和保卫细胞内源一氧化氮(NO)水平的测定,研究了 NO 和磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)的催化产物磷脂酰肌醇3-磷酸(PI3P)在紫外线 B(UV-B)诱导气孔关闭中的关系。结果显示:UV-B 辐射诱导蚕豆保卫细胞 NO 产生和气孔关闭的效应能被 PI3K 抑制剂沃曼青霉素(WM)和 LY294002(LY)显著抑制。同时,外源 NO释放剂硝普钠(SNP)处理能完全逆转 WM 和 LY 对 UV-B 诱导气孔关闭的抑制效应,而 WM 和LY 却不能抑制外源 SNP 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的效应。结果说明,在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的信号转导途径中 PI3P 的作用在 NO 上游。

  16. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  17. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  18. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  19. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  20. Alleviation of salinity stress on Vicia faba L. plants via seed priming with melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Gergis Dawood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is an environmentally friendly-molecule with a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant capacity. Two pot experiments were conducted during two successive winter seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013 at the wire-house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the potentiality of melatonin (100 mM and 500 mM in alleviating the harmful effect of diluted sea water at a relatively low and high concentrations (3.85 dS/m and 7.69 dS/m, respectively on the performance of faba bean plant. The results revealed that irrigation of faba bean plants with diluted sea water reduced growth parameters (plant height, leaves number/plant, fresh and dry weights /plant, relative water content (RWC, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids, indole acetic acid, total carbohydrate, K+,Ca+2, as well as the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+2/Na+ .Thiswasaccompanied by significant increases in phenolic content, compatible solutes (total soluble carbohydrate, free amino acids, proline, Na+ and Cl- , relative to the control plants (untreated plants. On the other hand, melatonin treatments improved growth parameters, RWC, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenolic content, indole acetic acid, K+,Ca+2 as well as K+/Na+ and Ca+2/Na+ ratios, either in the plants irrigated with tap water or with diluted sea water, as compared with corresponding controls. Meanwhile, melatonin treatments reduced the levels of compatible solutes, as well as Na+ and Cl-  contents, relative to those of corresponding controls. Salinity stress and/ or melatonin treatments induced the production of new protein bands that did not occur in the control plants. Melatonin at 500 mM had a more pronounced effect in alleviating the adverse effects of the two salinity levels under study on the performance of faba bean plants than 100 mM melatonin.

  1. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  2. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  3. [Oxidative damage of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides on Vicia faba root tip cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wan-Jun; Ma, Dan-Wei; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an invasive species, which has strong allelopathic effect on surrounding plants. In this study, the methods of soil culture and filter paper culture were adopted to simulate the eluviation and volatilization of the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides, respectively, and to investigate the allelopathy of the volatile oil on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Vicia faba root tip cells, with the mechanisms of the induced tip cell apoptosis analyzed. At the early stage (24 h) of soil culture and filter paper culture, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities of the tip cells decreased after an initial increase with the increasing dose of the volatile oil, and the malondialdehyde content of the tip cells increased with the increasing volatile oil dose and treated time. At the midterm (48 h) and later (72 h) stages of soil culture and filter paper culture, a typical DNA ladder strip appeared, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could induce the apoptosis of the tip cells, and the apoptosis was dose- and time dependent. This study showed that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could act on its surrounding plants via eluviation and volatilization, making the lipid peroxidation of acceptor plants aggravated and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the plants inhibited, resulting in the oxidative damage and apoptosis of the plant root tip cells, and accordingly, the inhibition of the plant growth. Under soil culture, the root tip cells of V. faba had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser DNA damage, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides via volatilization had stronger allelopathy on the growth of surrounding plants than via eluviation.

  4. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: potential involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-12-24

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0-20μM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10μM. In addition, at this concentration, DNA damage time-dependently increased until 12h. Then, a decrease in DNA damages was recorded. The significant induction of micronucleus formation also reinforced the genotoxic character of this metal. Direct interaction of lead with DNA was also evaluated with the a-cellular comet assay. The data showed that DNA breakages were not associated with a direct effect of lead on DNA. In order to investigate the relationship between lead genotoxicity and oxidative stress, V. faba were exposed to lead in the presence or absence of the antioxidant Vitamin E, or the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor dephenylene iodonium (DPI). The total inhibition of the genotoxic effects of lead (DNA breakage and micronucleus formation) by these compounds reveals the major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the genotoxicity of lead. These results highlight, for the first time in vivo and in whole-plant roots, the relationship between ROS, DNA strand-breaks and chromosome aberrations induced by lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  6. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

