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Sample records for fast vme modules

  1. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  2. A single-board VME mössbauer-spectrometry module

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, J.; Beunes, A. J. H.; Boellaard, E.; van der Kraan, A. M.; Osterholt, E. A.; Schipper, M. N.

    1998-06-01

    A VME module is described to interface a mössbauer spectrometer to a computer system. It is used at the IRI mössbauer spectrometry laboratory to control 12 spectrometers. Six mössbauer modules, with additional dual ported memories, are housed in a VME-rack. Features: Generation of computer composed functions and digitizing of function-related signals, multi-channel scaling, pulse height analysis, and current integration as an optional detection technique. Functions representing a desired velocity pattern are digitally stored in the function memory. They are converted to analog using a 12-bits Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). The output of the DAC is the voltage reference for a mössbauer drive unit that drives a velocity transducer carrying a gamma radiation source. Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS) is used to measure a mössbauer spectrum. Internally a function time-base and a multi-scaler time-base are generated. A Pulse Height Analyses (PHA) facility, using a 12-bits Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), is implemented to measure the gamma spectrum of the radiation source. A mössbauer transition energy can be selected in a handsome way using this feature. An additional task of the ADC is digitizing function related signals, such as the velocity-feedback signal. If this signal is digitized, the velocity reference-function could be modified by software to correct a deviation in the source movement. For measurements with very strong gamma sources the Current Integration Technique (CIT) is implemented. Instead of a voltage to frequency-converter, formerly applied for this type of experiments, the ADC can be used for signal digitizing in this mode of operation.

  3. Method for Backplane Data Communication with the VME Rear Transition Modules Developed for the ATLAS FTK Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Piendibene, M; Shochet, M; Tompkins, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to achieve backplane data transfer capabilities to and from a VME Rear Transition Module (RTM), while being in full compliance with the VME64/VIPA Specification. The VMEbus is specified for data transfers only with boards plugged on the front side of the subrack. The RTMs receive power from the crate, but are not part of the actual data transfer bus. They do not plug into the J1 connector, and have no access to backplane interface logic. In this implementation, the RTM uses the feed-through pins located in the J2 connector to communicate with the corresponding front module. The front module's internal data, address, and control buses are extended to the rear. This allows the front module's interface block to control data transfers for logic devices on both sides of the same slot. All usual VME protocols to logic devices on the RTM become possible without any software adaptation. This method was implemented on several prototype modules developed for the ATLAS FTK Project. The full ...

  4. VME system monitor board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  5. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface; Interface de alta velocidad VME-UNIBUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, P.

    1987-07-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  7. A VME MXI-II Based Setup for Testing ALICE Pixel Readout Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Chochula, P; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract One of the possible readout scenarios for ALICE ITS pixel layers counts on in- situ zero suppression, performed by Pilot control chip. Preprocessed event will be then serialized and sent out via about 50 m long copper cable for further processing. The VME prototypes of Pilot chip and link (called "SHORTLINK") were developed in the frames of Alice collaboration. Here we describe the VME test system, developed to test the modules.

  8. A high performance real-time plasma control and event detection DSP based VME system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.P. E-mail: pinto@ci.uc.pt; Correia, Carlos; Varandas, Carlos

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the digital signal processors module of a high performance system, specially designed for real-time plasma control and event detection on the next generation fusion experiments with long duration discharges. The system is composed of a commercial CPU board and several on-site developed intelligent modules inserted in the same VME crate.

  9. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  10. Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard

    2007-01-01

    microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.

  11. Tune measurement for the CERN proton synchrotron booster rings using DSP in VME

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman-Hatchett, A; D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster (PSB) consists of 4 superposed rings supplied with protons from a 50 MeV Linac The CERN PS Booster (PSB) consists of 4 superposed rings supplied with protons from a 50 MeV Linac. The proton beam is then accelerated to 1 GeV and sent either to the 26 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) or to the ISOLDE facility. This is carried out in a multi-cycle mode every 1.2 s. For high-intensity beams, the working-point in the tune diagram needs to be changed considerably during acceleration from 50 MeV to 1 GeV and the repeated measurement of the tunes throughout the cycle is an important requirement. Up to now, tune values were obtained through calculations based on quadrupole currents. However, practical experience has shown the need for a direct tune measurement system. For this purpose, a classical kick technique is used. A fixed amplitude kick of duration equal to one revolution period excites coherent betatron oscillations. For fast treatment, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) module in a VME-standard ...

  12. Assessment of VME-PCI Interfaces with Linux Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schossmater, K; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This report summarises the performance measurements and experiences recorded by testing three commercial VME-PCI interfaces with their Linux drivers. These interfaces are manufactured by Wiener, National Instruments and SBS Bit 3. The developed C programs are reading/writing a VME memory in different transfer modes via these interfaces. A dual processor HP Kayak XA-s workstation was used with the CERN certified Red Hat Linux 6.1 running on it.

  13. NOVEL "CATHODE-ON-MEMBRANE" VME PRESSURE SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Shanhong; Tao Xinxin; Su Jie; Chen Shaofeng

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a novel "cathode-on-membrane" vacuum microelectronic (VME)pressure sensor. Compared with conventional VME pressure sensors, the package process of the new structured sensor is easier to control, and therefore it enable greater potential of nass production and high productivity. The properties of the new sensor have been theoretically investigated by computer simulations; the practical structure has been designed and fabricated; and the package technique has been studied.

  14. Design,Fabrication and Test of a VME Pressure Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAShanhong; CHENShaofeng; LIUJia

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design,fabrication,packaging and measurement results of a vacuum microelectronic(VME)pressure sensor.A new configuration,named "cathode-on-membrane",greatly reduces the difficulties in the packaging process and enables practical VME pressure sensors to be developed.Experimental studies and results demonstrate the characteristics of the sensor output current variation with applied pressure under different working voltages.

  15. Fast Resonance Frequency Modulation in Superconducting Stripline Resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Segev, Eran; Abdo, Baleegh; Shtempluck, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Fast resonance frequency modulation of a superconducting stripline resonator is investigated. The experiments are performed using a novel device which integrates a hot electron detector (HED) into a superconducting stripline ring resonator. Frequency modulation is demonstrated by both applying dc current or voltage to the HED, and by applying optical illumination, with modulation frequencies of up to 4.2GHz. Potential applications for such a device are in telecommunication, quantum cryptograp...

  16. Fast dispersive beam deflectors and modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Ignacy; Skettrup, Torben

    1982-01-01

    A new method for one-dimensional light scanning is proposed. It is based on the use of ordinary dispersive optical components like prisms, gratings, etc. By electrooptic tuning of the output wavelength of broad-band lasers, fast scanners (up to 10 gigapixels/s) can be constructed. Deflection angles...

  17. Module for dielectric surfaces modification by fast neutral particles beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenko, V. T.; Lisenkov, A. A.; Babinov, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the module for dielectric and wide-gap semiconductor surfaces modification by fast neutral beam. The module can be used for cleaning, etching or assisting of films deposition. The surface proceeding by neutral beam can prevent an accumulation of surface charge without using current compensation by inserting electrons to the beam or RF power supply. The module beside cathode and anode contains an electrode with floating potential. Insertion of the additional electrode causes electron retention in an electrostatic trap resulting the reducing of the module operating pressure. Moreover, the electrode with floating potential allows increasing the current efficient of the module. An important feature of the module is that neutralization of the ions extracted from the plasma occurs in the cathode potential well. Thereby ions that have not neutralized cannot leave nearcathode region and there are no fast ions in the output beam. Module does not contain sources of the magnetic fields or elements heated by external sources. Module operates with free cooling. Thus, the module does not need water cooling and can be freely moved in the vacuum chamber.

  18. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  19. Patterning of OPV modules by ultra-fast laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiš, Peter; Lucera, Luca; Guo, Fei; Spyropolous, George; Voigt, Monika M.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2014-10-01

    A novel production process combining slot-die coating, transparent flexible IMI (ITO-Metal-ITO) electrodes and ultra-fast laser ablation can be used for the realization of P3HT:PCBM based thin film flexible OPV modules. The fast and precise laser ablation allows an overall efficiency over 3 % and a device geometric fill factor (GFF) over 95 %. Three functional layers can be ablated using the same wavelength only with varying the laser fluence and overlap. Different OPV device architectures with multilayers utilizing various materials are challenging for ablation but can be structured by using a systematical approach.

  20. Fast modulation and dithering on a pyramid wavefront sensor bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Bradley, Colin; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; Lardiere, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    A pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) bench has been setup at NRC-Herzberg (Victoria, Canada) to investigate, first, the feasibility of a double roof prism PWFS, and second, test the proposed pyramid wavefront sensing methodology to be used in NFIRAOS for the Thirty Meter Telescope. Traditional PWFS require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Roof prisms, on the other hand, are common optical components and can easily be made to the desired specifications. Understanding the differences between a double roof prism PWFS and traditional PWFS will allow for the double roof prism PWFS to become more widely used as an alternative to the standard pyramid, especially in a laboratory setting. In this work, the response of the double roof prism PWFS as the amount of modulation is changed, is compared to an ideal PWFS modelled using the adaptive optics toolbox, OOMAO in MATLAB. The object oriented toolbox uses physical optics to model complete AO systems. Fast modulation and dithering using a PI mirror has been implemented using a micro-controller to drive the mirror and trigger the camera. The various trade offs of this scheme, in a controlled laboratory environment, are studied and reported.

  1. MACULA: Fast Modeling of Rotational Modulations of Spotty Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David

    2015-08-01

    Rotational modulations are frequently observed on stars observed by photometry surveys such as Kepler, with periodicities ranging from days to months and amplitudes of sub-parts-per-million to several percent. These variations may be studied to reveal important stellar properties such as rotational periods, inclinations and gradients of differential rotation. However, inverting the disk-integrated flux into a solution for spot number, sizes, contrasts, etc is highly degenerate and thereby necessitating an exhaustive search of the parameter space. In recognition of this, the software MACULA is designed to be a fast forward model of circular, grey spots on rotating stars, including effects such as differential rotation, spot evolution and even spot penumbra/umbra. MACULA seeks to achieve computational efficiency by using a wholly analytic description of the disk-integrated flux, which is described in Kipping (2012), leading to a computational improvement of three orders-of-magnitude over its numerical counterparts. As part of the hack day, I'll show how to simulate light curves with MACULA and provide examples with visualizations. I will also discuss the on-going development of the code, which will head towards modeling spot crossing events and radial velocity jitter and I encourage discussions amongst the participants on analytic methods to this end.

  2. The Upgrade Path from Legacy VME to VXS Dual Star Connectivity for Large Scale Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C; Barbosa, F J; Dong, H; Gu, W; Jastrzembski, E; Kaneta, S R; Moffitt, B; Nganga, N; Raydo, B J; Somov, A; Taylor, W M

    2011-10-01

    New instrumentation modules have been designed by Jefferson Lab and to take advantage of the higher performance and elegant backplane connectivity of the VITA 41 VXS standard. These new modules are required to meet the 200KHz trigger rates envisioned for the 12GeV experimental program. Upgrading legacy VME designs to the high speed gigabit serial extensions that VXS offers, comes with significant challenges, including electronic engineering design, plus firmware and software development issues. This paper will detail our system design approach including the critical system requirement stages, and explain the pipeline design techniques and selection criteria for the FPGA that require embedded Gigabit serial transceivers. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250MHz clock with synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals distributed to each front end readout crate via the second switch slot in the 21 slot, dual star VXS backplane. The readout of the buffered detector signals relies on 2eSST over the standard VME64x path at >200MB/s. We have achieved 20Gb/s transfer rate of trigger information within one VXS crate and will present results using production modules in a two crate test configuration with both VXS crates fully populated. The VXS trigger modules that reside in the front end crates, will be ready for production orders by the end of the 2011 fiscal year. VXS Global trigger modules are in the design stage now, and will be complete to meet the installation schedule for the 12GeV Physics program.

  3. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules, Thermal-Hydraulics, TH-2: Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihman, Thomas C.

    This learning module is concerned with the temperature field, the heat transfer rates, and the coolant pressure drop in typical liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel assemblies. As in all of the modules of this series, emphasis is placed on developing the theory and demonstrating the use with a simplified model. The heart of the module is…

  4. Protokol Interchangeable Data pada VMeS (Vessel Messaging System dan AIS (Automatic Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Andhika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available VMeS (Vessel Messaging System merupakan komunikasi berbasis radio untuk mengirimkan pesan antara VMeS terminal kapal di laut dengan VMeS gateway di darat. Dalam perkembangan sistem monitoring kapal di laut umumnya menggunakan AIS (Automatic Identification System yang telah digunakan di seluruh pelabuhan untuk memantau kondisi kapal dan mencegah tabrakan antar kapal. Dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang format data yang sesuai untuk VMeS agar bisa dilakukan proses interchangeable ke AIS sehingga bisa dibaca oleh AIS receiver yang ditujukan untuk kapal dengan ukuran dibawah 30 GT (Gross Tonnage. Format data VmeS dirancang dalam tiga jenis yaitu data posisi, data informasi kapal dan data pesan pendek yang akan dilakukan interchangeable dengan AIS tipe 1,4 dan 8. Pengujian kinerja sistem interchangeable menunjukkan bahwa dengan peningkatan periode pengiriman pesan maka lama delay total meningkat tetapi packet loss menurun. Pada pengiriman pesan setiap 5 detik dengan kecepatan 0-40 km/jam, 96,67 % data dapat diterima dengan baik. Data akan mengalami packet loss jika level daya terima dibawah -112 dBm . Jarak terjauh yang dapat dijangkau modem dengan kondisi bergerak yaitu informatika ITS dengan jarak 530 meter terhadap Laboratorium B406 dengan level daya terima -110 dBm.

  5. SOI thermo-optic modulator with fast response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolong Wang(王小龙); Jingwei Liu(刘敬伟); Qingfeng Yan(严清峰); Shaowu Chen(陈绍武); Jinzhong Yu(余金中)

    2003-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology offers tremendous potential for integration of optoelectronic functionson a silicon wafer. In this letter, a 1 × 1 multimode interference (MMI) Mach-Zender interferometer(MZI) thermo-optic modulator fabricated by wet-etching method is demonstrated. The modulator has anextinction ratio of -11.0 dB, extra loss of -4.9 dB and power consumption of 420 mW. The response timeis less than 30μs.

  6. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility - Hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC's), Time to Digital Converters (TDC's), scaler's, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  7. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfman, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-15

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  8. Fast modulation scheme for a two laterally coupled laser diode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, G.; Lamela, H.; Leones, M.; Simmendinger, C.; Hess, O.

    2001-06-25

    The present letter reports a modulation scheme that takes advantage of the unique characteristics of a two laterally coupled laser diode (also known as twin stripe array) to overcome the limit on the modulation imposed by the laser{close_quote}s relaxation oscillation frequency. Through the use of the rate equation description of the device we uncover the device dynamics behind the modulation scheme generating 35 ps (full width at half maximum) laser pulses at 8 Gb/s modulation rate. Our scheme relies on the fast dynamics of the phase difference, controlled by means of the current injection on each stripe. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Novel differential unitary space-time modulation schemes for fast fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jifeng; Jiang Haining; Song Wentao; Luo Hanwen

    2006-01-01

    Differential unitary space-time modulation (DUSTM), which obtains full transmit diversity in slowly flat-fading channels without channel state information, has generated significant interests recently. To combat frequency-selective fading, DUSTM has been applied to each subcarrier of an OFDM system and DUSTM-OFDM system was proposed. Both DUSTM and DUSTM-OFDM, however, are designed for slowly fading channels and suffer performance deterioration in fast fading channels. In this paper, two novel differential unitary space-time modulation schemes are proposed for fast fading channels. For fast flat-fading channels, a sub-matrix interleaved DUSTM (SMI-DUSTM) scheme is proposed, in which matrix-segmentation and sub-matrix based interleaving are introduced into DUSTM system. For fast frequency-selective fading channels, a differential unitary space-frequency modulation (DUSFM) scheme is proposed, in which existing unitary space-time codes are employed across transmit antennas and OFDM subcarriers simultaneously and differential modulation is performed between two adjacent OFDM blocks. Compared with DUSTM and DUSTM-OFDM schemes, SMI-DUSTM and DUSFM-OFDM are more robust to fast channel fading with low decoding complexity, which is demonstrated by performance analysis and simulation results.

  10. Fast modulation of executive function by language context in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-08-14

    Mastering two languages has been associated with enhancement in human executive control, but previous studies of this phenomenon have exclusively relied on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual individuals. In the present study, we tested a single group of Welsh-English bilinguals engaged in a nonverbal conflict resolution task and manipulated language context by intermittently presenting words in Welsh, English, or both languages. Surprisingly, participants showed enhanced executive capacity to resolve interference when exposed to a mixed compared with a single language context, even though they ignored the irrelevant contextual words. This result was supported by greater response accuracy and reduced amplitude of the P300, an electrophysiological correlate of cognitive interference. Our findings introduce a new level of plasticity in bilingual executive control dependent on fast changing language context rather than long-term language experience.

  11. Slow motions in systems with fast modulated excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, E.

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that high-frequency excitation can modify the behavior of systems with respect to slow motions. The goal of this study is consideration of these effects in a rather general case of analytical systems with modulated sinusoidal excitation. The method of direct separation of motions proposed by I.I. Blekhman was applied in a modified form with the explicit introduction of a small parameter. Equations for the slow motions are obtained and an analysis of how they depend on the structure of the original equations is performed. Five basic effects corresponding to different possible dependencies of the modulation amplitude on position, velocity, and slow time are selected (some of them for the first time). These effects offer a possibility for designing a high-frequency control of the slow motions with specified properties. For example, high-frequency excitation in a system with a nonlinear friction can essentially increase the effective damping. The results are also of significance for system identification and diagnostics. Analysis of a hydraulic valve is given as an example of application.

  12. PRMT5 modulates the metabolic response to fasting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Niessen, Sherry; Goebel, Naomi; Yates, John R; Guccione, Ernesto; Montminy, Marc

    2013-05-28

    Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating glucagon maintain glucose balance by promoting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway stimulates gluconeogenic gene expression through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein and via the dephosphorylation of the latent cytoplasmic CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC2). CREB and CRTC2 activities are increased in insulin resistance, in which they promote hyperglycemia because of constitutive induction of the gluconeogenic program. The extent to which CREB and CRTC2 are coordinately up-regulated in response to glucagon, however, remains unclear. Here we show that, following its activation, CRTC2 enhances CREB phosphorylation through an association with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). In turn, PRMT5 was found to stimulate CREB phosphorylation via increases in histone H3 Arg2 methylation that enhanced chromatin accessibility at gluconeogenic promoters. Because depletion of PRMT5 lowers hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression, these results demonstrate how a chromatin-modifying enzyme regulates a metabolic program through epigenetic changes that impact the phosphorylation of a transcription factor in response to hormonal stimuli.

