WorldWideScience

Sample records for fatally injured drivers

  1. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  2. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  3. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  4. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  5. Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Biological samples collected from fatally injured pilots in aviation accidents involving all types of aircraft, including : amateur-built aircraft, are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for accident investigation. : These sam...

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  7. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara‐Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands...

  8. Alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in 6 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in 6 European countries. Methods: Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands, between 2007...

  9. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  10. Perspective of young drivers towards the care of the road traffic injured

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... Key words: Young driver, road traffic injured, pre-hospital care, training. INTRODUCTION .... Response time is considered an important criterion in assessing the ... safety was a priority ever before attempting to rescue the ...

  11. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  12. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphet-amine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgo-nine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore...

  14. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured and killed drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der; Legrand, Sara-Ann

    2011-01-01

    regarding the prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers who have been injured/killed in traffic accidents. Part 1 of this report presents the general results of the hospital & killed driver studies. After a short introduction, the representativeness of the populations in the EU...... countries as well as the representativeness of hospitalised and killed driver samples are addressed. An overview of the non-response issues in the various countries is also included. Based on the toxicological findings, a general summary of the prevalence of drug use is given for the 9 participating...

  15. Fatal versus non-fatal heroin "overdose": blood morphine concentrations with fatal outcome in comparison to those of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Christoph; Recker, Sabine; Reiter, Arthur; Friedrich, Hans Juergen; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2002-11-05

    The study was performed to distinguish fatal from non-fatal blood concentrations of morphine. For this purpose, blood levels of free morphine and total morphine (free morphine plus morphine conjugates) in 207 cases of heroin-related deaths were compared to those in 27 drivers surviving opiate intoxication. The majority of both survivors and non-survivors were found to show a concomitant use of depressants including alcohol or stimulants. Blood morphine levels in both groups varied widely, with a large area of overlap between survivors (free morphine: 0-128 ng/ml, total morphine: 10-2,110 ng/ml) and non-survivors (free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 33-5,000 ng/ml). Five (18.5%) survivors and 87 (42.0%) non-survivors exhibit intoxication only by morphine. In these cases, too, both groups overlapped (survivors-free morphine: 28-93 ng/ml, total morphine: 230-1,451 ng/ml; non-survivors-free morphine: 0-2,800 ng/ml, total morphine: 119-4,660 ng/ml). Although the blood levels of free or total morphine do not allow a reliable prediction of survival versus non-survival, the ratio of free/total morphine may be a criterion to distinguish lethal versus survived intoxication. The mean of the ratio of free to total morphine for all lethal cases (N=207) was 0.293, for those that survived (N=27) 0.135, in cases of intoxication only by morphine 0.250 (N=87) and 0.080 (N=5), respectively. Applying a cut-off of 0.12 for free/total morphine and performing ROC analyses, fatal outcome can be predicted in 80% of the cases correctly, whereas 16% of the survivors were classified as dead. Nevertheless, in this study, all cases with a blood concentration of 200 ng/ml and more of free morphine displayed a fatal outcome.

  16. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  17. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) to predict symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K M; Rao, S; Rittenhouse, K J; Rogers, F B

    2014-11-01

    Fatal pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of death after major trauma. We hypothesised that the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) would have adequate calibration and discrimination in a group of severely injured trauma patients in predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE), and could be used to predict fatal and non-fatal symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Calibration and discrimination of the TESS were assessed by the slope and intercept of the calibration curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. Of the 357 patients included in the study, 74 patients (21%) developed symptomatic VTE after a median period of 14 days following injury. The TESS predicted risks of VTE were higher among patients who developed VTE than those who did not (14 versus 9%, P=0.001) and had a moderate ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.77). The slope and intercept of the calibration curve were 2.76 and 0.34, respectively, suggesting that the predicted risks of VTE were not sufficiently extreme and overall, underestimated the observed risks of VTE. Using 5% predicted risk of VTE as an arbitrary cut-point, TESS had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (both ≥0.97) in excluding fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism. The TESS had a reasonable ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not and may be useful to select different strategies to prevent VTE in severely injured patients.

  19. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol use among fatally injured victims in São Paulo, Brazil: bridging the gap between research and health services in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Leyton, Vilma; Lemos, Nikolas P; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Ye, Yu; Takitane, Juliana; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Reingold, Arthur L; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa

    2017-04-01

    Most studies reporting alcohol use among fatally injured victims are subject to bias, particularly those related to sample selection and to absence of injury context data. We developed a research method to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and test correlates of alcohol use prior to fatal injuries. Cross-sectional study based on a probability sample of fatally injured adult victims (n = 365) autopsied in São Paulo, Brazil. Victims were sampled within systematically selected 8-hour sampling blocks, generating a representative sample of fatal injuries occurring during all hours of the day for each day of the week between June 2014 and December 2015. The presence of alcohol and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were the primary outcomes evaluated according to victims' socio-demographic, injury context data (type, day, time and injury place) and criminal history characteristics. Alcohol was detected in 30.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 25.6-35.1)] of the victims, with a mean blood alcohol level (BAC) level of 0.11% w/v (95% CI = 0.09-0.13) among alcohol-positive cases. Black and mixed race victims presented a higher mean BAC than white victims (P = 0.03). Fewer than one in every six suicides tested positive for alcohol, while almost half of traffic-related casualties were alcohol-positive. Having suffered traffic-related injuries, particularly those involving vehicle crashes, and injuries occurring during weekends and at night were associated significantly with alcohol use before injury (P < 0.05). Nearly one-third of fatal injuries in São Paulo between June 2014 and December 2015 were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries. The sampling methodology tested here, including the possibility of adding injury context data to improve population-based estimates of alcohol use before fatal injury, appears to be a reliable and lower-cost strategy for avoiding biases common in death

  1. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S. [ORNL; Jones, Donald W. [ORNL; Reuscher, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Schmoyer, Richard S. [ORNL; Truett, Lorena F. [ORNL

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  2. Older driver involvements in police reported crashes and fatal crashes: trends and projections

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, S; Ferguson, S; Braver, E; Williams, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Older drivers have become a larger part of the driving population and will continue to do so as the baby boomers reach retirement age. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential effects of this population increase on highway safety.

  3. Drivers of measles mortality: the historic fatality burden of famine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A S; Alam, N; Metcalf, C J E

    2017-12-01

    Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Estimates of the case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles have varied widely from place to place, as well as in the same location over time. Amongst populations that have experienced famine or armed conflict, measles CFR can be especially high, although past work has mostly focused on refugee populations. Here, we estimate measles CFR between 1970 and 1991 in a rural region of Bangladesh, which experienced civil war and famine in the 1970s. We use historical measles mortality data and a mechanistic model of measles transmission to estimate the CFR of measles. We first demonstrate the ability of this model to recover the CFR in the absence of incidence data, using simulated mortality data. Our method produces CFR estimates that correspond closely to independent estimates from surveillance data and we can capture both the magnitude and the change in CFR suggested by these previous estimates. We use this method to quantify the sharp increase in CFR that resulted in a large number of deaths during a measles outbreak in the region in 1976. Most of the children who died during this outbreak were born during a famine in 1974, or in the 2 years preceding the famine. Our results suggest that the period of turmoil during and after the 1971 war and the sustained effects of the famine, is likely to have contributed to the high fatality burden of the 1976 measles outbreak in Matlab.

  4. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The association of graduated driver licensing with miles driven and fatal crash rates per miles driven among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Cummings, Peter; Zhao, Songzhu; Coben, Jeffrey H; Smith, Gordon S

    2015-04-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws are associated with reduced crash rates per person-year among adolescents. It is unknown whether adolescents crash less per miles driven or drive less under GDL policies. We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1995-1996, 2001-2002 and 2008-2009. We compared adolescents subject to GDL laws with those not by estimating adjusted IRRs for being a driver in a crash with a death per person-year (aIRRpy) and per miles driven (aIRRm), and adjusted miles driven ratios (aMR) controlling for changes in rates over time. Comparing persons subject to GDL policies with those not, 16 year olds had fewer fatal crashes per person-year (aIRRpy 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.91), drove fewer miles (aMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98) and had lower crash rates per miles driven (aIRRm 0.83, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.06). For age 17, the aIRRpy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.17), the aMR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.03) and the aIRRm 1.03 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.35). For age 18, the aIRRpy was 0.93 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.19), the aMR 0.92 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.09) and the aIRRm 1.01 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.23). If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced crashes per person-year by about one-third among 16 year olds; half the reduction was due to fewer crashes per miles driven and half to less driving. For ages 17 and 18, there was no evidence of reduced crash rates per miles driven. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  7. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  8. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  9. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  10. Driving difficulties of brain-injured drivers in reaction to high-crash-risk simulated road events: a question of impaired divided attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain; Marshall, Shawn; Hing, Malcolm Man-Son; Finestone, Hillel

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of impaired divided attention and speed of processing in traumatic brain injury (TBI) drivers in high-crash-risk simulated road events. A total of 17 TBI drivers and 16 healthy participants were exposed to four challenging simulated roadway events to which behavioral reactions were recorded. Participants were also asked to perform a dual task during portions of the driving task, and TBI individuals were administered standard measures of divided attention and reaction time. Results indicated that the TBI group crashed significantly more than controls (p < .05) and that dual-task performance correlated significantly with crash rate (r = .58, p = .05).

  11. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  12. Road crash injuries and fatalities in Isfahan, Iran from March 2006 to March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of social economies, road traffic accidents have continued to increase, and have become the primary public hazard to humans. The main goal of the present study was to investigate road traffic crash (RTC) fatalities and injuries in the city of Isfahan, Iran. A sample of 150,940 accident cases was considered from Isfahan Police Safety Driving Department, involving drivers and passengers of all ages, and covering a 3-year period. The record linkage identified 24,608 drivers and passengers injured or died as a result of RTC in the city of Isfahan over the 3-year period. The finding of this study shows that the highest rate of RTC fatality was 40% and 58%, which comprises the male drivers and female passengers within the age classes 25-34 and 35-44, respectively. On average, there were one death every 3 days and every hour, someone was injured and taken to an emergency department for RTCs in the city of Isfahan. The highest men to women death and injured ratios were 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The use of seat belt devices in our population was worrisome. The article ends with a number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety.

  13. Impact direction effect on serious-to-fatal injuries among drivers in near-side collisions according to impact location: focus on thoracic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xinghua; Ma, Chunsheng; Hu, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Occupant injury in real world vehicle accidents can be significantly affected by a set of crash characteristics, of which impact direction and impact location (or damage location) in general scale interval (e.g., frontal impact is frequently defined as general damage to vehicle frontal end with impact angle range of 11-1 o'clock) have been identified to associate with injury outcome. The effects of crash configuration in more specific scale of interval on the injury characteristics have not been adequately investigated. This paper presents a statistical analysis to investigate the combined effects of specific impact directions and impact locations on the serious-to-fatal injuries of driver occupants involved in near-side collisions using crash data from National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the calendar years of 1995-2005. The screened injury dataset is categorized by three impact locations (side front, side center and side distributed) and two impact directions (oblique impact at 10 o'clock and pure lateral impact at 9 o'clock), resulting in six crash configurations in total. The weighted counts and the risks of different types of injuries in each subgroup are calculated, with which the relative risks along with 95% confidence intervals under oblique impacts versus lateral impacts in each impact location category are computed. Accordingly, the most frequent injury patterns, the risks and the coded-sources of serious thoracic injuries in different crash configurations are identified. The approach adopted in the present study provides new perspectives into occupant injury outcomes and associated mechanism. Results of the analyses reveal the importance of consideration of the crash configurations beyond the scope of existing side-impact regulatory tests and stress the necessity of vehicle crashworthiness and restraint system design in omni-direction to better protect occupants in real-world crash scenarios. Copyright © 2012

  14. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  15. Extended investigation on road fatality in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N B; Hoque, M A; Steele, M C; Yong, S Y

    2018-06-08

    Road fatality is one of the leading causes of death in Brunei with 79 deaths in 1993, the highest ever recorded. The Brunei government has been trying to reduce this by implementing new traffic measures and successfully reduced fatalities to 24 fatalities in 2014. Yearly road fatality has been fluctuating, but there has been a declining tendency overall. The aim of this study is to investigate road fatality in Brunei by extending the research. We developed a multiple regression model and carried out an analysis on road fatality in Brunei. Our analysis indicates that the road fatality appears to rise depending on the increase in the number of young drivers between 15 to 24 years and the number of unemployed people. Comparisons of Brunei road fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles are made with some other countries and we conclude that Brunei has approximately the same rate as Australia in 2014.

  16. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  17. Femme fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tardío Gastón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our history is full of myths and topics. Therefore the image of femme fatale is frequent in the works of all periods and places. The author of this article first analyzes how the history and literature consistently showed and defined these women, and then presents examples that come from ancient Greece. The art is powered by their power of seduction and the article explains how this femme fatale appeared in literature and film. The article concludes with a brief overview of various arguments concerning women and feminism, present in the literary criticism.

  18. Accident reconstruction to analyze impact of injured drivers during the collision. Ankle fracture in the car-to-car offset frontal collision; Join no jusho jokyo ni kansuru jiko saigen. Joyosha doshi no offset zenmen shototsuji no ashi kansetsu kossetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An accident reconstruction test of car-to-car crash was conducted in order to analyze the impact on the driver in the offset head-on collision. The ankle fracture of the driver resulting from the accident was examined with the test results and the accident data. The test results of the car-to-car crashes indicated that the belted driver`s ankle would have fractured in the early stage of the crash. The detailed information from the accident data, especially the cars` interior deformation and the driver`s X-ray photographs, was also very important in analyzing injury mechanisms of the ankle/foot region. The above results suggested an injury mechanism that the ankle joint fracture was due to dorsiflexion and valgus resulting from the impact and intrusion of the toeboard in the early stage of the crash. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Islamic fatalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Ringgren

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The author sketches the historical background, then the teaching of the Koran, and finally, the development of the typical Islamic fatalism. The fatalism of Islam has to be viewed against the background of the ideas of pre-Islamic Arabia. Unfortunately, there is no other evidence from this epoch that a few poems on a very restricted range of topics which have been able to survive Islamic censure. The conventional and stereotyped character of these poems makes it difficult to decide to what extent they reflect commonly accepted views or the ideas of a certain group. In any case, they present a picture of the pagan Arab which is extremely idealized and formed after a rigid pattern. Historically speaking, Islamic 'fatalism' is the result of a combination of pre-Islamic fatalism and Muhammad's belief in God's omnipotence. From another point of view it is an interpretation of destiny that expresses man's feeling of total dependence, not on an impersonal power or universal order, but on an omnipotent God.

  20. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years many European countries have experienced an increase in the number of fatal traffic accidents with motorcycles. Bos et al. (2008) reports an increase from 17.4% to 21.1% of the total number of fatalities on powered two-wheelers in the European traffic. Several reasons...... for this have been suggested, among the most common is the hypothesis that during the last decade or so, the typical motorcyclist has become older, and as a result of the increase in age, the loss of physical ability in driving and orientation has resulted in the increase in the number of accidents (Værø 2008....... In this analysis we establish relationships between social and demographic characteristics and the probability of being in an accident and being injured in an accident. Logistic regression was applied to both motorcyclists and car drivers with the purpose of calculating the odds ratio with the car drivers...

  1. Beginning teenage drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  2. Fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Liming; Evans, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    Adverse weather has been recognized as a significant threat to traffic safety. However, relationships between fatal crashes involving large numbers of vehicles and weather are rarely studied according to the low occurrence of crashes involving large numbers of vehicles. By using all 1,513,792 fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data, 1975-2014, we successfully described these relationships. We found: (a) fatal crashes involving more than 35 vehicles are most likely to occur in snow or fog; (b) fatal crashes in rain are three times as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather; (c) fatal crashes in snow [or fog] are 24 times [35 times] as likely to involve 10 or more vehicles as fatal crashes in good weather. If the example had used 20 vehicles, the risk ratios would be 6 for rain, 158 for snow, and 171 for fog. To reduce the risk of involvement in fatal crashes with large numbers of vehicles, drivers should slow down more than they currently do under adverse weather conditions. Driver deaths per fatal crash increase slowly with increasing numbers of involved vehicles when it is snowing or raining, but more steeply when clear or foggy. We conclude that in order to reduce risk of involvement in crashes involving large numbers of vehicles, drivers must reduce speed in fog, and in snow or rain, reduce speed by even more than they already do. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  4. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  5. Link for Injured Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Methods Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Results Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Conclusions Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population. PMID:26428077

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs and the concentrations in blood of drivers killed in road traffic crashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlner, Johan; Holmgren, Anita; Jones, Alan Wayne

    2014-03-01

    Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to evaluate the concentrations of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes. The mean age of all victims (N = 895) was 48 ± 20 years, and the majority were male (86%). In 504 drivers (56%), the results of toxicological analysis were negative and these victims were older; mean age (± SD) 47 ± 20 years, than alcohol positive cases (35 ± 14 years) and illicit drug users (34 ± 15 years). In 21% of fatalities, blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was above the statutory limit for driving (0.2 g/L), although the median BAC was appreciably higher (1.72 g/L). Illicit drugs (mainly amphetamine and cannabis) were identified in ~7% of victims, either alone (2.5%), together with alcohol (1.8%) or a prescription drug (2%). The psychoactive prescription drugs identified were mainly benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and tramadol, which were found in the blood of 7.6% of crash victims. The high median BAC in fatally-injured drivers speaks strongly towards alcohol-induced impairment as being responsible for the crash. Compared with alcohol, the prevalence of illicit and psychoactive prescription drugs was fairly low despite a dramatic increase in the number of drug-impaired drivers arrested by the police after a zero-tolerance law was introduced in 1999.

  7. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  8. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  9. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  10. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  11. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  12. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  13. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    by means of roadside surveys and the prevalence of drugs in injury accidents was estimated by means of hospital surveys of seriously injured and/or killed drivers. Accident risk estimates for drug driving were assessed by relating the prevalence of drugs among the general driving population...... to the prevalence among seriously injured and/or killed drivers, by relating medication records to accident data and by relating substance use among accidentinvolved drivers to accident culpability....

  14. Obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries: sex difference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Laud, P W; Pintar, F; Kim, J-E; Shih, A; Shen, W; Heymsfield, S B; Allison, D B; Zhu, S

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is whether there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10,962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1 versus 52.2%), but experienced a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7 versus 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk (logistic coefficients of body mass index (BMI) for moderate, serious and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470 and 0.1792, respectively; all Pobese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies.

  15. HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC CHANGES IN INJURED MENISCI IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Bogatov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was studying histological changes in the injured menisci in children. The histological evaluation of injured menisci received during arthroscopy was performed. The prescription of injury varied from several days till 3 years. It was shown that injured fragment of the meniscus is viable up to 3 months since trauma. It was also obvious that active migration of the meniscus cells occur in the injured fragment and microvessels are seen in 50% of the meniscus tissues.

  16. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The New Zealand child work-related fatal injury study: 1985-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Langley, John; Wren, John

    2004-05-21

    To estimate the numbers and rates of work-related fatal injury for children under the age of 15 years. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged workplace work-related fatalities were identified. The vast majority of children identified were fatally injured while a bystander to another person's work. Workplace bystander involvement was found to vary by age, with the majority of workers identified aged 10-14 years old. With a third of all fatalities, the agricultural industry was the most common industry for workplace work-related fatalities in children. In the period 1985-94, children New Zealand's total workplace bystander deaths. Children contribute significantly to the overall burden of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand, especially as bystanders to other people's work. The high contribution to bystander deaths by children aged <15 years suggests that hazard control in certain work settings is lacking.

  18. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents in Norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples collected from car and van drivers killed in traffic accidents in Norway during the time period from 2001 to 2010. Blood samples (n = 676, 63% of all killed drivers) were analyzed for alcohol, psychoactive medications, and illicit drugs. The cutoff limits for positive results were set according to the new legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. The results were assessed in relation to sex and age, time of day and day of week, and single- versus multiple-vehicle and all investigated vehicle accidents. Alcohol or one or more drugs was detected in samples from 40.2 percent of all investigated drivers, with 28.7 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. For the investigated female drivers, the total prevalence was 24.0 percent. Among the single-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs was found in 63.8 percent of the cases, with 49.1 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. Alcohol was detected in 25.3 and 49.1 percent of samples from all investigated drivers and among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents, respectively. Psychoactive medications were found in 14.4 and 17.7 percent and illicit drugs in 14.1 and 19.2 percent, respectively. The most commonly detected group of medications was benzodiazepines, and amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinol were the most commonly detected illicit drugs. The prevalence of alcohol alone was highest among drivers under the age of 25, and the combination of alcohol with other drugs was highest among drivers under the age of 35. Drivers between the ages of 25 and 54 showed the highest prevalence of medications and/or illicit drugs without the presence of alcohol. The highest prevalence of alcohol or drugs was found among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents on weeknights (83.8%) and on weekend nights (89.3%). The findings confirm that a large number of fatally injured

  19. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. No to fatalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1980-01-01

    By saying 'No to fatalism', M. Pecqueur is forming the wish that the recent awarness of the energy situation, far from bringing about resignation, speeds up the implementation of the indispensable measures on which the economic and political stability of the world depends in the decade ahead [fr

  1. Expert medical testimony for your injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gerald J

    2013-10-01

    Many injured patients sustain some type of loss. If someone else is responsible for the injury, the injured patient can pursue compensation for this loss. In the course of treating an injured patient, you may be asked to participate in the legal process to resolve such claims. The basic components of a personal injury claim are reviewed. An overview of the legal process will help clarify your role in the legal process. Enhanced understanding will allow you to provide important medical testimony for your injured patient.

  2. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  3. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking violation) arising in connection with a fatal accident 60 days 60 days 120 days 120 days. (6... less than 120 days No less than 1 year. (4) The driver fails to have sufficient space to drive... driver fails to negotiate a crossing because of insufficient undercarriage clearance * * * No less than...

  4. Improvements in Symbol Sign Design To Aid Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Studies have shown that older drivers have higher rates of accidents, injuries, and fatalities on a per-mile-driven basis. A major cause of roadway accidents for older drivers is failure to heed traffic signs. Previous research found that older drive...

  5. Intersection assistance : A safe solution for older drivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations

  6. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  7. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakler Johannes K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008 from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%, the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16% patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16% cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma. Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool.