  7. Characterization of genes involved in erythritol catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher K; Rath, Amber M; Noel, Tanya C; Hynes, Michael F

    2006-07-01

    A genetic locus encoding erythritol uptake and catabolism genes was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, and shown to be plasmid encoded in a wide range of R. leguminosarum strains. A Tn5-B22 mutant (19B-3) unable to grow on erythritol was isolated from a mutant library of R. leguminosarum strain VF39SM. The mutated gene eryF was cloned and partially sequenced, and determined to have a high homology to permease genes of ABC transporters. A cosmid complementing the mutation (pCos42) was identified and was shown to carry all the genes necessary to restore the ability to grow on erythritol to a VF39SM strain cured of pRleVF39f. In the genomic DNA sequence of strain 3841, the gene linked to the mutation in 19B-3 is flanked by a cluster of genes with high homology to the known erythritol catabolic genes from Brucella spp. Through mutagenesis studies, three distinct operons on pCos42 that are required for growth on erythritol were identified: an ABC-transporter operon (eryEFG), a catabolic operon (eryABCD) and an operon (deoR-tpiA2-rpiB) that encodes a gene with significant homology to triosephosphate isomerase (tpiA2). These genes all share high sequence identity to genes in the erythritol catabolism region of Brucella spp., and clustalw alignments suggest that horizontal transfer of the erythritol locus may have occurred between R. leguminosarum and Brucella. Transcription of the eryABCD operon is repressed by EryD and is induced by the presence of erythritol. Mutant 19B-3 was impaired in its ability to compete against wild-type for nodulation of pea plants but was still capable of forming nitrogen-fixing nodules.

  8. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Xu, Huaxia

    2005-05-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was interrupted after 5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment. During a 3 d recovery period, root growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant dose-effect relationship for 1-5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) treatment. When broadbean seedlings were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water for 3 d, SOD activity at 50 microg x g(-1) TCB recovered towards control level (P>0.05) while a significant increase in SOD activity was observed at 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB compared to control (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings occurred after 3 and 5 d of 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment (P<0.05 and P<0.01), and there was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 microg x g(-1) CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  9. 蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片蒸腾速率的因子分析%Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Transpiration Rate of Vicia faba L. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    利用LI-1600稳态气孔计测定了蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的日变化,以及水分胁迫下蒸腾速率的变化,探讨了环境因子对蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的影响.结果表明,光量子通量密度是影响蒸腾速率的主要气象因子,土壤含水量影响叶片相对含水量,并通过气孔扩散阻力来影响蒸腾速率.%By using LI-1600 steady state porometer,the transpiration changes of the Vicia faba L.leaves were determined through a day and under the condition of the water stress,in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the transpiration rate of the Vicia faba leaves.The result indicated that PFD is the principal meteorological factor influencing transpiration.The soil water content influenced the relative water content of leaf leaves,and also influenced the transpiration by stoma diffusing resistance.

  10. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  11. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  13. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  14. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  15. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  16. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  17. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... variation and, hence, restricting the amount of adapted genetic diversity ... the phenotypic diversity of common bean in Uganda. The selection ... The place of collection/origin was also consi- dered in ..... Bean Research and Development Programs at NaCRRI and CIAT .... Evolution 92:1101-1104. Kami JA ...

  18. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  19. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  20. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  1. Ochratoxin A-producing Aspergilli in Vietnamese green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S L; Hien, L T; An, T V; Trang, N T; Hocking, A D; Scott, E S

    2007-09-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of infection by ochratoxin A (OA)-producing fungi in Vietnamese green coffee beans. Aspergillus carbonarius, A. niger and yellow Aspergilli (A. ochraceus and related species in section Circumdati) were isolated by direct plating of surface-disinfected Robusta (65 samples) and Arabica (11 samples) coffee beans from southern and central Vietnam. Significantly, more Robusta than Arabica beans were infected by fungi. Aspergillus niger infected 89% of Robusta beans, whereas A. carbonarius and yellow Aspergilli each infected 12-14% of beans. OA was not produced by A. niger (98 isolates) or A. ochraceus (77 isolates), but was detected in 110 of 113 isolates of A. carbonarius, 10 isolates of A. westerdijkiae and one isolate of A. steynii. The maximum OA observed in samples severely infected with toxigenic species was 1.8 microg kg(-1); however, no relationship between extent of infection and OA contamination was observed. Aspergillus niger is the dominant species infecting Vietnamese coffee beans, yet A. carbonarius is the likely source of OA contamination. Vietnamese green coffee beans were more severely infected with fungi than the levels reported for beans from other parts of the world, yet OA contamination appears to be infrequent.