  13. Modulation of fast synaptic transmission by presynaptic ligand-gated cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakh, B S; Henderson, G

    2000-07-01

    There is now considerable evidence demonstrating that ligand-gated cation channels (i.e., P2X, nicotinic, kainate, NMDA, AMPA and 5-HT(3) receptors), in addition to mediating fast excitatory neurotransmission, may be located presynaptically on nerve terminals in the peripheral and central nervous systems where they function to modulate neurotransmitter release. This modulation can be facilitation, inhibition or both. In this article, we first outline the multiple mechanisms by which activation of presynaptic ligand-gated cation channels can modulate spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release, before reviewing in detail published electrophysiological studies of presynaptic P2X, nicotinic, kainate, NMDA, AMPA and 5-HT(3) receptors.

  14. Control of high power IGBT modules in the active region for fast pulsed power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, J M; Garcia Retegui, R; Maestri, S; Uicich, G

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, fast pulsed power converters are used to supply trapezoidal current in different magnet loads. These converters perform output current regulation by using a high power IGBT module in its ohmic region. This paper presents a new strategy for pulsed current control applications using a specifically designed IGBT driver.

  15. Verification and Validation of the New Dynamic Mooring Modules Available in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Andersen, Morten T.

    2016-08-01

    The open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, was recently coupled to two newly developed mooring dynamics modules: MoorDyn and FEAMooring. MoorDyn is a lumped-mass-based mooring dynamics module developed by the University of Maine, and FEAMooring is a finite-element-based mooring dynamics module developed by Texas A&M University. This paper summarizes the work performed to verify and validate these modules against other mooring models and measured test data to assess their reliability and accuracy. The quality of the fairlead load predictions by the open-source mooring modules MoorDyn and FEAMooring appear to be largely equivalent to what is predicted by the commercial tool OrcaFlex. Both mooring dynamic model predictions agree well with the experimental data, considering the given limitations in the accuracy of the platform hydrodynamic load calculation and the quality of the measurement data.

  16. Verification and Validation of the New Dynamic Mooring Modules Available in FAST v8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Andersen, Morten T.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2016-07-01

    The open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, was recently coupled to two newly developed mooring dynamics modules: MoorDyn and FEAMooring. MoorDyn is a lumped-mass-based mooring dynamics module developed by the University of Maine, and FEAMooring is a finite-element-based mooring dynamics module developed by Texas A&M University. This paper summarizes the work performed to verify and validate these modules against other mooring models and measured test data to assess their reliability and accuracy. The quality of the fairlead load predictions by the open-source mooring modules MoorDyn and FEAMooring appear to be largely equivalent to what is predicted by the commercial tool OrcaFlex. Both mooring dynamic model predictions agree well with the experimental data, considering the given limitations in the accuracy of the platform hydrodynamic load calculation and the quality of the measurement data.

  17. Verification and Validation of the New Dynamic Mooring Modules Available in FAST v8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Robertson, Amy N.

    2016-01-01

    The open-source, aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software FAST v8 (created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) was recently coupled to two newly developed mooring dynamics modules: MoorDyn and FEAMooring. MoorDyn is a lumped-mass-based mooring dynamics module developed...... by the University of Maine, and FEAMooring is a finite-element-based mooring dynamics module developed by Texas A&M University. This paper summarizes the work performed to verify and validate these modules compared to other mooring models and measured test data to assess their reliability and accuracy. The quality...... of the fairlead load predictions by the open-source mooring modules MoorDyn and FEAMooring appears to be largely equivalent to that predicted by the commercial tool OrcaFlex. Both mooring dynamic model predictions agree well with the experimental data considering the given limitations in the accuracy...

  18. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  19. Distributed acquisition system using the VME KAV30 single board computer in a VAXELN environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antone, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pavesi, B.; Sanzani, G.; Marini, A.; Ronga, F.; Surdo, A.; Mancarella, G.

    1994-02-01

    An acquisition system based on a network (Ethernet/DECNET) of KAV30 VAX processors is described. KAC30 is a VME single board computer based around rt-Vax 300 and running in VAXELN, a Digital Equipment software product for the development of dedicated, real time systems for VAX processors. A central VAX running under the VAX/VMS operating system is used as file server and as an interface of the acquisition system with respect to the user's world.

  20. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  1. Control Modules for Scintillation Counters in the SPS Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Baribaud, Guy; Cojan, A; Ferri, G; Fullerton, J; Manarin, A; Spanggaard, J

    2001-01-01

    The hardware used in the SPS Experimental Areas to control the beam instrumentation electronics and mechanics of the particle detectors is based on CAMAC and NIM modules. The maintenance of this hardware now presents very serious problems. The modules used to operate the Experimental Areas are numerous and older than 20 years so many of them cannot be repaired any more and CAMAC is no longer well supported by industry. The fast evolution of technology and a better understanding of the detectors allow a new equipment-oriented approach, which is more favourable for maintenance purposes and presents fewer data handling problems. VME and IP Modules were selected as standard components to implement the new electronics to control and read out the particle detectors. The first application implemented in this way concerns the instrumentation for the Scintillation Counters (formerly referred to as triggers). The fundamental options and the design features will be presented.

  2. 64-Channel, 5 GSPS ADC Module with Switched Capacitor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, M.; Huan, H.; Wakely, S.

    2013-08-01

    We present a 5 GSPS ADC/Data processing module with up to 64 channels and 2048 cells per channel, designed for fast-sampling, front-end applications. This is a 6U VME board that incorporates 16 pieces DRS4 (http://drs.web.psi.ch, [1]) Switched Capacitor Array chips developed at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. The 16 DRS4 chips are grouped in four independent input blocks. A block, with a geometric size of 43×120 mm, has four pieces DRS4 chips, four pieces AD9222 converters, and one Altera Stratix III FPGA. Each DRS4 chip has eight channels and each channel has 1024 sampling cells, which can be daisy-chained for larger sampling depth. This feature allows for a great level of flexibility in choosing the number of channels relative to capacitor array size, for a particular application. The first prototype Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed for a sampling depth of 2048 cells and 16 channels in a 42 mm wide block, i.e. 64 channels for the 6U VME board. This compact form factor allows for these input blocks to be used as front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) cameras. In this VME board, the four blocks are fully independent and can run each in different modes without any conflict. A global FPGA, also a Stratix III device, provides control and interfacing. The module can run with a local oscillator or with input system clocks in the range of 20-550 MHz. The front panel is fitted with a 2.5 Gbps serial link transceiver.

  3. Multilevel Spatial Multiplexing -Space Time Trellis Coded Modulation System for Fast Fading MIMO Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kavitha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel Space Time Trellis Coded Modulation with antenna grouping, which has been proposed recently, has coding gain and diversity gain, which in turn provide high throughput with considerable low computational complexity. However its performance is limited by predefining the antenna groups per component codes. In this paper Multilevel Spatial Multiplexing-Space Time Trellis Coded Modulation (ML-SM-STTCM has been proposed, in which antenna group selection is made based on spatial modulation based on trellis coding proposed by Ertugrul Basar and team. This idea maximizes the spatial diversity. Since only selected antennas are used to transmit the signal, and also the antennas with less cross correlation are in the selected groups, we could able to achieve improved BER performance even in the fast fading channel. Since the antenna selection is based on the component code in the system, at the decoder without increase in the computational complexity, we could achieve better error performance. The performance of the proposed system is analysed with Viterbi decoding algorithm and sub optimal sequential decoding algorithm. In this system, the antenna groups are non-overlapping, hence, it needs Nt, the number transmitter antennas, more than what is required at time t. The computer simulation reveals that the proposed system gives better BER performance compared to Multilevel Space Time Trellis Coded Modulation (ML STTCM over fast fading channel with the same computational complexity both at the transmitter and receiver.

  4. A fast method for optical simulation of flood maps of light-sharing detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Han [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Du, Dong [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Xu, JianFeng [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Moses, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Peng, Qiyu, E-mail: qiyupeng@gmail.com [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Optical simulation of the detector module level is highly desired for Position Emission Tomography (PET) system design. Commonly used simulation toolkits such as GATE are not efficient in the optical simulation of detector modules with complicated light-sharing configurations, where a vast amount of photons need to be tracked. We present a fast approach based on a simplified specular reflectance model and a structured light-tracking algorithm to speed up the photon tracking in detector modules constructed with polished finish and specular reflector materials. We simulated conventional block detector designs with different slotted light guide patterns using the new approach and compared the outcomes with those from GATE simulations. While the two approaches generated comparable flood maps, the new approach was more than 200–600 times faster. The new approach has also been validated by constructing a prototype detector and comparing the simulated flood map with the experimental flood map. The experimental flood map has nearly uniformly distributed spots similar to those in the simulated flood map. In conclusion, the new approach provides a fast and reliable simulation tool for assisting in the development of light-sharing-based detector modules with a polished surface finish and using specular reflector materials.

  5. High Voltage, Fast-Switching Module for Active Control of Magnetic Fields and Edge Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2016-10-01

    Fast, reliable, real-time control of plasma is critical to the success of magnetic fusion science. High voltage and current supplies are needed to mitigate instabilities in all experiments as well as disruption events in large scale tokamaks for steady-state operation. Silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities; however, these devices are limited to 1.2-1.7 kV devices. As fusion enters the long-pulse and burning plasma eras, efficiency of power switching will be important. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. developing a high voltage SiC MOSFET module that operates at 10 kV. This switch module utilizes EHT gate drive technology, which has demonstrated the ability to increase SiC MOSFET switching efficiency. The module will allow more rapid development of high voltage switching power supplies at lower cost necessary for the next generation of fast plasma feedback and control. EHT is partnering with the High Beta Tokamak group at Columbia to develop detailed high voltage module specifications, to ensure that the final product meets the needs of the fusion science community.

  6. VME-based data acquisition system for the India-based Neutrino Observatory prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chandratre, V.B. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K.; Nagaraj, P.; Pal, S.; Rao, S.K.; Redij, A. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Samuel, D., E-mail: samuel@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R.; Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton Iron-Calorimeter (ICAL) to study neutrino oscillations. About 28,800 Resistive Plate Chambers will be used as active detector elements in this experiment. Preliminary studies are currently underway and as a part of it, a prototype detector was developed which now serves as a cosmic-ray telescope and as a test-bench to study the indigenously built RPCs. A VME-based data acquisition system was designed for this prototype system. Modern software tools were used in the designing of the DAQ software. The design and development of this DAQ system are discussed.

  7. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-04-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms.

  8. First Results with a Fast Phase and Amplitude Modulator for High Power RF Application

    CERN Document Server

    Frischholz, Hans; Valuch, D; Weil, C

    2004-01-01

    In a high energy and high power superconducting proton linac, it is more economical to drive several cavities with a single high power transmitter rather than to use one transmitter per cavity. However, this option has the disadvantage of not permitting individual control for each cavity, which potentially leads to instabilities. Provided that it can be built at a reasonable cost, a fast phase and amplitude modulator inserted into each cavity feeder line can provide the necessary control capability. A prototype of such a device has been built, based on two fast and compact high power RF phase-shifters, magnetically biased by external coils. The design is described, together with the results obtained at high and low power levels.

  9. Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-01

    The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44" X 15.75" board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates.

  10. Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-01

    The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44 X 15.75 board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates.

  11. Multiphysics simulation of fast transients with the FINIX fuel behaviour module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonen Timo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FINIX is a recently developed fuel behaviour module that is designed to provide “simple but sufficient” descriptions of the most essential fuel behaviour phenomena in multiphysics simulations. In such simulations, it is possible to obtain significant improvement in the feedback to neutronics or thermal hydraulics modelling even with a relatively simple fuel performance model. In this work, FINIX is used as an internal fuel behaviour module both in reactor physics and in reactor dynamics codes to simulate coupled behaviour in fast transient scenarios. With the Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent we model a prompt transient in a VVER-1000 pin cell, and with the reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN, a control rod ejection accident in a VVER-440 reactor.

  12. A fast iterative-clique percolation method for identifying functional modules in protein interaction networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Penggang SUN; Lin GAO

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that biological systems are composed of interacting, separable, functional modules-groups of vertices within which connections are dense but between which they are sparse. Identifying these modules is likely through capturing the biologically mean-ingful interactions. In recent years, many algorithms have been developed for detecting such structures. These al-gorithms, however, are computationally demanding, which limits their applications. In this paper, we propose a fast iterative-clique percolation method (ICPM) for identifying overlapping functional modules in protein-protein interac-tion (PPI) networks. Our method is based on clique percola-tion method (CPM), and it not only considers the degree of nodes to minimize the search space (the vertices in k-cliques must have the degree of k - 1 at least), but also converts k-cliques to (k - 1)-cliques. It finds k-cliques by append-ing one node to (k - 1)-cliques. By testing our method on PPI networks, our analysis of the yeast PPI network suggeststhat most of these modules have well-supported biological significance.

  13. Cygrid: A fast Cython-powered convolution-based gridding module for Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, B.; Lenz, D.; Flöer, L.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Data gridding is a common task in astronomy and many other science disciplines. It refers to the resampling of irregularly sampled data to a regular grid. Aims: We present cygrid, a library module for the general purpose programming language Python. Cygrid can be used to resample data to any collection of target coordinates, although its typical application involves FITS maps or data cubes. The FITS world coordinate system standard is supported. Methods: The regridding algorithm is based on the convolution of the original samples with a kernel of arbitrary shape. We introduce a lookup table scheme that allows us to parallelize the gridding and combine it with the HEALPix tessellation of the sphere for fast neighbor searches. Results: We show that for n input data points, cygrids runtime scales between O(n) and O(nlog n) and analyze the performance gain that is achieved using multiple CPU cores. We also compare the gridding speed with other techniques, such as nearest-neighbor, and linear and cubic spline interpolation. Conclusions: Cygrid is a very fast and versatile gridding library that significantly outperforms other third-party Python modules, such as the linear and cubic spline interpolation provided by SciPy. http://https://github.com/bwinkel/cygrid

  14. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  15. Fasting and 17β-estradiol differentially modulate the M-current in NPY neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Qiu, Jian; Smith, Arik W.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple K+ conductances are targets for many peripheral and central signals involved in the control of energy homeostasis. Potential K+ channel targets are the KCNQ subunits that form the channels underlying the M-current, a sub-threshold, non-inactivating K+ current that is a common target for G-protein coupled receptors. Whole-cell recordings were made from GFP (Renilla)-tagged NPY neurons from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus using protocols to isolate and characterize the M-current in these orexigenic neurons. We recorded robust K+ currents in the voltage range of the M-current, which were inhibited by the selective KCNQ channel blocker XE991 (40 µM), in both intact males and ovariectomized, 17β-estradiol (E2)-treated females. Since NPY neurons are orexigenic and are active during fasting, the M-current was measured in fed and fasted male mice. Fasting attenuated the XE991-sensitive current by 3-fold which correlated with decreased expression of the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits as measured with quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, E2 treatment augmented the XE991-sensitive M-current by 3-fold in ovariectomized (vs. oil-treated) female mice. E2-treatment increased the expression of the KCNQ5 subunit in females but not KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 subunits. Fasting in females abrogated the effects of E2 on M-current activity, at least in part, by decreasing KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 expression. In summary, these data suggest that the M-current plays a pivotal role in the modulation of NPY neuronal excitability and may be an important cellular target for neurotransmitter and hormonal signals in the control of energy homeostasis in both males and females. PMID:21849543

  16. A Modular VME Data Acquisition System for Counter Applications at the GSI Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A

    2003-01-01

    Particle counters perform the control of beam loss and slowly extracted currents at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI. A new VME/Lynx - PC/Linux based data acquisition system has been developed to combine the operating purposes beam loss measurement, spill analysis, spill structure measurement and matrix switching functionality in one single assembly. In this paper a detailed PC-side software description is presented. To achieve best system stability, the software has been divided into time critical networking and data deploying threads and low or normal priority interface tasks. Some new abilities in the fields of data computation and presentation are reported. A hardware description is presented, in detail a programmable GSI-EVENT controller, which is based on an ordinary 8 bit RISC microprocessor and which has been integrated into the system, to synchronize the data acquisition with the sophisticated “virtual accelerator” timing at GSI. First experiences gained while the commission...

  17. Design of a Solid-State Fast Voltage Compensator for klystron modulators requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for klystron modulators integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This kind of solution is mandatory for the CLIC project under study, which requires several hundreds of synchronously operated klystron modulators for a total pulsed power of 39 GW. The topology is optimized for the challenging CLIC specifications, which require a very precise output voltage flat-top as well as fast rise and fall times (3µs). The Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to manage the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage. Consequently, its dimensioning power and cost is minimized.

  18. Fast intensity-modulated arc therapy based on 2-step beam segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Gainey, Mark; Sauer, Otto A.; Richter, Anne; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 11, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Single or few arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is intended to be a time saving irradiation method, potentially replacing classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of different IMAT methods with the potential of fast delivery, which also has the possibility of adapting to the daily shape of the target volume. Methods: A planning study was performed. Novel double and triple IMAT techniques based on the geometrical analysis of the target organ at risk geometry (2-step IMAT) were evaluated. They were compared to step and shoot IMRT reference plans generated using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). Volumetric arc (VMAT) plans from commercial preclinical software (SMARTARC) were used as an additional benchmark to classify the quality of the novel techniques. Four cases with concave planning target volumes (PTV) with one dominating organ at risk (OAR), viz., the PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO Quasimodo phantom, breast/lung, spine metastasis/spinal cord, and prostate/rectum, were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV) and other parameters representing the plan quality were studied. Results: The novel 2-step IMAT techniques with geometry based segment definition were as good as or better than DMPO and were superior to the SMARTARC VMAT techniques. For the spine metastasis, the quality measured by the COV differed only by 3%, whereas the COV of the 2-step IMAT for the other three cases decreased by a factor of 1.4-2.4 with respect to the reference plans. Conclusions: Rotational techniques based on geometrical analysis of the optimization problem (2-step IMAT) provide similar or better plan quality than DMPO or the research version of SMARTARC VMAT variants. The results justify pursuing the goal of fast IMAT adaptation based on 2-step IMAT techniques.