  8. Injury mitigation estimates for an intersection driver assistance system in straight crossing path crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2017-05-29

    Accounting for one fifth of all crashes and one sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States, intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection advanced driver assistance systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS. This study retrospectively simulated 448 U.S. SCP crashes as if one of the vehicles had been equipped with I-ADAS. Crashes were reconstructed to determine the path and speeds traveled by the vehicles. Cases were then simulated with I-ADAS. A total of 30 variations of I-ADAS were considered in this study. These variations consisted of 5 separate activation timing thresholds, 3 separate computational latency times, and 2 different I-ADAS response modalities (i.e., a warning or autonomous braking). The likelihood of a serious driver injury was computed for every vehicle in every crash using impact delta-V. The results were then compiled across all crashes in order to estimate system effectiveness. The model predicted that an I-ADAS that delivers an alert to the driver has the potential to prevent 0-23% of SCP crashes and 0-25% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. Conversely, an I-ADAS that autonomously brakes was found to have the potential to prevent 25-59% of crashes and 38-79% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. I-ADAS effectiveness is a strong function of design. Increasing computational latency time from 0 to 0.5 s was found to reduce crash and injury prevention estimates by approximately one third. For an I-ADAS that delivers an alert, crash/injury prevention effectiveness was found to be very sensitive to

  9. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  10. Fatal injuries to teenage construction workers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruda, Anthony; Philips, Peter; Lillquist, Dean; Sesek, Richard

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is second only to agriculture in the annual number of fatal injuries in workers less than 18 years of age. We examined fatal injury reports for youth and adult workers to determine risk factors for injury and applicability of existing child labor regulations. The US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) investigation data for fatal work injuries from 1984 through 1998 were reviewed with respect to type of event, employer characteristics, and apparent violations of existing child labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). We also examined whether the employer met exemption criteria for federal enforcement of child labor or OSHA regulations. The fatality rate for teenage construction workers age 19 and younger was 12.1 per 100,000 per year, slightly less than for adult workers. Teenage workers who were fatally injured were more likely than adults to have been employed at non-union construction firms (odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, P worker. Fatalities in teenagers were more likely to occur in special construction trades such as roofing. Among fatalities in workers less than 18 years of age, approximately one-half (49%) of the 76 fatal injuries were in apparent violation of existing child labor regulations. We estimated that in 41 of the 76 cases (54%) the employer's gross annual income exceeded the $500,000 threshold for federal enforcement of child labor laws. Only 28 of 76 cases (37%) were at construction firms with 11 or more employees, which are subject to routine OSHA inspections. Fatal injuries in teenage construction workers differed from those in adults in that they were more likely to be at small, non-union firms of which a substantial proportion were exempt from federal enforcement of child labor laws and from routine OSHA inspections. Safety programs for young construction workers should include small, non-union construction firms and those in special construction trades such as roofing. We did not identify

  11. Saving the injured: Rescue behavior in the termite-hunting ant Megaponera analis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik Thomas; Schmitt, Thomas; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Stiegler, Jonas; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved. We show that a unique rescue behavior in M. analis , consisting of injured nestmates being carried back to the nest, reduces combat mortality. After a fight, injured ants are carried back by their nestmates; these ants have usually lost an extremity or have termites clinging to them and are able to recover within the nest. Injured ants that are forced experimentally to return without help, die in 32% of the cases. Behavioral experiments show that two compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, present in the mandibular gland reservoirs, trigger the rescue behavior. A model accounting for this rescue behavior identifies the drivers favoring its evolution and estimates that rescuing enables maintenance of a 28.7% larger colony size. Our results are the first to explore experimentally the adaptive value of this form of rescue behavior focused on injured nestmates in social insects and help us to identify evolutionary drivers responsible for this type of behavior to evolve in animals.

  12. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  13. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  14. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  15. Tricyclic Antidepressants Found in Pilots Fatally Injured in Civil Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    chlordiazepoxide, diazepam/nordiazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam), beta - blockers (atenolol and propranolol), calcium-channel blockers (verapamil/norverapamil...Drug therapy of depression and anxiety disorders. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, eds. Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of

  16. Clinical Features of Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Zuei Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the clinical features of fatal asthma, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who died of an acute asthma attack in our hospital during a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003. Twelve patients had fatal asthma during this period, including eight who were dead on arrival in the emergency room (ER and three who died within 1 hour of admission to the ER. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the clinical presentations during the fatal attack: (1 rapid (< 3 hours decompensation in four patients; (2 gradual development of respiratory failure over several days in two patients; and (3 acute deterioration after unstable asthma lasting several days in six patients. All patients in groups 1 and 2 had reported previous near-fatal attacks. The proportion of young patients was highest in group 3, with half of them (3/6 younger than 35 years of age. Only one patient in group 3 had had a previous near-fatal attack. Five of the seven patients, with previous near-fatal attacks, had a pattern of decompensation during their fatal attack that was similar to their previous attacks. In conclusion, nearly all patients with fatal asthma in this study died outside of the hospital or within 1 hour after admission to the ER. Patients had patterns of decompensation during the fatal attack that were similar to those of their previous attacks. Early detection of warning signs, early admission to the ER, adequate treatment, and extremely close observation of patients, especially within 1 hour after ER arrival, may prevent or decrease the incidence of fatal asthmatic attack.

  17. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  18. Pilot Certification, Age of Pilot, and Drug Use in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akparibo, Issaka Y; Stolfi, Adrienne

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the association between mean age of pilot, pilot license, pilot medical certificate and drug use trends in pilots fatally injured in aircraft accidents. The prevalence of prescription drugs, OTC drugs, controlled drugs and drugs that may be potentially impairing was also examined. This study was a descriptive observational study in which the NTSB Aviation Accident Database was searched from the period beginning January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. During the study period a total of 706 accidents involving 711 fatalities were investigated by the NTSB. This study included 633 of these accidents, involving 646 fatalities. Of these pilots, 42.1% had drugs in their biological samples. The prevalence of prescription drugs, controlled drugs, OTC drugs, opioids, and potentially impairing drugs in the fatally injured pilot population over the study period was 28.9%, 15.0%, 20.1%, 5.1%, and 25.5%, respectively. Pilots with any drugs in their samples were significantly older than those without drugs. Medical certificate held was associated with drug use; pilots who held third class certificates had the highest prevalence at 54.1%. Pilot license was not associated with drug use. In 3.8% of the accidents, drugs were a contributing factor in the cause. Despite current FAA medical regulations, potentially impairing drugs are frequently found in biological samples of fatally injured pilots in the U.S. More education of airmen by aviation medical examiners is needed on the safety of drug use.Akparibo IY, Stolfi A. Pilot certification, age of pilot, and drug use in fatal civil aviation accidents. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):931-936.

  19. Fatal Drownings in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Carter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = .008, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.62) and the number of days comprising public holidays/weekends ( P = .018, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.60). Furthermore, the multiple coefficient of determination ( r 2 = .4976) indicated that almost half the variation in drownings was explained by rainfall and public holidays/weekend periods. Inadequate supervision, an inability to identify or carry out safe rescue techniques, and limited water-safety knowledge were identified as common risk factors. To overcome this preventable cause of death, technically guided interventions need to be actively embedded into a range of government policies and community health promotions, disaster management, and education programs.

  20. Work-related fatalities associated with tree care operations--United States, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    Workers in various industries and occupations are involved in the care and maintenance of trees, such as tree trimming, pruning, and removal. This work is recognized as having many safety hazards. Although previous analyses have involved subgroups of workers who perform this type of work, no analysis has focused on identifying injured workers from all industries and occupations that perform tree care operations. This report summarizes the characteristics of fatal occupational injuries, using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and a case series of fatality investigations conducted by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program. During 1992--2007, a total of 1,285 workers died while performing tree care and maintenance; 44% were trimming or pruning a tree when fatally injured. The most common causes of death were being struck by or against an object (42% of deaths), most commonly a tree or branch; falls to a lower level (34%); and electrocutions (14%). Most of the decedents (57%) worked for small establishments with 10 or fewer employees. Employers, trade and worker associations, and policymakers should take additional steps to improve the safety of workers involved in tree care, such as providing formal training to workers and ensuring that personal protective equipment (e.g., fall protection equipment) is used properly.

  1. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  2. Crash data and rates for age-sex groups of drivers, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The results of this research note are based on 1996data for fatal crashes, driver licenses, and estimates of total crashes based upon data obtained from the nationally representative sample of crashes gathered in the General Estimates System (GES). T...

  3. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  4. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  5. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs.

  6. Understanding Subgroups of Novice Drivers : A Basis for Increased Safety and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Hans-Yngve

    2001-01-01

    Every year, drivers throughout the world are killed or injured in road traffic, particularly in developing countries. Young drivers run a greater risk everywhere, and this problem is still largely unsolved. Better understanding of the underlying processes could, however, be a useful tool in preventive endeavours. The aim of this thesis is to elucidate some of the accident problem among young car drivers. The focus is on understanding how lifestyle and other social and demographical factors in...

  7. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Čičević

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.

  8. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, U

    1980-01-01

    Team work is required in the treatment of the thermally injured patient--nursing staff being part of the team. The nurses are with the patient for 24 hours a day and they have to understand the objectives of all other members of the team involved in the treatment as well as thoroughly mastering their own work. For the nursing staff the care of the thermally injured patient is a challenge. The work demands strong motivation and interest--it includes at times painful treatment, isolation and also constant alertness. It is important that the nursing staff is given continuous training so that they are able to give the required care efficiently and to keep up active interest. Practical work is the best way of getting aquainted with the complex forms of treatment of the thermally injured patient. It also lessens the fear of a badly burned patient. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient consists of good basic care, local attention and active observation. The basic care consists of basic hygiene, diet, observation of the patient's psychological condition, giving emotional support, encouraging initiative physiotherapy and postural treatment.

  9. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  11. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  12. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  13. Describing and comparing the characteristics of injured bicyclists and other injured road users: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish the frequency and characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic, pre-injury, and crash-related parameters of injured bicyclists and other injured road users. Methods 748 participants aged ≥17 years who had sustained a minor or non-catastrophic injury in a land-transport crash, were interviewed after presenting to a metro hospital emergency department in New South Wales, Australia. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre-injury health, and crash-related characteristics. These factors were then compared between injured bicyclists and other road users (car driver/passengers, motorcyclists/pillion and pedestrians/skateboarders. Cycling injury severity was characterized by three metrics (sustaining multiple injuries; hospital admission for ≥12 h; and sustaining a head/neck and/or facial injury. Results In this cohort of people with injuries, 238 (32 % were bicyclists. Frequency of cycling injuries were significantly different between age-groups among men (p = 0.0002, and were more common in men aged 45–59. Bicyclists were more likely to be aged 45–59, married, have university/tertiary qualifications and have a professional occupation compared to other road users (all p <0.0001. Bicyclists compared to participants involved in other types of land transport crashes were more likely to self-report excellent general health (p = 0.01, and were less likely to report a great/overwhelming perceived danger of death or 15.0 % versus 23–41 %; p <0.0001. Frequency of upper extremity and lower extremity injuries in bicyclists were 81.9 % and 60.5 %, respectively. Explanatory variables significantly associated with injury severity metrics were age, education level, paid work status and perceived danger of death/disability in the crash. Conclusions Minor cycling injuries were a relatively common cause of mild-moderate injury presentations to metro emergency

  14. Driver behavior at highway-railroad grade crossings : a literature review from 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Accidents at grade crossings continue to be the leading cause of fatalities in the railroad industry. A large proportion of these accidents are the result of driver error. The purpose of this report is to review research that addresses driver behavio...

  15. Use of a special airbed for transporting injured persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R

    1981-04-01

    A description is given of a special airbed for the purpose of transporting injured persons, especially those with injuries to the spinal column. This special airbed moulds itself to the shape of the injured party. (In German)

  16. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  17. Fatal Eurasian Brown Bear Attacks-Two Swedish Fatalities in Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Torfinn; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J

    1992-05-01

    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  19. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2011-04-01

    Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology.

  20. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  2. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  3. Disentangling age-gender interactions associated with risks of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, Amira K; Padmadas, Sabu S; Zhang, Li-Chun; Al-Maniri, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in Oman, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Injury prevention strategies often overlook the interaction of individual and behavioural risk factors in assessing the severity of RTI outcomes. We conducted a systematic investigation of the underlying interactive effects of age and gender on the severity of fatal and non-fatal RTI outcomes in the Sultanate of Oman. We used the Royal Oman Police national database of road traffic crashes for the period 2010-2014. Our study was based on 35 785 registered incidents: of these, 10.2% fatal injuries, 6.2% serious, 27.3% moderate, 37.3% mild injuries and 19% only vehicle damage but no human injuries. We applied a generalised ordered logit regression to estimate the effect of age and gender on RTI severity, controlling for risk behaviours, personal characteristics, vehicle, road, traffic, environment conditions and geographical location. The most dominant group at risk of all types of RTIs was young male drivers. The probability of severe incapacitating injuries was the highest for drivers aged 25-29 (26.6%) years, whereas the probability of fatal injuries was the highest for those aged 20-24 (26.9%) years. Analysis of three-way interactions of age, gender and causes of crash show that overspeeding was the primary cause of different types of RTIs. In particular, the probability of fatal injuries among male drivers attributed to overspeeding ranged from 3%-6% for those aged 35 years and above to 13.4% and 17.7% for those aged 25-29 years and 20-24 years, respectively. The high burden of severe and fatal RTIs in Oman was primarily attributed to overspeed driving behaviour of young male drivers in the 20-29 years age range. Our findings highlight the critical need for designing early gender-sensitive road safety interventions targeting young male and female drivers.

  4. How did the economic recession (2008-2010) influence traffic fatalities in OECD-countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The distribution of fatal risk in Ontario industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate non-radiological risks of occupational fatalities in Ontario industries. The distribution of high-risk occupations was found to vary widely between the different industries for a number of reasons including the fact that insufficient data in some instances resulted in less than desirable reliability. However, in spite of various data limitations, a number of occupations had above average fatal risk rates in several industries, including Material Handlers and Related, N.E.C. (SOC-9319), Welders and Flame Cutters (SOC-8335), Truck Drivers (SOC-9175) and Mechanics and Repairmen, except Electrical (SOC-8589). The majority of occupations had rates below or close to the industry average; however, between 15% and 30% of the occupations in any given industry had fatal risk rates above the industry average. When the number of workers involved in different occupations was considered, between 18% and 40% of workers were in occupations with above average risk. Recommendations for future work are also provided

  6. Fatal consequences of synergistic anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly being preferred by clinicians (and patients because they have a wide therapeutic window and therefore do not require monitoring of anticoagulant effect. Herein, we describe the unfortunate case of a patient who had fatal consequences as a result of switching from warfarin to rivaroxaban. Case Summary: A 90-year-old Caucasian woman, with atrial fibrillation on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. She was treated with levofloxacin. In the same admission, her warfarin was switched to rivaroxaban. On Day 3 after the switch, her INR was found to be 6, and she developed a cervical epidural hematoma from C2 to C7. She ultimately developed respiratory arrest, was put on comfort care and died. Discussion: Rivaroxaban and warfarin are known to have a synergistic anticoagulant effect, usually seen shortly after switching. Antibiotics also increase the effects of warfarin by the inhibition of metabolizing isoenzymes. It is hypothesized that these two effects led to the fatal cervical spinal hematoma. Conclusion: The convenience of a wide therapeutic window and no requirement of laboratory monitoring makes the NOACs a desirable option for anticoagulation. However, there is lack of data and recommendations on how to transition patients from Warfarin to NOACs or even how to transition from one NOAC to another. Care should be taken to ensure continuous monitoring of anticoagulation when stopping, interrupting or switching between NOACS to avoid the possibility of fatal bleeding and strokes.

  7. Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal motorcycle crashes and the interrelationships of endorsement status and motorcycle type with operator characteristics like riding impaired. Cases were drawn from a database tracking fatal crashes occurring within Cuyahoga County, Ohio, from 2005 to 2011. Analysis focused on 75 fatal motorcycle crashes in which the deceased motorcycle operators were male and coroner's reports, police crash reports, and license endorsement status were available. Analysis included comparison of means, chi square testing, and binary logistic regression. More than half of motorcyclists (53%) did not have motorcycle endorsements. Mean age of unendorsed riders was 36.8 years, compared to 44.2 years for endorsed riders. Motorcyclists were considered at fault in 69 percent of cases, most often due to reckless operation, failure to control, or speeding. Mean blood alcohol concentration for fatally injured motorcyclists was 0.06 percent. Marijuana was the most common drug identified in blood tests. Nonendorsement was associated with younger age, single-vehicle crash, and having a prior license suspension. Neither endorsement status nor bike type was associated with likelihood of testing positive for alcohol or drugs of abuse. Riders of sport motorcycles were more likely than cruiser/touring bike operators to be wearing helmets and less likely to be endorsed. The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals.

  8. DO GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS EXAMINE INJURED RUNNERS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study...

  9. Is a driver's license age waiver worth a teen's life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dawn M; Miller, Beverly K; Mullins, Samantha H; Porter, Mary E; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers. This is a brief report on an informative query exploring risk factors related to age waivers. Publicly available databases were utilized for across state comparisons. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems (WISQARS) was utilized to calculate motor vehicle crash crude death rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data were utilized to identify seat belt use rates. The Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was utilized to identify crash fatality risks for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas (N = 24). Age waiver data were obtained from the Arkansas Driver Control Administration. De-identified data on fatal crashes and rates of age waiver issuance in Arkansas for 14 and 15 year olds from 2004 through 2016 were calculated. We reviewed crash data for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas between 2004 and 2014 to determine fatality risks. Thirty-one out of seventy-five counties in Arkansas were above the state age waiver issuance rate of 30.4 per 1000 14 to 15 year old teens. Among the four states that had similar age waivers for 14 to 15 year olds, Arkansas had the highest motor vehicle death rate of 10.2 per 100,000 young teens and the lowest seat belt use rate at 73%. Arkansas had the highest reported teen crash fatality rates among 4 states with age waivers. The volume of age waivers issued in Arkansas is concerning. Further research is needed

  10. Development of Regulatory Requirements for Qualification Management of Railway Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Seong Nam; Kim, Sa Kil; Kyung, Tae Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Heo, Eun Mee; Park, Hong Jun [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    It has been estimated that up to 90% of all workplace accidents have human error as a cause. Human error has been widely recognized as a key factor in almost all the highly publicized accidents, including Daegu subway fire of February 18, 2003 killed 198 people and injured 147. Because most human behavior is {sup u}nintentional{sup ,} carried out automatically, uncontrolled qualifications of rail drivers as root causes of human error should be carefully investigated and regulated by a legal authority.

  11. Development of Regulatory Requirements for Qualification Management of Railway Drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Seong Nam; Kim, Sa Kil; Kyung, Tae Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Heo, Eun Mee; Park, Hong Jun

    2008-03-01

    It has been estimated that up to 90% of all workplace accidents have human error as a cause. Human error has been widely recognized as a key factor in almost all the highly publicized accidents, including Daegu subway fire of February 18, 2003 killed 198 people and injured 147. Because most human behavior is u nintentional , carried out automatically, uncontrolled qualifications of rail drivers as root causes of human error should be carefully investigated and regulated by a legal authority

  12. Nine-point plan to improve care of the injured patient: A case study from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Botchey, Isaac; Paruk, Fatima; Wako, Daniel; Saidi, Hassan; Aliwa, Bethuel; Kibias, Simon; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are among the greatest in the world, with >90% of unintentional injury occurring in low- or middle-income countries. The risk of death from injuries is 6 times more in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. This increased rate of injury is partly due to the lack of availability and access to timely and appropriate medical care for injured individuals. Kenya, like most low- and middle-income countries, has seen a 5-fold increase in injury fatalities throughout the past 4 decades, in large part related to the absence of a coordinated, integrated system of trauma care. We aimed to assess the trauma-care system in Kenya and to develop and implement a plan to improve it. A trauma system profile was performed to understand the landscape for the care of the injured patient in Kenya. This process helped identify key gaps in care ranging from prehospital to hospital-based care. In response to this observation, a 9-point plan to improve trauma care in Kenya was developed and implemented in close collaboration with local stakeholders. The 9-point plan was centered on engagement of the stakeholders, generation of key data to guide and improve services, capacity development for prehospital and hospital care, and strengthening policy and legislation. There is an urgent need for coordinated strategies to provide appropriate and timely medical care to injured individuals in low- or middle-income countries to decrease the burden of injuries and related fatalities. Our work in Kenya shows that such an integrated system of trauma care could be achieved through a step-by-step integrated and multifaceted approach that emphasizes engagement of local stakeholders and evidence-based approaches to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of system-wide improvements. This plan and lessons learned in its development and implementation could be adaptable to other similar settings to improve the care of the

  13. Prevalence of alcohol among nonfatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centers in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2018-02-17

    Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the road in Ghana; however, we do not know the extent to which this behavior is implicated in road accidents in this country. The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of nonfatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in northern Ghana. Participants were injured road traffic crash victims, namely, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers seeking treatment at an ED. The study sites were 2 level III trauma centers located in Wa and Bolgatanga. Participants were screened for alcohol followed by breath tests for positive participants using breathalyzers. Two hundred and sixty-two accident victims visited EDs, 58% of whom were in Wa. Among the victims, 41% were hospitalized and 57% experienced slight injuries. The vast majority (76%) of the casualties were motorcyclists, 13% were pedestrians, 8% were cyclists, and 2% were drivers. Casualties who had detectable alcohol in their blood were predominantly vulnerable road users. In all, 34% of participants had detectable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and the mean BAC for all casualties who tested positive and could give definitive BACs was 0.2265 (226 mg/dl). The prevalence of alcohol use was 53% among cyclists, 34% among motorcyclists, 21% among pedestrians, and 17% among drivers. Male casualties were more likely to test positive for alcohol than females. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher among injured casualties in Bolgatanga compared to Wa. There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among nonfatally injured casualties in northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended.

  14. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  15. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2008-01-01

    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  16. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  17. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  18. The problem of collecting different body fluids from drivers in the surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraete, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: It is not easy to obtain a blood sample from drivers at the roadside for use in epidemiological studies. Therefore, use of saliva samples has become popular. On the other hand, in studies in injured drivers, obtaining a saliva sample can be problematic, e.g. because of injuries. When drug concentrations in blood and saliva need to be compared e.g. in risk calculations, results from different matrices need to be comparable. Because of the different recoveries with saliva collection...

  19. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  20. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between US Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel and Mass, for Individual Vehicle Models over Time (Model Year)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-07-27

    This report presents a new approach to analyze the relationship between vehicle mass and risk: tracking fatality risk by vehicle model year and mass, for individual vehicle models. This approach is appealing as it greatly minimizes the influence of driver characteristics and behavior, and crash circumstances, on fatality risk. However, only the most popular vehicle models, with the largest number of fatalities, can be analyzed in this manner. While the analysis of all vehicle models of a given type suggests that there is a relationship between increased mass and fatality risk, analysis of the ten most popular four-door car models separately suggests that this relationship is weak: in many cases when the mass of a specific vehicle model is increased societal fatality risk is unchanged or even increases. These results suggest that increasing the mass of an individual vehicle model does not necessarily lead to decreased societal fatality risk.

  2. Truck drivers' opinion on road safety in Tanzania--a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Katja; Andersson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10,000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore, it is important to implement measures to increase traffic safety as soon as possible, and in order to be able to do this in an efficient way, it is important to investigate where the main problems lie. Within the European Union (EU) project ASSET-Road a questionnaire study on road safety was conducted with 250 truck drivers in Tanzania. The study was done to increase the knowledge about the situation of the Tanzanian truckers, who are the most frequent road users in the country. The drivers were interviewed in 3 different towns in southern Tanzania, and participation was voluntary. The questionnaire treated demographics, the state of the drivers' vehicles, the frequency of breakdowns, and the maintenance of the vehicles. Further questions concerned driver behavior, crash involvement, crash risk, and crash mitigation. The drivers who participated in the study were predominantly male and their average age was 36 years. Truck drivers reported driving 10.6 h without a break on average, with several drivers reporting that they had to drive 24 h without rest. Around 40 percent of the trucks did not have any seat belts installed, with a larger share of older trucks lacking belts. Most of the drivers who had seat belts reported using them, however. Almost 40 percent of the drivers reported being involved in at least one crash, and 45 percent of those drivers had experienced fatal crashes. This underlines that the crash frequency per vehicle is very high, and the results are often severe, especially when heavy vehicles are involved. When asked what the 3 most common crash causations were, driver-related causes were named frequently. Drivers were

  3. Do general medical practitioners examine injured runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Solvej Videbæk; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study....... METHODS: An online survey was distributed in October and November 2015 to more than 370 GMPs in Denmark and completed by 27. RESULTS: The median prevalence proportion of consultations caused by running-related injuries in the prior two weeks was 0.80% [25th percentile = 0.00%; 75th percentile = 1...

  4. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  5. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  6. Onset of a declining trend in fatal motor vehicle crashes involving drunk-driving in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or drunk-driving behavior.