  2. Advances in the improvement of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change, high temperature and drought are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), native to the Sonora desert located in the northern part of Mexico and southwest o...

  3. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  4. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  5. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  6. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  7. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  8. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...

  9. Isolation and characterization of sequences homologous to the tobacco clone axi 1 (auxin independent) from a Vicia sativa nodule cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalçin-Mendi, Y.; Çetiner, S.; Bisseling, T.

    2001-01-01

    In this research, partial nucleotide sequences of the axi 1 gene, which is related to auxin perception and transduction, isolated from Vicia sativa using cDNA library screening were investigated. Four V. sativa cDNA clones representing homologous of the tobacco axi 1 (auxin independent) cDNA clone w

  10. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  11. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regio...

  12. Influence of Growth Stage and Leaf Age on Expression of the Components of Partial Resistance of Faba Bean to Botrytis fabae Sard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouhassan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In detached leaf tests on faba bean (Vicia faba L., genotypes partially resistant and susceptible to Botrytis fabae were examined. Expression of four components of partial resistance to a virulent isolate of B. fabae differed depending on the plant age and the leaf age of the genotypes. The incubation period of resistant genotypes at the podding stage was longer than that of susceptible genotypes at the same stage. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC of the lesion size increased from the seedling to the flowering stage but declined at the podding stage in all genotypes. Differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes for lesion size were significant except on old leaves from plants at the podding stage. The latent period decreased, and spore production increased with increasing growth and leaf age but there was significant interaction with the genotype. These last two components of partial resistance were more clearly expressed at all growth stages on FRY167 (highly resistant but were expressed only at the seedling and podding stages on FRY7 (resistant. The resistant line BPL710 was not significantly different from the susceptible genotypes for the latent period at any growth stage, and for spore production at the seedling and flowering stages. Leaf age affected all genotypes, but with a significant interaction between leaf age and growth stage. Components of partial resistance were more strongly expressed on young leaves from plants at the seedling or flowering stage.

  13. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  14. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  16. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  17. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  18. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  19. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  20. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  1. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  2. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, A.; El-Beltagi, H. E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The seeds of Vicia f aba L. Gaza 834 were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He-Ne (632.8 nm) or diode (650.0 nm) laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He-Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy) of {gamma}-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of {gamma}-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). Laser treatment by He-Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P < 0.05) in MDA content (4.4 and 5.08 {mu}mol/g d.w respectively) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (2.3 {mu}mol/g d.w.). On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with {gamma}-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with {gamma}-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of {gamma}-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone. (Author) 46 refs.

  3. Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2005-06-01

    Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop.

  4. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  5. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  6. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  7. The content of chlorophyll response to salt stress in the leaf of Vicia faba L.%盐胁迫对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶绿素a和b含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军华; 冯桂莲; 高榕

    2000-01-01

    用不同的盐浓度对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)处理的实验表明:叶绿素含量随盐浓度的增大而有所降低,而叶绿素a/b则无明显变化.当NaCl浓度升至1%时,叶绿素的含量在处理后的第三天呈现"增-降"现象,在1.5%NaCl浓度下,"增-降"尤为显著.这种叶绿素含量的变化势必影响到以叶片叶绿素含量比来判断植物抗盐性大小.

  8. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  9. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. LEAVES, INFECTED BY THE MOST IMPORTANT BEAN DISEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALGOJATA BEROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas-exchange, plastid pigments and some other physiological parameters were determined in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. local populations leaves naturally infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli (Smith Dye, and Pseudomonas syringae pv.phaseolicola (Bukholder Young, Dye et Wilkie, and in healthy leaves (control. It was established that infected leaves had lower both plastid pigments content and photosynthetic activity as well as lower yield and quality of produce.