  19. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G J; Ellis, R; Gorelenkova, M; Heidbrink, W W; Kurki-Suonio, T; Nazikian, R; Salmi, A; Schaffer, M J; Shinohara, K; Snipes, J A; Spong, D A; Koskela, T

    2011-06-03

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mockup of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam-ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  20. Fast-ion effects during test blanket module simulation experiments in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ellis, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Kurki-Suonio, T. [Aalto University, Finland; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Saimi, A. [Aalto University, Finland; Schaffer, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego; Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Koskela, T. [Aalto University, Finland; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics

    2011-01-01

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two test blanket modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot, predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot, which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  1. Fast oscillatory activity in the anterior cingulate cortex: dopaminergic modulation and efect of perineuronal net loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eSteullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive function such as working memory, attention and planning. Dopamine exerts complex modulation on excitability of pyramidal neurons and interneurons, and regulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Because of the complexity of this modulation, it is difficult to fully comprehend the effect of dopamine on neuronal network activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of dopamine on local high-frequency oscillatory neuronal activity (in  band in slices of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We found that dopamine enhanced the power of these oscillations induced by kainate and carbachol, but did not affect their peak frequency. Activation of D2R and in a lesser degree D1R increased the oscillation power, while activation of D4R had no effect. These high-frequency oscillations in the ACC relied on both phasic inhibitory and excitatory transmission and functional gap junctions. Thus, dopamine released in the ACC promotes high-frequency synchronized local cortical activity which is known to favor information transfer, fast selection and binding of distributed neuronal responses. Finally, the power of these oscillations was significantly enhanced after degradation of the perineuronal nets enwrapping most parvalbumin interneurons. This study provides new insights for a better understanding of the abnormal prefrontal gamma activity in schizophrenia patients who display prefrontal anomalies of both the dopaminergic system and the perineuronal nets.

  2. Additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine via modulation of 5-HT2 receptors in the mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Zhao, Jing; Lv, Jiayin; Tang, Fang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Zhihui; Wang, Liang; Siwela, Sibongile P; Wang, Yinuo; Song, Yunong; Manchishi, Stephen M; Cui, Ranji

    2014-01-03

    Recently, studies show that intermittent fasting and caloric restriction may improve symptoms of depression. However, there is little scientific evidence regarding the literature on the antidepressant-like effects of acute fasting. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and its influence on brain levels of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its phosphorylated form (p-CREB) in different time periods of fasting mice. Furthermore, the additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine and the possible involvement of the 5-HT2 receptors were examined. In the present study 9h, but not 3h and 18h of fasting significantly reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) without alteration in locomotor activity in the open field test. 9h fasting also enhanced the ratio of p-CREB/CREB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Co-administration of 9h of fasting and imipramine (30mg/kg, i.p) produced the additive antidepressant-like effects in the FST and increased the ratio of p-CREB/CREB. Meanwhile, the additive effects were partially reversed by treatment with a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, (±)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (5mg/kg, s.c). Furthermore, the antidepressant-like effects of 9h fasting was also blocked by DOI compared to the non-fasting control group. Serum corticosterone level, but not 5-HT and noradrenaline, was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner following different time periods of fasting. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fasting produces antidepressant-like effects via enhancement of the p-CREB/CREB ratio, and additive antidepressant-like effects of fasting with imipramine may be related to modulating 5-HT2 receptors.

  3. Industry Pack Modules in Beam Instrumentation Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the performances of the VME based data acquisition systems new technologies coming up on the market have been investigated in the last few years. The IP-BUS developed by Green Spring computers has been adopted in several applications. By using intelligent carrier boards (the existing are based on the 680x0 CPU family) it is possible to build embedded systems and group them together in the same crate. This solution improves the potentialities of VME by lowering the load of data flow over the bus. Only preprocessed data is exchanged between the different embedded modules. The IP modules also offer a cheap solution for normal VME implementations using passive carrier boards. In this paper we describe our experience so far by describing the use we make of these new products and the problems we encountered on the way

  4. Photoperiod Modulates Fast Delayed Rectifier Potassium Currents in the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Farajnia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One feature of the mammalian circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, is its ability to measure day length and thereby contribute to the seasonal adaptation of physiology and behavior. The timing signal from the SCN, namely the 24 hr pattern of electrical activity, is adjusted according to the photoperiod being broader in long days and narrower in short days. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and gamma-aminobutyric acid play a crucial role in intercellular communication within the SCN and contribute to the seasonal changes in phase distribution. However, little is known about the underlying ionic mechanisms of synchronization. The present study was aimed to identify cellular mechanisms involved in seasonal encoding by the SCN. Mice were adapted to long-day (light–dark 16:8 and short-day (light–dark 8:16 photoperiods and membrane properties as well as K+ currents activity of SCN neurons were measured using patch-clamp recordings in acute slices. Remarkably, we found evidence for a photoperiodic effect on the fast delayed rectifier K+ current, that is, the circadian modulation of this ion channel’s activation reversed in long days resulting in 50% higher peak values during the night compared with the unaltered day values. Consistent with fast delayed rectifier enhancement, duration of action potentials during the night was shortened and afterhyperpolarization potentials increased in amplitude and duration. The slow delayed rectifier, transient K+ currents, and membrane excitability were not affected by photoperiod. We conclude that photoperiod can change intrinsic ion channel properties of the SCN neurons, which may influence cellular communication and contribute to photoperiodic phase adjustment.

  5. Fast Simulation of Mechanical Heterogeneity in the Electrically Asynchronous Heart Using the MultiPatch Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walmsley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrical asynchrony occurs as a result of cardiac pacing or conduction disorders such as left bundle-branch block (LBBB. Electrically asynchronous activation causes myocardial contraction heterogeneity that can be detrimental for cardiac function. Computational models provide a tool for understanding pathological consequences of dyssynchronous contraction. Simulations of mechanical dyssynchrony within the heart are typically performed using the finite element method, whose computational intensity may present an obstacle to clinical deployment of patient-specific models. We present an alternative based on the CircAdapt lumped-parameter model of the heart and circulatory system, called the MultiPatch module. Cardiac walls are subdivided into an arbitrary number of patches of homogeneous tissue. Tissue properties and activation time can differ between patches. All patches within a wall share a common wall tension and curvature. Consequently, spatial location within the wall is not required to calculate deformation in a patch. We test the hypothesis that activation time is more important than tissue location for determining mechanical deformation in asynchronous hearts. We perform simulations representing an experimental study of myocardial deformation induced by ventricular pacing, and a patient with LBBB and heart failure using endocardial recordings of electrical activation, wall volumes, and end-diastolic volumes. Direct comparison between simulated and experimental strain patterns shows both qualitative and quantitative agreement between model fibre strain and experimental circumferential strain in terms of shortening and rebound stretch during ejection. Local myofibre strain in the patient simulation shows qualitative agreement with circumferential strain patterns observed in the patient using tagged MRI. We conclude that the MultiPatch module produces realistic regional deformation patterns in the asynchronous heart and that

  6. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed: VME-based DSP board market survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Rick E.

    1992-04-01

    The Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) is a real-time multiprocessor system utilizing digital signal processor technology on VMEbus based printed circuit boards installed on a Sun workstation. The ASPT has specific requirements, particularly as regards to the signal excision application, with respect to interfacing with current and planned data generation equipment, processing of the data, storage to disk of final and intermediate results, and the development tools for applications development and integration into the overall EW/COM computing environment. A prototype ASPT was implemented using three VME-C-30 boards from Applied Silicon. Experience gained during the prototype development led to the conclusions that interprocessor communications capability is the most significant contributor to overall ASPT performance. In addition, the host involvement should be minimized. Boards using different processors were evaluated with respect to the ASPT system requirements, pricing, and availability. Specific recommendations based on various priorities are made as well as recommendations concerning the integration and interaction of various tools developed during the prototype implementation.

  7. The Associative Memory System Infrastructures for the ATLAS Fast Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Maznas, I.; Citraro, S.; Annovi, A.; Ancu, L. S.; Beccherle, R.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N.; Calabrò, D.; Crescioli, F.; Dimas, D.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Greco, V.; Kalaitzidis, P.; Kordas, K.; Kimura, N.; Kubota, T.; Iovene, A.; Lanza, A.; Luciano, P.; Magnin, B.; Mermikli, K.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Nikolaidis, S.; Piendibene, M.; Sakellariou, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Volpi, G.

    2017-06-01

    The associative memory (AM) system of fast tracker (FTK) processor has been designed for the tracking trigger upgrade to the ATLAS detector at the Conseil Europeen Pour La Recherche Nucleaire large hadron collider. The system performs pattern matching (PM) using the detector hits of particles in the ATLAS silicon tracker. The AM system is the main processing element of FTK and is mainly based on the use of application-specified integrated circuits (ASICs) (AM chips) designed to execute PM with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution which become seeds for a full resolution track fitting. The AM system implementation is based on a collection of large 9U Versa Module Europa (VME) boards, named “serial link processors” (AMBSLPs). On these boards, a huge traffic of data is implemented on a network of 900 2-Gb/s serial links. The complete AM-based processor consumes much less power ( 50 kW) than its CPU equivalent and its size is much smaller. The AMBSLP has a power consumption of 250 W and there will be 16 of them in a crate. This results in unusually large power consumption for a VME crate and the need for complex custom infrastructure in order to have sufficient cooling. This paper reports on the design and testing of the infrastructures needed to run and cool the system which will include 16 AMBSLPs in the same crate, the integration of the AMBSLP inside a first FTK slice, the performance of the produced prototypes (both hardware and firmware), as well as their tests in the global FTK integration. This is an important milestone to be satisfied before the FTK production.

  8. Cygrid: A fast Cython-powered convolution-based gridding module for Python

    CERN Document Server

    Winkel, B; Flöer, L

    2016-01-01

    Data gridding is a common task in astronomy and many other science disciplines. It refers to the resampling of irregularly sampled data to a regular grid. We present cygrid, a library module for the general purpose programming language Python. Cygrid can be used to resample data to any collection of target coordinates, although its typical application involves FITS maps or data cubes. The FITS world coordinate system standard is supported. The regridding algorithm is based on the convolution of the original samples with a kernel of arbitrary shape. We introduce a lookup table scheme that allows us to parallelize the gridding and combine it with the HEALPix tessellation of the sphere for fast neighbor searches. We show that for $n$ input data points, cygrids runtime scales between O(n) and O(n log n) and analyze the performance gain that is achieved using multiple CPU cores. We also compare the gridding speed with other techniques, such as nearest-neighbor, and linear and cubic spline interpolation. Cygrid is ...

  9. Design of High-power VME Specification Power Supply System%一种大功率VME规范电源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彬

    2011-01-01

    Military information processor requires a high performance power supply with stable output, load protection, and data protection to adapt the severe variation in output of fore-power. We designed a high performance and high-power Versa Module Eurocard(VME) specification power supply which can work in the input voltage range of 18V~50V according to the requirement of a certain military information processor, and analyzed the polarity protection module, the power keeping module, and the power supply monitoring module. Test on the information processor illustrates that this power supply gains excellent universality and reliability, and stable performance. The one-slot power supply possesses the virtues of higher power density, less weight, higher efficiency, and intelligence.%军用信息处理机对电源要求很高,不仅要求电源的输出稳定,还要求其具有负载保护及数据保护措施,以适应初级电源的恶劣变化.本文结合雷载信息处理机的具体需求,设计了能够在18V~50V输入范围工作的军用VME规范电源,并对反接保护、功率保持及电源监控等功能模块进行了分析和原理说明.通过与信息处理机的搭载试验证明该电源有良好的通用性和可靠性,技术指标优良,在单槽空间内实现了高功率密度、低重量、高效率且智能化的高性能电源.

  10. Fast range switching of passively scattered proton beams using a modulation wheel and dynamic beam current modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D.; Pourbaix, J. C.; Ainsley, C. G.; Dolney, D.; Carabe, A.

    2014-04-01

    In proton radiotherapy, the range of particles in the patient body is determined by the energy of the protons. For most systems, the energy selection time is on the order of a few seconds, which becomes a serious obstacle for continuous dose delivery techniques requiring adaptive range modulation. This work analyses the feasibility of using the range modulation wheel, an element in the beamline used to form the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), to produce near-instantaneous changes not only in the modulation, but also in the range of the beam. While delivering proton beams in double scattering mode, the beam current can be synchronized with the range modulation wheel rotation by defining a current modulation pattern. Different current modulation patterns were computed from Monte Carlo simulations of our double scattering nozzle to range shift an SOBP of initial range 15 cm by varying degrees of up to ˜9 cm. These patterns were passed to the treatment control system at our institution and the resulting measured depth-dose distributions were analysed in terms of flatness, distal penumbra and relative irradiation time per unit mid-SOBP dose. Suitable SOBPs were obtained in all cases, with the maximum range shift being limited only by the maximum thickness of the wheel. The distal dose fall-off (80% to 20%) of the shifted peaks was broadened to about 1 cm, from the original 0.5 cm, and the predicted overhead in delivery time showed a linear increase with the amount of the shift. By modulating the beam current in clinical scattered proton beams equipped with a modulation wheel, it is possible to dynamically modify the in-patient range of the SOBP without adding any specific hardware or compensators to the beamline. A compromise between sharper distal dose fall-off and lower delivery time can be achieved and is subject to optimization.

  11. Fast range switching of passively scattered proton beams using a modulation wheel and dynamic beam current modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D; Pourbaix, J C; Ainsley, C G; Dolney, D; Carabe, A

    2014-04-01

    In proton radiotherapy, the range of particles in the patient body is determined by the energy of the protons. For most systems, the energy selection time is on the order of a few seconds, which becomes a serious obstacle for continuous dose delivery techniques requiring adaptive range modulation. This work analyses the feasibility of using the range modulation wheel, an element in the beamline used to form the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), to produce near-instantaneous changes not only in the modulation, but also in the range of the beam. While delivering proton beams in double scattering mode, the beam current can be synchronized with the range modulation wheel rotation by defining a current modulation pattern. Different current modulation patterns were computed from Monte Carlo simulations of our double scattering nozzle to range shift an SOBP of initial range 15 cm by varying degrees of up to ∼9 cm. These patterns were passed to the treatment control system at our institution and the resulting measured depth-dose distributions were analysed in terms of flatness, distal penumbra and relative irradiation time per unit mid-SOBP dose. Suitable SOBPs were obtained in all cases, with the maximum range shift being limited only by the maximum thickness of the wheel. The distal dose fall-off (80% to 20%) of the shifted peaks was broadened to about 1 cm, from the original 0.5 cm, and the predicted overhead in delivery time showed a linear increase with the amount of the shift. By modulating the beam current in clinical scattered proton beams equipped with a modulation wheel, it is possible to dynamically modify the in-patient range of the SOBP without adding any specific hardware or compensators to the beamline. A compromise between sharper distal dose fall-off and lower delivery time can be achieved and is subject to optimization.

  12. A fasting inducible switch modulates gluconeogenesis via activator/coactivator exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Dentin, Renaud; Chen, Danica

    2008-01-01

    During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensato...

  13. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2015-08-15

    Intermittent fasting prolongs the lifespan and unlike intense stress provides health benefits. Given the role of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of intermittent fasting plus intense stress on secretory IgA (SIgA) production and other mucosal parameters in the duodenum and ileum. Two groups of six mice, with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum for 12weeks, were submitted to a session of intense stress by a bout of forced swimming. Unstressed ad libitum fed or intermittently fasted groups were included as controls. After sacrifice, we evaluated intestinal SIgA and plasma adrenal hormones, lamina propria IgA+ plasma-cells, mRNA expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains in the liver and intestinal mucosa, as well as pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and Interferon-γ) and anti- (interleukin-2, -4, -10 and transforming growth factor-β) inflammatory cytokines in mucosal samples. Under intense stress, intermittent fasting down- or up-modulated the levels of most parameters in the duodenum and ileum, respectively while up-regulated corticosterone levels without affecting epinephrine. Our data suggest intermittent fasting plus intense stress elicited neuroendocrine pathways that differentially controlled IgA and pIgR expression in duodenum and ileum. These findings provide experimental foundations for a presumable impact of intermittent fasting under intense stress on the intestinal homeostasis or inflammation by triggering or reducing the IgA production in ileum or duodenum respectively.

  14. Changes in Leptin Signaling by SOCS3 Modulate Fasting-Induced Hyperphagia and Weight Regain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, João A B; Silveira, Marina A; Lima, Leandro B; Furigo, Isadora C; Zampieri, Thais T; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; Buonfiglio, Daniella C; Teixeira, Pryscila D S; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Weight regain frequently follows interventions that reduce body weight, leading to a failure in long-term obesity treatment. Inhibitory proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), have been studied in conditions that predispose animals to obesity. However, whether SOCS3 modulates postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain remains unknown. Mice lacking SOCS3 protein specifically in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells (LepR SOCS3 knockout [KO]) were generated and studied in fasting and refeeding conditions. LepR SOCS3 KO mice exhibited increased leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus. Notably, LepR SOCS3 KO males and females showed attenuated food intake and weight regain after 48 hours of fasting. Postrestriction hyperleptinemia was also prevented in LepR SOCS3 KO mice. Next, we studied possible mechanisms and neural circuits involved in the SOCS3 effects. SOCS3 deletion did not prevent fasting- or refeeding-induced c-Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) nor fasting-induced increased excitability of ARH LepR-expressing cells. On the other hand, SOCS3 ablation reduced the mRNA levels of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, orexin, and melanin-concentrating hormone). In summary, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity contributes to the maintenance of a reduced body weight after food deprivation. In addition, the attenuated postrestriction food intake observed in mutant mice was not explained by fasting-induced changes in the activity of ARH neurons but exclusively by a lower transcription of orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting. These results indicate a partial dissociation between the regulation of neuronal activity and gene expression in ARH LepR-expressing cells.

  15. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Belkacemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  16. Heat capacity and transition behavior of sucrose by standard, fast scanning and temperature-modulated calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoń, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Wurm, A.; Schick, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rostock, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Pangloli, Ph.; Zivanovic, S. [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Skotnicki, M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Pyda, M., E-mail: mpyda@utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Experimental, apparent heat capacity of sucrose was investigated by advanced thermal analysis. • Vibrational heat capacity of solid state was linked with a low temperature experimental heat capacity of sucrose. • Equilibrium melting parameters of sucrose were determined. • Decomposition, superheating of crystalline sucrose during melting process were presented. • TGA, DSC, TMDSC, and FSC are useful tools for characterization of sucrose. - Abstract: The heat capacity (C{sub p}) of crystalline and amorphous sucrose was determined using standard and quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The results were combined with the published data determined by adiabatic calorimetry, and the C{sub p} values are now reported for the wide 5–600 K range. The experimental C{sub p} of solid sucrose at 5–300 K was used to calculate the vibrational, solid C{sub p} based on the vibrational molecular motions. The calculated solid and liquid C{sub p} together with the transition parameters for equilibrium conditions were used as references for detailed quantitative thermal analysis of crystalline and amorphous sucrose. Melting temperature (T{sub m}) of the crystalline sucrose was identified in a broad 442–465 K range with a heat of fusion of 40–46 J/mol determined at heating rates 0.5–20 K/min, respectively. The equilibrium T{sub m} and heat of fusion of crystalline sucrose were estimated at zero heating rate as T{sup o}{sub m} = 424.4 K and ΔH{sup o}{sub f} = 32 kJ/mol, respectively. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of amorphous sucrose was at 331 K with a change in C{sub p} of 267 J/(mol K) as it was estimated from reversing heat capacity by quasi-isothermal TMDSC on cooling. At heating rates less than 30 K/min, thermal decomposition occurred during melting, while at extreme rate of 1000 K/s, degradation was not observed. Data obtained by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) at 1000 K/s, showed that T{sub m} was

  17. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  18. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. II. In vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the effects of daily intermittent fasting for 15 h upon the development of diabetes in sand rats exposed to a hypercaloric diet. The same pattern of daily intermittent fasting was imposed on sand rats maintained on a purely vegetal diet (control animals). Over the last 30 days of the present experiments, non-fasting animals gained weight, whilst intermittently fasting sand rats lost weight. In this respect, there was no significant difference between control animals and either diabetic or non-diabetic sand rats exposed to the hypercaloric diet. The postprandial glycemia remained fairly stable in the control animals. During a 3-week transition period from a purely vegetal to a hypercaloric diet, the post-prandial glycemia increased by 5.95 ± 1.26 mM (n=6) in diabetic sand rats, as distinct from an increase of only 0.45 ± 0.56 mM (n=6) in the non-diabetic animals. During the intermittent fasting period, the postprandial glycemia decreased significantly in the diabetic animals, but not so in the non-diabetic sand rats. Before the switch in food intake, the peak glycemia at the 30th min of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was already higher in the diabetic than non-diabetic rats. In both the non-diabetic and diabetic sand rats, intermittent fasting prevented the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise observed in non-fasting animals. These findings reveal that, at least in sand rats, intermittent daily fasting prevents the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise taking place when these animals are exposed to a hypercaloric diet.