  7. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of somatic mitochondrial dynamics in fission-deficient injured motor neurons using FIB/SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Hosokawa, Hiroki; Ohta, Keisuke; Ishihara, Naotada; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously. Crossing of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) gene-floxed mice with neuronal injury-specific Cre driver mice, Atf3:BAC Tg mice, allowed for Drp1 ablation specifically in injured neurons. FIB/SEM analysis demonstrated that somatic mitochondrial morphologies in motor neurons were not altered before or after nerve injury. However, the fission impairment resulted in prominent somatic mitochondrial enlargement, which initially induced complex morphologies with round regions and long tubular processes, subsequently causing a decrease in the number of processes and further enlargement of the round regions, which eventually resulted in big spheroidal mitochondria without processes. The abnormal mitochondria exhibited several degradative morphologies: local or total cristae collapse, vacuolization, and mitophagy. These suggest that mitochondrial fission is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial integrity in injured motor neurons, and multiple forms of mitochondria degradation may accelerate neuronal degradation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  10. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  11. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  12. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  13. Driver's views and behaviors about safety in China--what do they NOT know about driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Roetting, Matthias; Wang, Ying; Wei, Hua

    2006-01-01

    Driving safety has become an extremely severe problem in China due to rapid motorization. Unless more effective measures are taken, the fatality risk and the total fatalities due to road traffic accidents are expected to continue to increase. Therefore, focus group discussions were conducted to explore driver attitudes and safe driver characteristics. The results were then compared with a similar study conducted with US drivers. Although similarities were found, differences were of more importance. The Chinese drivers concentrate more on driving skills and capabilities, whereas the US drivers concentrate more on practical safe driving guidelines. Then direct field observations were conducted for the Chinese drivers to empirically investigate the issues discovered. The use of safety belts, running lights, headlights, and turn signals were observed to investigate the drivers' behaviors. Results show that the safety belt use ratio is about 64%, running light use is nearly zero during rainy and snowy weather, headlights use after sunset is substantially delayed, and only about 40% of drivers use turn signals to indicate their intention to change lanes. These findings indicate that the authorities need to take appropriate countermeasures to change the views of the Chinese drivers regarding driving safety and their unsafe driving behaviors. Improvement of training content and methods as well as police enforcement would be recommended.

  14. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  15. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  16. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  17. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  18. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  19. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  20. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  1. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  2. The Epidemiology of Fatal road traffic Collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavin D. Gopaul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary of what was known• Few studies on road traffic collisions conducted in Latin American and the Caribbean region• Increasing car ownership within the region• Lack of seatbelt usage in Trinidad• Most accidents are associated with alcohol usage• High mortality among pedestriansSummary of what this study adds• Most collisions occur at night• Most collisions occur at weekends• Collisions are evenly distributed throughout the year• More males than females die in fatal collisions• The most productive age group (15–44 is affected the most• More drivers than pedestrians are affected• Reflects the pattern of developed rather than developing countries with respect to time of day for RTCs Background: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of road traffic collisions (RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago by characterizing RTCs in terms of number of collisions, fatalities, victim profiles, and locations for the purpose of informing accident prevention programs. Previous studies of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago were primarily concerned with patterns of drivers use of seat belts, road collisions as a cause of mortality in young men, and the economic burden of road collisions. Attempts were made to model road fatalities, but limited epidemiological data meant that it was difficult to determine trends or develop models. Methods: This study determined the epidemiology of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago over the period 2000–2011using data collected by the Trinidad and Tobago Road Traffic Branch of the Police Service and secondary data from the Central Statistical Office. Data were analyzed using Excel, SPSS, and R statistical packages. Results: Fatalities were greater among men (80% than among women (20% and were highest on two major freeways in Trinidad [the Churchill–Roosevelt Highway and the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway]. Most collisions occurred during the night among individuals between the ages of

  3. The nature and impact of stigma towards injured workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Bonnie; Slack, Tesha; King, Carole Anne

    2012-06-01

    Many injured workers experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, which compound their physical injuries and cause social and psychological harm. Despite a growing awareness of the prevalence of such stigma, there is little research that focuses on the sources, nature and consequences of stigma with respect to the lives of injured workers. The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge related to stigma towards injured workers, specifically to explain the nature and processes of stigma and their influence on injured workers' lives. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, data from focus groups (n = 28 participants) and individual interviews (n = 18) were analyzed to discern how stigma is exhibited and perpetuated, and its impact on the lives of injured workers. The study culminated in a preliminary theoretical framework that delineates the key components of the manifestations and impacts of stigma that includes stereotypes, unethical practices and maltreatment negatively affecting work, relationships and the mental health of injured workers. The development of sound conceptualizations in this area can advance our understanding of stigma processes and provide a framework for anti-stigma efforts. The findings have implications for public education, workplace interventions and services for injured workers.

  4. Radiography of the acutely injured shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, M.J.; Aziz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine radiological examination of the acute shoulder has been unchanged in radiology departments for many years. At UCLH (University College London Hospitals, UK) this examination consists of two projections, an AP (antero-posterior) and an LS (lateral scapula). Following a review of the related literature and the possible advantages of an axial style projection, a study was performed to evaluate whether a new projection named modified trauma axial (MTA) shoulder projection could replace the existing LS projection in the routine examination of the acute shoulder. A retrospective analysis of 244 acute shoulder examinations over a 5-month period was performed. AP, LS and MTA projections were taken with paired AP and LS, and AP and MTA radiographs were reported separately. 97 traumatic abnormalities were reported using AP and MTA whilst only 64 abnormalities were reported using AP and LS views. The MTA projection demonstrated it was significant for evaluating articular surfaces of the humeral head and glenoid, defects in the humeral head, greater tuberosity fractures, glenoid fractures and fractures of the acromion. It was established that if the LS projection was replaced with the MTA view no traumatic pathologies would have been overlooked and in fact there was a 52% increase in traumatic abnormalities detected. Use of a chi-squared test demonstrated a highly significant difference in the number of traumatic abnormalities detected between the two pairs of projection combinations (p = 0.0004). Based on this study and the examined literature the routine examination of the acutely injured shoulder is recommended to include the AP and MTA projections only.

  5. Powered two-wheeler drivers' risk of hitting a pedestrian in towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaux, Nicolas; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Michel, Jean-Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The risk of collision between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers is poorly understood today. The objective of this research is to determine the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian per kilometer driven in towns and to compare this risk with that run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. Using the bodily injury accidents recorded by the police on nine roads in the city of Marseille in 2011 and a campaign of observations of powered two-wheeler traffic, we estimated the risk per kilometer driven by powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting a pedestrian and compared it with the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The results show that the risk for powered two-wheeler drivers of hitting and injuring a pedestrian is significantly higher than the risk run by four-wheeled vehicle drivers. On the nine roads studied, it is on average 3.33 times higher (95% CI: 1.63; 6.78). Taking four more years into account made it possible to consolidate these results and to tighten the confidence interval. There does indeed seem to be problems in the interactions between pedestrians and powered two-wheeler users in urban traffic. These interaction problems lead to a higher risk of hitting and injuring a pedestrian for powered two-wheeler drivers than for four-wheeled vehicle drivers. The analysis of the police reports suggests that part of this increased risk comes from filtering maneuvers by powered two-wheelers. Possible countermeasures deal with the urban street layout. Measures consisting in reducing the width and the number of traffic lanes to a strict minimum and installing medians or pedestrian islands could be an effective way for the prevention of urban accidents between pedestrians and powered two-wheelers. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis following Episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Almarzouqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon condition in general practice but one that provokes serious morbidity. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscle. Herein, we report a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis in a young healthy woman after episiotomy. Case Report. A 17-year-old primigravida underwent a vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed on the 5th postpartum day, when the patient was referred to our tertiary care medical center. Surgical debridement was initiated together with antibiotics and followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient died due to septic shock after 16 hours from the referral. Conclusion. Delay of diagnosis and consequently the surgical debridement were most likely the reasons for maternal death. In puerperal period, a physician must consider necrotizing fasciitis as a possible diagnosis in any local sings of infection especially when accompanied by fever and/or tenderness. Early diagnosis is the key for low mortality and morbidity.

  7. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  8. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  9. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  10. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  11. Risk factors for non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashaba, E; El-Helaly, M; El-Gilany, A H; Motawei, S M; Foda, S

    2018-02-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem, because it affects both workers and young people. Prevalence and consequences of cannabis abuse among construction workers in particular are not well studied in Egypt. To determine the association between non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers and their demographic and occupational factors and to assess the frequency of cannabis abuse and its relationship to injury severity and workdays lost. A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Cases were 100 acutely injured male workers. A control group of 90 healthy age-matched workers was selected from 8 construction sites. Workers were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed that included socio-demographic data, full occupational history, and causes and type of injury. Injury outcome measures included lost workdays and the injury severity score (ISS). Cannabis abuse in injured workers was monitored by preliminary testing of urine and confirmatory testing of blood. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of occupational injuries were rural residence, being a carpenter or painter and past history of injuries. The most common accidents were slipping falls (62%). Confirmed cannabis test was positive in 51.1% of the injured workers. Median days away from work were greater among cannabis users than non-users. The ISS was significantly higher among users compared to non-users ( p construction workers with inadequate safety measures.

  12. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  13. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  14. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  15. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Antecedent control in the treatment of brain-injured clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencius, A H; Wesolowski, M D; Burke, W H; McQuade, P

    1989-01-01

    Three brain-injured clients failed to respond significantly to consequence management programmes designed to increase attendance, use of a cane, and to reduce unauthorized breaks. When antecedent stimulus control procedures were applied, attendance and use of a cane increased and unauthorized breaks decreased. The study shows that antecedent control may be the treatment of choice when treating brain-injured clients with memory loss.

  17. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  18. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  19. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  20. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  1. NWS Weather Fatality, Injury and Damage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Awareness Floods, Wind Chill, Tornadoes, Heat... Education Weather Terms, Teachers, Statistics government web resources and services. Natural Hazard Statistics Statistics U.S. Summaries 78-Year List of Severe Weather Fatalities Preliminary Hazardous Weather Statistics for 2017 Now

  2. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  3. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.207 Fatality. (a) In the..., United States Code (but not the agent of the Secretary for purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act...

  4. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  5. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  6. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Description of the severely injured in the DRG system: is treatment of the severely injured still affordable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, L; Lefering, R; Siebert, H; Windolf, J; Roeder, N; Franz, D

    2013-11-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of severely injured patients (multiple trauma) it is difficult to assign them to homogeneic diagnosis-related groups (DRG). In recent years this has led to a systematic underfunding in the German reimbursement system (G-DRG) for cases of multiply injured patients. This project aimed to improve the reimbursement by modifying the case allocation algorithms of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. A retrospective analysis of standardized G-DRG data according to §21 of the Hospital Reimbursement Act (§ 21 KHEntgG) including case-related cost data from 3,362 critically injured patients from 2007 and 2008 from 10 university hospitals and 7 large municipal hospitals was carried out. For 1,241 cases complementary detailed information was available from the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society to monitor the case allocation of multiply injured patients within the G-DRG system. Analysis of coding and grouping, performance of case allocation and the homogeneity of costs in the G-DRG versions 2008-2012 was carried out. The results showed systematic underfunding of trauma patients in the G-DRG version 2008 but adequate cost covering in the majority of cases with the G-DRG versions 2011 and 2012. Cost coverage was foundfor multiply injured patients from the clinical viewpoint who were identified as multiple trauma by the G-DRG system. Some of the overfunded trauma patients had high intensive care costs. Also there was underfunding for multiple injured patients not identified as such in the G-DRG system. Specific modifications of the G-DRG allocation structures could increase the appropriateness of reimbursement of multiply injured patients. Data-based analysis is an essential prerequisite for a constructive development of the G-DRG system and a necessary tool for the active participation of medical specialist societies.

  8. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  9. Schedule II opioids and stimulants & CMV crash risk and driver performance : evidence report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Driving a large commercial truck is dangerous work. Truck drivers have a fatal work injury : rate of 22.1 per 100,000 workers, the eighth highest in the nation.1 : According to the Federal : Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), large trucks w...

  10. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  11. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  12. Serious injury and fatality investigations involving pneumatic nail guns, 1985-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D; Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Krieg, Edward F

    2016-02-01

    This article examines serious and fatal pneumatic nail gun (PNG) injury investigations for workplace, tool design, and human factors relevant to causation and resulting OS&H authorities' responses in terms of citations and penalties. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) database of Fatality and Catastrophe Investigation Summaries (F&CIS) were reviewed (1985-2012) to identify n = 258 PNG accidents. 79.8% of investigations, and 100% of fatalities, occurred in the construction industry. Between 53-71% of injuries appear to have been preventable had a safer sequential trigger tool been used. Citations and monetary penalties were related to injury severity, body part injured, disabling of safety devices, and insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE). Differences may exist between construction and other industries in investigators interpretations of PNG injury causation and resulting citations/penalties. Violations of PPE standards were penalized most severely, yet the preventive effect of PPE would likely have been less than that of a safer sequential trigger. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Serious Injury and Fatality Investigations Involving Pneumatic Nail Guns, 1985-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D.; Albers, James T.; Hudock, Stephen D.; Krieg, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper examines serious and fatal pneumatic nail gun (PNG) injury investigations for workplace, tool design, and human factors relevant to causation and resulting OS&H authorities’ responses in terms of citations and penalties. Methods The U.S. OSHA database of Fatality and Catastrophe Investigation Summaries (F&CIS) were reviewed (1985 - 2012) to identify n=258 PNG accidents. Results 79.8% of investigations, and 100% of fatalities, occurred in the Construction industry. Between 53-71% of injuries appear preventable had a safer sequential trigger tool been used. Citations and monetary penalties were related to injury severity, body part injured, disabling of safety devices, and insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusions Differences may exist between Construction and other industries in investigators interpretations of PNG injury causation and resulting citations/penalties. Violations of PPE standards were penalized most severely, yet the preventive effect of PPE would likely have been less than that of a safer sequential trigger. PMID:26725335

  14. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  15. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  16. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  17. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  18. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  19. Epidemiology and patterns of transport-related fatalities in Austria 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Rusnak, Martin; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Brazinova, Alexandra; Leitgeb, Johannes; Mauritz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Transport-related accidents remain the largest single cause of death among people aged 15 to 29 in the European Union, and despite the decrease in number of fatalities from 1990 onwards they remain a significant public health problem. The aim of this article was to analyze the long-term trends and patterns of transport-related fatalities, identify the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries in different road users, and identify the primary populations at risk of transport-related death in Austria between 1980 and 2013. Data on transport-related fatalities based on death certificates were obtained from Statistics Austria for the analyzed period. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated and broken down by age, gender, and month of death, and the anatomic distribution of most significant injuries were identified. Potential years of life lost before age 75 (PYLL-75) were used as a measure of public health impact. A total of 39,709 transport-related fatalities were identified for the studied years; 74% were males and the mean age was 42.1 years (range 0-103). A decrease in the number of fatalities (from 2018 in 1980 to 554 in 2012), mortality rates (from 26 in 1980 to 7 in 2012), and PYLL-75 (from 68,960 in 1980 to 14,931 in 2012) was observed. Introduction of major prevention milestones (compulsory use of seat belts or child restraints) may have contributed to this decrease. Men 16-24 years old were at the highest risk of transport-related death. Pedestrian victims were more likely to be women and car drivers and motorcyclists were more often men. Most fatal transport accidents occurred between the months of May and October and prevailingly in towns of fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Injuries to the head were the most significant injuries in all user groups (>50% of cases in all road user types). Reduced mortality rates could translate into higher prevalence of long-term disabilities in survivors of transport accidents. Despite

  20. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  1. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  2. COMPARISON OF SEVERITY AFFECTING FACTORS BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS INVOLVED IN SINGLE VEHICLE CRASHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda DISSANAYAKE, Ph.D., P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Single vehicle crashes contribute to a significant amount of fatalities in the United States. At the same time, fatality crash involvement rates of young and older drivers are well above the average and both groups are identified as critical groups when it comes to highway safety. Therefore, the study described in this paper developed separate models to predict crash severity of single vehicle crashes by young and older drivers. By using the models, factors affecting towards increased crash severity were identified for each group and comparisons were made. Almost all the common identified factors influenced both driver groups in the same manner except in the case of alcohol and drug usage, which indicated an interesting finding in the case of crash severity of older drivers. Speeding and non-usage of a restraint device were the two most important factors affecting towards increased crash severity for both driver groups at all severity levels. Additionally, ejection and existence of curve/grade were determinants of higher young driver crash severity at all levels. For older drivers, having a frontal impact point was a severity determinant at all levels. County of residence and weather condition were not effective in making any changes with respect to crash severity at any level, while some other factors had a minimal affect. Findings of this study are beneficial in investigating the potential ways of reducing crash severity, which could also be influential in reducing the occurrence of crashes as well.

  3. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  4. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  5. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  6. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of obesity on mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dietrich; Gemme, Seth; Jehle, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes involving at least one fatality. Fatalities were selected from 155,584 drivers included in the 2000-2005 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Drivers were stratified by body mass index, confounders were adjusted for, and multiple logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of death in each body mass index class compared with normal weight. The adjusted risk of death from lowest to highest, reported as the OR of death compared with normal weight with 95% confidence intervals, was as follows: (1) overweight (OR, 0.952; 0.911-0.995; P = .0293), (2) slightly obese (OR, 0.996; 0.966-1.026; P = .7758), (3) normal weight, (4) underweight (OR, 1.115; 1.035-1.201; P = .0043), (5) moderately obese (OR, 1.212; 1.128-1.302; P obese (OR, 1.559; 1.402-1.734; P obese, morbidly obese, and underweight drivers and a decreased risk in overweight drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol intake in relation to non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING: A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospecti...

  9. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  10. How to Train Safe Drivers: Setting Up and Evaluating a Fatigue Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamos Giannis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is considered as a serious risk driving behavior, causing road accidents, which in many cases involve fatalities and severe injuries. According to CARE database statistics, professional drivers are indicated as a high-risk group to be involved in a fatigue-related accident. Acknowledging these statistics, a training program on driving fatigue was organized, aiming at raising awareness of professional drivers of a leading company in building materials, in Greece. Selected experimental methods were used for collecting data before and after the training program, which allowed monitoring and assessing the potential behavioural changes. A questionnaire survey was conducted before the program implementation to 162 drivers of the company, while two months after the program, the same drivers replied to a second questionnaire. Impact assessment of the program relied on statistical analysis of the responses. Results showed the degree of penetration of the training program in the professional drivers' behavior towards safe driving.

  11. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 19...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation.......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  12. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    , benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cannabis, illicit opiates, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, i.e. zolpidem and zopiclone, medicinal opioids, alcohol-drug combinations and drug-drug combinations). Data from six countries were included in the study: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania and the Netherlands. Case samples...... substances. For alcohol, risk increased exponentially with blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The second most risky category contained various drug-drug combinations, amphetamines and medicinal opioids. Medium increased risk was associated with medium sized BACs (at or above 0.5 g/L, below 0.8 g....../L) and benzoylecgonine. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. For male drivers, the risk of being severely injured by driving with any of the psychoactive substances was about 65% of that of female drivers. For each of the substance groups there was a decrease in the risk of severe...

  13. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  14. Naftidrofuryl affects neurite regeneration by injured adult auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P P; Staecker, H; Moonen, G; van de Water, T R

    1993-07-01

    Afferent auditory neurons are essential for the transmission of auditory information from Corti's organ to the central auditory pathway. Auditory neurons are very sensitive to acute insult and have a limited ability to regenerate injured neuronal processes. Therefore, these neurons appear to be a limiting factor in restoration of hearing function following an injury to the peripheral auditory receptor. In a previous study nerve growth factor (NGF) was shown to stimulate neurite repair but not survival of injured auditory neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated a neuritogenesis promoting effect of naftidrofuryl in an vitro model for injury to adult auditory neurons, i.e. dissociated cell cultures of adult rat spiral ganglia. Conversely, naftidrofuryl did not have any demonstrable survival promoting effect on these in vitro preparations of injured auditory neurons. The potential uses of this drug as a therapeutic agent in acute diseases of the inner ear are discussed in the light of these observations.

  15. Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Injured, Nonstandard Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-11-01

    This study compares health and occupational outcomes following a work-related injury for nonstandard and day-shift workers. National Population Health Survey data were used to explore outcomes 2 years post-work injury. Retrospective-matched cohort analyses examined main effects and interactions of shift schedule and work injury with changes in health, shift schedule, and labor force status. Models were adjusted for respondent characteristics, baseline health status, and occupational strength requirements. Injured nonstandard shift workers reported lower health utility index scores, compared with uninjured and injured daytime workers and uninjured nonstandard-shift workers. No significant interactions between shift and injury were found with schedule change and leaving the labor force. Injured nonstandard-shift workers are as likely to remain employed as other groups, but may be vulnerable in terms of diminished health.

  16. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  17. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A; Quistberg, D Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  18. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  19. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth.Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31 on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43, while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43. Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP per capita.The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  20. The Use of a Poisson Regression to Evaluate Antihistamines and Fatal Aircraft Mishaps in Instrument Meteorological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Hileman, Christy R; Rogers, Paul; Salazar, Guillermo J; Paskoff, Lawrence N

    2018-04-01

    Research indicates that first-generation antihistamine usage may impair pilot performance by increasing the likelihood of vestibular illusions, spatial disorientation, and/or cognitive impairment. Second- and third-generation antihistamines generally have fewer impairing side effects and are approved for pilot use. We hypothesized that toxicological findings positive for second- and third-generation antihistamines are less likely to be associated with pilots involved in fatal mishaps than first-generation antihistamines. The evaluated population consisted of 1475 U.S. civil pilots fatally injured between September 30, 2008, and October 1, 2014. Mishap factors evaluated included year, weather conditions, airman rating, recent airman flight time, quarter of year, and time of day. Due to the low prevalence of positive antihistamine findings, a count-based model was selected, which can account for rare outcomes. The means and variances were close for both regression models supporting the assumption that the data follow a Poisson distribution; first-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 582, M = 0.17, S2 = 0.17) with second- and third-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 116, M = 0.20, S2 = 0.18). The data indicate fewer airmen with second- and third-generation antihistamines than first-generation antihistamines in their system are fatally injured while flying in IMC conditions. Whether the lower incidence is a factor of greater usage of first-generation antihistamines versus second- and third-generation antihistamines by the pilot population or fewer deleterious side effects with second- and third-generation antihistamines is unclear. These results engender cautious optimism, but additional research is necessary to determine why these differences exist.Gildea KM, Hileman CR, Rogers P, Salazar GJ, Paskoff LN. The use of a Poisson regression to evaluate antihistamines and fatal aircraft mishaps in instrument meteorological conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform

  1. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...

  2. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF GETTING INJURED AND WOUNDED IN THE NATO AGGRESSION VICTIMS ON THE TERRITORY OF BELGRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Atanasijevic

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available During the NATO aggression against Yugoslavia in the period from March toJune, 1999, at the Institute for Forensic Medicine in Belgrade there were 34 victimsregistered, namely, 22 of male and 12 of male sex. The greatest number of the killedwas of younger age, namely, of 31 to 40 years of age (l O persons and from 21 to 30years of age (8 persons while three victims were children up to 10 years of age. Onlyin one čaše the person on duty was wounded while all the other victims were civilianswho got fatal injuries out of the military objects. The wounds were in most casesinflicted by the NATO aviation actions at night, from midnight to 6 o'clock a. m. (28.In the inner city zone 26 persons were hurt; 6 were hurt in the villages aroundBelgrade and two in the suburban settlements. Half of them were killed at their jobs;16 of them were killed in the building of the Radio Television of Serbia; 9 were killedin their homes; 3 were killed in the hospital just like in the embassy and 2 in the street.Most of the persons (33 got injured due to a direct mechanical and/or thermal effectof explosive weapons. The forensic-medical autopsy was done on 31 victims. In 30cases the death occurred at the place where in the injury was inflicted.