  11. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  12. Induction of micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips treated with heavy metals (cadmium and chromium) in the presence of NTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, A; Paglialunga, S; Rizzoni, M; Testa, A; Trinca, S

    1988-11-01

    Soluble metal compounds (CdCl2, K2Cr2O7) significantly increase the frequency of micronucleated cells in Vicia faba root tips with a clear dose-effect relationship. The addition of NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) does not enhance the induction of micronucleated cells. Conversely, insoluble metal compounds (CdCO3, PbCRO4) significantly enhance the frequency of micronucleated cells only in the presence of NTA. Since some genotoxic metals are diffused in the environment and are often sequestered as insoluble precipitates in water sediments and sludges, the introduction of NTA is likely to increase the risk of environmental pollution because of its ability to solubilize and make those metals reactive.

  13. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  14. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  15. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  16. Inactivation of jack bean urease by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Adam; Zaborska, Wiesława; Sepioł, Janusz; Góra, Maciej; Zaborska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Allicin--diallyl thiosulfinate--is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic. Allicin was synthesized as described elsewhere and was tested for its inhibitory ability against jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 22 degrees C. The results indicate that allicin is an enzymatic inactivator. The loss of urease activity was irreversible, time- and concentration dependent and the kinetics of the inactivation was biphasic; each phase, obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants for inactivation were measured for the fast and slow phases and for several concentrations of allicin. Thiol reagents, and competitive inhibitor (boric acid) protected the enzyme from loss of enzymatic activity. The studies demonstrate that urease inactivation results from the reaction between allicin and the SH-group, situated in the urease active site (Cys592).

  17. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  18. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  19. Thermal properties of African yam bean seeds as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal properties of African yam bean seeds as influenced by moisture content and temperature. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... of the seeds determined using the American Society Agriculture Engineering Standard (ASAE) test was 9.6 % (d.b).

  20. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  1. Protein nutritional quality of cowpea and navy bean residue fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and navy bean residue-wheat diets was determined using in-vivo and in-vitro protein ... Phytohemagglutinin activity was only detectable in the raw cowpea ... Legume residues after protein extraction could be recommended for human food if

  2. Variability within the common bean phaseolus vulgaris germ plasm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2000 ... culinary and economic characteristics are taken into ... improved varieties ru·e inferior in taste and other culinary .... of the different bean landraces/ varieties though in some this technology was ...

  3. A review of geographical distribution of marama bean [Tylosema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... wild plant for human consumption (Amarteifio and. Moholo, 1998). ... known about the germplasm diversity, genomic variability and relationships ... marama bean projects have been unable to differentiate populations, that is ...

  4. Phenotypic Diversity among Croatian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Landraces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monika Vidak; Sara Malešević; Martina Grdiša; Zlatko Šatović; Boris Lazarević; Klaudija Carović-Stanko

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity among Croatian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces was assessed by analysing 12 qualitative and six quantitative traits in 338 accessions collected from all production areas in Croatia...

  5. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  6. variation for green bean caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, Republic of South Africa. ABSTRACT: ... green bean caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and trigonelline contents and values ranged from 0.91- ... Hence, coffee production and.

  7. of Kidney Bean, Soybean and Alfalfa Under Salt Stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney bean, soybean and alfalfa under salt stress were investigated in the greenhouse. Growth ... material in the soil, different substances are released into the soil solution. Some of ... West African Journal of Appl led Ecology, vol. 5 , 2004- 1 ...

  8. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  10. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  11. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  12. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  13. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  14. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  15. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  16. Competitive ability of black common bean genotypes with weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilcimar Adriano Vogt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-physiologic characteristics of common bean plants can affect their competitive ability with weeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean genotypes with weeds. An experiment was carried out in the 2010/11 cropping season in Papanduva, SC, southern Brazil, in order to verify the variability of some plant characteristics among genotypes of common bean. The randomized block design was used, with four replications. Seven cultivars underwent the treatments: BRS Campeiro, CHP 01-238, CHP 01-239, Diamante Negro, BRS Supremo, BRS Valente, IPR Uirapuru, FTS Soberano, IPR Graúna, IPR Tiziu e IAC Diplomata. At 6, 14, 18, 25 and 32 days after emergence (DAE were evaluated plant height, ground cover by common bean plants, dry biomass of stems and leaves, and grain yield. In the 2011/12 cropping season the same cultivars were grown in the presence or absence of weeds, adopting similar methodology to the 2010/11. The losses of grain yield in black common bean genotypes due to weed interference ranged from 30.8% to 54.9%. There was a positive correlation between yield reduction promoted by the weed infestation and dry biomass produced by the weeds. In addition, there was a positive correlation between percentage of yield reduction due to the weed infestation and grain yield without weed interference. The characteristics evaluated did not estimate the competitive ability of black common bean genotypes with weeds.