  19. Development of Gas Turbine Fast Mathematical Model Simulation Module for Software Complex «Electrodin» based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Iarmonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast mathematical model simulation module based on LabVIEW graphical programming environment has been developed. The module will be used for gas turbine and electrical power system co-simulation, and for testing automation of gas turbine automatic control systems.

  20. Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroeger Cynthia M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF-calorie restriction (CR regimen (with or without liquid meals to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD has yet to be tested. Objective Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods Subjects (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet for 10 weeks. Results Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 ± 1 kg; 6 ± 1 cm versus the IFCR-F group (3 ± 1 kg; 4 ± 1 cm. Similar reductions (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD.

  1. Proposal to negotiate the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of the blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH) for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors for an estimated total amount not exceeding 1 000 000 Swiss francs for the period 2007-2009.

  2. Are Live Ultrasound Models Replaceable? Traditional vs. Simulated Education Module for FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Bentley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST is a commonly used and life-saving tool in the initial assessment of trauma patients. The recommended emergency medicine (EM curriculum includes ultrasound and studies show the additional utility of ultrasound training for medical students. EM clerkships vary and often do not contain formal ultrasound instruction. Time constraints for facilitating lectures and hands-on learning of ultrasound are challenging. Limitations on didactics call for development and inclusion of novel educational strategies, such as simulation. The objective of this study was to compare the test, survey, and performance of ultrasound between medical students trained on an ultrasound simulator versus those trained via traditional, hands-on patient format. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded, controlled educational study focused on EM clerkship medical students. After all received a standardized lecture with pictorial demonstration of image acquisition, students were randomized into two groups: control group receiving traditional training method via practice on a human model and intervention group training via practice on an ultrasound simulator. Participants were tested and surveyed on indications and interpretation of FAST and training and confidence with image interpretation and acquisition before and after this educational activity. Evaluation of FAST skills was performed on a human model to emulate patient care and practical skills were scored via objective structured clinical examination (OSCE with critical action checklist. Results: There was no significant difference between control group (N=54 and intervention group (N=39 on pretest scores, prior ultrasound training/education, or ultrasound comfort level in general or on FAST. All students (N=93 showed significant improvement from pre- to post-test scores and significant improvement in comfort level using ultrasound in general and on FAST

  3. Fast identification of digital amplitude modulation level at low signal-to-noise ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-wei; CAO Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In order to rapidly and automatically identify the modulation level of digital amplitude modulated signals at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),a method of identifying the modulation levels of M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM)and M-ary amplitude shift keying (M-ASK) is proposed.In this method,wavelet transform with the optimal scale is used to identify the modulation levels of M-QAM and M-ASK signals.The performance of this method was investigated through simulations.Simulation results show that when the SNR is not lower than - 4 dB,the percentage of correct identification of M-QAM is higher than 93%,and when the SNR is not lower than -10 dB,the percentage of correct identification of M-ASK is higher than 90%,using only 100 observed symbols.It shows that this method can rapidly acquire good performance at a low SNR.

  4. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  5. Ghrelin differentially modulates the GH secretory response to GHRH between the fed and fasted states in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Kurose, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kojima, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, Y; Ogino, M; Hodate, K; Azuma, Y; Sugino, T; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Hasegawa, Y; Kobayashi, S

    2009-07-01

    The effect of energy balance on the growth hormone (GH) secretory responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has not been determined in ruminant animals. Therefore, we examined the effects of intravenous injections of 0, 3.3, and 6.6 microg ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), with and without GHRH at 0.25 microg/kg BW, on GH secretory responsiveness in both the fed and fasted sheep. The injections were carried out at 48 h (Fasting state) and 3h (Satiety state) after feeding. Blood samples were taken every 10 minutes, from 30 minutes before to 120 minutes after the injection. Low (3.3 microg/kg BW) and high (6.6 microg/kg BW) doses of ghrelin stimulated GH secretion significantly (Pghrelin stimulated GH secretion significantly (PGhrelin and GHRH exerted a synergistic effect in the Satiety state, but not in the Fasting state. Plasma ghrelin levels were maintained significantly (Pghrelin administration. Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations were significantly (Pghrelin differentially modulates GH secretory response to GHRH according to feeding states in ruminant animals.

  6. Simulation for Wind Turbine Generators -- With FAST and MATLAB-Simulink Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Jonkman, J.; Gevorgian, V.; Girsang, I.; Dhupia, J.

    2014-04-01

    This report presents the work done to develop generator and gearbox models in the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) environment and couple them to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST) program. The goal of this project was to interface the superior aerodynamic and mechanical models of FAST to the excellent electrical generator models found in various Simulink libraries and applications. The scope was limited to Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 generators and fairly basic gear-train models. Future work will include models of Type 4 generators and more-advanced gear-train models with increased degrees of freedom. As described in this study, implementation of the developed drivetrain model enables the software tool to be used in many ways. Several case studies are presented as examples of the many types of studies that can be performed using this tool.

  7. Excitation of Alfvén waves by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, with application to FAST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kolesnikova

    Full Text Available During the operation of the EISCAT high power facility (heater at Tromsø, Norway, on 8 October 1998, the FAST spacecraft made electric field and particle observations in the inner magnetosphere at 0.39 Earth radii above the heated ionospheric region. Measurements of the direct current electric field clearly exhibit oscillations with a frequency close to the modulated frequency of heater ( ~ 3 Hz and an amplitude of ~ 2 - 5 mV m-1. Thermal electron data from the electrostatic analyser show the modulation at the same frequency of the downward electron fluxes. During this period the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, sited also at Tromsø, measured a significant enhancement of the electron density in E-layer up to 2 · 1012 m-3. These observations have prompted us to make quantitative estimates of the expected pulsations in the inner magnetosphere caused by the modulated HF heating of lower ionosphere. Under the conditions of the strong electron precipitation in the ionosphere, which took place during the FAST observations, the primary current caused by the perturbation of the conductivity in the heated region is closed entirely by the parallel current which leaks into the magnetosphere. In such circumstances the conditions at the ionosphere-magnetosphere boundary are most favourable for the launching of an Alfvén wave: it is launched from the node in the gradient of the scalar potential which is proportional to the parallel current. The parallel electric field of the Alfvén wave is significant in the region where the electron inertial length is of order of the transverse wavelength of the Alfvén wave or larger and may effectively accelerate superthermal electrons downward into the ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere – magnetosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  8. Are Live Ultrasound Models Replaceable? Traditional versus Simulated Education Module for FAST Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Bentley; Gurpreet Mudan; Christopher Strother; Nelson Wong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a commonly used and life-saving tool in the initial assessment of trauma patients. The recommended emergency medicine (EM) curriculum includes ultrasound and studies show the additional utility of ultrasound training for medical students. EM clerkships vary and often do not contain formal ultrasound instruction. Time constraints for facilitating lectures and hands-on learning of ultrasound are challenging. Limitations o...

  9. Evaluation of a fast method of EPID-based dosimetry for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Rasmussen, Karl H.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could potentially be useful for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) QA. The data density, high resolution, large active area, and efficiency of the MV EPID make it an attractive option. However, EPIDs were designed to be effective imaging devices, but not dosimeters, and as a result they do not measure dose in tissue-equivalent materials.

  10. mTORC1 controls fasting-induced ketogenesis and its modulation by ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shomit; Peterson, Timothy R; Laplante, Mathieu; Oh, Stephanie; Sabatini, David M

    2010-12-23

    The multi-component mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase is the central node of a mammalian pathway that coordinates cell growth with the availability of nutrients, energy and growth factors. Progress has been made in the identification of mTORC1 pathway components and in understanding their functions in cells, but there is relatively little known about the role of the pathway in vivo. Specifically, we have little knowledge regarding the role mTOCR1 has in liver physiology. In fasted animals, the liver performs numerous functions that maintain whole-body homeostasis, including the production of ketone bodies for peripheral tissues to use as energy sources. Here we show that mTORC1 controls ketogenesis in mice in response to fasting. We find that liver-specific loss of TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis 1), an mTORC1 inhibitor, leads to a fasting-resistant increase in liver size, and to a pronounced defect in ketone body production and ketogenic gene expression on fasting. The loss of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR, complex 1) an essential mTORC1 component, has the opposite effects. In addition, we find that the inhibition of mTORC1 is required for the fasting-induced activation of PPARα (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α), the master transcriptional activator of ketogenic genes, and that suppression of NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 1), a co-repressor of PPARα, reactivates ketogenesis in cells and livers with hyperactive mTORC1 signalling. Like livers with activated mTORC1, livers from aged mice have a defect in ketogenesis, which correlates with an increase in mTORC1 signalling. Moreover, we show that the suppressive effects of mTORC1 activation and ageing on PPARα activity and ketone production are not additive, and that mTORC1 inhibition is sufficient to prevent the ageing-induced defect in ketogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal that mTORC1 is a key regulator of PPARα function and hepatic ketogenesis and suggest a

  11. Fast two-photon neuronal imaging and control using a spatial light modulator and ruthenium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Fino, Elodie; Araya, Roberto; Etchenique, Roberto; Yuste, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a spatial light modulator (SLM) based microscope that uses diffraction to shape the incoming two-photon laser source to any arbitrary light pattern. This allows the simultaneous imaging or photostimulation of different regions of a sample with three-dimensional precision at high frame rates. Additionally, we have combined this microscope with a new class of two photon active neuromodulators with Ruthenium BiPyridine (RuBi) based cages that offer great flexibility for neuronal control.

  12. Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona Lohan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an “unambiguous” CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.

  13. Analysis of Filter-Bank-Based Methods for Fast Serial Acquisition of BOC-Modulated Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohan ElenaSimona

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary-offset-carrier (BOC signals, selected for Galileo and modernized GPS systems, pose significant challenges for the code acquisition, due to the ambiguities (deep fades which are present in the envelope of the correlation function (CF. This is different from the BPSK-modulated CDMA signals, where the main correlation lobe spans over 2-chip interval, without any ambiguities or deep fades. To deal with the ambiguities due to BOC modulation, one solution is to use lower steps of scanning the code phases (i.e., lower than the traditional step of 0.5 chips used for BPSK-modulated CDMA signals. Lowering the time-bin steps entails an increase in the number of timing hypotheses, and, thus, in the acquisition times. An alternative solution is to transform the ambiguous CF into an "unambiguous" CF, via adequate filtering of the signal. A generalized class of frequency-based unambiguous acquisition methods is proposed here, namely the filter-bank-based (FBB approaches. The detailed theoretical analysis of FBB methods is given for serial-search single-dwell acquisition in single path static channels and a comparison is made with other ambiguous and unambiguous BOC acquisition methods existing in the literature.

  14. Fast Monte Carlo simulations of ultrasound-modulated light using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Terence S; Powell, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) is based on "tagging" light in turbid media with focused ultrasound. In comparison to diffuse optical imaging, UOT can potentially offer a better spatial resolution. The existing Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulating ultrasound-modulated light is central processing unit (CPU) based and has been employed in several UOT related studies. We reimplemented the MC model with a graphics processing unit [(GPU), Nvidia GeForce 9800] that can execute the algorithm up to 125 times faster than its CPU (Intel Core Quad) counterpart for a particular set of optical and acoustic parameters. We also show that the incorporation of ultrasound propagation in photon migration modeling increases the computational time considerably, by a factor of at least 6, in one case, even with a GPU. With slight adjustment to the code, MC simulations were also performed to demonstrate the effect of ultrasonic modulation on the speckle pattern generated by the light model (available as animation). This was computed in 4 s with our GPU implementation as compared to 290 s using the CPU.

  15. General Purpose Digital Signal Processing VME-Module for 1-Turn Delay Feedback Systems of the CERN Accelerator Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, V

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC project and the modifications of the SPS as its injector, the concept has been developed of a global digital signal processing unit (DSPU) that implements in numerical form the architecture of low-level RF systems. Since 2002 a Digital Notch Filter with programmable delay for the SPS Transverse Damper has been fully operational with fixed target and LHC-type beams circulating in the SPS. The approach, using an FPGA as core for the low-level system, is very flexible and allows the upgrade of the signal processing by modification of the original firmware. The development for the LHC 1-Turn delay Feedback has benefited from the same methodology and similar technology. The achieved performances of the LHC 1-Turn delay Feedback are compared with project requirements. The project flow for the recent LHC 1-T Feedback allows synergy with several other applications. The CERN PS Transverse Damper DSPU, with automatic delay compensation adapting the loop delay to the time of flight of the par...

  16. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A., E-mail: jose.rodriguez@tsolar.eu [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain); Fortes, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Computacion, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J. [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J{sub sc}. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2-4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  17. S1-S3 counter charges in the voltage sensor module of a mammalian sodium channel regulate fast inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, James R; Winston, Vern

    2013-05-01

    The movement of positively charged S4 segments through the electric field drives the voltage-dependent gating of ion channels. Studies of prokaryotic sodium channels provide a mechanistic view of activation facilitated by electrostatic interactions of negatively charged residues in S1 and S2 segments, with positive counterparts in the S4 segment. In mammalian sodium channels, S4 segments promote domain-specific functions that include activation and several forms of inactivation. We tested the idea that S1-S3 countercharges regulate eukaryotic sodium channel functions, including fast inactivation. Using structural data provided by bacterial channels, we constructed homology models of the S1-S4 voltage sensor module (VSM) for each domain of the mammalian skeletal muscle sodium channel hNaV1.4. These show that side chains of putative countercharges in hNaV1.4 are oriented toward the positive charge complement of S4. We used mutagenesis to define the roles of conserved residues in the extracellular negative charge cluster (ENC), hydrophobic charge region (HCR), and intracellular negative charge cluster (INC). Activation was inhibited with charge-reversing VSM mutations in domains I-III. Charge reversal of ENC residues in domains III (E1051R, D1069K) and IV (E1373K, N1389K) destabilized fast inactivation by decreasing its probability, slowing entry, and accelerating recovery. Several INC mutations increased inactivation from closed states and slowed recovery. Our results extend the functional characterization of VSM countercharges to fast inactivation, and support the premise that these residues play a critical role in domain-specific gating transitions for a mammalian sodium channel.

  18. Vibrotactile stimulation of fast-adapting cutaneous afferents from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Bent, Leah R

    2016-04-15

    It has previously been shown that cutaneous sensory input from across a broad region of skin can influence proprioception at joints of the hand. The present experiment tested whether cutaneous input from different skin regions across the foot can influence proprioception at the ankle joint. The ability to passively match ankle joint position (17° and 7° plantar flexion and 7° dorsiflexion) was measured while cutaneous vibration was applied to the sole (heel, distal metatarsals) or dorsum of the target foot. Vibration was applied at two different frequencies to preferentially activate Meissner's corpuscles (45 Hz, 80 μm) or Pacinian corpuscles (255 Hz, 10 μm) at amplitudes ∼3 dB above mean perceptual thresholds. Results indicated that cutaneous input from all skin regions across the foot could influence joint-matching error and variability, although the strongest effects were observed with heel vibration. Furthermore, the influence of cutaneous input from each region was modulated by joint angle; in general, vibration had a limited effect on matching in dorsiflexion compared with matching in plantar flexion. Unlike previous results in the upper limb, we found no evidence that Pacinian input exerted a stronger influence on proprioception compared with Meissner input. Findings from this study suggest that fast-adapting cutaneous input from the foot modulates proprioception at the ankle joint in a passive joint-matching task. These results indicate that there is interplay between tactile and proprioceptive signals originating from the foot and ankle.

  19. Ultra-fast treatment plan optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Men, Chunhua; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel aperture-based algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plan optimization with high quality and high efficiency. Methods: The VMAT optimization problem is formulated as a large-scale convex programming problem solved by a column generation approach. We consider a cost function consisting two terms, the first which enforces a desired dose distribution while the second guarantees a smooth dose rate variation between successive gantry angles. At each iteration of the column generation method, a subproblem is first solved to generate one more deliverable MLC aperture which potentially decreases the cost function most effectively. A subsequent master problem is then solved to determine the dose rate at all currently generated apertures by minimizing the cost function. The iteration of such an algorithm yields a set of deliverable apertures, as well as dose rates, at all gantry angles. Results: The algorithm was preliminarily tested on five prostate and five head-a...

  20. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  1. A fast radiotherapy paradigm for anal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Friedlieb

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Purpose Radiotherapy (RT volumes for anal cancer are large and of moderate complexity when organs at risk (OAR such as testis, small bowel and bladder are at least partially to be shielded. Volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT might provide OAR-shielding comparable to step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for this tumor entity with better treatment efficiency. Materials and methods Based on treatment planning CTs of 8 patients, we compared dose distributions, comformality index (CI, homogeneity index (HI, number of monitor units (MU and treatment time (TTT for plans generated for VMAT, 3D-CRT and step-and-shoot-IMRT (optimized based on Pencil Beam (PB or Monte Carlo (MC dose calculation for typical anal cancer planning target volumes (PTV including inguinal lymph nodes as usually treated during the first phase (0-36 Gy of a shrinking field regimen. Results With values of 1.33 ± 0.21/1.26 ± 0.05/1.3 ± 0.02 and 1.39 ± 0.09, the CI's for IMRT (PB-Corvus/PB-Hyperion/MC-Hyperion and VMAT are better than for 3D-CRT with 2.00 ± 0.16. The HI's for the prescribed dose (HI36 for 3D-CRT were 1.06 ± 0.01 and 1.11 ± 0.02 for VMAT, respectively and 1.15 ± 0.02/1.10 ± 0.02/1.11 ± 0.08 for IMRT (PB-Corvus/PB-Hyperion/MC-Hyperion. Mean TTT and MU's for 3D-CRT is 220s/225 ± 11MU and for IMRT (PB-Corvus/PB-Hyperion/MC-Hyperion is 575s/1260 ± 172MU, 570s/477 ± 84MU and 610s748 ± 193MU while TTT and MU for two-arc-VMAT is 290s/268 ± 19MU. Conclusion VMAT provides treatment plans with high conformity and homogeneity equivalent to step-and-shoot-IMRT for this mono-concave treatment volume. Short treatment delivery time and low primary MU are the most important advantages.