  4. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  5. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that ... To compare Safe Travel to School Programme driver safety perfor- .... The SA government has recognised the challenges faced with.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: using evidence-based practice to identify risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra

    2013-11-01

    Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  8. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better description of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of fatal patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is important in alerting clinicians of severe dengue and improving management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 309 adults with DHF, 10 fatal patients and 299 survivors (controls were retrospectively analyzed. Regarding causes of fatality, massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was found in 4 patients, dengue shock syndrome (DSS alone in 2; DSS/subarachnoid hemorrhage, Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia, ventilator associated pneumonia, and massive GI bleeding/Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia each in one. Fatal patients were found to have significantly higher frequencies of early altered consciousness (≤24 h after hospitalization, hypothermia, GI bleeding/massive GI bleeding, DSS, concurrent bacteremia with/without shock, pulmonary edema, renal/hepatic failure, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among those experienced early altered consciousness, massive GI bleeding alone/with uremia/with E. faecalis bacteremia, and K. pneumoniae meningitis/bacteremia were each found in one patient. Significantly higher proportion of bandemia from initial (arrival laboratory data in fatal patients as compared to controls, and higher proportion of pre-fatal leukocytosis and lower pre-fatal platelet count as compared to initial laboratory data of fatal patients were found. Massive GI bleeding (33.3% and bacteremia (25% were the major causes of pre-fatal leukocytosis in the deceased patients; 33.3% of the patients with pre-fatal profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000/µL, and 50% of the patients with pre-fatal prothrombin time (PT prolongation experienced massive GI bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our report highlights causes of fatality other than DSS in patients with severe dengue, and suggested hypothermia, leukocytosis and bandemia may be warning signs of severe dengue. Clinicians should be alert to the potential development of massive GI bleeding

  9. In-hospital mortality pattern of severely injured children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    the mortality pattern of severely injured children admitted to a Danish level I trauma centre. METHODS: We included trauma patients aged 15 years or less, who subsequent a trauma team activation were admitted during the 9-year period 1999-2007. Data were collected prospectively for subjects who had a length...

  10. Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in spinal Cord injured patients. ... Trauma was the etiology in 87.5% of the cases (44% were road accidents). 12/16 patients were paraplegics (10 above ... in SCI patients. This approach is compatible with the efforts to improve the quality of life and rehabilitation of these patients.

  11. The acutely ACL injured knee assessed by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Roos, H P; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To map by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative MRI (qMRI) concomitant fractures and meniscal injuries, and location and volume of traumatic bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the acutely anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured knee. To relate BML location and volume to cortic...

  12. Replantation and revascularization vs. amputation in injured digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Marjolein A. M.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ring, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with the decision to replant or revascularize rather than amputate an injured digit as well as factors associated with successful replantation or revascularization. We reviewed 315 complete and subtotal amputations at or proximal to the

  13. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  14. Recovery of an injured fornix in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge about recovery of an injured fornix following brain injury is limited. We describe here a patient who showed recovery of an injured fornix following stroke. A 57-year-old female patient underwent coiling for a ruptured anterior communicating cerebral artery aneurysm, and conservative management for subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage. The patient showed severe cognitive impairment 6 weeks after onset. However, her cognition showed continuous improvement with time; based on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Memory Assessment Scale, her cognition was within the normal range 7 months after onset. Findings from diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months showed discontinuations in both columns of the fornix. The proximal portion of both crus also showed discontinuation on diffusion tensor tractography at 6 weeks and 7 months; however, on 7-month diffusion tensor tractography, the end of the fornical body was shown to be connected to the splenium of the corpus callosum and then branched to the right medial temporal lobe and right thalamus. The unusual neural connection between the injured fornix and the thalamus appears to be a recovery phenomenon, which allows the injured fornix and the medial temporal lobe to obtain cholinergic innervation from cholinergic nuclei in the brainstem rather than from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain.

  15. Coagulopathy: Its Pathophysiology and Treatment in the Injured Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    death. In fact, in their series, 77% of brain-injured patients who died had a coagulopathy at the time of hospital admission.8 Similarly, Faringer et...coagulation process. Arch Surg 1996;131:923–927. 9. Faringer PD, Mullins RJ, Johnson RL, Trunkey DD. Blood component supplementation during massive

  16. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...

  17. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  18. Fatal accidents analysis in Peruvian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candia, R. C.; Hennies, W. T.; Azevedo, R. c.; Almeida, I.G.; Soto, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Although reductions in the tax of injuries and accidents have been observed in recent years, Mining is still one of the highest risks industries. The basic causes for occurrence of fatalities can be attributed to unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In this scene is necessary to identify safety problems and to aim the effective solutions. On the other hand, the developing countries dependence on primary industries as mining is evident. In the Peruvian economy, approximately 16% of the GNP and more than 50% of the exportations are due to the mining sector, detaching its competitive position in the worldwide mining. This paper presents fatal accidents analysis in the Peruvian mining industry, having as basis the register of occurred fatal accidents since year 2000 until 2007, identifying the main types of accidents occurred. The source of primary information is the General Mining Direction (DGM) of the Peruvian Mining and Energy Ministry (MEM). The majority of victims belongs to tertiary contractor companies that render services for mine companies. The results of the analysis show also that the majority of accidents happened in the underground mines, and that it is necessary to propose effective solutions to manage risks, aiming at reducing the fatal accidents taxes. (Author)

  19. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, Frank G. A.; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic

  20. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  1. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  2. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  3. Modeling wrong-way crashes and fatalities on arterials and freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wrong way driving (WWD research and mitigation measures have primarily focused on limited access facilities. This is most likely due to the higher incidence of fatal WWD crashes with dramatic consequences on freeways, media attention, and a call for innovative solutions to address the problem. While public agencies and published literature address WWD incidence on freeway systems, the crash analyses on non-limited access facilities, i.e., arterial corridors, remains untouched. This research extends previous works and attempts to provide many new perspectives on arterial WWD incidence. In particular, one work showed that while WWD fatalities are more likely to occur on freeways, the likelihood of these crashes is higher on arterials. Hence this work with univariate and multivariate analyses of WWD and non-WWD crashes, and fatal and non-fatal WWD incidents. Results show the impressive negative impacts of alcohol use, driver defect, nighttime and weekend incidence, poor street lighting, low traffic volumes, rural geography, and median and shoulder widths. The objective here is to highlight the need for paying greater attention to WWD crashes on arterial corridors as is done with fatal WWD incidents on freeway systems. It suffices to say that while engineering countermeasures should evolve from the traditional signing and pavement markings to connected vehicle technology applications, there is a clear and compelling need to focus on educational campaigns specifically targeting drunken driving, and enforcement initiatives with an objective to mitigate WWD in the most efficient manner possible. Keywords: Wrong-way driving, Modeling, Arterials and freeways, Logistic regression, Likelihood

  4. Unintentional non-traffic injury and fatal events: Threats to children in and around vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Ramsay, Mackenzie L; Fennell, Janette E; Andreasen, Amber

    2018-02-17

    There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about non-traffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various non-traffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. Instances of non-traffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 to December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication. Over the 25-year period, there were at least 11,759 events resulting in 3,396 deaths. The median age of the affected child was 3.7 years. The incident types included 3,115 children unattended in hot vehicles resulting in 729 deaths, 2,251 backovers resulting in 1,232 deaths, 1,439 frontovers resulting in 692 deaths, 777 vehicles knocked into motion resulting in 227 deaths, 415 underage drivers resulting in 203 deaths, 172 power window incidents resulting in 61 deaths, 134 falls resulting in 54 deaths, 79 fires resulting in 41 deaths, and 3,377 other incidents resulting in 157 deaths. Non-traffic injuries and fatalities present an important threat to the safety and lives of very young children. Future efforts should consider complementary surveillance mechanisms to systematically and comprehensively capture all non-traffic incidents. Continued education, engineering modifications, advocacy, and legislation can help continue to prevent these incidents and must be incorporated in overall child vehicle safety initiatives.

  5. Fatal injuries in the United States construction industry involving cranes 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruda, A; Liu, D; Egger, M; Lillquist, D

    1999-12-01

    There is little published information concerning the epidemiology of injuries in the construction industry involving cranes other than for electrical injury from power line contact. For the 11-year period of 1984 through 1994, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigated 502 deaths in 479 incidents involving cranes in the construction industry. Electrocution was the largest category, with 198 deaths (39%) reported. Other major categories were assembly/dismantling (58 deaths, 12%), boom buckling (41 deaths, 8%), crane upset/overturn (37 deaths, 7%), and rigging failure (36 deaths, 7%). The majority of the deaths during assembly/dismantling involved removal of the boom pins from lattice boom cranes. Only 34% of the construction firms employing the fatally injured workers had ever been inspected by OSHA. OSHA cited the employer for safety violations in 436 deaths (83%). Additional worker training, increased OSHA inspections, and crane inspection programs could prevent many crane-related deaths.

  6. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  7. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  8. Space Age Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  9. Where there are no emergency medical services-prehospital care for the injured in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Murlidhar, V; Chowdhury, Ritam; Patil, Sandeep B; Supe, Priyanka A; Vaishnav, Poonam D; Vatkar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    In a populous city like Mumbai, which lacks an organized prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) system, there exists an informal network through which victims arrive at the trauma center. This baseline study describes the prehospital care and transportation that currently is available in Mumbai. A prospective trauma database was created by interviewing 170 randomly selected patients from a total of 454 admitted over a two-month period (July-August 2005) at a Level-I, urban, trauma center. The injured victim in Mumbai usually is rescued by a good Samaritan passer-by (43.5%) and contrary to popular belief, helped by the police (89.7%). Almost immediately after rescue, the victim begins transport to the hospital. No one waits for the EMS ambulance to arrive, as there is none. A taxi cab is the most popular substitute for the ambulance (39.3%). The trauma patient in India usually is a young man in his late-twenties, from a lower socioeconomic class. He mostly finds himself in a government hospital, as private hospitals are reluctant to provide trauma care to the seriously injured. The injured who do receive prehospital care receive inadequate and inappropriate care due to the high cost of consumables in resuscitation, and in part due to the providers' lack of training in emergency care. Those who were more likely to receive prehospital care suffered from road traffic injuries (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3) and those transported by government ambulances (OR = 10.83), as compared to railway accident victims (OR = 0 .41) and those who came by taxi (OR = 0.54). Currently, as a result of not having an EMS system, prehospital care is a citizen responsibility using societal networks. It is easy to eliminate this system and shift the responsibility to the state. The moot point is whether the state-funded EMS system will be robust enough in a resource-poor setting in which public hospitals are poorly funded. Considering the high funding cost of EMS systems in developed countries

  10. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  11. Impact of the 1994 alcohol production and sales deregulation policy on traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Dutt, Namrata; Arason, Neil; Pike, Ian

    2012-09-01

    . Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on the Japanese population by comparing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash rates before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Participants and method. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in the population. To control for potential confounders, per capita alcohol consumption, unemployment rate, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) were also added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to the IRRs. . Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities and other traffic crashes in Japan. In the overall study results, nighttime fatalities were reduced statistically significantly by 6% since the implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Discussion. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation. Further well-designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  12. Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios.

  13. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be fatal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During the hot summer months,the ... and keeping hydrated. “Dehydration is very dangerous. It can lead to an emergency visit, and it can ...

  14. The role of alcohol in road traffic accidents with fatal outcome: 10-year period in Croatia Split-Dalmatia County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Scepanovic, Antonija; Bosnjak, Marinko; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and fatal road traffic accidents that took place in Split-Dalmatia County (Croatia) during a 10-year period (from August 2001 to August 2011). A retrospective analysis of 474 autopsy reports was performed, with an emphasis on 337 toxicologal findings of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the mode of participation in traffic (driver, passenger, pedestrian, or cyclist). Relations between the BAC, the weekday on which death occurred, victim's age and gender, and differences according to 3 successive legislation periods within the observed time frame were analyzed. The BAC was measured by gas chromatography with headspace and flame ionization detection. Alcohol was regarded as a contributive death factor if BAC was positive; that is, higher than 0.5 g/kg. BAC was positive in 177 cases. Most often it was the car driver who had a positive BAC. Victims of traffic accidents were mostly male drivers, and those accidents were more often associated with alcohol consumption. Consumption of alcohol produced a significant increase in culpability. The results of our study show that alcohol remains one of the main contributing factors of traffic accidents in Split-Dalmatia County. Unfortunately, legislation changes regarding the allowed BAC did not cause any reduction in casualties among drivers driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA). Chi-square test of the number of total driver victims and driver victims who were DUIA revealed no significant difference (P = .173).

  15. Fatal and serious road crashes involving young New Zealand drivers: a latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    , infrastructure characteristics, environmental conditions, demographic characteristics, driving behaviour, and pre-crash manoeuvres. The analysis yielded 15 and 8 latent classes of, respectively, single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes, and average posterior probabilities measured the odds of correct...

  16. Senior automobile crashes and fatalities in Texas : are older Texas drivers safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Many factors can contribute to a senior being involved in a traffic accident, i.e. poor vision, declining : health, roadway hazards, and declining driving skills, etc. Throughout the US, laws are being enacted to : ensure that seniors can continue dr...

  17. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  18. Non-fatal disease burden for subtypes of depressive disorder: population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel-Leliefeld, Karolien E M; Kok, Gemma D; Bockting, Claudi L H; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Schaik, Anneke; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Smit, Filip

    2016-05-12

    Major depression is the leading cause of non-fatal disease burden. Because major depression is not a homogeneous condition, this study estimated the non-fatal disease burden for mild, moderate and severe depression in both single episode and recurrent depression. All estimates were assessed from an individual and a population perspective and presented as unadjusted, raw estimates and as estimates adjusted for comorbidity. We used data from the first wave of the second Netherlands-Mental-Health-Survey-and-Incidence-Study (NEMESIS-2, n = 6646; single episode Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV depression, n = 115; recurrent depression, n = 246). Disease burden from an individual perspective was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression' for each person in the dataset. From a population perspective it was assessed as 'disability weight * time spent in depression *number of people affected'. The presence of mental disorders was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0. Single depressive episodes emerged as a key driver of disease burden from an individual perspective. From a population perspective, recurrent depressions emerged as a key driver. These findings remained unaltered after adjusting for comorbidity. The burden of disease differs between the subtype of depression and depends much on the choice of perspective. The distinction between an individual and a population perspective may help to avoid misunderstandings between policy makers and clinicians.

  19. Factors associated with urban non-fatal road-accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Carlucci, Fabio; Cirà, Andrea; Restaino, Marialuisa

    2018-02-05

    This paper reports on the factors associated with non-fatal urban-road accident severity. Data on accidents were gathered from the local traffic police in the City of Palermo, one of the six most populated cities in Italy. Findings from a mixed-effects logistic-regression model suggest that accident severity increases when two young drivers are involved, road traffic conditions are light/normal and when vehicles crash on a two-way road or carriageway. Speeding is more likely to cause slight or serious injury even when compared to a vehicle moving towards the opposite direction of traffic. An accident during the summer is more likely to result in a slight or serious injury than an accident during the winter, which is in line with evidence from Southern Europe and the Middle East. Finally, the severity of non-fatal accident injuries in an urban area of Southern Europe was significantly associated with speeding, the age of the driver and seasonality.

  20. Is the contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries being underestimated in the acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, O

    2011-04-05

    Alcohol consumption in Ireland has nearly doubled during the period 1989-2001. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol to fatal head injuries in the acute hospital setting we created a data base of all fatal traumatic brain injuries in the Department of Neuropathology at Beaumont Hospital over a ten year period (1997-2006 inclusive). 498 cases were identified (351 males: 147 females). Fatalities were highest in males aged 19-25 years (N=101) and 51-70 years (N=109). Falls (N=210) and road traffic accidents (N=183) were the commonest modes of presentation. 36\\/210 (17%) falls had positive blood alcohol testing, 9\\/210 (4.3%) had documentation of alcohol in notes but no testing, 35\\/210 (16.7%) tested negative for alcohol and 130\\/210 (61.9%) were not tested. The RTA group (N=183) comprised drivers (n=79), passengers (n=47) and pedestrians (n=57). 65\\/79 (82.2%) of drivers were males aged 19-25 years. Blood alcohol was only available in 27\\/79 (34.1%) drivers and was positive in 13\\/27 (48.1%). 14\\/75 (18.7%) pedestrians were tested for alcohol, 4\\/14 (28.6%) were positive. Overall 142\\/183 (77.6%) of the RTA group were not tested. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries is probably being underestimated due to omission of blood alcohol concentration testing on admission to hospital. Absence of national guidelines on blood alcohol testing in the emergency department compounds the problem.

  1. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  2. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  3. Are 1994 alcohol production and the sales deregulation policy in Japan associated with increased road traffic fatalities among adult and teenage males and females in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Scime, Giulia; Sasges, Deborah; Pike, Ian; Shimizu, Shinji

    2009-10-01

    International studies have shown a significant association between alcohol availability and traffic crashes that involve alcohol-impaired drivers. A key limitation to previous alcohol availability and motor vehicle crash (MVC) evaluation research is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the policies. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on different segments of the Japanese population by comparing MVC fatality rates from before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRR) in adult males, adult females, teenage males and teenage females. To control potential confounders, unemployment rate, vehicle miles of travel (VMT), vehicle registration, and number of drivers licensed in Japan were added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to incidence rate ratios. Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities among adult or teenage males or females in Japan. We found that male adult fatalities demonstrated a statistically significant decline following enactment of the deregulation policy in 1994. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation in Japanese society following implementation of the deregulation policy in 1994. Further well designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  4. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. A Rare Fatal Complication of Llizarov Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Kumar, Mahesh; Dhaka, Shivani; Subramanian, Arulselvi

    2018-03-01

    Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India. During her first distraction process, she suddenly collapsed at the hospital and could not be revived. At postmortem, a small hematoma was seen around the surgically fractured area. On histopathology of internal organs, fat globules were present in the vasculature of brain and lungs. Cause of death was opined as due to fat embolism. This is the first case reported of a fatal fat embolism following Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening in a healthy adult. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Is it reliable that speed-calming solutions as ISA can reach the drivers, who needed it most?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels

    A significant number of trials with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) have been carried out within the last two decades. Almost all with a promising result; the drivers reduce their proportion of speeding and are in general positive to ISA. However, two tings question this offhand success story; 1......: there has been no commercial break through for ISA so far, even though estimated has shown that ISA can reduce the n. of fatalities in traffic accidents with up to 59%, and 2: in the only ISA trial included drivers, who not participated voluntary in the trial, ISA had virtually no effect on these drivers...

  7. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  8. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  9. Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational......-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most...... notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected...

  10. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...

  11. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Janet C; Wunder, Elsio A; Popper, Stephen J; Min, Jin-Na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P; Raddassi, Khadir; Lee, Patty J; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert C; Hagan, Jose E; Araújo, Guilherme C; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A; Kim, Charles C; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  12. Clash of Desires: Detective vs. Femme Fatale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pituková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theme of desire presented in American hard-boiled detective fiction and its subsequent transformation on the screen in form of films noir of the 1940’s. The works in focus are novels The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett, Farewell, My Lovely by Raymond Chandler and Build My Gallows High by Daniel Mainwaring and their film noir adaptations – The Maltese Falcon (1941, Murder, My Sweet (1944 and Out of the Past (1947. The proposed paper seeks to offer a contrastive analysis of the novels and the films and situate them in their respective social and cultural contexts. The central conflict of this article is presented by the clash between the femme fatale’s and detective’s desires. Hard-boiled novels present femme fatale as a dame with a past, a spider woman, and the detective as a hero with no future, caught in her web of intrigues. The only way out for the detective is to suppress the sexual desire for the woman and hold strong to his professional code. The femme fatale’s desire for more and for better is deadly and dangerous for those who succumb to her lure, but the detective’s desire for truth can be fatal for the dark lady too.  This clash presented in the novels is confronted with the 1940’s Hollywood production. When the detective frees himself from the sexual lure of the fatal woman he has a chance to live and even bring her to justice, but she can still escape or decide herself what to do with her destiny. Both, the dame and the hero are victims of their desires. The 1940’s films noir’s femme fatales have to pay for their crimes, no matter how crafty, seductive or manipulative they are.  Thus these films present the masculine dominance as strong and undefeated.

  13. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  14. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50% is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased, fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004 and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02 at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005 and death (P = 0.04, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  15. [Anaerobiospirillum thomasii bacteremia with fatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitenberger, Edgardo R; Chavez, Claudio M; Rizzo, Mabel S; Suarez, Ariel I

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobiospirillum thomasii has been reported as a causative agent of diarrhea in humans; however no bacteremia associated with this pathogen has been described so far. We present here the first case of fatal A. thomasii bacteremia in an alcoholic patient. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Occupational wellbeing--management of injured workers with psychosocial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Although most injured workers return to work with minimal intervention, approximately 20% show levels of distress and disability beyond that expected for the injury. The level of morale in a workplace seems to play a major role in this. Workers who experience positive emotions leading to increased morale are more likely to be resilient following injury. It is important for general practitioners to recognise the nonclinical factors that exert a significant influence over employee wellbeing and return to work outcomes. Some management strategies are presented. General practitioners who work collaboratively with all major stakeholders, who identify and manage psychosocial barriers early, who take an active role in promoting positive expectations, and who focus on the immediate problem rather than its industrial associations will achieve better outcomes for their injured patients.

  18. Characterization of high hydrostatic pressure-injured Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takashi; Kimura, Keitarou; Morimatsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects various cellular processes. Using a sporulation-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain, we characterized the properties of vegetative cells subjected to HHP. When stationary-phase cells were exposed to 250 MPa of HHP for 10 min at 25 °C, approximately 50% of cells were viable, although they exhibited a prolonged growth lag. The HHP-injured cells autolyzed in the presence of NaCl or KCl (at concentrations ≥100 mM). Superoxide dismutase slightly protected the viability of HHP-treated cells, whereas vegetative catalases had no effect. Thus, unlike HHP-injured Escherichia coli, oxidative stress only slightly affected vegetative B. subtilis subjected to HHP.

  19. Development of a CPM Machine for Injured Fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yili; Zhang, Fuxiang; Ma, Xin; Meng, Qinggang

    2005-01-01

    Human fingers are easy to be injured. A CPM machine is a mechanism based on the rehabilitation theory of continuous passive motion (CPM). To develop a CPM machine for the clinic application in the rehabilitation of injured fingers is a significant task. Therefore, based on the theories of evidence based medicine (EBM) and CPM, we've developed a set of biomimetic mechanism after modeling the motions of fingers and analyzing its kinematics and dynamics analysis. We also design an embedded operating system based on ARM (a kind of 32-bit RISC microprocessor). The equipment can achieve the precise control of moving scope of fingers, finger's force and speed. It can serves as a rational checking method and a way of assessment for functional rehabilitation of human hands. Now, the first prototype has been finished and will start the clinical testing in Harbin Medical University shortly.

  20. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  1. Investigation of hot air balloon fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T S; Smialek, J E; Capron, R G

    1985-04-01

    The rising popularity of the sport of hot air ballooning has been accompanied by several recent incidents, both in this country and other parts of the world, where mechanical defects and the improper operation of balloons have resulted in several fatalities. A study was conducted to identify the location and frequency of hot air ballooning accidents. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify those accidents that were the result of improper handling on the part of the balloon operators and those that were related to specific defects in the construction of the balloon. This paper presents a background of the sport of hot air ballooning, together with an analysis of the construction of a typical hot air balloon, pointing out the specific areas where defects may occur that could result in a potential fatal balloon crash. Specific attention is given to the two recent balloon crashes that occurred in Albuquerque, N.M., hot air balloon capital of the world, and that resulted in multiple fatalities.