  17. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  18. 烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖的遗传损伤%The Genetic Damage of Smokeless Tobacco Extract on Vicia Faba Root Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芳; 吴学进; 黄先忠.; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    利用不同浓度的烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖进行常温处理,结果对蚕豆根尖细胞造成不同程度的遗传损伤,而且根尖细胞微核率与烟草浸提液浓度成正相关。%Vicia faba root tip was treated using different concentrations of smokeless tobacco extract at normal temperature. Result indicated that the rc,ot tip cells of Vicia faba suffered different degree of genetic damage, and root tip cell micronucleus rate was positively ~'orrelated with the concentration of smokeless tobacco extract.

  19. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no estado de Santa Catarina associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Mendes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in three dairy cows grazing pasture contaminated with Vicia villosa in two different farms was reported. Hyperthermia, skin alopecia and pruritus were the main clinical signs. Macroscopically, gray to white up to 5cm nodules were detected, especially in kidney and lymph nodes, which correspond to mild to severe multifocal granulomatous infiltrate. This is the first report of systemic granulomatous disease due to consumption of hairy vetch in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  20. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no estado de Santa Catarina associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa)

    OpenAIRE

    R.E Mendes; V Surkamp; D.C. Machado; Pilati,C

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intoxication in three dairy cows grazing pasture contaminated with Vicia villosa in two different farms was reported. Hyperthermia, skin alopecia and pruritus were the main clinical signs. Macroscopically, gray to white up to 5cm nodules were detected, especially in kidney and lymph nodes, which correspond to mild to severe multifocal granulomatous infiltrate. This is the first report of systemic granulomatous disease due to consumption of hairy vetch in the State of Santa Catarin...

  1. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  2. Transferable analysis of pea EST-SSRs on faba bean and its application%豌豆EST-SSR标记在蚕豆中的通用性与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚亚明; 徐盛春; 毛伟华; 李泽昀

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop novel molecular markers for faba bean (Vicia faba L. ), the transferability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ) EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) markers and their application were studied in faba bean germplasms. The results revealed that 99 of 163-pair primers for pea EST-SSRs achieved the effective amplification in faba bean, indicating a significant transferability (60. 74%) of pea EST-SSR primers to faba bean. Thirty-six of these transferable markers exhibited polymorphism and totally 148 alleles were detected with an average variation of 4. 1. The polymorphism information contents of polymorphic markers varied from 0. 035 to 0. 810 with an average of 0. 483 4, while observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0. 000 1 to 0. 700 0 and expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0. 035 7 to 0. 845 2, with an average of 0.210 3 and 0.538 8 respectively. Furthermore, UPGMA (unweight pair group method with arithemetic averages) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) revealed that the 30 germplasms were classified into two major clusters. Because of their polymorphism and transferability, the developed markers in this study will provide the valuable tool for genetic diversity, resource conservation, comparative mapping and marker-assisted breeding of faba bean in the future.In order to develop novel molecular markers for faba bean (Vicia faba L. ), the transferability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ) EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) markers and their application were studied in faba bean germplasms. The results revealed that 99 of 163-pair primers for pea EST-SSRs achieved the effective amplification in faba bean, indicating a significant transferability (60. 74%) of pea EST-SSR primers to faba bean. Thirty-six of these transferable markers exhibited polymorphism and totally 148 alleles were detected with an average variation of 4. 1. The polymorphism information contents of polymorphic markers varied from 0

  3. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  4. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  5. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  6. Gender access to formal credit and its impact on cross-border bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    There is high potential in cross-border bean business between. Kenya and Uganda. However ... countries, such as Mexico under field conditions (Muasya,. 2001). ..... quality variation in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. L.). Ph.D. Thesis ...

  7. Food Evolution: The Impact of Society and Science on the Fermentation of Cocoa Beans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozturk, Gulustan; Young, Glenn M

    2017-01-01

    ... there. The modern methods of cocoa bean production for the purpose of the manufacture of modern chocolate are tied to the origin and development of cocoa bean fermentation and processing methods...

  8. Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the incidence and severity of ALS in five bean agro-ecologies within Uganda was ... Key words: Common beans, disease management, Phaseolus vulgaris, ... plants has been shown to reduce pest and ... plant nutrition through organic soil.