  2. QPSK Modulator with Continuous Phase and Fast Response Based on Phase-Locked Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kirasamuthranon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among M-phase shift keying (M-PSK schemes, quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK is used most often because of its efficient bandwidth consumption. However, in comparison with minimum-shift keying, which has continuous phase transitions, QPSK requires a higher bandwidth to transmit a signal. This article focuses on the phase transitions in QPSK signals, and a QPSK modulator based on a phase-locked loop (PLL is proposed. The PLL circuit in the proposed system differs from that of conventional PLL circuits because a three-input XOR gate and a summing circuit are used. With these additional components, the proposed PLL provides a continuous phase change in the QPSK signal. Consequently, the required bandwidth for transmitting the QPSK signal when using the proposed circuit is less than that for a conventional QPSK signal with a discontinuous phase. The analytical results for the proposed system in the time domain agree well with the experimental and simulation results of the circuit. Both the theoretical and experimental results thus confirm that the proposed technique can be realized in real-world applications.

  3. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kundan, E-mail: kundan@iuac.res.in [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P. O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Das, Ajit Lal [Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), New Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  4. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-01

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  5. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    figures are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (4 Tribe’s figurs also are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (5 According to this, Tunceli tattoos can be evaluated a kind of figur in Anatolia tattoo tradition. (6 In Sociological, interest of traditional tattoo art is decreased in Tunceli and ‘tattoo desgins’ concerning Western Culture become widespread. According to this reason, the suggest of researchers is Tunceli and Anatolia tattoo art should become brand value via scientific researches and add to global relation networks.   Özet Makalede Tunceli kültürüne ait Anadolu dövme geleneği ve sanatı incelenmiştir. Yazının ilk atası kabul edilen dövme, süsleme veya mesaj verme amacıyla, belirli kültürel figürlerin, bedene; derinin alt yüzeyine nakşedilmesidir. Dövme, tarihin eski dönemlerine dayanan ve tüm toplumlarda görülen kültürel objedir. Dövme Anadolu medeniyetinin de renkli bir unsuru olagelmiştir. Dövme “damga” olarak kimi zaman bir meslek grubunu, sosyal statüyü veya aşiret ve tarikat gibi kişinin bağlı bulunduğu topluluğu belirtmek amacıyla kullanılmıştır. Aynı zamanda Anadolu dövme motiflerinin kişiyi hastalıklardan, nazardan koruduğuna; güzellik ve yiğitlik getirdiğine inanılmaktadır. Anadolu’da dövme sanatı farklı yöresel özgüllüklerinin bileşimi olan genel bir form ortaya çıkarır. Bunlardan Tunceli yöresi, “Alevi” ve “Kürt” kimliklerin coğrafi yoğunluğu bakımından, Türkiye’nin en özgün ili konumundadır. Tunceli’de yaşayan nüfusun büyük çoğunluğu, toplumun genelinden farklılaşan aşiret düzenindeki topluluklardan oluşmaktadır. Buna göre makalede Tunceli dövme sanatını betimlemek ve Anadolu dövme sanatından benzer ve farklı özelliklerini tespit etmek istenmiştir. Burada ortaya konan bilgiler Anadolu dövme sanatı literatürüne katkı yapabilecek niteliktedir. Makalede sunulan veriler Ağustos 2010 tarihine aittir. Tunceli kent merkezinde kartopu

  6. Fast voxel and polygon ray-tracing algorithms in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F

    2006-05-01

    We present work on combining three algorithms to improve ray-tracing efficiency in radiation therapy dose computation. The three algorithms include: An improved point-in-polygon algorithm, incremental voxel ray tracing algorithm, and stereographic projection of beamlets for voxel truncation. The point-in-polygon and incremental voxel ray-tracing algorithms have been used in computer graphics and nuclear medicine applications while the stereographic projection algorithm was developed by our group. These algorithms demonstrate significant improvements over the current standard algorithms in peer reviewed literature, i.e., the polygon and voxel ray-tracing algorithms of Siddon for voxel classification (point-in-polygon testing) and dose computation, respectively, and radius testing for voxel truncation. The presented polygon ray-tracing technique was tested on 10 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning cases that required the classification of between 0.58 and 2.0 million voxels on a 2.5 mm isotropic dose grid into 1-4 targets and 5-14 structures represented as extruded polygons (a.k.a. Siddon prisms). Incremental voxel ray tracing and voxel truncation employing virtual stereographic projection was tested on the same IMRT treatment planning cases where voxel dose was required for 230-2400 beamlets using a finite-size pencil-beam algorithm. Between a 100 and 360 fold cpu time improvement over Siddon's method was observed for the polygon ray-tracing algorithm to perform classification of voxels for target and structure membership. Between a 2.6 and 3.1 fold reduction in cpu time over current algorithms was found for the implementation of incremental ray tracing. Additionally, voxel truncation via stereographic projection was observed to be 11-25 times faster than the radial-testing beamlet extent approach and was further improved 1.7-2.0 fold through point-classification using the method of translation over the cross product technique.

  7. A compact, multifunctional fusion module directs cholesterol-dependent homomultimerization and syncytiogenic efficiency of reovirus p10 FAST proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Key

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The homologous p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins of the avian (ARV and Nelson Bay (NBV reoviruses are the smallest known viral membrane fusion proteins, and are virulence determinants of the fusogenic reoviruses. The small size of FAST proteins is incompatible with the paradigmatic membrane fusion pathway proposed for enveloped viral fusion proteins. Understanding how these diminutive viral fusogens mediate the complex process of membrane fusion is therefore of considerable interest, from both the pathogenesis and mechanism-of-action perspectives. Using chimeric ARV/NBV p10 constructs, the 36-40-residue ectodomain was identified as the major determinant of the differing fusion efficiencies of these homologous p10 proteins. Extensive mutagenic analysis determined the ectodomain comprises two distinct, essential functional motifs. Syncytiogenesis assays, thiol-specific surface biotinylation, and liposome lipid mixing assays identified an ∼25-residue, N-terminal motif that dictates formation of a cystine loop fusion peptide in both ARV and NBV p10. Surface immunofluorescence staining, FRET analysis and cholesterol depletion/repletion studies determined the cystine loop motif is connected through a two-residue linker to a 13-residue membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER. The MPER constitutes a second, independent motif governing reversible, cholesterol-dependent assembly of p10 multimers in the plasma membrane. Results further indicate that: (1 ARV and NBV homomultimers segregate to distinct, cholesterol-dependent microdomains in the plasma membrane; (2 p10 homomultimerization and cholesterol-dependent microdomain localization are co-dependent; and (3 the four juxtamembrane MPER residues present in the multimerization motif dictate species-specific microdomain association and homomultimerization. The p10 ectodomain therefore constitutes a remarkably compact, multifunctional fusion module that directs syncytiogenic

  8. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  9. Algorithm and Hardware Design of a Fast Intra Frame Mode Decision Module for H.264/AVC Encoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Palomino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rate-distortion optimization (RDO, the process of choosing the best prediction mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the whole encoding process, increasing significantly the encoder computational complexity. Considering H.264/AVC intra frame prediction, there are several modes to encode a macroblock (MB. This work proposes an algorithm and the hardware design for a fast intra frame mode decision module for H.264/AVC encoders. The application of the proposed algorithm reduces in more than 10 times the number of encoding iterations for choosing the best intramode when compared with RDO-based decision. The architecture was synthesized to FPGA and achieved an operation frequency of 98 MHz processing more than 300 HD1080p frames per second. With this approach, we achieved one order-of-magnitude performance improvement compared with RDO-based approaches, which is very important not only from the performance but also from the energy consumption perspective for battery-operated devices. In order to compare the architecture with previously published works, we also synthesized it to standard cells. Compared with the best previous results reported, the implemented architecture achieves a complexity reduction of five times, a processing capability increase of 14 times, and a reduction in the number of clock cycles per MB of 11 times.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide modulates Ca2+-activation of single permeabilized fibres from fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D R; Lynch, G S; Williams, D A

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of redox modulation on single membrane-permeabilized fibre segments from the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of adult rats to determine whether the contractile apparatus was the redox target responsible for the increased contractility of muscles exposed to low concentrations of H2O2. The effects of H2O2 on maximum Ca2+-activated force were dose-dependent with 30 min exposure to 5 mM H2O2 causing a progressive decrease by 22+/-3 and 13+/-2% in soleus and EDL permeabilized muscle fibres, respectively. Lower concentrations of exogenous H2O2 (100 microM and 1 mM) had no effect on maximum Ca2+-activated force. Subsequent exposure to the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mM, 10 min) fully reversed the H2O2-induced depression of force in EDL, but not in soleus muscle fibres. Incubation with DTT alone for 10 min did not alter Ca2+-activated force in either soleus or EDL muscle fibres. The sensitivity of the contractile filaments to Ca2+ (pCa50) was not altered by exposure to any concentration of exogenous H2O2. However, all concentrations of H2O2 diminished the Hill coefficient in permeabilized fibres from the EDL muscle, indicating that the cooperativity of Ca2+ binding to troponin is altered. H2O2 (5 mM) did not affect rigor force, which indicates that the number of crossbridges participating in contraction was not reduced. In conclusion, H2O2 may reduce the maximum Ca2+ activated force production in skinned muscle fibres by decreasing the force per crossbridge.

  11. Fast-gated single-photon detection module with 200 ps transitions running up to 50 MHz with 30 ps resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, G.; Dalla Mora, A.; Tosi, A.; Della Frera, A.; Zappa, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a compact instrument able to quickly time-gate a silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to be used in advanced gated Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) setups, like time-resolved optical spectroscopy, optical mammography, optical molecular imaging. The detection module can be used to boost the photon counting dynamic range, thanks to the fast transitions between the OFF and the ON state of the detector. The module embeds into a single box (11 cm x 15 cm x 24 cm) all components needed to operate a SPAD detector in fast time-gated mode and to output a standard NIM timing signal. The module includes: i) an ultra-fast pulse generator, based on MMIC components, to enable and disable the detector in less than 200 ps for very short and well-defined time slots, ranging from less than 1 ns up to 10 ns with 10 ps steps, at a repetition rate up to 50 MHz; ii) the silicon SPAD itself together with optical assembly to focus photons from an optical fiber onto the active area; iii) a passive quenching/active reset electronics, needed for optimal detector operation; iv) a low time-jitter comparator, to detect avalanche ignitions with less than 30 ps (FWHM) jitter and to generate a standard NIM output; v) a service board containing power supply, microcontroller, and USB link, to remotely set and control all instrument parameters.

  12. Thermal analysis of lithium cooled natural circulation loop module for fuel rod testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Kim, D.; Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum heat removal capability of a lithium cooled natural circulation fuel rod test module design is determined. Loop geometry is optimized within limitations of design specifications for nominal operation temperatures, materials, and test module environment. Results provide test module operation limits and range of potential uncertainties. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  13. FAST User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  14. Characterisation of Reticon and Hamamatsu photodiode array and the subsequent development of high performance VME-based detector systems optimised for energy dispersive EXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogg, D.; Dent, A.J.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Farrow, R.C.; Ramsdale, C.A.; Salvini, G. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom). CCLRC

    1997-06-21

    Energy dispersive EXAFS is an established and successful technique employed at Daresbury Laboratory for the study of dynamic experiments. At the heart of this technique is an in house developed high-performance VME-based detector system using a photodiode array. This system originally used a Reticon RL1024S array but extensive investigation of three other photodiode arrays namely the Reticon 512T, 512SB and the Hamamatsu S3904 has enabled their characterisation and the subsequent development of optimised drive and signal processing electronics. This has provided two further systems which exhibit improved signal to noise, excellent linearity and increased operational speed. (orig.).

  15. Reprint of “Heat capacity and transition behavior of sucrose by standard, fast scanning and temperature-modulated calorimetry”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoń, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Wurm, A.; Schick, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rostock, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Pangloli, Ph.; Zivanovic, S. [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Skotnicki, M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Pyda, M., E-mail: mpyda@utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • Experimental, apparent heat capacity of sucrose was investigated by advanced thermal analysis. • Vibrational heat capacity of solid state was linked with a low temperature experimental heat capacity of sucrose. • Equilibrium melting parameters of sucrose were determined. • Decomposition, superheating of crystalline sucrose during melting process were presented. • TGA, DSC, TMDSC, and FSC are useful tools for characterization of sucrose. - Abstract: The heat capacity (C{sub p}) of crystalline and amorphous sucrose was determined using standard and quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The results were combined with the published data determined by adiabatic calorimetry, and the C{sub p} values are now reported for the wide 5–600 K range. The experimental C{sub p} of solid sucrose at 5–300 K was used to calculate the vibrational, solid C{sub p} based on the vibrational molecular motions. The calculated solid and liquid C{sub p} together with the transition parameters for equilibrium conditions were used as references for detailed quantitative thermal analysis of crystalline and amorphous sucrose. Melting temperature (T{sub m}) of the crystalline sucrose was identified in a broad 442–465 K range with a heat of fusion of 40–46 J/mol determined at heating rates 0.5–20 K/min, respectively. The equilibrium T{sub m} and heat of fusion of crystalline sucrose were estimated at zero heating rate as T{sup o}{sub m} = 424.4 K and ΔH{sup o}{sub f} = 32 kJ/mol, respectively. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of amorphous sucrose was at 331 K with a change in C{sub p} of 267 J/(mol K) as it was estimated from reversing heat capacity by quasi-isothermal TMDSC on cooling. At heating rates less than 30 K/min, thermal decomposition occurred during melting, while at extreme rate of 1000 K/s, degradation was not observed. Data obtained by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) at 1000 K/s, showed that T{sub m} was

  16. A Versatile Carrier Board and Associated Timer Module Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Evans; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2005-10-10

    Because of a need for fast prototyping due to frequent upgrades and a large variety of users at the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser Facility (FEL), a 4-slot carrier board was designed along the lines of the Industry Pack carriers, with a 6U4HP form factor. In one slot is an Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which communicates with an Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Software (EPICS) interface through the main bus, in the immediate case VME, but potentially PCI and others. The FPGA also provides 64 bits of digital i/o and communicates with a local bus that covers the other 3 slots. In these 3 slots may be placed a variety of daughter boards that may be of a size to span 1, 2 or even all 3 spare slots, depending on the job it has to do. Among the uses implemented in the FEL were a simple digital i/o board (only the first slot occupied), and a timer module occupying 2 slots.

  17. Software for Data Acquisition AMC Module with PCI Express Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Szachowalow, S; Makowski, D; Butkowski, L

    2010-01-01

    Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and XRay Free Electron Laser (XFEL) are linear accelerators that require a complex and accurate Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system. Currently working systems are based on aged Versa Module Eurocard (VME) architecture. One of the alternatives for the VME bus is the Advanced Telecommunications and Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. The ATCA based LLRF controller mainly consists of a few ATCA carrier boards and several Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC). AMC modules are available in variety of functions such as: ADC, DAC, data storage, data links and even CPU cards. This paper focuses on the software that allows user to collect and plot the data from commercially available TAMC900 board.

  18. A role for cyclin-dependent kinase(s) in the modulation of fast anterograde axonal transport: effects defined by olomoucine and the APC tumor suppressor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, N.; Bloom, G. S.; Brady, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    Proteins that interact with both cytoskeletal and membrane components are candidates to modulate membrane trafficking. The tumor suppressor proteins neurofibromin (NF1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) both bind to microtubules and interact with membrane-associated proteins. The effects of recombinant NF1 and APC fragments on vesicle motility were evaluated by measuring fast axonal transport along microtubules in axoplasm from squid giant axons. APC4 (amino acids 1034-2844) reduced only anterograde movements, whereas APC2 (aa 1034-2130) or APC3 (aa 2130-2844) reduced both anterograde and retrograde transport. NF1 had no effect on organelle movement in either direction. Because APC contains multiple cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus phosphorylation motifs, the kinase inhibitor olomoucine was examined. At concentrations in which olomoucine is specific for cyclin-dependent kinases (5 microM), it reduced only anterograde transport, whereas anterograde and retrograde movement were both affected at concentrations at which other kinases are inhibited as well (50 microM). Both anterograde and retrograde transport also were inhibited by histone H1 and KSPXK peptides, substrates for proline-directed kinases, including CDKs. Our data suggest that CDK-like axonal kinases modulate fast anterograde transport and that other axonal kinases may be involved in modulating retrograde transport. The specific effect of APC4 on anterograde transport suggests a model in which the binding of APC to microtubules may limit the activity of axonal CDK kinase or kinases in restricted domains, thereby affecting organelle transport.

  19. Participation of beta-adrenergic activity in modulation of GLUT4 expression during fasting and refeeding in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through in vitro studies, several factors have been reported as modulators of GLUT4 gene expression. However, the role(s) of each potential GLUT4 modulator is not completely understood in the in vivo setting. The present study has investigated the hypothesis that beta-adrenergic stimulation particip...

  20. Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

    2011-10-01

    To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

  1. A Quantitative Analysis of Modulation of the Fast Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential of Neurons in Rat Sympathetic Ganglia by a Low-Intensity Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Hua; YANG Li-Jian; JIA Ya

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a mathematical model which can quantitatively describe the kinetics of postsynaptic membrane potential modulated by a low intensity laser. By virtue of the numerical computation, it is found that the height of peak of fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) for intermediate laser power density (around 2mW/cm2) is higher than that for both small and large laser power densities, that is, of the f-EPSP peak height changes with the increasing laser power density (up to 5mW/cm2) in non-monotonic behaviour. The theoretical results are qualitatively consistent with the previous experimental data.

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of a blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for an estimated total amount not exceeding 2 500 000 Swiss francs for the period 2004-2006. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-80%, US-20%.

  3. Fast and non-destructive detection on the EVA gel content in photovoltaic modules by optical reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hengyu; Yun, Luo; Ballif, Christophe; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) has been the dominating material in the photovoltaic (PV) encapsulant market for decades, owing to its superior cost-performance balance. To achieve its desired material properties, EVA undergoes a curing reaction during the module encapsulation process. The resulting EVA gel content after encapsulation is an important criterion for the module encapsulation quality control. Normally, the determination of gel content is achieved using a tedious solvent ext...