  2. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  3. Electrodermal Activity Based Wearable Device for Drowsy Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, D.; Dorathi Jayaseeli, JD; Madhuri, S.; Senthilkumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Road safety and road accident mortality rate are a serious concern for the government. With rise in fatal road accidents, who’s leading cause is the driver being drowsy behind the wheel, measures to alleviate this problem becomes the prime task. To meet the purpose, methods adopted must be of minimum discomfort for the driver, easy to install, provide good detection accuracy and timely alert to circumvent a probable accident. A good candidate to meet these specifications is EDA. As it detects the level of sweat which directly corresponds to the mental state of the person, using EDA for the purposes of driver safety forms a good option. The novelty of this project lies in making use of EDA as a measure to detect if a person is drowsy or not. Much of the challenge lies in building a device equipped with the necessary sensors and processing the data on real-time. The novelty of this work lies in development of an embedded device interfaced with sensors and actuators to detect and alert a driver when found drowsy using sweat as a parameter.

  4. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  5. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chores at Times of Fatal or Serious Injuries Associated with Tractor Overturns with and without Rollover Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Cole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes chores when farmers were either fatally or seriously injured and required emergency medical treatment as a result of overturns of tractors with or without rollover protective structures (ROPS. Data from the 2002 Kentucky Farm Tractor Overturn Survey were used for this study. The data were collected by a telephone survey of a population-based random sample of 6063 (7.98% of Kentucky’s 76,017 farm operators as listed in the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service database. Of farm operators interviewed, 551 (9.1% reported 603 overturns and 5512 (90.9% reported no overturns in the history of their farm, covering a period from 1925 to February 2002. Only the latest overturn was considered to improve recall accuracy. In addition, since the 1925 to 1959 time period had only 49 (8.1% of the overturns reported, (14 farmers did not provide the year of most recent overturn; only data from the 1960 to 2002 period (approximately 41 years were used. After making these adjustments, incidents evaluated included 25 cases (one fatal and four serious nonfatal injuries that involved ROPS-equipped tractor overturns and 88 cases (24 fatal and 64 serious nonfatal injuries that involved non-ROPS tractor overturns. Chores at highest risk for tractor overturns were identified for which educational and ROPS retrofit interventions could be emphasized. The highest frequency of overturn-related fatalities and nonfatal injuries were associated with hay harvesting, rotary mowing, and on-farm travel chores. These three chores represented 68.2% of fatal events and 50.0% of permanent and 56.6% of temporary disability overturn incidents. Tragically, in countries such as India and China with emerging mechanization, a large majority of tractors are produced without ROPS that can be expected to result in the same overturn-related epidemic of deaths experienced in highly mechanized countries, despite evidence of the protection provided by ROPS.

  8. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  10. Acute Chemical Incidents With Injured First Responders, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Natalia; Wu, Jennifer; Yang, Alice; Orr, Maureen

    2018-04-01

    IntroductionFirst responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs. To learn more about such injuries, we performed descriptive analysis and looked for trends. The percentage of responders among all injured people in chemical incidents has not changed over the years. Firefighters were the most frequently injured group of responders, followed by police officers. Respiratory system problems were the most often reported injury, and the respiratory irritants, ammonia, methamphetamine-related chemicals, and carbon monoxide were the chemicals more often associated with injuries. Most of the incidents with responder injuries were caused by human error or equipment failure. Firefighters wore personal protective equipment (PPE) most frequently and police officers did so rarely. Police officers' injuries were mostly associated with exposure to ammonia and methamphetamine-related chemicals. Most responders did not receive basic awareness-level hazardous material training. All responders should have at least basic awareness-level hazardous material training to recognize and avoid exposure. Research on improving firefighter PPE should continue. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:211-221).

  11. The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2018-01-02

    The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognized as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has been recognized as a pervasive young driver problem. Though progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilization and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates. The aim of the research was to explore sex differences in self-reported risky driving behaviors of young drivers, including the associations with crash involvement, in a sample of young drivers attending university in Colombia. The Spanish version of the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS-Sp) was applied in an online survey to a sample of 392 students (225 males) aged 16-24 years attending a major university. Appropriate comparative statistics and logistic regression modeling were used when analyzing the data. Males reported consistently more risky driving behaviors, with approximately one quarter of all participants reporting risky driving exposure. Males reported greater crash involvement, with violations such as speeding associated with crash involvement for both males and females. Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviors as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviors than young female drivers, a finding consistent with the behaviors of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investigate how these

  12. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction in Fatalities, Ambulance Calls, and Hospital Admissions for Road Trauma After Implementation of New Traffic Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Herbert; Brasher, Penelope; Erdelyi, Shannon; Desapriya, Edi; Asbridge, Mark; Purssell, Roy; Macdonald, Scott; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the public health benefits of traffic laws targeting speeding and drunk drivers (British Columbia, Canada, September 2010). Methods. We studied fatal crashes and ambulance dispatches and hospital admissions for road trauma, using interrupted time series with multiple nonequivalent comparison series. We determined estimates of effect using linear regression models incorporating an autoregressive integrated moving average error term. We used neighboring jurisdictions (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Washington State) as external controls. Results. In the 2 years after implementation of the new laws, significant decreases occurred in fatal crashes (21.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.3, 26.4) and in hospital admissions (8.0%; 95% CI = 0.6, 14.9) and ambulance calls (7.2%; 95% CI = 1.1, 13.0) for road trauma. We found a very large reduction in alcohol-related fatal crashes (52.0%; 95% CI = 34.5, 69.5), and the benefits of the new laws are likely primarily the result of a reduction in drinking and driving. Conclusions. These findings suggest that laws calling for immediate sanctions for dangerous drivers can reduce road trauma and should be supported. PMID:25121822

  14. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  15. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  17. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  18. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included

  19. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  20. Fatal acute pulmonary injury associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Pieter; Nollet, Joke; Benoit, Dominique; Praet, Marleen; Caes, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To report a case of fatal alveolar hemorrhage associated with the use of everolimus in a patient who underwent a solid organ transplant. In a 71-year-old cardiac transplant patient, cyclosporine was replaced with everolimus because of worsening renal function. Over the following weeks, the patient developed nonproductive cough and increasing dyspnea. His condition deteriorated to acute respiratory failure with hemoptysis, requiring hospital admission. Bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates were apparent on chest X-ray and computed tomography. Cardiac failure was ruled out and empiric antimicrobial therapy was initiated. Additional extensive workup could not document opportunistic infection. Everolimus was discontinued and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was initiated. Despite this, the patient required invasive mechanical ventilation and died because of refractory massive hemoptysis. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor approved for use as an immunosuppressant and antineoplastic agent. Its main advantage over calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine) is a distinct safety profile. Although it has become clear that everolimus induces pulmonary toxicity more frequently than initially thought, most published cases thus far represented mild and reversible disease, and none was fatal. Here, we report a case of pulmonary toxicity developing over weeks following the introduction of everolimus, in which a fatal outcome could not be prevented by drug withdrawal and corticosteroid treatment. The association of everolimus and this syndrome was probable according to the Naranjo probability scale. This case indicates that with the increasing use of everolimus, clinicians should be aware of the rare, but life-threatening manifestation of pulmonary toxicity.

  1. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  2. Drinking-driving fatalities and consumption of beer, wine and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Asbridge, Mark; Suurvali, Helen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2006-07-01

    Drinking-driving is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Canada. The purpose of this paper was to examine factors that influenced drinking driver deaths in Ontario. We examined the impact of per capita consumption of total alcohol, and of beer, wine and spirits separately, on drinking-driving deaths in Ontario from 1962 to 1996, as well as the impact of the introduction of Canada's per se law and the founding of People to Reduce Impaired Driving Everywhere - Mothers Against Drunk Driving (PRIDE - MADD) Canada. We utilised time-series analyses with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. As total alcohol consumption increased, drinking driving fatalities increased. The introduction of Canada's per se law, and of PRIDE-MADD Canada, acted to reduce drinking driving death rates. Among the specific beverage types, only consumption of beer had a significant impact on drinking driver deaths. Several factors were identified that acted to increase and decrease drinking driver death rates. Of particular interest was the observation of the impact of beer consumption on these death rates. In North America, beer is taxed at a lower rate than other alcoholic beverages. The role of taxation policies as determinants of drinking-driving deaths is discussed.

  3. Fatality as a Feature of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sada Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of an interesting clinical scenario, we want to introduce a discussion about fatality in our daily practice and the need to accept that. An 80 year-old man with non-traumatic spontaneous bleeding tendency came to the clinics. Although being on warfarin as a consequence of primary thrombotic prophylaxis due to an atrial fibrillation, full assessment was performed. Not only the rare entity found on him, but also the severe complication that happened afterwards challenged clinicians and led them to risky treatment options.

  4. A fatal case of Perthes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Jobé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perthes syndrome, or traumatic asphyxia, is a clinical syndrome associating cervicofacial cyanosis with cutaneous petechial haemorrhages and subconjonctival bleeding resulting from severe sudden compressive chest trauma. Deep inspiration and a Valsalva maneuver just prior to rapid and severe chest compression, are responsible for the development of this syndrome. Current treatment is symptomatic: urgent relief of chest compression and cardiopulmonary resuscitation if needed. Outcome may be satisfactory depending on the duration and severity of compression. Prolonged thoracic compression may sometimes lead to cerebral anoxia, irreversible neurologic damage and death. We report a fatal case of Perthes syndrome resulting from an industrial accident.

  5. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  6. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  7. [Fatal air embolism during open eye surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermigny, F; Daelman, F; Guinot, P-G; Hubert, V; Jezraoui, P; Thomas, F; Milazzo, S; Dupont, H

    2008-10-01

    Gas embolism is well known for a specific subset of surgical interventions. Prevention and early detection are the main objectives of the anesthetic and surgical team. However, it may exceptionally occur during eye surgery with dramatic outcomes. We report the case of a 51-year-old man, ASA physical status 1, who presented a cardiac arrest during an open eye surgery for the extraction of a foreign body with intraocular air injection. Multiple organ failure has not been improved by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the outcome was fatal.

  8. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatta M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michela Gatta,1 Francesco Dal Santo,1 Alessio Rago,1 Andrea Spoto,2 Pier Antonio Battistella1 1Childhood Adolescence Family Unit, Ulss 16 – Padua University, 2Department of General Psychology, Padua University, Padova, Italy Introduction: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI.Purpose: This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects.Patients and methods: This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33 included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79 were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist.Results: Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder.Conclusion: Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. Keywords: NSSI, self-cutting, psychiatric

  9. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  10. The burden of infection in severely injured trauma patients and the relationship with admission shock severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine; Davenport, Ross; Willett, Keith; Brohi, Karim

    2014-03-01

    Infection following severe injury is common and has a major impact on patient outcomes. The relationship between patient, injury, and physiologic characteristics with subsequent infections is not clearly defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the drivers and burden of all-cause infection in critical care trauma patients. A prospective cohort study of severely injured adult patients admitted to critical care was conducted. Data were collected prospectively on patient and injury characteristics, baseline physiology, coagulation profiles, and blood product use. Patients were followed up daily for infectious episodes and other adverse outcomes while in the hospital. Three hundred patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] >15) were recruited. In 48 hours or less, 29 patients (10%) died, leaving a cohort of 271. One hundred forty-one patients (52%) developed at least one infection. Three hundred four infections were diagnosed overall. Infection and noninfection groups were matched for age, sex, mechanism, and ISS. Infection rates were greater with any degree of admission shock and threefold higher in the most severely shocked cohort (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, base deficit (odds ratio [OR], 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.94; p < 0.001) and lactate (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69; p = 0.05) were independently associated with the development of infection. Outcomes were significantly worse for the patients with infection. In multivariate logistic regression, infection was the only factor independently associated with multiple-organ failure (p < 0.001; OR, 15.4; 95% CI, 8.2-28.9; r = 0.402), ventilator-free days (p < 0.001; β, -4.48; 95% CI, -6.7 to -2.1; r = 0.245), critical care length of stay (p < 0.001; β, 13.2; 95% CI, 10.0-16.4; r = 0.466), and hospital length of stay (p < 0.001; β, 31.1; 95% CI, 24.0-38.2; r = 0.492). Infectious complications are a burden for severely injured patients and occur early in the critical care stay

  11. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-06-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  12. A collection of evidence for the impact of the economic recession on road fatalities in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Louise; Wallbank, Caroline; Broughton, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    There was a considerable reduction in the number of fatalities on British roads between 2007 and 2010. This substantial change led to debate as to the cause of the reduction. Multiple sources of information and evidence have been collated including STATS19 road accident data, population data, socio-demographic data, economic patterns, weather trends and traffic and vehicle data. Summary analyses of these data sources show a reduction in overall traffic, a large reduction in HGV traffic, a reduction in young male drivers, a reduction in speeding, and a reduction in drink driving during the recession period. All of these reductions can be associated with a reduction in fatal accidents and have led to the conclusion that the economic recession changed behaviours in such a way that fewer people were killed on the roads in Britain during this period. Copyright © 2015 TRL Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatal falls in the US construction industry, 1990 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, J; Forst, L; Chen, H Y; Conroy, L

    2001-10-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) database allows for the detailed analysis of risk factors surrounding fatal occupational events. This study used IMIS data to (1) perform a risk factor analysis of fatal construction falls, and (2) assess the impact of the February 1995 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart M OSHA fall protection regulations for construction by calculating trends in fatal fall rates. In addition, IMIS data on fatal construction falls were compared with data from other occupational fatality surveillance systems. For falls in construction, the study identified several demographic factors that may indicate increased risk. A statistically significant downward trend in fatal falls was evident in all construction and within several construction categories during the decade. Although the study failed to show a statistically significant intervention effect from the new OSHA regulations, it may have lacked the power to do so.

  14. Neglecting safety precautions may lead to trenching fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, J Harold; Furches, Lisa K; Radcliffe, Mike; Schriver, William R; Wagner, John P

    2004-06-01

    Trench collapses ranked as the seventh leading cause of the possible twenty-nine causes of OSHA-inspected fatal construction events during the period 1991-2001. This study aims to examine why these fatalities occurred. Forty-four case files from OSHA inspections of fatal trench collapses were reviewed. Improper protection of the excavation site where work was taking place was the leading fatality cause. Several organizational or physical conditions were present at many fatal sites; the most frequent was that no training had been provided for trenching. Presence of a competent, diligent person at the site would have prohibited most fatalities. The top cited violation was lack of protection, that is, benching, shoring, sloping, trench boxes, etc. (29 CFR 1926.652 (a) (1)). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Work-related agricultural fatalities in Australia, 1982-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, S M; Driscoll, T R; Harrison, J E; Frommer, M S; Leigh, J

    1993-06-01

    Work-related agricultural fatalities were examined as part of a larger population-based study of all work-related fatalities in Australia in the period 1982-1984. A total of 257 farm-related fatalities were identified, of which 223 were deaths of persons in the employed civilian labor force (19.4 deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and 34 were deaths of children less than 15 years of age. The fatality incidence was higher among men, older age groups, and nonmanagers in general and in certain occupations in particular. Mobile mechanical equipment (particularly tractors) was the main fatal agent, roll-overs accounting for many of the fatalities. Better provision of information to agricultural workers, improvements in compliance to and enforcement of legislation, and changes in farming work practices are recommended to improve the safety of farms and farm work.

  16. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  17. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon. Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80% were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’, which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1 co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2 bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3 operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1 The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2 The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3

  18. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  19. Petrochemical industry drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  20. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  1. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  2. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  3. The Effects of Vehicle Redesign on the Risk of Driver Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Lund, Adrian K

    2015-01-01

    This study updates a 2006 report that estimated the historical effects of vehicle design changes on driver fatality rates in the United States, separate from the effects of environmental and driver behavior changes during the same period. In addition to extending the period covered by 8 years, this study estimated the effect of design changes by model year and vehicle type. Driver death rates for consecutive model years of vehicle models without design changes were used to estimate the vehicle aging effect and the death rates that would have been expected if the entire fleet had remained unchanged from the 1985 calendar year. These calendar year estimates are taken to be the combined effect of road environment and motorist behavioral changes, with the difference between them and the actual calendar year driver fatality rates reflecting the effect of changes in vehicle design and distribution of vehicle types. The effects of vehicle design changes by model year were estimated for cars, SUVs, and pickups by computing driver death rates for model years 1984-2009 during each of their first 3 full calendar years of exposure and comparing with the expected rates if there had been no design changes. As reported in the 2006 study, had there been no changes in the vehicle fleet, driver death risk would have declined during calendar years 1985-1993 and then slowly increased from 1993 to 2004. The updated results indicate that the gradual increase would have continued through 2006, after which driver fatality rates again would have declined through 2012. Overall, it is estimated that there were 7,700 fewer driver deaths in 2012 than there would have been had vehicle designs not changed. Cars were the first vehicle type whose design safety generally exceeded that of the 1984 model year (starting in model year 1996), followed by SUVs (1998 models) and pickups (2002 models). By the 2009 model year, car driver fatality risk had declined 51% from its high in 1994, pickup driver

  4. Reconstruction of Injured Carotid Artery in a Comatose Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Zenelaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A man 30 years old,was brought to the emergency department after being injured on the left side of the neck area.Massive bleeding from the wound caused by glass was observed.The patient was in cerebral coma and hemorrahagic shock.The eye pupils remained isochoric during and after the operation.He was taken immediately at the surgery room.The bleeding was stopped by using external compression.Exposure of the left neck blood vessels was carried out.The left common carotid artery and internal jugular vein was revealed.A provisory Pruitt-Inahara shunt was put in the common carotid artery,while teh injured vein was ligated.The suture of the left common carotid artery using Prolen 6-0 completed the procedure.After the surgery the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit.About two hours later he woke up,conscious.The left thoracic drainage because of the hemothorax was applied in the second postoperative day.The patient was lively and discharged from the hospitall in the 14-th postoperative day.The right facial paresis and mild left side hemiparesis persisted.Two months after the event no residual neurologic deficits were observed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 598-601

  5. Diagnostic radiology on multiple injured patients: interdisciplinary management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Kanz, K.G.; Mutschler, W.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a radiologist within the admitting area of an emergency department and his capability as a member of the trauma team have a major impact on the role of diagnostic radiology in trauma care. The knowledge of clinical decision criteria, algorithms, and standards of patient care are essential for the acceptance within a trauma team. We present an interdisciplinary management concept of diagnostic radiology for trauma patients, which comprises basic diagnosis, organ diagnosis, radiological ABC, and algorithms of early clinical care. It is the result of a prospective study comprising over 2000 documented multiple injured patients. The radiologist on a trauma team should support trauma surgery and anesthesia in diagnostic and clinical work-up. The radiological ABC provides a structured approach for diagnostic imaging in all steps of the early clinical care of the multiple injured patient. Radiological ABC requires a reevaluation in cases of equivocal findings or difficulties in the clinical course. Direct communication of radiological findings with the trauma team enables quick clinical decisions. In addition, the radiologist can priority-oriented influence the therapy by using interventional procedures. The clinical radiologist is an active member of the interdisciplinary trauma team, not only providing diagnostic imaging but also participating in clinical decisions. (orig.) [de

  6. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  7. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  8. Behavior and lifestyle characteristics of male Kuwaiti drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemoud, Ali M; Simmons, Rodney J; Al-Asfoor, May M

    2010-08-01

    The high traffic accident risk among young drivers is a well-known and well-documented fact in most countries. Lifestyle has proven to affect driving behavior as well as accident risk. This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young male Kuwaiti drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 302 male Kuwaiti drivers (mean age=28 years; range 25-35 years) answer 39 questions related to behavioral and social factors, road conditions, police enforcement, and life satisfaction. They also report their involvement in accidents and traffic violations. The questionnaire's validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.7) were achieved. Principal component analysis reduced the 39 items on the questionnaire to 5 factors. Inadequate police enforcement is strongly correlated (r=0.862) to accident risk and traffic violations and is thus considered the best predictor of traffic accidents in Kuwait. As driving-related incidents (on-the-job and off-the-job) are a significant source of fatalities and lost-work-days, the study points to the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of comprehensive safety programs for industry. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Adolescent drivers: a developmental perspective on risk, proficiency, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2008-09-01

    Despite considerable improvement in the rates of crashes, injuries, and fatalities among adolescent drivers, attributable in part to effective interventions such as graduated driver licensing, these rates and their associated health risks remain unacceptably high. To understand the sources of risky driving among teens, as well as to identify potential avenues for further advances in prevention, this article presents a review of the relevant features of contemporary research on adolescent development. Current research offers significant advances in the understanding of the sources of safe driving, proficient driving, and risky driving among adolescents. This multifaceted perspective--as opposed to simple categorization of good versus bad driving--provides new opportunities for using insights on adolescent development to enhance prevention. Drawing on recent work on adolescent physical, neural, and cognitive development, we argue for approaches to prevention that recognize both the strengths and the limitations of adolescent drivers, with particular attention to the acquisition of expertise, regulatory competence, and self-regulation in the context of perceived risk. This understanding of adolescent development spotlights the provision of appropriate and effective scaffolding, utilizing the contexts of importance to adolescents--parents, peers, and the broader culture of driving--to support safe driving and to manage the inherent risks in learning to do so.

  10. The prevalence of drugs and alcohol found in road traffic fatalities: a comparative study of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Woolacott, Helen; Braithwaite, Robin

    2009-03-01

    Researchers have studied the involvement of drugs and alcohol in fatal road traffic incidents, but with particular emphasis on the possible impairment of the driver. This paper describes a comparative study of drug and alcohol findings in various victim groups (drivers of cars, vans or lorries, car passengers, motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, cyclists and pedestrians) between 2000 and 2006. Post-mortem blood and urine specimens submitted were analysed by immunoassay, GC-NPD, GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. The results of 1047 cases indicated 54% of all victims were positive for drugs and/or alcohol, with the highest percentage of positive findings occurring in pedestrians (63%). Males between the ages of 17-24 were most likely to be involved in a road traffic accident, whether being in control of a vehicle (driver) or involved indirectly (car passenger, pedestrian, motorcycle passenger). A wide range of drugs were detected (e.g., drugs of abuse, anti-convulsants, anti-histamines, anti-inflammatories, anti-psychotics, cardiac drugs and over-the-counter products), but alcohol and cannabinoids were the most frequent substances across the victim groups. When detected, alcohol was commonly above the legal driving limit in blood and urine (>63% in those in control and >60% not in control). Overall, the presence of drugs and/or alcohol was of similar frequency in those victims in control (55% of driver, 48% of motorcyclists, 33% of cyclists) and not in control of a vehicle (52% of car passengers, 63% of pedestrians). This degree of frequency strongly implicates the involvement of drugs and alcohol in road traffic incidents and infers an effect on driving ability and individual impairment.

  11. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. US policies to enhance older driver safety: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Barton, Kelli N; Coyle, Caitlin; Lee, Chae Man

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature related to state policies concerning older drivers and to draw policy conclusions about which policies appear to work to reduce older driver crashes and to identify areas needed for further research. Specific policies examined in this paper concern medical reporting and medical review, license renewal processes, and driver testing. A study was included in the systematic review if it met the following criteria: published in English between 1991and January 2013; included data on human subjects aged 65 and older residing in the United States; included information on at least one policy related to older drivers; and had a transportation-related outcome variable (e.g., crash, fatality, renewal). A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies investigated license renewal and seven articles examined medical reporting. In-person license renewal requirements were associated with reduced risk for fatal crashes. Restricted licenses were associated with reduced number of miles driven per week. More intensive renewal requirements and being the subject of a medical report to the licensing authority was associated with delicensure. Given the importance of driving to mobility, quality of life, and public safety, more research is needed.