  9. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  10. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  11. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  12. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  13. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  14. Prospective of Innovative Technologies for Quality Supervision and Classification of Roasted Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Hills, B. P.; Bongaers, E.; Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana; Melado Herreros, Angela; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Diaz Barcos, Virginia; Meneses, Beatriz; Oteros, R.

    2011-01-01

    Color sorting is the major procedure employed for establish roast degree of coffee beans. However, color-based procedures have been proven to be ineffective, since coffee beans roasted to different degrees can present the same average readings in light reflectance measurements with significant quality variations. Besides to color, other major changes in beans are volume (swell), mass, form, bean pop and density. Eight samples of arabica coffee from Colombia and Guatemala have been roasted und...

  15. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems.

  17. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  18. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  19. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-08

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  1. 铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)早期生长的影响%Effects of Uranium Tailings Lixivium on Early Growth of Vicia Faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俗; 王瑞兰; 冯涛; 向言词; 周红超

    2007-01-01

    利用室内培养法研究了铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞的微核率、核酸酶活性及对蚕豆种子萌发的影响.结果表明:铀尾矿浸出液达到一定剂量时均可引起蚕豆根尖细胞微核数增加,微核数随浓度增大而逐渐增多,说明铀尾矿对蚕豆幼苗具有明显的遗传毒性效应;铀尾矿对蚕豆种子的萌发率没有影响;铀尾矿促进幼苗的生长,低浓度比高浓度明显;低浓度铀尾矿浸出液对核酸酶有一定的激活作用,高浓度则抑制.当铀尾矿浸出液浓度逐渐增大时,抑制作用逐渐增强.图1,表4,参14.

  2. Light-induced changes in hydrogen, calcium, potassium, and chloride ion fluxes and concentrations from the mesophyll and epidermal tissues of bean leaves. Understanding the ionic basis of light-induced bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala; Newman

    1999-03-01

    Noninvasive, ion-selective vibrating microelectrodes were used to measure the kinetics of H+, Ca2+, K+, and Cl- fluxes and the changes in their concentrations caused by illumination near the mesophyll and attached epidermis of bean (Vicia faba L.). These flux measurements were related to light-induced changes in the plasma membrane potential. The influx of Ca2+ was the main depolarizing agent in electrical responses to light in the mesophyll. Changes in the net fluxes of H+, K+, and Cl- occurred only after a significant delay of about 2 min, whereas light-stimulated influx of Ca2+ began within the time resolution of our measurements (5 s). In the absence of H+ flux, light caused an initial quick rise of external pH near the mesophyll and epidermal tissues. In the mesophyll this fast alkalinization was followed by slower, oscillatory pH changes (5-15 min); in the epidermis the external pH increased steadily and reached a plateau 3 min later. We explain the initial alkalinization of the medium as a result of CO2 uptake by photosynthesizing tissue, whereas activation of the plasma membrane H+ pump occurred 1.5 to 2 min later. The epidermal layer seems to be a substantial barrier for ion fluxes but not for CO2 diffusion into the leaf.

  3. Light-Induced Changes in Hydrogen, Calcium, Potassium, and Chloride Ion Fluxes and Concentrations from the Mesophyll and Epidermal Tissues of Bean Leaves. Understanding the Ionic Basis of Light-Induced Bioelectrogenesis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Newman, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Noninvasive, ion-selective vibrating microelectrodes were used to measure the kinetics of H+, Ca2+, K+, and Cl− fluxes and the changes in their concentrations caused by illumination near the mesophyll and attached epidermis of bean (Vicia faba L.). These flux measurements were related to light-induced changes in the plasma membrane potential. The influx of Ca2+ was the main depolarizing agent in electrical responses to light in the mesophyll. Changes in the net fluxes of H+, K+, and Cl− occurred only after a significant delay of about 2 min, whereas light-stimulated influx of Ca2+ began within the time resolution of our measurements (5 s). In the absence of H+ flux, light caused an initial quick rise of external pH near the mesophyll and epidermal tissues. In the mesophyll this fast alkalinization was followed by slower, oscillatory pH changes (5–15 min); in the epidermis the external pH increased steadily and reached a plateau 3 min later. We explain the initial alkalinization of the medium as a result of CO2 uptake by photosynthesizing tissue, whereas activation of the plasma membrane H+ pump occurred 1.5 to 2 min later. The epidermal layer seems to be a substantial barrier for ion fluxes but not for CO2 diffusion into the leaf. PMID:10069851