  4. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  5. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reiko Sawada; Wataru Sato; Motomi Toichi; Tohru Fushiki

    2017-01-01

    .... To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food), low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet), and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils...

  6. Dopaminergic modulation of short-term synaptic plasticity in fast-spiking interneurons of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, G; Kroener, S; Seamans, J K; Lewis, D A; Barrionuevo, G

    2005-12-01

    Dopaminergic regulation of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity is essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the cellular mechanisms of dopamine neuromodulation in PFC are not well understood. We have studied the effects of dopamine receptor activation during persistent stimulation of excitatory inputs onto fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in monkey PFC. Stimulation at 20 Hz induced short-term excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) depression. The D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 (5 microM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the first EPSP but not of subsequent responses in EPSP trains, which still displayed significant depression. Dopamine (DA; 10 microM) effects were similar to those of SKF81297 and were abolished by the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (5 microM), indicating a D1 receptor-mediated effect. DA did not alter miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, suggesting that its effects were activity dependent and presynaptic action potential dependent. In contrast to previous findings in pyramidal neurons, in fast-spiking cells, contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to EPSPs at subthreshold potentials was not significant and fast-spiking cell depolarization decreased EPSP duration. In addition, DA had no significant effects on temporal summation. The selective decrease in the amplitude of the first EPSP in trains delivered every 10 s suggests that in fast-spiking neurons, DA reduces the amplitude of EPSPs evoked at low frequency but not of EPSPs evoked by repetitive stimulation. DA may therefore improve detection of EPSP bursts above background synaptic activity. EPSP bursts displaying short-term depression may transmit spike-timing-dependent temporal codes contained in presynaptic spike trains. Thus DA neuromodulation may increase the signal-to-noise ratio at fast-spiking cell inputs.

  7. Fast phase switching within the bunch train of the PHIN photo-injector at CERN using fiber-optic modulators on the drive laser

    CERN Document Server

    Divall Csatari, M; Bolzon, B; Bravin, E; Chevallay, E; Dobert, S; Drozdy, A; Fedosseev, V; Hessler, C; Lefevre, T; Livesley, S; Losito, R; Mete, O; Petrarca, M; Rabiller, A N

    2011-01-01

    The future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) e^-/e^+ collider is based on the two-beam acceleration concept, whereby interleaving electron bunches of the drive beam through a delay loop and combiner rings as well as high peak RF power at 12GHz are created locally to accelerate a second beam, the main beam. One of the main objectives of the currently operational CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate beam combination from 1.5GHz to 12GHz, which requires satellite-free fast phase-switching of the drive beam with sub-ns speed. The PHIN photo-injector, with the photo-injector laser, provides flexibility in the time structure of the electron bunches produced, by direct manipulation of the laser pulses. A novel fiber modulator-based phase-switching technique allows clean and fast phase-switch at 1.5GHz. This paper describes the switching system based on fiber-optic modulators, and the measurements carried out on both the laser and the electron beam to verify the scheme.

  8. Modulation of the activity of vasopressinergic neurons by estrogen in rats refed with normal or sodium-free food after fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Oliveira, F; Traslaviña, G A A; Borges, B D B; Franci, C R

    2015-01-22

    Feeding increases plasma osmolality and ovarian steroids may influence the balance of fluids. Vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) express estrogen receptor type β (ERβ), but not estrogen receptor type α (ERα). The circumventricular organs express ERα and project efferent fibers to the PVN and SON. Our aim was to assess whether interactions exist between food state-related osmolality changes and the action of estrogen on AVP neuron activity and estrogen receptor expression. We assessed plasma osmolality and AVP levels; fos-coded protein (FOS)- and AVP-immunoreactivity (-IR) and FOS-IR and ERα-IR in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organ vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) in estrogen-primed and unprimed ovariectomized rats under the provision of ad libitum food, 48h of fasting, and subsequent refeeding with standard chow or sodium-free food. Refeeding with standard chow increased plasma osmolality and AVP as well as the co-expression of FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the PVN and SON. These responses were not altered by estrogen, with the exception of the decreases in FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the lateral PVN. During refeeding, estrogen modulates only a subpopulation of AVP neurons in the lateral PVN. FOS-ERα co-expression in the ventral median preoptic nucleus (vMnPO) was reduced by estrogen and increased after refeeding with standard chow following fasting. It appears that estrogen may indirectly modulate the activity of AVP neurons, which are involved in the mechanism affected by hyperosmolality-induced refeeding after fasting. This indirect action of estrogen can be at least in part via ERα in the vMnPO.

  9. Fast reconstruction algorithm from modules maxima of signal wavelet transform and its application in enhancement of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guangtao; Sun, Fengrong; Song, Haohao; Zhang, Mingqiang; Liu, Li; Wang, Changyu

    2003-09-01

    The modulus maxima of a signal's wavelet transform on different levels contain important information of the signal, which can be help to construct wavelet coefficients. A fast algorithm based on Hermite interpolation polynomial for reconstructing signal from its wavelet transform maxima is proposed in this paper. An implementation of this algorithm in medical image enhancement is also discussed. Numerical experiments have shown that compared with the Alternating Projection algorithm proposed by Mallat, this reconstruction algorithm is simpler, more efficient, and at the same time keeps high reconstruction Signal to Noise Ratio. When applied to the image contract enhancement, the computing time of this algorithm is much less compared with the one using Mallat's Alternative Projection, and the results are almost the same, so it is a practical fast reconstruction algorithm.

  10. Fast response filter module with plug flow of filtrate for on-line sampling from submerged cultures of filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, B.R.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Panneman, H.; Iversen, J.J.L.; Visser, J.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic and accurate sampling is both convenient and sometimes necessary to obtain detailed information about cell cultures. We developed an autoclavable sampling system in which culture broth was pumped through an ultrafiltration cross-flow module with a novel filtrate collecting principle and a

  11. Fast Analysis for the Focusing of a Laser Beam with Amplitude Modulation and Phase Fluctuation Through an Aperture Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 楚晓亮; 李强

    2002-01-01

    Based on the treatment that a rectangular function can be expanded into an approximate sum of complex Gaussian functions with finite numbers, the analytical expression for the focusing intensity distribution of a laser beam with amplitude modulation (AM) and phase fluctuation (PF) through an aperture lens is derived. The typical numerical examples are given and compared with those obtained from numerically integral calculation. The results show that our method can significantly improve the numerical calculation efficiency.

  12. Kv3 channels modulate calcium signals induced by fast firing patterns in the rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Kirill I; Grygorov, Oleksii O; Maslov, Vitaly Yu; Veselovsky, Nikolay S; Fedulova, Svetlana A

    2012-11-01

    Expression of non-inactivating Kv3.1/Kv3.2 potassium channels determines fast-spiking phenotype of many types of neurones including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs); furthermore Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. In the present study we investigated how inhibition of Kv3 channel by low TEA concentrations modifies firing properties and Ca2+ influx in the rat RGCs. Experiments were performed on the whole-mount retinal preparations from 4 to 6 weeks old Wistar rats using simultaneous whole cell patch clamp and intracellular Ca2+ measurements in combination with single-cell RT-PCR. In response to 500-ms depolarization step the RGCs demonstrated fast firing tonic behaviour with a mean frequency of spiking 61±5 Hz (n=28). All of the tonic cells tested (n=9) expressed specific mRNA for either Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 or for both channels. Bath applications of TEA (250 μM, 500 μM and 1 mM) modified firing patterns dose-dependently as follows: firing frequency was decreased, mean action potential (AP) half-width increased and mean amplitude of after hyperpolarization was reduced. The amplitude of the Ca2+ signals induced by the cells firing was linearly dependent on number of APs with a mean slope of 7.3±0.9 nM per one AP (n=8). APs widening by TEA increased the slope of the amplitude vs. AP number plots in a dose-dependent manner: 250 μM of TEA increased the mean slope value to 9.5±1.2 nM/AP, 500 μM to 12.4±2.4 nM/AP and 1 mM to 13.2±2.9 nM/AP (n=6). All these parameters, as well as the cells firing properties, were significantly different from controls and from each other except between 500 μM and 1 mM. This is consistent with the pharmacological properties of Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channels: the TEA IC50 is in the range 150-300 μM with almost complete block at 1 mM. This suggests that Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channels underlie the fast firing of the rat RGCs and provide at a given firing frequency 1.8-fold restriction Ca2+ influx, thus protecting the cells

  13. A fast BK-type KCa current acts as a postsynaptic modulator of temporal selectivity for communication signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko eKohashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal patterns of spiking often convey behaviorally relevant information. Various synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic membrane properties can influence neuronal selectivity to temporal patterns of input. However, little is known about how synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic properties together determine the temporal selectivity of neuronal output. We tackled this question by recording from midbrain electrosensory neurons in mormyrid fish, in which the processing of temporal intervals between communication signals can be studied in a reduced in vitro preparation. Mormyrids communicate by varying interpulse intervals (IPIs between electric pulses. Within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp, the temporal patterns of afferent spike trains are filtered to establish single-neuron IPI tuning. We performed whole-cell recording from ELp neurons in a whole-brain preparation and examined the relationship between intrinsic excitability and IPI tuning. We found that spike frequency adaptation of ELp neurons was highly variable. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs of strongly adapting (phasic neurons were more sharply tuned to IPIs than weakly adapting (tonic neurons. Further, the synaptic filtering of IPIs by tonic neurons was more faithfully converted into variation in spiking output, particularly at short IPIs. Pharmacological manipulation under current- and voltage-clamp revealed that tonic firing is mediated by a fast, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa current (BK that speeds up action potential repolarization. These results suggest that BK currents can shape the temporal filtering of sensory inputs by modifying both synaptic responses and PSP-to-spike conversion. Slow SK-type KCa currents have previously been implicated in temporal processing. Thus, both fast and slow KCa currents can fine-tune temporal selectivity.

  14. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channel positive modulators enable faster activating kinetics and increase firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddum, Kim; Hougaard, Charlotte; Xiao-Ying Lin, Julie; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-02-24

    Due to their fast kinetic properties, Kv3.1 voltage gated potassium channels are important in setting and controlling firing frequency in neurons and pivotal in generating high frequency firing of interneurons. Pharmacological activation of Kv3.1 channels may possess therapeutic potential for treatment of epilepsy, hearing disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive impairments. Here we thoroughly investigate the selectivity and positive modulation of the two small molecules, EX15 and RE01, on Kv3 channels. Selectivity studies, conducted in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed a positive modulatory effect of the two compounds on Kv3.1 and to a minor extent on Kv3.2 channels. RE01 had no effect on the Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 channels, whereas EX15 had an inhibitory impact on the Kv3.4 mediated current. Voltage-clamp experiments in monoclonal hKv3.1b/HEK293 cells (34 °C) revealed that the two compounds indeed induced larger currents and faster activation kinetics. They also decrease the speed of deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of activation, to a more negative activation threshold. Application of action potential clamping and repetitive stimulation protocols of hKv3.1b expressing HEK293 cells revealed that EX15 and RE01 significantly increased peak amplitude, half width and decay time of Kv3.1 mediated currents, even during high-frequency action potential clamping (250 Hz). In rat hippocampal slices, EX15 and RE01 increased neuronal excitability in fast-spiking interneurons in dentate gyrus. Action potential frequency was prominently increased at minor depolarizing steps, whereas more marginal effects of EX15 and RE01 were observed after stronger depolarizations. In conclusion, our results suggest that EX15 and RE01 positive modulation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 currents facilitate increased firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

  15. A fast algorithm for solving a linear feasibility problem with application to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gabor T; Chen, Wei

    2008-03-01

    The goal of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is to deliver sufficient doses to tumors to kill them, but without causing irreparable damage to critical organs. This requirement can be formulated as a linear feasibility problem. The sequential (i.e., iteratively treating the constraints one after another in a cyclic fashion) algorithm ART3 is known to find a solution to such problems in a finite number of steps, provided that the feasible region is full dimensional. We present a faster algorithm called ART3+. The idea of ART3+ is to avoid unnecessary checks on constraints that are likely to be satisfied. The superior performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated by mathematical experiments inspired by the IMRT application.

  16. Fast curing ethylene vinyl acetate films with dual curing agent towards application as encapsulation materials for photovoltaic modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W-H. Ruan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To speed up curing of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA films as encapsulation materials for photovoltaic modules, a dual curing agent of benzoyl peroxide (BPO and butylperoxy 2-ethylhexyl carbonate (TBEC was introduced in this work. The experimental results indicated that for the weight ratio of BPO/TBEC of 0.6/2.4, over 80% gel content of EVA was yielded after curing at 130°C for 12 min. Compared with the case of single curing agent, the present one obviously operated at much lower temperature with faster rate. By carefully studying the influence of curing agent proportion and curing conditions on gel content of EVA films, as well as rheology and curing kinetics, the mechanism involved was analyzed and verified. The results are believed to be useful for developing new curing system of EVA encapsulation films with improved processability.

  17. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Sawada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of food is crucial for the survival of organisms. However, previous visual search studies have reported discrepant results regarding the detection speeds for food vs. non-food items; some experiments showed faster detection of food than non-food, whereas others reported null findings concerning any speed advantage for the detection of food vs. non-food. Moreover, although some previous studies showed that fat content can affect visual attention for food, the effect of fat content on the detection of food remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food, low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet, and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils targets within crowds of non-food distractors (i.e., cars. Results showed that RTs for food targets were shorter than those for non-food targets. Moreover, the RTs for high-fat food were shorter than those for low-fat food. These results suggest that food is more rapidly detected than non-food within the environment and that a higher fat content in food facilitates rapid detection.

  18. A set cover approach to fast beam orientation optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy for total marrow irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chieh-Hsiu Jason; Aleman, Dionne M [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B, E-mail: chjlee@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: aleman@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: michael.sharpe@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2011-09-07

    The beam orientation optimization (BOO) problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is a nonlinear problem, and existing methods to obtain solutions to the BOO problem are time consuming due to the complex nature of the objective function and size of the solution space. These issues become even more difficult in total marrow irradiation (TMI), where many more beams must be used to cover a vastly larger treatment area than typical site-specific treatments (e.g., head-and-neck, prostate, etc). These complications result in excessively long computation times to develop IMRT treatment plans for TMI, so we attempt to develop methods that drastically reduce treatment planning time. We transform the BOO problem into the classical set cover problem (SCP) and use existing methods to solve SCP to obtain beam solutions. Although SCP is NP-Hard, our methods obtain beam solutions that result in quality treatments in minutes. We compare our approach to an integer programming solver for the SCP to illustrate the speed advantage of our approach.

  19. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S. [Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi, E-mail: santhavi@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (−74 mV), but failed to alter average

  20. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (gGABA-extra) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in gGABA-extra and EGABA influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40-100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30-40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing gGABA-extra reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when EGABA was shunting (-74 mV), but failed to alter average FS-BC frequency when EGABA was depolarizing

  1. Caractérisation de l’état écologique des Ecosystèmes Marins Vulnérables (VME) bathyaux benthiques de Méditerranée française (Mégafaune)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedel, Laura; Fabri, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ce document rapporte un état des lieux concernant les écosystèmes marins vulnérables (VME) du domaine bathyal dans les canyons des côtes méditerranéennes françaises. Il a été réalisé à partir d'informations disponibles à la date de sa réalisation, informations extraites de l'imagerie optique (photos et vidéos) enregistrées à partir de différents submersibles.

  2. Comparison of Two Fast Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms%两种快速的空间矢量脉宽调制算法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范必双; 谭冠政; 樊绍胜; 王玉凤

    2014-01-01

    A comparison is made between two fast space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithms: the 60° non-orthogonal coordinate SVPWM and the 45° rotating coordinate SVPWM. New general methods of the 60° and 45° algorithms for any level SVPWM are also provided, which need only the angle and the modulation depth to generate and arrange the final vector sequence. The analysis shows the latter offers better flexibility with fewer calculations and is well suited for digital implementation. Both methods are implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and compared on the basis of implementation complexity and logic resources required. Simulation results show the overwhelm in advantages of the 45° rotating coordinate SVPWM in brevity and efficiency. Finally, the experimental test results for a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter are presented.%对60°非正交坐标系和45°旋转坐标系这两种快速空间矢量脉宽调制算法(space vector pulse width modulation, SVPWM)进行比较,目的是为工程技术人员在这两种SVPWM算法之间选择时提供一个理论和实践的参考。提出了一种新的针对这两种方法的任意多电平调制通用算法,只需角度和调制比两个信号就能够决定最终的矢量开关顺序。理论分析结果表明,45°旋转坐标系 SVPWM 比60°非正交坐标系SVPWM更简单,计算量小,更适合于数字实现。两种算法都以硬件的方式在FPGA上用VHDL语言编程实现,并对实现的复杂度和逻辑资源占用这两方面进行比较。仿真结果表明,45°旋转坐标系下的SVPWM算法比60°坐标系下的SVPWM算法在简洁性和资源占用方面具有明显的优势。最后,在一个三电平中点箝位型逆变器上对所提的两种通用算法进行了实验验证。

  3. Unconventional ligands and modulators of nicotinic receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Edna F.R; Hilmas, Corey; Santos, Mariton D; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Maelicke, Alfred; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2002-01-01

    .... In the mammalian brain, neuronal nAChRs, in addition to mediating fast synaptic transmission, modulate fast synaptic transmission mediated by the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters...

  4. Transition between fast and slow gamma modes in rat hippocampus area CA1 in vitro is modulated by slow CA3 gamma oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersen, Alexander N J; Ward, Peter D; Hagger-Vaughan, Nicholas; Wiggins, James; Jefferys, John G R; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2014-02-15

    Hippocampal gamma oscillations have been associated with cognitive functions including navigation and memory encoding/retrieval. Gamma oscillations in area CA1 are thought to depend on the oscillatory drive from CA3 (slow gamma) or the entorhinal cortex (fast gamma). Here we show that the local CA1 network can generate its own fast gamma that can be suppressed by slow gamma-paced inputs from CA3. Moderate acetylcholine receptor activation induces fast (45 ± 1 Hz) gamma in rat CA1 minislices and slow (33 ± 1 Hz) gamma in CA3 minislices in vitro. Using pharmacological tools, current-source density analysis and intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and fast-spiking stratum pyramidale interneurons, we demonstrate that fast gamma in CA1 is of the pyramidal-interneuron network gamma (PING) type, with the firing of principal cells paced by recurrent perisomal IPSCs. The oscillation frequency was only weakly dependent on IPSC amplitude, and decreased to that of CA3 slow gamma by reducing IPSC decay rate or reducing interneuron activation through tonic inhibition of interneurons. Fast gamma in CA1 was replaced by slow CA3-driven gamma in unlesioned slices, which could be mimicked in CA1 minislices by sub-threshold 35 Hz Schaffer collateral stimulation that activated fast-spiking interneurons but hyperpolarised pyramidal cells, suggesting that slow gamma frequency CA3 outputs can suppress the CA1 fast gamma-generating network by feed-forward inhibition and replaces it with a slower gamma oscillation driven by feed-forward inhibition. The transition between the two gamma oscillation modes in CA1 might allow it to alternate between effective communication with the medial entorhinal cortex and CA3, which have different roles in encoding and recall of memory.