  13. [Optimized resource mobilization and quality of treatment of severely injured patients through a structured trauma room alarm system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, C; Roessler, M; Kurlemann, T; Dresing, K; Stürmer, K M; Lehmann, W; Sehmisch, S

    2017-12-12

    The treatment of severely injured patients in the trauma resuscitation unit (TRU) requires an interdisciplinary and highly professional trauma team approach. The complete team needs to be waiting for the patient in the TRU on arrival. Treating severely injured patients in the TRU, the trauma team connects the initial preclinical emergency stabilization with the subsequent sophisticated treatment. Thus, the trauma team depends on concise information from the emergency personnel at the scene to provide its leader with further information as well as an accurate alarm including all departments necessary to stabilize the patient in the TRU. Aiming at an accurate and most efficient trauma team alarm, this study was designed to provide and analyze an alarm system which mobilizes the trauma team in a stepwise fashion depending on the pattern of injuries and the threat to life. The trauma team alarm system was analyzed in a prospective data acquisition at a level I trauma center over a period of 12 months. Evaluation followed the acquisition phase and provided comparison to the status prior to the establishment of the alarm system. All items underwent statistical testing using t‑tests (p  0.01). The duration from arrival of the patient in the TRU to the initial multislice computed tomography (CT) scan was reduced by 6 min while the total period of treatment in the TRU was reduced by 17 min. After the alarm system to gradually mobilize the trauma team was put into action, team members left the TRU if unneeded prior to finishing the initial treatment in only 4% of the cases. The patient fatality rate was 8.8% (injury severity score, ISS = 23 points) after establishment of the alarm system compared to 12.9% (ISS = 25 points) before. The implementation of an accurate and patient status-based alarm system to mobilize the trauma team can improve the quality of treatment while the duration of treatment of the severely injured patients in the TRU can be decreased. It

  14. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  15. A fatal poisoning involving 2-fluorofentanyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Rosendal, Ingrid

    Background/introduction: A fatal intoxication involving 2-fluorofentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, is reported. This is the first serious case associated with 2-fluorofentanyl that to our knowledge have been reported. 2-fluorofentanyl is the common name for N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-[1...... and gastric content samples were submitted for toxicological examination; all samples were screened by ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOFMS) and quantified by specific UPLC-MS/MS methods. Powder recovered from the scene of death was identified......-mortem femoral blood concentrations found were: 2-fluorofentanyl 0.012 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS); alcohol production as the body was moderate decomposed; buprenorphine 0.0004 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; quetiapine 0.088 mg/kg (UPLC-MS/MS) prescribed; venlafaxine 0.089 mg...

  16. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  17. Fatal Primary Meningoencephalitis Caused By Naegleria Fowleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariq, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Farooqi, B. J.; Husaain, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection. (author)

  18. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  20. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  1. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  2. Exploring Challenges in Developing a Smart and Effective Assistive System for Improving the Experience of the Elderly Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sebin; Meng, Hong-Ying; Qin, Sheng-Feng

    2017-09-01

    As the overall population ages, driving-related accidents and injuries, associated with elderly drivers, have risen. Existing research about elderly drivers mainly focuses on factual data collection and analysis, indicating the elderly's growing fatal accident rates and their different behaviours compared to younger drivers. However, few research has focused on design-led practical solutions to mitigate the elderly's growing fatal accidents, by considering their usability and body conditions, afflicting the elderly, such as decreased vision, hearing, and reaction times. In this paper, first, current worldwide situations on growing fatal accident rates for elderly drivers is reviewed and the key impact factors are identified and discussed with regarding to usability and design trend in the automotive technology for elderly. Second, existing smart vehicle technology-based solutions to promote safe driving are explored and their pros and cons are discussed and analysed. Most of solutions are not created by people with driving difficulties, which are caused by health problems most commonly afflicting the elderly. Thirdly, diverse design-led research activities are taken, such as a survey, observation, and interviews to gain new understanding of what kinds of driving problems elderly drivers have and demonstrate how new system concepts could be developed for the elderly's benefits. Finally, it is found that the elderly's low vision and late reaction are main factors causing their driving difficulties. Based on this finding, usable vehicle system design ideas have been proposed, by utilising facial expression sensing technology as a solution. The proposed solutions would ensure reducing both the elderly's driving problems and high fatal accident rates and provide a more enjoyable driving environment for the elderly population.

  3. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive ... of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour ...

  4. Predominance of alcohol and illicit drugs among traffic accidents fatalities in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Peres, Mariana Dadalto; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; de Paula, Daniela Mendes Louzada; de Faria, Maria das Graças Corrêa; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

    2016-10-02

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use among victims of fatal traffic accidents in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil, during the period 2011-2012. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of drugs from 391 deceased victims of traffic crashes that occurred in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil. The victims included drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, day of the week, and period of the year in which the accidents occurred were recorded. The analyses were performed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization method for alcohol and by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis. The results showed that 44.8% (n = 175) of all cases were positive for alcohol and/or illicit drugs. The detection of alcohol and/or drugs was more frequent in young males, aged 17 to 34, whose samples were positive in 46.8% of cases. Small differences among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians were observed (drivers = 45.9%, passengers = 46.4%, and pedestrians = 45.6%). In general, the most prevalent drug was alcohol, with 141 positive cases (36.1%), followed by cocaine, with 47 positive cases (12%). Amphetamines and cannabis had positivity rates of 4.1 and 4.3%, with 16 and 17 positive cases, respectively. The combined use of alcohol and other drugs was found in 36 cases (9.2%). Crack cocaine use was observed in 27.7% of the positive cases for cocaine. For the effective reduction of traffic accidents related to driving under influence of drugs (DUID), we suggest the intensification of enforcement actions against the use of alcohol by drivers, the definition of which illicit drugs should be surveyed, as well the cutoff values, the promotion of changing legislation to oblige drivers to provide samples for toxicological testing, and the establishment of public information programs and specific actions aimed at young drivers to

  5. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Hanson, Andrea; Shah, Ronak; Reed, Rebekah; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight, such as NASA's proposed three-year mission to Mars, provides unique and novel challenges when compared with human spaceflight to date. Extended distance and multi-year missions introduce new elements of operational complexity and additional risk. These elements include: inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, uncharted psychosocial conditions, and communication delays that create a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these unique challenges, the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a Mars mission. On a Mars mission, resource limitations will significantly constrain available medical capabilities, and require a paradigm shift in the approach to medical system design and risk mitigation for crew health. To respond to this need for a new paradigm, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element is assessing each Mars mission phase-transit, surface stay, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and return-to identify and prioritize medical needs for the journey beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). ExMC is addressing both planned medical operations, and unplanned contingency medical operations that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. This assessment is being used to derive a gap analysis and studies to support meaningful medical capabilities trades. These trades, in turn, allow the exploration medical system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach, and to manage the risks associated with the medical limitations inherent in an exploration class mission. This paper outlines the conceptual drivers used to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this paradigm. Keywords: (Max 6 keywords: exploration, medicine, spaceflight, Mars, research, NASA)

  6. Effects of hypertonic dextrose on injured rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduracioglu, Burak; Ulkar, Bulent; Sabuncuoglu, Bizden T; Can, Belgin; Bayrakci, Kenan

    2006-04-01

    Histological examination of proliferative therapy effects on the healing process of muscular injury. We performed this study between March and August 2002 at Ankara University, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Animal Experiments, Ankara, Turkey. We used an experimental animal model by conducting a standardized cut injury of the gastrocnemius muscle in 30 adult male albino rats, which we divided into 2 groups; proliferative therapy group and control group. We evaluated the injured rat muscles by light microscopy on the fifth, eight, and twelfth day of injury. The muscular regeneration process began at day 5 in both the control and proliferative therapy groups. The proliferative therapy group revealed a prominent inflammatory reaction, fibroblast migration, and necrosis with accompanying regeneration and excessive connective tissue formation. We cannot consider proliferative therapy an appropriate treatment modality for muscular injuries, unless there is evidence of normal muscle physiology and biomechanics post traumatically.

  7. Can injured adult CNS axons regenerate by recapitulating development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Bradke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS. During development, the extracellular environment directs axon growth and circuit formation. In adulthood, by contrast, extracellular factors, such as myelin and the extracellular matrix, restrict axon growth. Here, we discuss whether the reactivation of developmental processes can elicit axon regeneration in the injured CNS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  9. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  11. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  12. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  13. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  14. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  15. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic head injuries in the forensic setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cryan, J

    2010-11-01

    Excessive drinking increases the risk of dying unnaturally. In the Republic of Ireland such deaths are referred to the State Pathologist. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is routinely measured. We created a database of cases presenting to the State Pathologist over a nine year period (2000-2008 inclusive) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol and fatal traumatic brain injuries (FTBI). Of a total of 1778 cases, 332 (275 Male [M]; 57 Female [F]) died of head injuries. Fatalities were highest in males aged 36-50 (N = 97) and 26-35 (N = 73). Assaults (N = 147), falls (N = 95), road traffic accidents (RTA) (N = 50) and suicide (N = 15) were the commonest modes of presentation. A positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found in 36% of assaults, 41% of falls and 40% of suicides. In the RTA group BAC was positive in 59% of pedestrians, 33% of drivers and 14% of passengers. Alcohol clearly plays a significant role in FTBI in the forensic setting.

  16. Profile of non-fatal injuries due to road traffic accidents from a industrial town in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Pankaj; Bhawalkar, J S; Jadhav, S L; Banerjee, Amitav

    2013-01-01

    India has one of the highest road traffic accident rates in the world. To lessen this burden, information on the contributing factors is necessary. We studied a series of cases of non-fatal road traffic accidents in two tertiary care hospitals in Pimpri, Pune, India. A total of 212 non-fatal road traffic accidents admitted over a period of one year in these two hospitals constituted the study sample. The study variables were, the gender of the accident victims, mode of accident, days of week on which the accident took place, time of day when the injury was sustained, part of the body injured, nature of injury, and self-reported reasons for the accident. data were summarized using percentages. The Chi-square test for goodness of fit was applied, to see whether there was any association between the different weekdays or time of day and the accidents. MALE : female ratio was almost 5 : 1, which was statistically significant (Chi-Square for goodness of fit = 95.11, df = 1, P accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and the least around midweek (Wednesday). This pattern was also statistically significant (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 30.09, df = 6, P road users contributed to almost 80% of the cases of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Accidents were more likely in the time zone of 8 pm to midnight, followed by 4 pm to 8 pm (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 89.58, df = 5, P accident. Almost half (46.22%) of the injured admitted to drinking alcohol on a regular basis. Wide pavements and safe zebra crossings should be provided for pedestrians, as the highest casualty in this study were pedestrians. More accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and in the late evenings. Extra supervision by traffic police may be considered on Sundays / Holidays and the day following. Roads should be well lit to improve visibility after sunset.

  17. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  18. Research on driver fatigue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ouyang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the main causes of frequent traffic accidents. In this case, driver fatigue detection system has very important significance in avoiding traffic accidents. This paper presents a real-time method based on fusion of multiple facial features, including eye closure, yawn and head movement. The eye state is classified as being open or closed by a linear SVM classifier trained using HOG features of the detected eye. The mouth state is determined according to the width-height ratio of the mouth. The head movement is detected by head pitch angle calculated by facial landmark. The driver's fatigue state can be reasoned by the model trained by above features. According to experimental results, drive fatigue detection obtains an excellent performance. It indicates that the developed method is valuable for the application of avoiding traffic accidents caused by driver's fatigue.

  19. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  20. Effect of Using Different Vehicle Weight Groups on the Estimated Relationship Between Mass Reduction and U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-08-22

    This report recalculates the estimated relationship between vehicle mass and societal fatality risk, using alternative groupings by vehicle weight, to test whether the trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction as case vehicle mass increases, holds over smaller increments of the range in case vehicle masses. The NHTSA baseline regression model estimates the relationship using for two weight groups for cars and light trucks; we re-estimated the mass reduction coefficients using four, six, and eight bins of vehicle mass. The estimated effect of mass reduction on societal fatality risk was not consistent over the range in vehicle masses in these weight bins. These results suggest that the relationship indicated by the NHTSA baseline model is a result of other, unmeasured attributes of the mix of vehicles in the lighter vs. heavier weight bins, and not necessarily the result of a correlation between mass reduction and societal fatality risk. An analysis of the average vehicle, driver, and crash characteristics across the various weight groupings did not reveal any strong trends that might explain the lack of a consistent trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction in heavier vehicles.

  1. The influence of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes on risky driving behaviour among post-graduate university students in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoo, Shaneel; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a serious global health risk, and evidence suggests that young drivers are significantly overrepresented among those injured or killed in RTAs. This study explores the role of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes as correlates for risky driving practices among drivers, drawing comparisons between age and gender. The study used a cross-sectional survey design, with a sample of 306 post-graduate university students from two universities in Durban, South Africa, who completed the self-administered questionnaire. The results indicate that drivers with higher driver anger, sensation seeking, urgency, and with a lack of premeditation and perseverance in daily activities were statistically more likely to report riskier driving acts. Males reported significantly more acts of risky driving behaviour (RDB) than females. Driver attitudes significantly predicted self-reported acts of RDB on most indicators. Older drivers (25 years and older) had safer driver attitudes and a lower sense of sensation seeking and urgency in life. Interventions targeting young drivers, which focus on impeding the manifestation of anger, impulsivity and sensation seeking are recommended. Also, the empirical support for the attitude-behaviour hypothesis evidenced in this study vindicates the development or continuation of interventions that focus on this dynamic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of sensitivity to reward and punishment, propensity for sensation seeking, depression, and anxiety on the risky behaviour of novice drivers: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K

    2012-05-01

    Young novice drivers are significantly more likely to be killed or injured in car crashes than older, experienced drivers. Graduated driver licensing (GDL), which allows the novice to gain driving experience under less-risky circumstances, has resulted in reduced crash incidence; however, the driver's psychological traits are ignored. This paper explores the relationships between gender, age, anxiety, depression, sensitivity to reward and punishment, sensation-seeking propensity, and risky driving. Participants were 761 young drivers aged 17-24 (M=19.00, SD=1.56) with a Provisional (intermediate) driver's licence who completed an online survey comprising socio-demographic questions, the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale, Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale. Path analysis revealed depression, reward sensitivity, and sensation-seeking propensity predicted the self-reported risky behaviour of the young novice drivers. Gender was a moderator; and the anxiety level of female drivers also influenced their risky driving. Interventions do not directly consider the role of rewards and sensation seeking, or the young person's mental health. An approach that does take these variables into account may contribute to improved road safety outcomes for both young and older road users. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  4. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  5. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  6. Sympathoadrenal activation and endotheliopathy are drivers of hypocoagulability and hyperfibrinolysis in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Henriksen, Hanne Herborg; Stensballe, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    were drivers of this condition. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 404 trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 US Trauma Center. Patients with admission rTEG and plasma measurements of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation/damage (syndecan-1......, which was associated with higher plasma adrenaline, syndecan-1, and nucleosomes (all adrenaline, s...... endothelial activation) were independently associated with more hypercoagulable rTEG. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of severely injured trauma patients, rTEG coagulopathy was associated with sympathoadrenal activation, endotheliopathy, and excess mortality. High adrenaline and biomarkers reflecting endothelial...

  7. Consideraciones en tomo a "La fatal arrogancia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández Aguado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author makes here an analysis of Friedrick A. Hayek's The Fatal Conceit. This thinker considers that the best political-economical system for human civilization is capitalism, which has arised in an spontaneous, evolutive and adaptative way without any intention or plan thanks to a deus ex machina. Hayek shows himself as an advocate of capitalism and as an enemy of socialism; he despises solidarity and supports egoism as the motor of economy, for, according to him, without it society would not be where it is now. Hayek imports Darwin's evolutionary theory in order to justify economy's blind and fortuitous development, which in turn explains that capitalism is reached through a series of unforeseen and spontaneous events which are overcomed thanks to adaptation. Hayek draws historicist arguments at some poins, in an invalid way, rejecting everything that looks like socialism, and he makes mistakes where philosophical concepts are dealed with. Hayek's continuous reject towards Aristotle and his political-economical thesis obeys to the fact that the author rejects the Catholic Church, which, according to him, gathered the Aristotelian thesis through saint Thomas Aquinas. Hayek proposes a selfish and capitalist moral which one ought to accept if one does not wish for hunger and poverty.

  8. Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R

    2016-03-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy.

  9. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  10. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  11. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  12. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  13. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Declan J

    2009-06-01

    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection. However, considerable diversity is observed in field populations of each parasite and protection is only assured against homologous challenge. The life cycles of these parasites are complex and involve prolonged exposure to host and vector defence mechanisms. Although the relevant vector mechanisms are poorly defined, protective responses of cattle seem to be tightly focused and variable in their specificity between individuals. This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites.

  14. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  15. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  16. Community Poverty and Child Abuse Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  18. Fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan, 1994-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan by demographic group and occupation for 1994-2005. Data on deaths due to injuries at work from 1994 through 2005 were obtained from the Department of Health which is responsible for the death registration system in Taiwan. Employment data, which were used as the denominators of fatality rates in this study, were retrieved from the Directorate-General of Budget and Accounting Statistics 'Employment and Earnings' database. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in various occupations while controlling for demographic characteristics. Overall fatal occupational injury rates declined during the study period among all demographic groups and occupations. Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decrease of 13.6% a year in machine operators/related workers to a decrease of 35.9% in clerks. The annual decrement was faster for males than for females and for older workers compared to young workers. Despite declining rates, the number of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan remains significant because of the growing work force. Future research should focus on the disparities in fatal injury trends.

  19. A Ten Year Analysis of Fatal Peripheral Vascular Injuries Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Tuncer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral vascular injuries are usually associated with fatal injuries. Early diagnosis and intervention are so vital for improving a favorable outcome for traumatic vascular injuries. As a preventable cause of death, we aimed to evaluate peripheral vascular injuries in overall deaths in ten year period, 2003-2012. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 2845 death cases which had post-mortem examination and autopsy from the 10-year period of 2003-2012 in Eskisehir, Turkey. The mean age of the cases included in the study was 32.5±7.9 years with the highest rate of cases occurring in the 30-39 years age group. Males constituted 89.2% of the victims. The most frequent manner of death was homicide 83.8%.The femoral artery was the most commonly injured vessel 29 cases (78.4%. In this study it was identified that, 33 patients (89.3% died before any medical intervention could be performed. Discussion: Our study shows that, peripheral vascular injuries most commonly caused by sharp objects. The injuries have a low mortality rate when early intervention is made. Autopsies are conducted is very important to explain not only the cause of death but also the treatment process, which would clear the cases of any potential malpractice or negligence claims.

  20. Nordic ski jumping fatalities in the United States: a 50-year summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R

    1988-06-01

    Nordic ski-jumping fatalities are rare events. Six jumping fatalities have occurred in the United States during the past 50 years. The fatality rate for nordic ski jumping, estimated to be roughly 12 fatalities/100,000 participants annually, appears to be within the range of fatality rates for other "risky" outdoor sports. Cervical fractures appear to be the most frequent fatal ski-jumping injury.

  1. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  2. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    2001-01-01

    results on the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and risk of incident and fatal first-ever stroke. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses are based on prospective cohort data from 12 878 eligible men and women aged 45-84 years, who participated in the first health examination...... adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke...

  3. Headlamps for light based driver assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, M.; Kleinkes, M.

    2008-04-01

    Driving at night is dangerous. Although only 25% of all driving tasks are performed at night, nearly half of all fatal accidents happen in this time. In order to increase safety when driving under poor visibility conditions, automotive front lighting systems have undergone a strong development in the last fifteen years. One important milestone was the introduction of Xenon headlamps in 1992, which provide more and brighter light for road illumination than ever before. Since then the paradigm of simply providing more light has changed toward providing optimised light distributions, which support the driver's perception. A first step in this direction was the introduction of dynamic bend lighting and cornering light in 2003. In 2006 the first full AFS headlamp (Adaptive Front Lighting System) allowed an optimised adoption of the light distribution to the driving situation. These systems use information provided by vehicle sensors and an intelligent algorithm to guide light towards those areas where needed. Nowadays, even more information about the vehicle's environment is available. Image processing systems, for example, allow to detect other traffic participants, their speed and their driving directions. In future headlamp systems these data will be used to constantly regulate the reach of the light distribution thus allowing a maximal reach without providing glare. Moreover, technologies that allow to constantly use a high-beam light distribution are under development. These systems will illuminate the whole traffic area only excluding other traffic participants. LED light sources will play a significant role in these scenarios, since they allow to precisely illuminate certain areas of the road, while neighbouring parts will be left in dark.

  4. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  5. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  6. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  8. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  9. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  10. Social reintegration of traumatic brain-injured: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelle, J-L; Wild, K Von; Onillon, M; Montreuil, M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) may lead to specific handicap, often hidden, mainly due to cognitive and behavioural sequelae. Social re-entry is a long-term, fluctuant and precarious process. The French experience will be illustrated by 6 initiatives answering to 6 challenges to do with TBI specificities:1. bridging the gap, between initial rehabilitation and community re-entry, via transitional units dealing with assessment, retraining, social/vocational orientation and follow-up. Today, there are 30 such units based on multidisciplinary teams.2. assessing recovery by TBI-specific and validated evaluation tools: EBIS holistic document, BNI Screening of higher cerebral functions, Glasgow outcome extended, and QOLIBRI, a TBI-specific quality of life tool.3. promoting specific re-entry programmes founded on limited medication, ecological neuro-psychological rehabilitation, exchange groups and workshops, violence prevention, continuity of care, environmental structuration, and "resocialisation".4. taking into account the "head injured family"5. facilitating recovery after sports-related concussion6. facing medico-legal consequences and compensation: In that perspective, we developed guidelines for TBI-specific expert appraisal, including mandatory neuro-psychological assessment, family interview and an annual forum gathering lawyers and health professionals.

  11. Management of Sexual Disorders in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Vaccaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I such as Sildenafil (Viagra, intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM. Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems.

  12. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  13. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in the injured war fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Joel; Zonies, David; Stewart, Ian; Fang, Raymond; Schreiber, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a recognized complication of traumatic injury. The correlation of an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been studied in the civilian population. We sought to review the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in injured war fighters and determine if peak CK levels correlate with AKI. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted at a US military treatment facility from January to November 2010. Inclusion criteria were active duty patients transported after explosive, penetrating, or blunt injury. Patients with burns or non-trauma-related admissions were excluded. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as a CK level greater than 5,000 U/L. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine the significance for continuous data. Correlations were determined using Spearman's ρ. Significance was set at p Rhabdomyolysis developed in 79 patients (24.8%). The median peak CK for all patients was 4,178 U/L and ranged from 208 U/L to 120,000 U/L. Stage 1, 2, and 3 AKI developed in 56 (17.6%), 3 (0.9%), and 7 (2.2%) patients, respectively. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between peak CK and AKI (r = 0.26, p rhabdomyolysis in combat casualties and would allow for standardized comparisons in future work. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  14. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  15. Corps de ballet: the case of the injured ballet dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S; Wainwright, Steven P

    2003-05-01

    This paper contributes to debate on social constructionism in the sociology of health and illness through a study of injury among ballet dancers. In this empirical study of classical ballet dancers, we outline a phenomenology of the injured and ageing body in terms of a critical commentary on constructionism. We explore dancers' experiences of embodiment to illustrate our critique of recent interpretations of dance as a textual practice. Those forms of social constructionism that define the body as a text provide a forceful attack on discourses of authority and legitimation, but we argue that they are problematic as epistemologies and ontologies of embodiment. Through a phenomenological understanding of the experiences of embodiment, we observe how injury and ageing disrupt the practical accomplishments that underpin the ballet habitus and the dancer's identity. Although ballet injuries can terminate a dancing career, they are accepted as an inevitable part of the vocation of ballet. Our aim is to understand the interaction between injuries, dancers' experiences of discomfort and the social support that emerges from the ballet dancers as a social group. We draw on the concepts of social solidarity and collective consciousness in Emile Durkheim to show that injury is mediated through the social bonding of dancers into a professional ballet company, where injury is accepted as a sign of vocational commitment, and suggest that this 'collective effervescence' gives a novel meaning to the idea of a corps de ballet.