  4. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  5. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J; Trapiello, Estefanía

    2014-05-01

    A yellow Gram-reaction-positive bacterium isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was identified as Clavibacter michiganensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular methods were employed in order to identify the subspecies. Such methods included the amplification of specific sequences by PCR, 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), RFLP and multilocus sequence analysis as well as the analysis of biochemical and phenotypic traits including API 50CH and API ZYM results. The results showed that strain LPPA 982T did not represent any known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the strain is a bean pathogen causing a newly identified bacterial disease that we name bacterial bean leaf yellowing. On the basis of these results, strain LPPA 982T is regarded as representing a novel subspecies for which the name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 982T (=CECT 8144T=LMG 27667T).

  6. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  7. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean (Ricinus communis is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate ribosomes over 1500 per minute. Clinical signs associated with castor bean poisoning often occur in animals in a few hours after ingestion of the seeds. This paper reviews the literature on the toxic effects of ricin and techniques for preventing the poisoning.

  8. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  9. Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

    2013-09-01

    Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is

  10. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

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    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  11. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  12. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean.

  14. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

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    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  15. Localization of NOS-like protein in guard cells of Vicia faba L. And its possible function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG YouQun; JIA WenSuo; LOU ChengHou; ZHANG ShuQiu

    2007-01-01

    Using the immuno-fluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscope technology, localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins was determined in guard cells of Vicia faba L. NOS is mainly localized in nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondria and the cell wall of guard cells. Scorch and exogenous JA can enhance the level of nitric oxide (NO) and increase NOS activity in both leaf and epidermis, and the changing pattern of NOS activity was consistent with the change of NO. NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, inhibited JA-induced NO generation. From the results, we presumed that NO generation from NOS pathway is the main pathway in the stress and JA responses. The pharmacological experiment showed that increasing the Ca2+ at a suitable concentration promoted leaf NOS activity and the NO level, indicating that NOS activity together with the distribution of NO is Ca2+-dependent. NOS and NO are possibly involved in the regulation of stomatal movement thus playing an important role in plant stress responses.

  16. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

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    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  17. Effect of different processing methods on the nutritional characteristics and tannin content of fababean seed (Vicia faba minor

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    Piera Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, because of their high protein content, the demand of legume seeds is significantly increased. In the centre and southern Italy fababean (Vicia faba minor can play an important role as alternative protein source in ruminant nutrition. In this trial has been studied the effect of different treatments (flaking, cooking, dehulling, germination on the in vitro digestibility and tannin content of fababean seeds. The in vitro OM and NDF digestibility of seeds were significantly (P<0.05 improved by dehulling and flaking. The in vitro OM digestibility of dehulled fababean (99.27% showed higher values (P<0.05 than the other treated seeds as well as in vitro NDF digestibility (90.33%, P<0.05. Germination of fababean reduces the in vitro digestibility of OM and NDF. Cooking in water was more effective in reducing tannins than other treatments. Compared to the untreated the cooked has significantly (P<0.05 reduced the tannin content over 55% (2.71 g/kgDM vs. 6.10 g/kgDM. Germinated fababean did not affect the tannin content of seeds. The results from this trial suggest that thermal treatments applied to fababean seeds in order to reduce the tannins must be evaluated according to the cost/benefits ratio because this factors in seeds is low (<10 g/kgDM.

  18. Nitric oxide involved in signal transduction of Jasmonic acid-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHI Wuliang; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Jasmonic acid (JA) are two key signaling molecules involved in many and diverse biological pathways in plants. Growing evidence suggested that NO signaling interacts with JA signaling. In this work, Our experiment showed that NO exists in guard cell of Vicia faba L., and NO is involved in signal transduction of JA- induced stomata closuring: (ⅰ) JA enhances NO synthesis in guard cell; (ⅱ) both JA and NO induced stomatal closure, and had dose response to their effects; (ⅲ) there are synergetic correlation between JA and lower NO concentration in regulation of stomatal movement; (ⅳ) JA-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetrame- thylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), a specific NO scavenger. An inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells, NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) also inhibits plant NOS, repressing JA-induced NO generation and JA-induced stomatal closure. We presumed that NO mainly comes from NOS after JA treatment.