  5. Fasting modulates GH/IGF-I axis and its regulatory systems in the mammary gland of female mice: Influence of endogenous cortistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Gahete, Manuel D; Cordoba-Chacon, José; de Lecea, Luis; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2016-10-15

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are essential factors in mammary-gland (MG) development and are altered during fasting. However, no studies have investigated the alterations in the expression of GH/IGF-I and its regulatory systems (somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin) in MG during fasting. Therefore, this study was aimed at characterizing the regulation of GH/IGF-I/somatostatin/cortistatin/ghrelin-systems expression in MG of fasted female-mice (compared to fed-controls) and the influence of endogenous-cortistatin (using cortistatin-knockouts). Fasting decreased IGF-I while increased IGF-I/Insulin-receptors expression in MGs. Fasting provoked an increase in GH expression that might be associated to enhanced ghrelin-variants/ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase enzyme expression, while an upregulation of somatostatin-receptors was observed. However, cortistatin-knockouts mice showed a decrease in GH and somatostatin receptor-subtypes expression. Altogether, we demonstrate that GH/IGF-I, somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin systems expression is altered in MG during fasting, suggesting a relevant role in coordinating its response to metabolic stress, wherein endogenous cortistatin might be essential for an appropriate response.

  6. M10.6.2: Design and manufacturing of the AMC modules with fast analogue and digital IO (at least 100 Ms/s, 14 b)

    CERN Document Server

    Jezynski, T

    2011-01-01

    In the uTCA based LLRF system the input signals will be processed by AMC plug-in modules hosted by uTCA crate providing communication for the system components and supporting signal processing by the controller board equipped with FPGAs and DSPs. The AMC plug-in modules with ADCs and some other IO interfaces must be developed, manufactured and characterized.

  7. Fast and accurate method for identifying high-quality protein-interaction modules by clique merging and its application to yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Liu, Song; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2006-04-01

    Molecular networks in cells are organized into functional modules, where genes in the same module interact densely with each other and participate in the same biological process. Thus, identification of modules from molecular networks is an important step toward a better understanding of how cells function through the molecular networks. Here, we propose a simple, automatic method, called MC(2), to identify functional modules by enumerating and merging cliques in the protein-interaction data from large-scale experiments. Application of MC(2) to the S. cerevisiae protein-interaction data produces 84 modules, whose sizes range from 4 to 69 genes. The majority of the discovered modules are significantly enriched with a highly specific process term (at least 4 levels below root) and a specific cellular component in Gene Ontology (GO) tree. The average fraction of genes with the most enriched GO term for all modules is 82% for specific biological processes and 78% for specific cellular components. In addition, the predicted modules are enriched with coexpressed proteins. These modules are found to be useful for annotating unknown genes and uncovering novel functions of known genes. MC(2) is efficient, and takes only about 5 min to identify modules from the current yeast gene interaction network with a typical PC (Intel Xeon 2.5 GHz CPU and 512 MB memory). The CPU time of MC(2) is affordable (12 h) even when the number of interactions is increased by a factor of 10. MC(2) and its results are publicly available on http://theory.med.buffalo.edu/MC2.

  8. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A method for improvement of safety features of large fast breeder reactors. Numerical simulation of unprotected loss-of-flow accident in an LMFBR equipped with gas-expansion modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Masayoshi [Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Murakami, Tomoko; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Watari, Yoshio; Nakao, Noboru; Miura, Masanori

    1995-04-01

    Numerical simulation of an unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) accident has been performed for a large liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) equipped with gas expansion modules (GEMs) in the radial periphery of the reactor core. The effectiveness of the GEMs in small fast reactors was demonstrated already in the passive safety testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility. According to neutronic calculations based on the transport theory, even in large reactors of electrical power 600 to 1,300 MW, the reactivity worth of GEMs, which replace one layer of radial blanket fuel subassemblies, ranges from -1.9$ to -1.4$, depending on the size of the core. A simulation of ULOF transient was performed with a 5.5s flow-halving time in a 600 MWe LMFBR equipped with GEMs of -1.9$ reactivity worth. The result showed that, if 10% of the rated core coolant flow by pony motors was available following the main pump coastdown, the GEM reactivity alone could bring the reactor subcritical and the predicted maximum coolant temperature was substantially lower than the sodium boiling point. The reactivity worth calculations, a modeling of gas expansion behavior, and ULOF simulation together with needs of further development for the GEM application are described. (author).

  10. A Fast-Processing Modulation Strategy for Three-Phase Four-Leg Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Based on the Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    the proposed modulation strategy, the four-leg NPC inverter can be decoupled into three three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section. This makes the controller design much simpler compared to the conventional four-leg NPC inverter controllers. Also, this technique can be implemented......In this paper, a modulation strategy based on the circuit-level decoupling concept is proposed and investigated for the three-level four-leg neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter,with the aim of delivering power to all sorts of loads, linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced. By applying...... with a simple logic and can be processed very quickly. Moreover, the switching loss is reduced substantially and the dc-link capacitors’ voltages balance is also achieved without any feedback control. The proposed modulation technique is verified by the experiment....

  11. Measurement of neutral gas pressure in the D-module of GAMMA 10/PDX by using ASDEX type fast ionization gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, K.; Fukumoto, M.; Islam, M. M.; Islam, M. S.; Shimizu, K.; Fukui, K.; Ohuchi, M.; Nojiri, K.; Terakado, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ezumi, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases. Rapid increase of the gas pressure under the plasma flow was also observed.

  12. Measurement of neutral gas pressure in the D-module of GAMMA 10/PDX by using ASDEX type fast ionization gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, K; Fukumoto, M; Islam, M M; Islam, M S; Shimizu, K; Fukui, K; Ohuchi, M; Nojiri, K; Terakado, A; Yoshikawa, M; Ezumi, N; Sakamoto, M; Nakashima, Y

    2016-11-01

    In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases. Rapid increase of the gas pressure under the plasma flow was also observed.

  13. N-Methyl-d-aspartate Modulation of Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Release by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Studies in Rat Brain Slices in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Ersin; Young, Andrew M J

    2017-02-15

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, phencyclidine, induces behavioral changes in rodents mimicking symptoms of schizophrenia, possibly mediated through dysregulation of glutamatergic control of mesolimbic dopamine release. We tested the hypothesis that NMDA receptor activation modulates accumbens dopamine release, and that phencyclidine pretreatment altered this modulation. NMDA caused a receptor-specific, dose-dependent decrease in electrically stimulated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens brain slices. This decrease was unaffected by picrotoxin, making it unlikely to be mediated through GABAergic neurones, but was decreased by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, (RS)-α-methyl-4-sulfonophenylglycine, indicating that NMDA activates mechanisms controlled by these receptors to decrease stimulated dopamine release. The effect of NMDA was unchanged by in vivo pretreatment with phencyclidine (twice daily for 5 days), with a washout period of at least 7 days before experimentation, which supports the hypothesis that there is no enduring direct effect of PCP at NMDA receptors after this pretreatment procedure. We propose that NMDA depression of accumbal dopamine release is mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors located pre- or perisynaptically, and suggest that NMDA evoked increased extrasynaptic spillover of glutamate is sufficient to activate these receptors that, in turn, inhibit dopamine release. Furthermore, we suggest that enduring functional changes brought about by subchronic phencyclidine pretreatment, modeling deficits in schizophrenia, are downstream effects consequent on chronic blockade of NMDA receptors, rather than direct effects on NMDA receptors themselves.

  14. Slow-rise and fast-drop current feature of ultraviolet response spectra for ZnO-nanowire film modulated by water molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shou-Tian; Wang Qiang; Zhao Feng; Qu Shi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the fabrication of ZnO-nanowire films by electro-chemical anodization of Zn foil.The ZnO films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy,X-ray diffraction patterns,and transmission electron microscopy,respectively.The ultraviolet (UV) photo-response properties of the surface-contacted ZnO film are studied through the current evolution processes under different relative humidities.Unlike the usually observed current spectra of the ZnO films,the drop time is shorter than the rise time.The photo-conductivity gain G and the response time γ are both increased with the increase of the applied bias.The photo-conductivity gain G is lowered with the increase of the environmental humidity,while the response time γ is increased.These results can be explained by considering three different surface processes:1) the electron-hole (e-p) pair generation by the UV light illumination,2)the following surface (O-2) species desorption,and 3) the photo-catalytic hydrolysis of water molecules adsorbed on the ZnO surface.The slow-rise and fast-drop current feature is suggested to originate from the sponge-like structure of the ZnO nanowires.

  15. Quantitation of hydrogen peroxide fluctuations and their modulation of dopamine dynamics in the rat dorsal striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Marina; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Letchworth, Jeremy M; Sanford, Audrey L; Toups, J Vincent; Sombers, Leslie A

    2013-05-15

    The dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum become dysfunctional and slowly degenerate in Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder that afflicts more than one million Americans. There is no specific known cause for idiopathic Parkinson's disease; however, multiple lines of evidence implicate oxidative stress as an underlying factor in both the initiation and progression of the disease. This involves the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whose role in complex biological processes is not well understood. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at bare carbon-fiber microelectrodes, we have simultaneously monitored and quantified H2O2 and DA fluctuations in intact striatal tissue under basal conditions and in response to the initiation of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of acute increases in local H2O2 concentration on both electrically evoked DA release and basal DA levels. Increases in endogenous H2O2 in the dorsal striatum attenuated electrically evoked DA release, and also decreased basal DA levels in this brain region. These novel results will help to disambiguate the chemical mechanisms underlying the progression of neurodegenerative disease states, such as Parkinson's disease, that involve oxidative stress.

  16. Quantitation of Hydrogen Peroxide Fluctuations and Their Modulation of Dopamine Dynamics in the Rat Dorsal Striatum Using Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum become dysfunctional and slowly degenerate in Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder that afflicts more than one million Americans. There is no specific known cause for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease; however, multiple lines of evidence implicate oxidative stress as an underlying factor in both the initiation and progression of the disease. This involves the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whose role in complex biological processes is not well understood. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at bare carbon-fiber microelectrodes, we have simultaneously monitored and quantified H2O2 and DA fluctuations in intact striatal tissue under basal conditions and in response to the initiation of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of acute increases in local H2O2 concentration on both electrically evoked DA release and basal DA levels. Increases in endogenous H2O2 in the dorsal striatum attenuated electrically evoked DA release, and also decreased basal DA levels in this brain region. These novel results will help to disambiguate the chemical mechanisms underlying the progression of neurodegenerative disease states, such as Parkinson’s disease, that involve oxidative stress. PMID:23556461

  17. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  18. The Fast Simulation Chain for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Basalaev, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In order to generate the huge number of Monte Carlo events that will be required by the ATLAS experiment over the next several runs, a very fast simulation is critical. Fast detector simulation alone, however, is insufficient: with very high numbers of simultaneous proton-proton collisions expected in Run 3 and beyond, the digitization (detector response emulation) and event reconstruction time quickly become comparable to the time required for detector simulation. The ATLAS Fast Chain simulation has been developed to solve this problem. Modules are implemented for fast simulation, fast digitization, and fast track reconstruction. The application is sufficiently fast - several orders of magnitude faster than the standard simulation - that the simultaneous proton-proton collisions can be generated during the simulation job, so Pythia8 also runs concurrently with the rest of the algorithms. The Fast Chain has been built to be extremely modular and flexible, so that each sample can be custom-tailored to match th...

  19. The Fast Simulation Chain for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Basalaev, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to generate the huge number of Monte Carlo events that will be required by the ATLAS experiment over the next several runs, a very fast simulation is critical. Fast detector simulation alone, however, is insufficient: with very high numbers of simultaneous proton-proton collisions expected in Run 3 and beyond, the digitization (detector response emulation) and event reconstruction time quickly become comparable to the time required for detector simulation. The ATLAS Fast Chain simulation has been developed to solve this problem. Modules are implemented for fast simulation, fast digitization, and fast track reconstruction. The application is sufficiently fast -- several orders of magnitude faster than the standard simulation -- that the simultaneous proton-proton collisions can be generated during the simulation job, so Pythia8 also runs concurrently with the rest of the algorithms. The Fast Chain has been built to be extremely modular and flexible, so that each sample can be custom-tailored to match ...

  20. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K;

    2008-01-01

    of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped...... Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A......-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL...

  1. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  2. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K; Albrechtsen, Anders; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Schmitz, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2008-06-01

    Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.

  3. BESⅢ Muon电子学VME控制扇出插件的优化设计%The Optimization Design of VME Control/Fan-out Module in BESⅢ Muon Electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄; 梁昊; 虞孝麒; 周永钊

    2009-01-01

    主要阐述BESⅢ Muon电子学VME控制扇出插件的优化设计,主要内容包括对VME控制扇出插件控制芯片FPGA的固件进行优化,并且设计了相关实验来对优化方案进行测试.

  4. Design and performance evaluation of fast electromagnetic field probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert; Leferink, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern signals in, for instance, advanced wireless communication systems or radars, make use of very complex modulation. This type of fast modulation is also present in signals often measured in reverberation chambers with fast mode stirring. Reliable and meaningful measurements of such signals plac

  5. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  6. A fast meteor detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural, P.

    2016-01-01

    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  7. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  8. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  9. BEAM COUPLING PHENOMENA IN FAST KICKER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; GLENN,J.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    Beam coupling phenomena have been observed in most fast kicker systems through out Brookhaven Collider-Accelerator complex. With ever-higher beam intensity, the signature of the beam becomes increasingly recognizable. The beam coupling at high intensity produced additional heat dissipation in high voltage modulator, thyratron grids, thyratron driver circuit sufficient to damage some components, and causes trigger instability. In this paper, we will present our observations, basic coupling mode analysis, relevance to the magnet structures, issues related to the existing high voltage modulators, and considerations of the future design of the fast kicker systems.

  10. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  11. Cosmic ray test system for the ATLAS thin gap chamber modules at KOBE

    CERN Document Server

    Suigmoto, T; Arataki, Y; Bando, T; Homma, Y; Ichimiya, R; Ikeno, M; Ishii, K; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Kurashige, H; Mima, T; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Nakaune, Y; Nozaki, M; Ohshita, H; Okumura, K; Sasaki, O; Suzuki, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Uda, J; Yokoyama, C

    2004-01-01

    Thin gap chamber modules giving function of forward muon trigger to the ATLAS detector in the LHC experiment have been constructed at High Energy Research Organization (KEK) in Japan and their performances have been checked at Kobe University. A large-scale test system specially designed for measuring uniformity of the detection efficiencies and the timing resolution of 8 TGC modules at the same time was successfully operated. Each TGC module had 72 anode wire channels and 64 cathode strip channels (in total 1088 readout channels for 8 modules). Drift tubes consisted of 12 layers (total 428 tubes), between which the TGC modules are put, determined trajectories of cosmic rays. Hit pattern and timing of all detector signals (Trigger counter. Drift tubes and TGCs) were measured by using VME modules. In regular data acquisition situation, i.e. about effective 19 Hz trigger rate from scintillation counters and 73% tracking efficiency by the drift tubes, the detection efficiency of each layer by 5 mm * 5 mm region ...

  12. Clocked, fast electronics trigger for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    For a Fermilab experiment we have designed and built gated-pulse-stretcher modules which allow us to clock all of the fast electronics with the accelerator rf, thus simplifying the trigger design. (orig.).

  13. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  14. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  15. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  16. Is fast food addictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  17. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  18. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  19. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  20. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  1. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location and coverage (number of different locations, and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409 who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance or coverage (number indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  2. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  3. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. The AM system finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 828 2 Gbit/s serial links for a total in/out bandwidth of 56 Gb/s. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. ...

  4. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed on purpose to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. We report on the performance of the intermedia...

  5. -Regular Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Abduldaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced and studied -regular modules as a generalization of -regular rings to modules as well as regular modules (in the sense of Fieldhouse. An -module is called -regular if for each and , there exist and a positive integer such that . The notion of -pure submodules was introduced to generalize pure submodules and proved that an -module is -regular if and only if every submodule of is -pure iff   is a -regular -module for each maximal ideal of . Many characterizations and properties of -regular modules were given. An -module is -regular iff is a -regular ring for each iff is a -regular ring for finitely generated module . If is a -regular module, then .

  6. The Octant Module of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Stefan; Berge, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger receives data from the sector logic modules of the muon trigger at every bunch crossing and calculates the total multiplicity of muon candidates, which is then sent to the Central Trigger Processor where the final Level-1 decision is taken. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME crate with a special backplane and 18 custom designed modules. We focus on the design and implementation of the octant module (MIOCT). Each of the 16 MIOCT modules processes the muon candidates from 13 sectors of one half-octant of the detector and forms the local muon candidate multiplicities for the trigger decision. It also resolves the overlaps between chambers in order to avoid double-counting of muon candidates that are detected in more than one sector. The handling of overlapping sectors is based on Look-Up-Tables (LUT) for maximum flexibility. The MIOCT also sends the information on the muon candidates over the custom backplane via the Readou...

  7. Fast integrator based data acquisition system for the SST-1 Thomson scattering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kiran; Kumar, Ajai

    2010-04-01

    An operational transconductance amplifier based fast charge-integrating module (FCIM) is designed and developed for an easy acquisition of fast Thomson scattered and background signal. FCIM based data acquisition technique can be used for the measurement of charge pulses of <20 ns duration. The response of the module is tested using a standard pulsed charge-generating module. The measuring charge range of the module depends on the integrating capacitor. Comparison of the performance of FCIM to commercially available module shows that it has better dynamic range with higher sensitivity and less measurement error. The module is quite cost effective and has many new features.

  8. Fast integrator based data acquisition system for the SST-1 Thomson scattering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2010-04-15

    An operational transconductance amplifier based fast charge-integrating module (FCIM) is designed and developed for an easy acquisition of fast Thomson scattered and background signal. FCIM based data acquisition technique can be used for the measurement of charge pulses of <20 ns duration. The response of the module is tested using a standard pulsed charge-generating module. The measuring charge range of the module depends on the integrating capacitor. Comparison of the performance of FCIM to commercially available module shows that it has better dynamic range with higher sensitivity and less measurement error. The module is quite cost effective and has many new features.