  16. Maladaptation of cerebral perfusion in the spinal cord injured individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho; Hayashida, Kohei [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tilt-induced alteration of cerebral perfusion of spinal cord injured individuals. Supine and upright sitting brain SPECT was performed using a 1-day protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) in 11 SCI individuals (mean age, 32.6 y), with lesions between C3 and T4, ad 5 AB individuals (mean age, 31.4 y). The patients rested on a wheelchair in the supine position. Then, they sat up and, at the same time 555MBq of ECD was injected. The upright SPECT was done. Finally, 740MBq of ECD was injected and supine SPECT was performed again. The SPECT data were acquired with dual head gamma camera (E-cam, Siemens). For semiquantitative analysis, 14 ROIs were drawn on the brain. In the SCI individuals, the radiotracer uptake in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas were significantly decreased in the upright SPECT. No postural changes was evident in the occipital lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus in the SCI individuals. In the AB individuals, there were no such changes on the upright SPECT. Postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas in the SCI individuals might relate to maladaptation of the vascular response during the upright position.

  17. MR imaging of the injured meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naotaka; Imamura, Kiyohiko; Uematsu, Koichi; Iwamura, Yuichi; Ohniwa, Hideo; Ishii, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    MR imagings (0.5 Tesla 5 mm slice, TR/TE: 510-620 msec/27-30) of the injured menisci in 38 knees of 38 patients (28 men and 10 women, with an average age of 25.9) were compared with their arthroscopic findings and classified into two types, the one with linear high-density area and the non-linear one. Menisci with longitudinal tears in 10 knees of 17 and with horizontal tears in 4 of 8 showed a linear high-density area in MRI, but the others including menisci with transverse tears (in 8 knees) or bucket-handle tears (in 7 knees) showed a non-linear high density area. These results may be due to both the angle between the tear and the slice lines of MR imaging, and the degeneration of menisci. The MRI of normal menisci in 10 knees were also investigated. A false-positive high-density area was often seen at the synovia-meniscal junction in the coronal plane of MR imaging and was seen at the posterior or anterior menisci in the saggital plane. (author)

  18. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  20. Distribution of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Schoor M. Letter: effects of marihuana on flying ability. JAMA 230(9):1258 (1974). 8. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M, Bozzetti LP...Simulated flying performance after marihuana intoxication. Aviat Space Environ Med 47(2):124-128 (1976a). 9. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M

  1. Sarcoma de Kaposi clássico fatal Fatal outcome in classic Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Maria Damásio N. Ohe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrito em 1872, o sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia multicêntrica rara originária de células endoteliais com manifestação cutânea e extracutânea. A forma clássica é muito mais frequente em homens idosos, com evolução prolongada e boa resposta a quimioterapia e radioterapia. Apresentaremos um caso de sarcoma de Kaposi clássico com comprometimento cutâneo e visceral em paciente do sexo feminino com rápida evolução fatal.First described in 1872, Kaposi's sarcoma is defined as a rare multifocal tumor that originates in the endothelial cells and presents with cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations. The classic form is most common in elderly men and progression is slow. This tumor responds well to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This report describes a classic case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a woman with skin and visceral manifestations in whom the disease rapidly progressed to a fatal outcome.

  2. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  3. Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...

  4. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Health Tips Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning the public about the overwhelming dangers associated with leaving anyone, ...

  5. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  6. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the country die ...

  7. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  9. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  10. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  11. Situational Factors of Influencing Drivers to Give Precedence to Jaywalking Pedestrians at Signalized Crosswalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. Under a potential conflict between the vehicle and jaywalking pedestrian, giving precedence to the pedestrian will be a proper decision taken by the driver to avoid collision. Field traffic data has been collected by video recording and image processing at two signalized crosswalks. Vehicle speed performance in the single vehicle-pedestrian encounter and platoon vehicle-pedestrian encounter were analyzed for understanding the driver behavior in the conflict process. Binary logic model was proposed to estimate the drivers' giving precedence influenced by the situational factors and the model was validated to predict the drivers' choices accurately. The vehicle speed, pedestrian speed, pedestrian lateral distance and the vehicle longitudinal distance to the conflict point were proved to affect the drivers' choices in platoon driving. The research results would hopefully be helpful to the design of intelligent vehicles and pedestrian protection systems by the knowledge-based decision making process.

  12. The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact driver aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Cole D; Samuel, Siby; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    Speeding greatly attributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a virtual drive was constructed to evaluate how time pressures, or hurried driving, affected driver speed choice and driver behavior. In particular, acceleration profiles, gap acceptance, willingness to pass, and dilemma zone behavior were used, in addition to speed, as measures to evaluate whether being late increased risky and aggressive driving behaviors. Thirty-six drivers were recruited with an equal male/female split and a broad distribution of ages. Financial incentives and completion time goals calibrated from a control group were used to generate a Hurried and Very Hurried experimental group. As compared to the control group, Very Hurried drivers selected higher speeds, accelerated faster after red lights, accepted smaller gaps on left turns, were more likely to pass a slow vehicle, and were more likely to run a yellow light in a dilemma zone situation. These trends were statistically significant and were also evident with the Hurried group but a larger sample would be needed to show statistical significance. The findings from this study provide evidence that hurried drivers select higher speeds and exhibit riskier driving behaviors. These conclusive results have possible implications in areas such as transportation funding and commercial motor vehicle safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  14. Oil industry and road traffic fatalities in contemporary Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasciotti, Luca; Alejo, Didier; Romero, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the effects that oil extraction activities in Colombia have on the number of dead/injured people as a consequence of road-related accidents. Starting in 2004, the increasing exploitation of oil wells in some Colombian departments has worsened the traffic conditions due to the increased presence of trucks transporting crude oil from the wells to the refineries; this phenomenon has not been accompanied by an improvement in the road system with dramatic consequences in terms of road viability. The descriptive and empirical analysis presented here focuses on the period 2004-2011; results from descriptive statistics indicate a positive relationship between the presence of oil extraction activities and the number of either dead/injured people. Panel regressions for the period 2004-2011 confirm that, among other factors, the presence of oil-extraction activities did play a positive and statistical significant role in increasing the number of dead/injured people.

  15. Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    French, Michael; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature - traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982-2011, we conduct separate analyses by age...

  16. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    , respectively) are responsible for this potential. Reviewing the obstetric literature, only six cases of postpartum endometritis caused by C. sordellii, are described - all being fatal. In addition, one lethal case of spontaneous endometritis resulting from C. sordellii is reported. The clinical aspects...... of these cases include: - sudden onset with influenza-like symptoms in previously healthy women - progressive refractory hypotension - local and spreading tissue edema - absence of fever Laboratory findings include: - marked leukocytosis - elevated hematocrit. This paper reports the seventh fatal postpartum C...

  17. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD

  18. Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P recovery and detection of injured cells.

  19. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  20. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational fatalities due to electrocutions in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicak, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    Occupational fatalities due to contact with electricity account for approximately 9% of all deaths in the construction industry and is the fourth leading cause of death in this industry. Differences in the proportions of electrocutions in the construction industry are significantly different from other industries based upon the age of the worker and the source of the electricity. This study found that, in the construction industry, the proportion of occupational fatalities due to contact with electric current is significantly higher for workers in the 16 to 19 years old age group. Contact with overhead power lines occurred more frequently with younger workers, while contact with electric wiring, transformers, and related equipment was found to occur more frequently with older workers. The proportion of fatalities due to this event was also found to account for a significantly greater proportion of fatalities in the construction industry overall. The proportions of electrocution fatalities in the construction industry were found to be significantly higher for younger workers when compared to all other industries. Focusing prevention measures toward younger workers who work near overhead power lines could have a significant impact upon death rates. For older workers, the focus should be on those who work on or near transformers, electrical wiring, and components. Across the construction industry, implementation of effective lockout-tagout programs, and verification of energy isolation, can prevent approximately 125 fatalities per year in the construction industry.

  2. Healing or harming? Healthcare provider interactions with injured workers and insurers in workers' compensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Elizabeth; Kosny, Agnieszka; McKenzie, Donna; Collie, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) are influential in the injured worker's recovery process and fulfil many roles in the delivery of health services. Interactions between HCPs and insurers can also affect injured workers' engagement in rehabilitation and subsequently their recovery and return to work. Consideration of the injured workers' perceptions and experiences as consumers of medical and compensation services can provide vital information about the quality, efficacy and impact of such systems. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize published qualitative research that focused on the interactions between injured workers, HCPs and insurers in workers' compensation systems in order to identify processes or interactions which impact injured worker recovery. A search of six electronic databases for literature published between 1985 and 2012 revealed 1,006 articles. Screening for relevance identified 27 studies which were assessed for quality against set criteria. A final 13 articles of medium and high quality were retained for data extraction. Findings were synthesized using a meta-ethnographic approach. Injured workers reported that HCPs could play both healing and harming roles in their recovery. Supportive patient-centred interaction with HCPs is important for injured workers. Difficult interactions between HCPs and insurers were highlighted in themes of adversarial relations and organisational pressures. Insurer and compensation system processes exerted an influence on the therapeutic relationship. Recommendations to improve relationships included streamlining administrative demands and increasing education and communication between the parties. Injured workers with long term complex injuries experience difficulties with healthcare in the workers' compensation context. Changes in insurer administrative demands and compensation processes could increase HCP participation and job satisfaction. This in turn may improve injured worker recovery

  3. The antilock braking system anomaly: a drinking driver problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) have held promise for reducing the incidence of accidents because they reduce stopping times on slippery surfaces and allow drivers to maintain steering control during emergency braking. Farmer et al. (Accident Anal. Prevent. 29 (1997) 745) provide evidence that antilock brakes are beneficial to nonoccupants: a set of 1992 model General Motors vehicles equipped with antilock brakes were involved in significantly fewer fatal crashes in which occupants of other vehicles, pedestrians, or bicyclists were killed. But, perversely, the risk of death for occupants of vehicles equipped with antilock brakes increased significantly after adoption. Farmer (Accident Anal. Prevent. 33 (2001) 361) updates the analysis for 1996- 1998 and finds a significant attenuation in the ABS anomaly. Researchers have put forward two hypotheses to explain this antilock brake anomaly: risk compensation and improper operation of antilock brake-equipped vehicles. We provide strong evidence for the improper operation hypothesis by showing that the antilock brake anomaly is confined largely to drinking drivers. Further, we show that the attenuation phenomenon occurs consistently after the first three to four years of vehicle service.

  4. A fatal pseudo-tumour: disseminated basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemelman Willem A

    2006-09-01

    with amphotericin B (Itraconazol contra-indicated because of renal insufficiency. A few days later the patient died of a septic shock. After autopsy Basidiobolus ranarum was cultured from liver, gallbladder and colon. Conclusion Our patient died of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis with an obstructing colon tumour and a large hepatic mass. This was a rare presentation of basidiobolomycosis and the second fatal case described worldwide.

  5. Alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and drunk-driving fatal accidents in the United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Miller, Emily N

    2017-06-01

    Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U.S. We estimate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents by state and month as a function of the volume of alcohol-control PSAs aired during the previous 8months. Models include controls for state anti-drunk-driving laws and regulations, state demographic characteristics, state taxes on alcohol, calendar year, and seasonality. Results indicate that higher volumes of anti-drunk driving PSAs airing in the preceding 2 to 3months are associated, albeit modest in magnitude, with reduced rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents. The regression coefficients are largest for adults (relative to underage drunk drivers) and when the PSAs air during prime time (relative to daytime or nighttime). We conclude that PSAs could play an important contributing role in reducing drunk-driving fatal accidents, although levels of exposure and potential effects likely remain modest due to reliance on donated air time. Well-funded anti-drunk driving campaigns could achieve higher levels of exposure and have a larger impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A model to predict progression in brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, N; Forteza, D; Godino, M; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2014-11-01

    The study of brain death (BD) epidemiology and the acute brain injury (ABI) progression profile is important to improve public health programs, organ procurement strategies, and intensive care unit (ICU) protocols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ABI progression profile among patients admitted to ICUs with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤8, as well as establishing a prediction model of probability of death and BD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data that included all brain-injured patients with GCS ≤8 admitted to a total of four public and private ICUs in Uruguay (N = 1447). The independent predictor factors of death and BD were studied using logistic regression analysis. A hierarchical model consisting of 2 nested logit regression models was then created. With these models, the probabilities of death, BD, and death by cardiorespiratory arrest were analyzed. In the first regression, we observed that as the GCS decreased and age increased, the probability of death rose. Each additional year of age increased the probability of death by 0.014. In the second model, however, BD risk decreased with each year of age. The presence of swelling, mass effect, and/or space-occupying lesion increased BD risk for the same given GCS. In the presence of injuries compatible with intracranial hypertension, age behaved as a protective factor that reduced the probability of BD. Based on the analysis of the local epidemiology, a model to predict the probability of death and BD can be developed. The organ potential donation of a country, region, or hospital can be predicted on the basis of this model, customizing it to each specific situation.

  7. Contributory fault and level of personal injury to drivers involved in head-on collisions: Application of copula-based bivariate ordinal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Behram; Khattak, Asad J; Xu, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to simultaneously investigate the degree of injury severity sustained by drivers involved in head-on collisions with respect to fault status designation. This is complicated to answer due to many issues, one of which is the potential presence of correlation between injury outcomes of drivers involved in the same head-on collision. To address this concern, we present seemingly unrelated bivariate ordered response models by analyzing the joint injury severity probability distribution of at-fault and not-at-fault drivers. Moreover, the assumption of bivariate normality of residuals and the linear form of stochastic dependence implied by such models may be unduly restrictive. To test this, Archimedean copula structures and normal mixture marginals are integrated into the joint estimation framework, which can characterize complex forms of stochastic dependencies and non-normality in residual terms. The models are estimated using 2013 Virginia police reported two-vehicle head-on collision data, where exactly one driver is at-fault. The results suggest that both at-fault and not-at-fault drivers sustained serious/fatal injuries in 8% of crashes, whereas, in 4% of the cases, the not-at-fault driver sustained a serious/fatal injury with no injury to the at-fault driver at all. Furthermore, if the at-fault driver is fatigued, apparently asleep, or has been drinking the not-at-fault driver is more likely to sustain a severe/fatal injury, controlling for other factors and potential correlations between the injury outcomes. While not-at-fault vehicle speed affects injury severity of at-fault driver, the effect is smaller than the effect of at-fault vehicle speed on at-fault injury outcome. Contrarily, and importantly, the effect of at-fault vehicle speed on injury severity of not-at-fault driver is almost equal to the effect of not-at-fault vehicle speed on injury outcome of not-at-fault driver. Compared to traditional ordered probability

  8. An econometric analysis of the effects of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

    2010-07-01

    This article seeks to quantify the effects of the penalty points system driver's license during the 18-month period following its coming into force. This is achieved by means of univariate and multivariate unobserved component models set up in a state space framework estimated using maximum likelihood. A detailed intervention analysis is carried out in order to test for the effects and their duration of the introduction of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain. Other variables, mainly indicators of the level of economic activity in Spain, are also considered. Among the main effects, we can mention an average reduction of almost 12.6% in the number of deaths in highway accidents. It would take at least 2 years for that effect to disappear. For the rest of the safety indicator variables (vehicle occupants injured in highway accidents and vehicle occupants injured in accidents built-up areas) the effects disappeared 1 year after the law coming into force. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  10. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  11. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, D.D.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  12. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    actuator drive is the only form-fit continuous drive solution currently available for the development of high performance nonmagnetic motors. In this research focus will be on the non magnetic compact high efficiency driver for the piezo actuators and on employing energy recovery from the capacitive...

  13. Underbelly injury based identification of the driver in a three-rider motorcycle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxiong; Yin, Zhiyong; Su, Sen; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a three-rider motorcycle accident which took place in a suburb of Chongqing China. In the accident, the motorcycle impacted the terminal of a bridge footpath and led to two riders died and one rider injured. After the accident, one rider received injuries around the groin area including the underbelly area and the perineum area. Another rider suffered from injuries only on the perineum areas. In medico-legal judgments, injuries around the groin area also called groin injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents are usually regarded as "fuel tank injuries" which are commonly found in drivers. But, the injuries around the groin area are sometimes confused with the perineum injuries. Therefore, the perineum injuries are often wrongly reckoned as the "fuel tank injuries" and used to identify the drivers too. Actually, passengers can sometimes suffer from perineum injuries in many head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. It is of vital matters to understand the differences between groin injuries and perineum injuries so that the real driver who should be responsible for the accident can be recognized. In this paper, the three-rider motorcycle accident was presented and the injury information of the three riders was studied in order to distinguish the real driver from the riders. We consider that the groin injury has some differences with the perineum injury and the latter should not always be related to the driver especially in high-speed head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. In addition, the injury on underbelly areas is important to identify the driver. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  15. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  16. Case-Based Teaching of Fatal Incidents in Outdoor Education Teacher Preparation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris; Brookes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of case-based approaches to fatal incidents in outdoor education (OE) with a view to fatality prevention. Fatalities are rare in OE and therefore it is nearly impossible for teachers to learn how to avoid fatalities from their own past experiences. It is, however, possible to learn from the mistakes of others through…

  17. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  18. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  19. Collecting core data in severely injured patients using a consensus trauma template: an international multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringdal, Kjetil G; Lossius, Hans Morten; Jones, J Mary

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: No worldwide, standardised definitions exist for documenting, reporting, and comparing data from severely injured trauma patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of collecting the data variables of the international consensus-derived Utstein Trauma Template. METHODS:...

  20. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  1. Evaluation of bronchiectasis in war chemically-injured patients via high resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jalli

    2017-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Findings of chest HRCT demonstrated tubular bronchiectasis was the most frequent type of this disease that involve the chemically injured patients and RLL had been the most frequently involved lobe of the lung with bronchiectasis.

  2. Predictors of Self-reported Crashes among Iranian Drivers: Exploratory Analysis of an Extended Driver Behavior Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 16,500 people lose their lives each year due to traffic crashes in Iran, which reflects one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in the world. The aim of the present study is to investigate the factors structure of an extended Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and to examine the gender differences in the extracted factors among Iranian drivers. Further, the study tested the association between DBQ factors, demographic characteristics, and self-reported crashes. Based on Iranian driving culture, an extended (36 items Internet-based version of the DBQ was distributed among Iranian drivers. The results of Exploratory Factor Analysis based on a sample of 632 Iranians identified a five-factor solution named “Speeding and Pushing Violations”, “Lapses and Errors”, “Violations Causing Inattention”, “Aggressive Violations” and “Traffic Violations” which account for 44.7 percent of the total variance. The results also revealed that females were more prone to Lapses and Errors, whereas males reported more violations than females. Logistic regression analysis identified Violations Causing Inattention, Speeding and Pushing Violations as predictors of self-reported crashes in a three-year period. The results were discussed in line with road traffic safety countermeasures suitable for the Iranian context.

  3. The relationships between organizational and individual variables to on-the-job driver accidents and accident-free kilometres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, J K; Kline, T J

    2004-12-01

    Highway fatalities are the leading cause of fatal work injuries in the US, accounting for approximately 1 in 4 of the 5900 job-related deaths during 2001. The present study focused on the contribution of organizational factors and driver behaviours to on-the-job driving accidents in a large Western Canadian corporation. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was used which allows researchers to test a complex set of relationships within a global theoretical framework. A number of scales were used to assess organizational support, driver errors, and driver behaviours. The sample of professional drivers that participated allowed the recording of on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres from their personnel files. The pattern of relationships in the fitted model, after controlling for exposure and social desirability, provides insight into the role of organizational support, planning, environment adaptations, fatigue, speed, errors and moving citations to on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres. For example, organizational support affected the capacity to plan. Time to plan work-related driving was found to predict accidents, fatigue and adaptations to the environment. Other interesting model paths, SEM limitations, future research and recommendations are elaborated.

  4. Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain-injured parent.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, J M; Rushford, N

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury may experience severe cognitive and other impairments. For brain-injured parents, such deficits may be associated with child behavior problems, including noncompliance. We assessed the effects of a play period conducted by a brain-injured father on the compliance of his son, who had become uncooperative with his father after the injury. The child consistently demonstrated improved compliance during proximal and distal compliance sessions that followed father-son ...

  5. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  6. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  7. among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Long years of driving [AOR =4.6 (95%CI, 1.6-12.9)], involvement in a similar activity prior to becoming taxi driver .... full time taxi driver; produce a valid driving license; .... Self-employee .... professional car drivers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); J. Tuomilehto; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; S. Malyutina; A. Freire de Concalves; J. Sivenius; A. di Carlo; P. Lagiou

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating in EUROSTROKE. METHODS: EUROSTROKE is a

  9. Safety knowledge and risk behaviour of injured and uninjured young skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Cadman, R E; Greenlaw, J V

    1998-09-01

    Earlier studies of ski injury indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face, and that females were most likely to injure the knee. To obtain information about safety knowledge and risk behaviour that might contribute to injury among young skiers and snow-boarders. Survey of knowledge and behaviour in injured and noninjured cohorts. Blackcomb Mountain, Whistler, British Columbia. A total of 863 noninjured and 118 injured skiers and snowboarders aged five to 17 years using Blackcomb during 1993/94. Skier Knowledge Inventory Questionnaire. The injured cohort had less knowledge of the Skiers Responsibility Code. In both groups, almost half had had no lessons, 31% had had bindings adjusted by nonprofessionals and chair lift safety bars were used one ride in four by children age 13 to 17 years. The injuried cohort wore helmets slightly less often. Both groups regularly skied through the trees (60% to 70%), and one-thirds had skied on closed runs. Excessive speed was identified as the major cause of injury. Skiers did not recognize jumping as contributing to injury. Lack of knowledge of safety rules was more prevalent among the injured cohort. Skiing without due care - including skiing through tress, skiing on closed runs, skiing with excessive speed and jumping, particularly by snowboarders - were identified as potential causes of injury.

  10. Analysis of fatal accidents with tractors in the Centre of Portugal: Ten years analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Soraia M; Cordeiro, Cristina; Teixeira, Helena M

    2018-06-01

    Tractors have been described as one of the deadliest farming implements concerning agricultural activity. In Portugal, the scientific investigations about this problem are practically non-existent, with only statistical studies performed by entities related to road traffic safety, not in accordance to the study now performed, pinpointing the possibility of an underreporting of these accidents. This work aims to characterize the fatal tractor accidents in Portugal, autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analysing several variables: gender, age, occupation, survival time, the victim position in the tractor, cause of death, toxicological and histological exams, year/month/day of the week, type of agricultural machine, existence of rollover protective structures (ROPS), type of accident, ground conditions, circumstantial information and geographic distribution of the accidents. All the autopsies between 2005 and 2014 were analysed. The victim profile corresponded to a man (89.5%), between 61 and 70 years old (33.3%), retired (43.9%), being the tractor driver (45.6%). In most of the cases, death occurred in less than 24h after the accident. These fatalities arose mainly in May and October. Rollover in sloping land was the most common type of accident, and cranioencephalic, thoracic and abdominal traumatic injuries were the main cause of death. In 16.2% of the cases, blood alcohol concentration was above the lower limit established in our road traffic law (accidents, and the corresponding circumstances that contributed to the death. Many barriers remain about this matter, but the Portuguese government begin to design several laws to prevent this type of accidents. Future investigations should be performed to understand the real dimension of tractor accidents in Portugal, and to comprehend the efficiency of laws implemented by the government. Copyright © 2018

  11. Fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd Razzak B; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia's Social Security organization, the Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO). We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the 5-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  14. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  15. The characteristics and use patterns of all-terrain vehicle drivers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G B

    1999-07-01

    The consent decrees between the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the major distributors of all-terrain vehicles (ATV), which were designed to address ATV-related injuries and deaths, expired in April, 1998. While national estimates of nonfatal and fatal injuries involving ATVs declined after the consent decrees went into effect 10 years ago, the injury estimates have stabilized in recent years. To gain a better understanding of current ATV use patterns, the CPSC sponsored a national probability survey of ATV drivers in the fall of 1997. The survey was designed to collect information about the characteristics and use patterns of ATV drivers and to quantify the numbers and types of ATVs in use. It employed a single stage list-assisted random-digit-dial sample design. This article describes the results of the survey, and discusses long term ATV usage trends.