  19. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K~+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强; 花宝光; 郭玉海; 娄成后

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%. However, if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  20. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%.However,if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  1. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  2. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  3. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  4. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  5. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  6. Purification and characterization of a new dimeric mannose/glucose-binding isolectin from Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Devi, Langoljam Inaotombi; Singh, Laishram Rupachandra

    2009-01-01

    A new mannose/glucose specific isolectin VTL-II has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the seeds of Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber through successive steps of (i) lectin extraction, (ii) ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-50%), and (iii) affinity chromatography on a column of Sephadex G-50 covalently coupled with D-mannose. The isolectin was found to be a dimeric protein of molecular weight 62 kDa made up of apparently chemically identical subunits unlike the tetrameric isolectins reported earlier from the same plant source. It was found to exhibit (i) 8-16 times higher specificity for rabbit RBC than human RBC, though it showed unspecificity with respect to the different human blood groups, (ii) non-dependence on divalent metal ion for its hemagglutinating activity, (iii) relatively broad pH optimum ranging from pH 7.0 to 8.0, and (iv) thermal inactivation behavior characterized by t(1/2) of 50 degrees C.

  7. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  8. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  10. Identification of a NodD repressible gene adjacent to nodM in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao'er Yang; Bihe Hou; Chenzhi Zong; Guofan Hong

    2012-01-01

    The nodFEL and nodMNT operons in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae are transcribed in the same orie-tation and induced by NodD in response to flavonoids secreted by legumes.In the narrow intergenic region between nodFEL and nodMNT,we identified a small gene divergently transcribed from nodM to the 3' end of nodL.Unlike the promoters upstream of nodF and nodM,the promoter of this gene is constitutively expressed.It appeared that its promoter might partially overlap with that of nodM and its expression was repressed by nodD.A deletion mutation was made and proteins produced by the mutant were compared with those by wild-type using 2D gel electrophoresis.Several protein differences were identified suggesting that this small gene influences the expression or stability of these proteins.However,the mutant nodulated its host plant (pea) normally.

  11. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  12. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality.

  13. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  14. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  15. MAP kinase specifically mediates the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing; AN Guoyong; WANG Pengcheng; WANG Pengtao; HAN Jinfeng; JIA Yanbin; SONG Chunpeng

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is involved in ABA- or H2O2-signaling, and H2O2 acts as intermediate in the downstream of ABA signal transduction pathway, which has recently emerged as a secondary messenger of ABA signaling. Using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser scanning confocal microscope, we provided the first evidence that MAP kinase plays an important role in H2O2 signal initial, amplification and specific targeting in response to stimuli in guard cells. ABA- or H2O2-induced Vicia faba stomatal closure was inhibited or reversed by the specific inhibitor PD98059 of MEK1/2; the guard cells were pre-incubated or -microinjected by 10 (mol·L-1 PD98059, ABA could not enhance the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 probe dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Meanwhile, after ABA induced the H2O2 accumulation in guard cells, the exogenous or intracellular PD98059 could reduce the DCF fluorescence intensity. Most interestingly, on the contrary to ABA, the DCF fluorescence intensity of guard cells treated by 100 (mol·L-1 salicylic acid (SA) was not down-regulated by PD98059, yet PD98059 did not regulate the stomatal movement being induced by light, dark or salicylic acid. These results suggest that MEK1/2 could mediate stomatal closure by abolishing the ABA-induced H2O2 generation/accumula- tion in the specific manner.

  16. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect.

  17. Effects of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on garden pea and string bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1976-02-01

    Garden Peas (Pisum Sativum) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 24 ppM of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Germination of bean seeds was delayed about 48 hours. On the 18th day after exposure none of the bean seedlings exposed to NO/sub 2/ survived while about 30 percent of the beans exposed to CO survived. The survival of the pea seedlings was not affected. No effect was noted on stem length. Formation of new leaves was decreased and dropping of old leaves was increased in both test species with more drastic effects noted in the beans. (JTE)

  18. Differences in the Responses to Iron Deficiency Stress between Bean and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    米谷, 力; 森次, 益三; 河﨑, 利夫

    1995-01-01

    The responses to iron deficiency stress in bean and maize were compared. The susceptibility to iron deficiency stress was smaller in bean than in maize;i.e., the tolerance to iron deficiency was greater in bean than in maize. The roots of the bean plants exposed to iron deficiency stress, developed iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity,but not the roots of maize. The iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity of the bean roots were inhibited by a shadowing, detopp...

  19. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  20. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.