  16. Speeding by young novice drivers: What can personal characteristics and psychosocial theory add to our understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Young novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in fatalities and injuries arising from crashes even with the introduction of countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL). Enhancing countermeasures requires a better understanding of the variables influencing risky driving. One of the most common risky behaviours performed by drivers of all ages is speeding, which is particularly risky for young novice drivers who, due to their driving inexperience, have difficulty in identifying and responding appropriately to road hazards. Psychosocial theory can improve our understanding of contributors to speeding, thereby informing countermeasure development and evaluation. This paper reports an application of Akers' social learning theory (SLT), augmented by Gerrard and Gibbons' prototype/willingness model (PWM), in addition to personal characteristics of age, gender, car ownership, and psychological traits/states of anxiety, depression, sensation seeking propensity and reward sensitivity, to examine the influences on self-reported speeding of young novice drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence in Queensland, Australia. Young drivers (n=378) recruited in 2010 for longitudinal research completed two surveys containing the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale, and reported their attitudes and behaviours as pre-Licence/Learner (Survey 1) and Provisional (Survey 2) drivers and their sociodemographic characteristics. An Akers' measurement model was created. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that (1) personal characteristics (PC) explained 20.3%; (2) the combination of PC and SLT explained 41.1%; (3) the combination of PC, SLT and PWM explained 53.7% of variance in self-reported speeding. Whilst there appeared to be considerable shared variance, the significant predictors in the final model included gender, car ownership, reward sensitivity, depression, personal attitudes, and Learner speeding. These results highlight the capacity for

  17. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  18. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  19. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  20. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  1. The impacts of multiple rest-break periods on commercial truck driver's crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xie, Yuanchang

    2014-02-01

    Driver fatigue has been a major contributing factor to fatal commercial truck crashes, which accounted for about 10% of all fatal motor vehicle crashes that happened between 2009 and 2011. Commercial truck drivers' safety performance can deteriorate easily due to fatigue caused by long driving hours and irregular working schedules. To ensure safety, truck drivers often use off-duty time and short rest breaks during a trip to recover from fatigue. This study thoroughly investigates the impacts of off-duty time prior to a trip and short rest breaks on commercial truck safety by using Cox proportional hazards model and Andersen-Gill model. It is found that increasing total rest-break duration can consistently reduce fatigue-related crash risk. Similarly, taking more rest breaks can help to reduce crash risk. The results suggest that two rest breaks are generally considered enough for a 10-hour trip, as three or more rest breaks may not further reduce crash risk substantially. Also, the length of each rest break does not need to be very long and 30min is usually adequate. In addition, this study investigates the safety impacts of when to take rest breaks. It is found that taking rest breaks too soon after a trip starts will cause the rest breaks to be less effective. The findings of this research can help policy makers and trucking companies better understand the impacts of multiple rest-break periods and develop more effective rules to improve the safety of truck drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  2. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  3. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures......./capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  4. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This document is on Geant 4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They re OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output with out an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple

  5. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  6. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  7. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  8. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.

    2016-07-01

    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  9. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  10. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  11. Pharyngitis – fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days.

  12. Influence of civil defense on strategic countervalue fatalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    Two modeling studies were conducted to simulate the effect of fallout shelters on the outcome of a massive countervalue nuclear exchange between the Soviet Union and the United States. One was to determine the number of nuclear weapons required to mount an effective fallout attack against a country with dispersed population; the other was to determine the number of expected US fatalities resulting from a countervalue attack against US urban population centers. The results of these studies indicate that the number of weapons required to mount such an attack depends on the adequacy of the shelter system and that the evacuation of urban populations can substantially reduce expected fatality levels

  13. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  14. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  15. Effects of personality on risky driving behavior and accident involvement for Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyan; Du, Feng; Qu, Weina; Gong, Zhun; Sun, Xianghong

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related fatalities in China and pose the most serious threat to driving safety. Driver personality is considered as an effective predictor for risky driving behavior and accident liability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between personality and risky driving behavior, but only a few of them have explored the effects of personality variables on accident involvement. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of personality on Chinese drivers' risky driving and accident involvement. The present study aimed to examine the effects of personality variables on Chinese drivers' unsafe driving behaviors and accident involvement. Two hundred and twenty-four Chinese drivers aged 20 to 50 were required to complete questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism, and normlessness), risky driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations), and accident involvement (all accidents, serious accidents, at-fault accidents). Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for gender, age, and overall mileage, were conducted to identify the personality traits related to risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. Participants' personality traits were found to be significantly correlated with both risky driving behavior and accident involvement. Specifically, the traits of anger and normlessness were effective predictors for aggressive violations. The traits of anger, sensation-seeking, normlessness, and altruism were effective predictors for ordinary violations. Moreover, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for the total number of accidents participants had during the past 3 years. Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident

  16. Sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in truck drivers : risk analysis of road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rosa; Spratley, Jorge; Catarino, Isabel; Lunet, Nuno; Pais-Clemente, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Portugal has one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in Europe. A clear association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and traffic accidents has been previously demonstrated. This study aimed to determine prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and other sleep disorder symptoms among truck drivers and to identify which individual traits and work habits are associated to increased sleepiness and accident risk. We evaluated a sample of 714 truck drivers using a questionnaire (244 face-to-face interviews, 470 self-administered) that included sociodemographic data, personal habits, previous accidents, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Twenty percent of drivers had EDS and 29 % were at high risk for having obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Two hundred sixty-one drivers (36.6 %) reported near-miss accidents (42.5 % sleep related) and 264 (37.0 %), a driving accident (16.3 % sleep related). ESS score ≥ 11 was a risk factor for both near-miss accidents (odds ratio (OR)=3.84, paccidents (OR=2.25, paccidents (OR=3.30, p=0.03). We found an association between high Mallampati score (III-IV) and near misses (OR=1.89, p=0.04). In this sample of Portuguese truck drivers, we observed a high prevalence of EDS and other sleep disorder symptoms. Accident risk was related to sleepiness and antidepressant use. Identifying drivers at risk for OSAS should be a major priority of medical assessment centers, as a public safety policy.

  17. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  18. Trends in teen driver licensure, driving patterns and crash involvement in the United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2017-09-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Non-fatal gunshot trauma among a sample of adolescents in Djibouti: prevalence and sociodemographic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L; Lewis, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Firearm trauma is the second most common cause of serious injury among adolescents in the Republic of Djibouti. The aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic correlates of serious injury and non-fatal gunshot trauma among adolescents in Djibouti. Using multinomial logistic regression, we compared a sample of adolescents (N = 1,711) who self-reported a non-firearm-related serious injury (n = 587) and those who reported a firearm-related injury (n = 101) with non-injured participants (n = 1,023) during a 12-month recall period. Analyses targeted demographic, behavioral, social, mental health, and family factors. After adjusting for covariates, participants reporting a non-firearm-related serious injury were more likely to report having been involved in physical fights (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 145; confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 2.02), being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [2.24, 3.56]), feeling lonely (RRR = 1.48; CI = [1.11, 1.96]), having signs of depression (RRR = 1.27; CI = [1.02, 1.58]), and be truant from school (RRR = 1.68; CI = [1.25, 2.28]). Those who reported a gunshot injury recorded being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [1.77, 4.53]) and physically attacked at higher rates (RRR = 1.78; CI = [1.09, 2.89]). Serious injuries, whether firearm related or not, are important threats to adolescent health in Djibouti with potentially serious health-related correlates. More research, particularly multilevel designs, are needed to explain context-relevant factors associated with serious trauma in Djibouti.

  20. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  1. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  2. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  3. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... Patients who threaten deliberate self-harm and who have a history of previous NFSB, past psychiatric illness and physical or sexual abuse, are at a higher risk of this behaviour as compared to the general population.

  4. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail.

  5. Fatal Indifference: The G8, Africa, and Global Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Fatal Indifference: The G8, Africa, and Global Health ... It is also the most powerful political force behind the multilateral institutions that are shaping global economic practice ... IDRC joins more than 800 international delegates at the Resilient Cities ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  6. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: A potentially fatal disease with varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotizing fasciitis was recognized centuries ago by physicians. It is a rapidly progressive and potentially fatal soft‑tissue infection that is typified by soft‑tissue necrosis, especially affecting the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. Cervico‑facial necrotizing fasciitis is said to be uncommon, but when it occurs, it is often of ...

  7. Near-fatal asthma phenotype in the ENFUMOSA Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, M.; Caramori, G.; Braccioni, F.; Ravenna, F.; Barreiro, E.; Siafakas, N. M.; Vignola, A. M.; Chanez, P.; Fabbri, L. M.; Papi, A.; Bel, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is characterized by severe asthma attacks usually requiring intensive care unit admission. This phenotype of asthma has been studied mainly in acute conditions. METHODS: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical, functional and inflammatory characteristics

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  9. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology unit of University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the year 2006 by reviewing the autopsy reports. There were 61 cases of GIT perforation out of 5579 autopsies conducted during a period of ten years (1996-2005). The incidence rate of fatal gastrointestinal perforation was 1.09% during this period. Out of these 61 cases, ...

  10. Fatal angioedema induced by angiotensin conversion enzyme (ACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE inhibitors are often prescribed in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and kidney disease. These drugs are on the Essential Drugs List, and are therefore used at primary to tertiary health care levels in South Africa. Angioedema is considered a rare, but potentially fatal side-effect of this agent, with a reported ...

  11. Identification of new molecular alterations in Fatal Familial Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant prion disease caused by a D178N mutation in PRNP in combination with methionine (Met) at codon 129 in the mutated allele of the same gene (D178N-129M haplotype). The present study analyzes pathological and molecular features in seven FFI cases c...

  12. Case Report Meleney's Ulcer; A Rare but Fatal Abdominal Wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    Meleney's Ulcer; A Rare but Fatal Abdominal Wall Disease Complicating ... Meleney's ulcer or post operative synergistic bacterial gangrene is a rare form of ... Central venous catheterization and parenteral ... is no record of full recovery from the intra-abdominal pathology before the ... chronic undermining ulcer of Meleney.

  13. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  14. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis, Child Mortality, and Case Fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chun S; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have reported increased long term morbidity in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we assess child mortality and case fatality in the same cohort. METHODS: All singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 were identified through linkage of Danish National...

  15. Mapping patterns of pedestrian fatal accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to provide insight into pedestrian accidents by uncovering their patterns in order to design preventive measures and to allocate resources for identified problems. Kohonen neural networks are applied to a database of pedestrian fatal accidents occurred during the four-year peri...

  16. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  17. Circumstances of fatal lockout/tagout-related injuries in manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Sorock, Gary S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2008-10-01

    Over the past few decades, hundreds of manufacturing workers have suffered fatal injuries while performing maintenance and servicing on machinery and equipment. Using lockout/tagout procedures could have prevented many of these deaths. A narrative text analysis of OSHA accident investigation report summaries was conducted to describe the circumstances of lockout/tagout-related fatalities occurring in the US manufacturing industry from 1984 to 1997. The most common mechanisms of injury were being caught in or between parts of equipment, electrocution, and being struck by or against objects. Typical scenarios included cleaning a mixer or blender, cleaning a conveyor, and installing or disassembling electrical equipment. Lockout procedures were not even attempted in the majority (at least 58.8%) of fatal incidents reviewed. Lockout/tagout-related fatalities occur under a wide range of circumstances. Enhanced training and equipment designs that facilitate lockout and minimize worker contact with machine parts may prevent many lockout/tagout-related injuries. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Second Fatal Case of Infective Endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijan Ukudeeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our case illustrates a fatal course of infection with Gemella bergeriae endocarditis that was complicated by cardiogenic shock due to perforation of the mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation, extension of infection into the myocardium adjacent to the mitral valve, and coronary sinus thrombosis.

  19. Fatal Complications after Pediatric Surgical Interventions: Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, W.M.; Putten, M.E. van der; Kusters, B.; Verhoeven, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    Placement of catheters, drains, shunts, and tubes in children can lead to serious or even fatal complications at the moment of placement, such as hemorrhage at insertion, or in the longterm, such as infections and migration into adjacent organs. The clinician should always be aware of these

  20. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  1. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in children <12 years, found the leading external cause of death to be road traffic fatalities (22% of cases). In Nigeria, Nwafor et al.[9] reviewed deaths in children ≤14 years; in a 20-year period, road traffic accidents ..... We thank Ms B English,.

  2. Helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for the transportation of traumatically injured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Metzger, Ryan R; Pyle, Laura; Darmofal, Joe; Scaife, Eric; Moulton, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a common mode of transportation for pediatric trauma patients. We hypothesized that HEMS improve outcomes for traumatically injured children compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We queried trauma registries of two level 1 pediatric trauma centers for children 0-17 years, treated from 2003 to 2013, transported by HEMS or GEMS, with known transport starting location and outcome. A geocoding service estimated travel distance and time. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to adjust for injury severity variables and travel distance/time. We identified 14,405 traumatically injured children; 3870 (26.9%) transported by HEMS and 10,535 (73.1%) transported by GEMS. Transport type was not significantly associated with survival, ICU length of stay, or discharge disposition. Transport by GEMS was associated with a 68.6%-53.1% decrease in hospital length of stay, depending on adjustment for distance/time. Results were similar for children with severe injuries, and with propensity score matched cohorts. Of note, 862/3850 (22.3%) of HEMS transports had an ISS<10 and hospitalization<1 day. HEMS do not independently improve outcomes for traumatically injured children, and 22.3% of children transported by HEMS are not significantly injured. These factors should be considered when requesting HEMS for transport of traumatically injured children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  4. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Tharkika; Larsen, Rylan S; Bigler, Rebecca L; Frost, Shawn B; Philpot, Benjamin D; Nudo, Randolph J; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2017-09-20

    Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription. Similarly, directly injured corticospinal neurons in vivo also exhibit a specific increase in spiking following axon injury. Axotomy-induced hyper-excitability of cultured neurons coincides with elimination of inhibitory inputs onto injured neurons, including those formed onto dendritic spines. Netrin-1 downregulation occurs following axon injury and exogenous netrin-1 applied after injury normalizes spine density, presynaptic excitability, and inhibitory inputs at injured neurons. Our findings show that intrinsic signaling within damaged neurons regulates synaptic remodeling and involves netrin-1 signaling.Spinal cord injury can induce synaptic reorganization and remodeling in the brain. Here the authors study how severed distal axons signal back to the cell body to induce hyperexcitability, loss of inhibition and enhanced presynaptic release through netrin-1.

  5. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Schieber, Richard A; Zegeer, Charles V

    2003-09-01

    We sought to determine the association between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities. We created a sprawl index by applying principal components analysis to data for 448 US counties in the largest 101 metropolitan areas. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between the index and traffic fatalities. For every 1% increase in the index (i.e., more compact, less sprawl), all-mode traffic fatality rates fell by 1.49% (P Urban sprawl was directly related to traffic fatalities and pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent studies should investigate relationships at a finer geographic scale and should strive to improve on the measure of exposure used to adjust pedestrian fatality rates.

  6. Violent and Fatal Youth Trauma: Is There a Missed Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Madlinger, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidents and assaults (homicides are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism,defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%,it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Results: Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14% had prior presentations, and 897 (86% did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3% without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–18.1; Pearson v2, P , 0.001. The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Conclusion: Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might

  7. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  8. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  9. Disaster-related fatalities among US citizens traveling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Bouslough, David; Proano, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    To describe the locations and risk of death associated with natural disaster fatalities for US citizens traveling abroad. A retrospective database review of US citizen disaster deaths occurring worldwide. None. Information on fatalities due to disasters was abstracted from the US Department of State Web site reporting deaths of US citizens abroad by non-natural causes from October 2002 through June 2012. The main outcome measures were the frequency of disaster deaths and countries where disasters occurred. Descriptive statistics and rates were used to evaluate the study data. There were 7,963 total non-natural deaths of US citizens traveling abroad during the study period. Of these, 163 (2.0 percent) were disaster-related deaths, involving 19 disaster events in 15 countries. Only two disaster-related events resulted in more than two deaths of US travelers-the 2010 earthquake in Haiti causing 121 fatalities (74.2 percent of disaster deaths), and the 2004 tsunami in Thailand causing 22 fatalities (13.5 percent of disaster deaths). The approximate annual mean death rate for US citizen travelers as a result of disaster events is 0.27 deaths/1 million travelers, compared with 1.4 deaths/1 million residents due to disaster annually within the United States. The risk of disaster-related fatality is low for US citizens traveling abroad. Although disaster-related death among travelers is unpredictable, during a period of almost 10 years, there was only one reported death due to disaster in the five countries most frequently visited by US travelers. Further investigation may identify population-, seasonal-, country-, or location-specific risks from which prevention strategies can be developed.

  10. Dominant drivers of business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Cătălina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taibi Kahler wrote in 1974 a theory about five main drivers that could explain people’s motivation and a series of positive and negative behavior patterns: Be Strong, Be Perfect, Hurry Up, Try Hard and Please People. Of course, we consider there is no absolute positive or negative behavior, since (1 everything needs to be analyzed by taking into account the context and (2 any behavior pattern can mean a series of advantages as long as people understand their own values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. It would be interesting to link Kahler’s drivers to the educational process, in order to be able to adapt our courses and our teaching styles to students’ requirements and also to the requirements in the labor market. Our paper is built on literature review and a questionnaire applied to a sample of 607 students in Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Information was processed with Microsoft Excel 2013, in order to look at the main working styles our students have, at the main explanations for the differences between them and in order to test a series of hypotheses. We were interested to look at the main traits of the current generation of students in our university: dominant drivers, roles of managers and specialists, the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial career path, etc. and at a series of patterns (i.e. gender-related differences. We consider results of this study are useful both for teaching and research purposes. In terms of teaching, we plan to adapt our educational methods in order to improve the educational process.

  11. Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics Mental Health, Aggression and Driving Habits in Dangerous Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadpoor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, all kinds of people need vehicles for performing their daily activities. The need for use of these vehicles for transportation frequently leads to a high rate of road accidents and it seems that certain people do not have enough ability to use these vehicles. Dangerous behaviors lead to financial and life risking irreparable damages. Methods: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The researchers chose 110 injured men drivers and asked them to complete the Manchester Driving Behavior, Type A Characteristic, Ahvaz Aggressive and Mental Health questionnaires. The data was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation and Regression Analysis. Results: The findings showed that there is a significant relation between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The regression analysis also foresees the aggressive and mental health of testers’ dangerous driving behavior. Meanwhile, Type A characteristic is not able to foresee driving behaviors. Conclusion: Risky driving is a phenomenon that leads to many irreparable damages for the society and individual. Present study suggests that in order to reduce dangers and probable damages, procurement of driving license procedures should be prolonged and drivers should be regularly assessed psychologically (personal or public. Risky drivers or the attackers who need education or consultation should attend education-consultation programs.

  12. Driver injury in near- and far-side impacts: Update on the effect of front passenger belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C

    2018-04-03

    This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury, and identifies the sources for severe driver head injury. 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4 + F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat. Side impacts were identified with GAD1 = L or R without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front-outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4 + F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0 + F. Standard errors were determined. Overall, belted drivers had greater risks for severe injury in near-side than far-side impacts. As a sole driver, the risk was 0.969 ± 0.212% for near-side and 0.313 ± 0.069% for far-side impacts (P impacts. The risk was 2.17 times greater with an unbelted passenger (NS). The driver's risk was 0.782 ± 0.431% with an unbelted passenger and 0.361% ± 0.114% with a belted passenger in far-side impacts. The risk was 1.57 times greater with an unbelted passenger (P impacts, the leading sources for AIS 4+ head injury were the left B-pillar, roof, and other vehicle. For far-side impacts, the leading sources were the other occupant, right interior, and roof (8.5%). Seat belt use by a passenger lowered the risk of severe driver injury in side impacts. The reduction was 54% in near-side impacts and 36% in far-side impacts. Belted drivers experienced mostly head and thoracic AIS 4+ injuries. Head injuries in the belted drivers were from contact with the side interior and the other occupant, even with a belted passenger.

  13. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own.......This qualitative interview study focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner’s injury. The study revealed how the injury...... supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday...

  14. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  15. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  16. Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Romanelli, Antonella; Tumino, Nicola; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Martini, Federico; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa Gayle; Cowley, Lauren; Garcia Dorival, Isabel; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Hetzelt, Nicole; Baum, Jonathan H J; Portmann, Jasmine; Wölfel, Roman; Gabriel, Martin; Miranda, Osvaldo; Díaz, Graciliano; Díaz, José E; Fleites, Yoel A; Piñeiro, Carlos A; Castro, Carlos M; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Diallo, Boubacar; Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Wozniak, David M; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Capobianchi, Maria R; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Agrati, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of αβ T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze γδ T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome. Nineteen Ebola-infected patients were enrolled at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guinea. Patients were divided in two groups on the basis of the clinical outcome. The analysis was performed by using multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field. A low frequency of Vδ2 T-cells was observed during Ebola infection, independently from the clinical outcome. Moreover, Vδ2 T-cells from Ebola patients massively expressed CD95 apoptotic marker, suggesting the involvement of apoptotic mechanisms in Vδ2 T-cell loss. Interestingly, Vδ2 T-cells from survivors expressed an effector phenotype and presented a lower expression of the CTLA-4 exhaustion marker than fatalities, suggesting a role of effector Vδ2 T-cells in the protection. Furthermore, patients with fatal Ebola infection were characterized by a lower NK cell frequency than patients with non fatal infection. In particular, both CD56bright and CD56dim NK frequency were very low both in fatal and non fatal infections, while a higher frequency of CD56neg NK cells was associated to non-fatal infections. Finally, NK activation and expression of NKp46 and CD158a were independent from clinical outcome. Altogether, the data suggest that both effector Vδ2 T-cells and NK cells may play a role in the complex network of protective response to EBOV infection. Further studies are required to characterize the protective effector functions of Vδ2 and NK cells.

  17. Different features of Vδ2 T and NK cells in fatal and non-fatal human Ebola infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cimini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Ebola infection is characterized by a paralysis of the immune system. A signature of αβ T cells in fatal Ebola infection has been recently proposed, while the involvement of innate immune cells in the protection/pathogenesis of Ebola infection is unknown. Aim of this study was to analyze γδ T and NK cells in patients from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 occurred in West Africa, and to assess their association with the clinical outcome.Nineteen Ebola-infected patients were enrolled at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guinea. Patients were divided in two groups on the basis of the clinical outcome. The analysis was performed by using multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field. A low frequency of Vδ2 T-cells was observed during Ebola infection, independently from the clinical outcome. Moreover, Vδ2 T-cells from Ebola patients massively expressed CD95 apoptotic marker, suggesting the involvement of apoptotic mechanisms in Vδ2 T-cell loss. Interestingly, Vδ2 T-cells from survivors expressed an effector phenotype and presented a lower expression of the CTLA-4 exhaustion marker than fatalities, suggesting a role of effector Vδ2 T-cells in the protection. Furthermore, patients with fatal Ebola infection were characterized by a lower NK cell frequency than patients with non fatal infection. In particular, both CD56bright and CD56dim NK frequency were very low both in fatal and non fatal infections, while a higher frequency of CD56neg NK cells was associated to non-fatal infections. Finally, NK activation and expression of NKp46 and CD158a were independent from clinical outcome.Altogether, the data suggest that both effector Vδ2 T-cells and NK cells may play a role in the complex network of protective response to EBOV infection. Further studies are required to characterize the protective effector functions of Vδ2 and NK cells.

  18. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage. Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  19. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Carús, Juan Luis; Casado, Rubén

    2016-10-28

    Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information) or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage). Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  20. Screening injured children for physical abuse or neglect in emergency departments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.