  9. Transient impairment of the adaptive response to fasting in FXR-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, B; van Harmelen, K; Duran-Sandoval, D; van Dijk, T; Grefhorst, A; Bouchaert, E; Fruchart, JC; Gonzalez, FJ; Kuipers, F; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been suggested to play a role in gluconeogenesis. To determine whether FXR modulates the response to fasting in vivo, FXR-deficient (FXR-/-) and wild-type mice were submitted to fasting for 48 h. Our results demonstrate that FXR modulates the kinetics of alteration

  10. Transient impairment of the adaptive response to fasting in FXR-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, B; van Harmelen, K; Duran-Sandoval, D; van Dijk, T; Grefhorst, A; Bouchaert, E; Fruchart, JC; Gonzalez, FJ; Kuipers, F; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been suggested to play a role in gluconeogenesis. To determine whether FXR modulates the response to fasting in vivo, FXR-deficient (FXR-/-) and wild-type mice were submitted to fasting for 48 h. Our results demonstrate that FXR modulates the kinetics of

  11. Fast growth in control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Rico (Zulay)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe focus of this paper is on the influence of the fast growth of organizations on the design process of management control systems. What are the management accounting and control problems that a fast growth organization encounters that can be ascribed to this growth. What are the circum

  12. Fast protein folding kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  13. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  14. Fast protein folding kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Fast-folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast-folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms, which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well fast folders also informs our understanding of even 'slow' folding processes: fast folders are small; relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast-folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast-folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general, as well as some work that is left to do.

  15. Algorithms For A Fast Universal Noiseless Coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Miller, Warner H.; Rice, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses some algorithms for fast, high-performance universal noiseless coder adaptively generating nearly optimal variable-length codes. Coders based on principles discussed in reports described in "Some Practical Universal Noiseless Coding Techniques" (NPO-18833) and "Optimality of Variable-Length Codes" (NPO-18834). Coding algorithms of present report independently implemented in custom-made very-large-scale integrated-circuit coding modules.

  16. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  17. Islamic Fasting and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting in normal individuals and diabetics. During fasting days of Ramadan, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meal taken bepore dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and defend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting; but fasting is not recommended for type 1, non complaint, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals and well controlled diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetics and diabetics with complications should consult physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

  18. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  19. Local Optogenetic Induction of Fast (20-40 Hz) Pyramidal-Interneuron Network Oscillations in the In Vitro and In Vivo CA1 Hippocampus: Modulation by CRF and Enforcement of Perirhinal Theta Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dine, Julien; Genewsky, Andreas; Hladky, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Deussing, Jan M; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Chen, Alon; Eder, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiological processes that can cause theta-to-gamma frequency range (4-80 Hz) network oscillations in the rhinal cortical-hippocampal system and the potential connectivity-based interactions of such forebrain rhythms are a topic of intensive investigation. Here, using selective Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expression in mouse forebrain glutamatergic cells, we were able to locally, temporally precisely, and reliably induce fast (20-40 Hz) field potential oscillations in hippocampal area CA1 in vitro (at 25°C) and in vivo (i.e., slightly anesthetized NEX-Cre-ChR2 mice). As revealed by pharmacological analyses and patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in vitro, these light-triggered oscillations can exclusively arise from sustained suprathreshold depolarization (~200 ms or longer) and feedback inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as being mandatory for prototypic pyramidal-interneuron network (P-I) oscillations. Consistently, the oscillations comprised rhythmically occurring population spikes (generated by pyramidal cells) and their frequency increased with increasing spectral power. We further demonstrate that the optogenetically driven CA1 oscillations, which remain stable over repeated evocations, are impaired by the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, 125 nM) in vitro and, even more remarkably, found that they are accompanied by concurrent states of enforced theta activity in the memory-associated perirhinal cortex (PrC) in vivo. The latter phenomenon most likely derives from neurotransmission via a known, but poorly studied excitatory CA1→PrC pathway. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of a prototypic (CRF-sensitive) P-I gamma rhythm generator in area CA1 and suggest that CA1 P-I oscillations can rapidly up-regulate theta activity strength in hippocampus-innervated rhinal networks, at least in the PrC.

  20. Local Optogenetic Induction of Fast (20-40 Hz Pyramidal-Interneuron Network Oscillations in the In Vitro and In Vivo CA1 Hippocampus: Modulation by CRF and Enforcement of Perirhinal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological processes that can cause theta-to-gamma frequency range (4-80 Hz network oscillations in the rhinal cortical-hippocampal system and the potential connectivity-based interactions of such forebrain rhythms are a topic of intensive investigation. Here, using selective Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 expression in mouse forebrain glutamatergic cells, we were able to locally, temporally precisely, and reliably induce fast (20-40 Hz field potential oscillations in hippocampal area CA1 in vitro (at 25°C and in vivo (i.e., slightly anaesthetized NEX-Cre-ChR2 mice. As revealed by pharmacological analyses and patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in vitro, these light-triggered oscillations can exclusively arise from sustained suprathreshold depolarization (~200 ms or longer and feedback inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as being mandatory for prototypic pyramidal-interneuron network (P-I oscillations. Consistently, the oscillations comprised rhythmically occurring population spikes (generated by pyramidal cells and their frequency increased with increasing spectral power. We further demonstrate that the optogenetically driven CA1 oscillations, which remain stable over repeated evocations, are impaired by the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, 125 nM in vitro and, even more remarkably, found that they are accompanied by concurrent states of enforced theta activity in the memory-associated perirhinal cortex (PrC in vivo. The latter phenomenon most likely derives from neurotransmission via a known, but poorly studied excitatory CA1PrC pathway. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of a prototypic (CRF-sensitive P-I gamma rhythm generator in area CA1 and suggest that CA1 P-I oscillations can rapidly up-regulate theta activity strength in hippocampus-innervated rhinal networks, at least in the PrC.

  1. FAST Construction Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, R. D.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, L.; Cai, W. J.; Liu, N.; Xie, J. T.; Zhang, S. X.

    2016-11-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. A unique karst depression in Guizhou province has been selected as the site to build an active reflector radio telescope with a diameter of 500 m and three outstanding aspects, which enables FAST to have a large sky coverage and the ability of observing astronomical targets with a high precision. Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guizhou province are in charge of FAST construction. The first light of the telescope was expected on September 25, 2016.

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  3. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  4. Modules and supporting hardware for FASTBUS test and diagnostic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolucci, B.

    1981-10-01

    This paper contains detailed descriptions and circuitry of some modules and supporting hardware for the FASTBUS System developed at SLAC. A fast slave-only Memory Module (PRIMO), a Dummy Module (U2), a FASTBUS Test Box (LAIKA), and a Bus Display Bar (BBD) have been built, tested and used for test and diagnostic purposes for FASTBUS.

  5. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  6. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  7. FAST Maser Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    FAST, the Five-hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope, will become the largest operating single-dish telescope in the coming years. It has many advantages: much better sensitivity for its largest collecting area; large sky coverage due to its innovative design of the active primary surface; extremely radio quiet from its unique location, etc. In this work, I will highlight the future capabilities of FAST to discover and observe both galactic and extragalactic masers.

  8. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  9. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  10. Fast Implementation of Impedance Matching for Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Smith Chart and Labview%一种基于Labview快速实现电光调制器射频阻抗匹配的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫鑫; 张鹏飞; 李刚; 张天才

    2013-01-01

    电光调制器在量子光学、原子物理、激光光谱、光学控制和测量等许多方面具有广泛的应用,其射频阻抗匹配是重要的技术问题.文章在现有常用的射频匹配方法的基础上,运用Smith圆图,提出了一套简单快速实现电光调制器射频阻抗匹配的方法,包括网络构建的分析、设计并完成了在Labview环境下运用Smith图对电光调制器射频阻抗匹配网络设计的程序等.在此基础上,采用Newfocus 4002和Thorlabs公司的两种不同的电光调制器进行了实验.实验结果表明,在设计频率53.047 MHz和97.977 MHz处,匹配效率可以达到99.05%和95.6%.%Electro-optic modulator (EOM) has been widely used in many fields,such as optical communications, optical control and measurement and it is also used for quantum optics,atomic physics,laser spectros-copy,etc. The RF impedance matching of the EOM is an important technical issue. Based on the usual RF matching principle and method,and by using the Smith Chart,we propose a set of reliable and rapid method of RF impedance matching for an EOM,which includes the analysis of a network construction,the design procedures by using Smith chart in LABVIEW environment. We demonstrate the method on two EOMs from New Focus 4002 and Thorlabs The results show that the impedance matching efficiencies are 99. 5% and 95. 6% at the design frequency of 53. 047 MHz and 97. 977 MHz,respectively.

  11. The Role of Fast Carrier Dynamics in SOA Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup;

    2004-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated and the propert......We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated...

  12. Modulation of Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct torque control with Current Source Inverter (CSI instead of voltage source inverter is so appropriate because of determining the torque of induction motor with machine current and air gap flux. In addition, Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is a more proper method for CSI because of low order harmonics reduction, lower switching frequency and easier implementation. This paper introduces the SVM method for CSI and uses the proposed inverter for vector control of an induction motor. The simulation results illustrate fast dynamic response and desirable torque and speed output. Fast and accurate response to changes of speed and load torque reference completely proves the prominence of this method.

  13. Development of Fast running DNBR Calculation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Seo, K. W.; Kim, S. J.; Hwang, D. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SMART core adopted a core protection(SCOPS) and a supervising system(SCOMS) to satisfy the SAFDL for AOO and normal operation. Generally, the criteria is limited to the DNBR limit so that the DNBR calculation module is required in the protection and the supervising system of core. There are CPU time limit and calculation robustness as some requirements of the DNBR calculation module in SCOPS and SCOMS caused by hardware limitations. The non-iterative few channel methods are needed to satisfy the requirements. Non-iterative numerical method is similar to the CETOP algorithm originated from ref. 1. The method is known as the non-iterative prediction and correction method. An optimum number of channels for core lumping model is selected as 4- channel which is same channel number of CETOP model. A compensation model of lumped channel is needed to ensure that the 4-channel thermal hydraulic field is nearly equivalent to that field of 1/8-core model that is calculated by MATRA-S. The code called FAST that is fast running DNBR calculation is developed to satisfy the requirements of CPU time and calculation robustness. Present paper is described of characteristics and calculation results of developed FAST code

  14. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on the Regulation of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The month of Ramadan, as a model of intermittent fasting, is a valuable opportunity to investigate the effects of dietary modifications on human metabolism. Fasting improves insulin sensitivity, reduces atherogenic risk, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different disorders including atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Ramadan fasting can positively modulate cardiovascular risks and improves the metabolic syndrome features through suppression of inflammatory responses. In this review we attempt to present recent studies that addressed the regulatory role(s of this nutritional status on inflammation in patients with inflammatory diseases. These studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of fasting is significant and could be considered as a complementary therapeutic approach in treatment of inflammatory disorders in patients.Keywords: Ramadan fasting, Inflammation, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular diseaseAbstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract

  15. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  16. A fast friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡

    2010-01-01

    我们都知道fast food的意思是“快餐”。那fast friend能解释为“快速或速成的朋友”吗?也许你会说:“什么是速成朋友呀?It doesn’t make sense.”没错,交朋友怎么会有速成的呢?原来;fast还有一个意思是“忠实的、牢固的”,所以a fast friend的真正意思是“可靠、忠实的朋友”。

  17. Fast Distributed Gradient Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.

  18. Fast ejendom II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder.......Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder....

  19. Moms og fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af reguleringsforpligte......I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af...

  20. Fast Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A

    2002-12-30

    For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.

  1. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karsten Köneke; on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is recording data from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV since the spring of 2010. The integrated luminosity has grown nearly exponentially since then and continues to rise fast. The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking). Hints of potentially interesting physics signals obtained this way are followed up by physics groups.

  2. Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work performed for the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection O ce as the project Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation under contract HSHQDC-14-X-00022. This study was performed as a follow-on to the project Study of Fast Neutron Signatures and Measurement Techniques for SNM Detection - DNDO CFP11-100 STA-01. That work compared various detector technologies in a portal monitor con guration, focusing on a comparison between a number of fast neutron detection techniques and two standard thermal neutron detection technologies. The conclusions of the earlier work are contained in the report Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies. This work is designed to address questions raised about assumptions underlying the models built for the earlier project. To that end, liquid scintillators of two di erent sizes{ one a commercial, o -the-shelf (COTS) model of standard dimensions and the other a large, planer module{were characterized at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of those measurements were combined with the results of the earlier models to gain a more complete picture of the performance of liquid scintillator as a portal monitor technology.

  3. Handel med fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    Bogen tilstræber at give et overblik over nogle af de vigtigste generelle problemområder på markedet for ejendomshandel, der jo bliver mere og mere kompliceret. Værket er opdelt i følgende hovedafsnit: Ejendomsbegrebet. Indgåelse af aftale om salg af fast ejendom. Begrænsninger i adgangen til...

  4. Not so fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marras, Stefano; Noda, Takuji; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    , it is an open question whether such supposedly very fast swimmers do use high-speed bursts when feeding on evasive prey, in addition to using their bill for slashing prey. Here, we measured the swimming behavior of sailfish by using high-frequency accelerometry and high-speed video observations during predator...

  5. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  6. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  7. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  8. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were implemente

  9. Foinaven fast track flowlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.H.; Mair, J.

    1996-12-31

    The decision by British Petroleum to develop offshore fields west of the Shetlands in water depths exceeding 500 meters within three and a half years of discovery posed a unique submarine pipeline installation challenge. This paper summarizes the salient features of a fast track program to install a diverless subsea pipeline system using rigid reeled pipe technology in an offshore frontier area.

  10. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order smaller servings when you can. Split some fast-food items to reduce calories and fat. Ask for a "doggy bag." You can also leave the extra food on your plate. Your food choices can teach your children how to eat healthy, too. Choosing a variety ...

  11. Fast Fourier Orthogonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducas, L.; Prest, T.; Abramov, S.A.; Zima, E.V.; Gao, X-S.

    2016-01-01

    The classical fast Fourier transform (FFT) allows to compute in quasi-linear time the product of two polynomials, in the {\\em circular convolution ring} R[x]/(x^d−1) --- a task that naively requires quadratic time. Equivalently, it allows to accelerate matrix-vector products when the matrix is *circ

  12. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SA) node --- the heart's natural pacemaker - sends out electrical signals faster than usual. The heart rate is fast, but the heart beats properly. Causes of sinus tachycardia A rapid heartbeat may be your body's response to common conditions such as: Fever Anxiety ...

  13. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  14. Nonlinear evolution of whistler wave modulational instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul;

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the modulational instability of whistler waves coupled to fast magnetosonic waves (FMS) and to slow magnetosonic waves (SMS) is investigated. Results from direct numerical solutions in two spatial dimensions agree with simplified results from a set of ordinary different......The nonlinear evolution of the modulational instability of whistler waves coupled to fast magnetosonic waves (FMS) and to slow magnetosonic waves (SMS) is investigated. Results from direct numerical solutions in two spatial dimensions agree with simplified results from a set of ordinary...

  15. Integration of perception and reasoning in fast neural modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial neural systems promise to integrate symbolic and sub-symbolic processing to achieve real time control of physical systems. Two potential alternatives exist. In one, neural nets can be used to front-end expert systems. The expert systems, in turn, are developed with varying degrees of parallelism, including their implementation in neural nets. In the other, rule-based reasoning and sensor data can be integrated within a single hybrid neural system. The hybrid system reacts as a unit to provide decisions (problem solutions) based on the simultaneous evaluation of data and rules. Discussed here is a model hybrid system based on the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM). The operation of the model is illustrated with the control of a hypothetical satellite that intelligently alters its attitude in space in response to an intersecting micrometeorite shower.

  16. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  17. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华

    1996-01-01

    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  18. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  19. Thruster Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thruster module described in this paper provides a low but controlled acceleration in a mission which would normally be labelled “microgravity”. The first mission was Cryofenix, where tanks containing liquid hydrogen were used in the experiment. The experiment utilizing the low acceleration is using liquids and requires a precise acceleration profile throughout the mission. Acceleration obtained by payload rotation is not feasible due to that the transversal forces required to change the acceleration will cause undesired liquid turbulence. In order to satisfy the experiment requirements a thruster module was developed by SSC for the Cryofenix mission funded by CNES. The Cryofenix mission had a payload weight of 380 kg and an apogee of about 260 km. The module produces a controlled thrust in flight direction by means of a cold gas system.

  20. Beyond Fast Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Since the seminal 1957 studies of word learning by Roger Brown, most experimental studies of lexical acquisition have concerned fast mapping: the process through which a new lexical entry is established, and through which representations of the linguistic context of a newly heard word interact with representations of its nonlinguistic context to fix an initial partial meaning. Here I focus on the subsequent extended process through which the adult meaning is approximated. Two factors lead to ...

  1. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane; Duncan Lorimer

    2017-09-01

    We summarize our current state of knowledge of fast radio bursts (FRBs) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up observations in the context of repeat bursts before moving on to review propagation effects on FRB signals, FRB progenitor models and an outlook on FRBs as potential cosmological tools.

  2. PHENIX Fast TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chiu, Mickey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mannel, Eric [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, Sean [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lynch, Don [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Boose, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Northacker, Dave [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alfred, Marcus [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Lindesay, James [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Chujo, Tatsuya [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Inaba, Motoi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Nonaka, Toshihiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, Wataru [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Sakatani, Ikumi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, Masahiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Choi, Ihnjea [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.

  3. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  4. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  5. Fast Light Optical Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation space missions are currently constrained by existing spacecraft navigation systems which are not fully autonomous. These systems suffer from accumulated dead-reckoning errors and must therefore rely on periodic corrections provided by supplementary technologies that depend on line-of-sight signals from Earth, satellites, or other celestial bodies for absolute attitude and position determination, which can be spoofed, incorrectly identified, occluded, obscured, attenuated, or insufficiently available. These dead-reckoning errors originate in the ring laser gyros themselves, which constitute inertial measurement units. Increasing the time for standalone spacecraft navigation therefore requires fundamental improvements in gyroscope technologies. One promising solution to enhance gyro sensitivity is to place an anomalous dispersion or fast light material inside the gyro cavity. The fast light essentially provides a positive feedback to the gyro response, resulting in a larger measured beat frequency for a given rotation rate as shown in figure 1. Game Changing Development has been investing in this idea through the Fast Light Optical Gyros (FLOG) project, a collaborative effort which began in FY 2013 between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and Northwestern University. MSFC and AMRDEC are working on the development of a passive FLOG (PFLOG), while Northwestern is developing an active FLOG (AFLOG). The project has demonstrated new benchmarks in the state of the art for scale factor sensitivity enhancement. Recent results show cavity scale factor enhancements of approx.100 for passive cavities.

  6. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  7. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  8. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  9. Serum Lipid Profile: Fasting or Non-fasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Serum lipid profile has now become almost a routine test. It is usually done in fasting state due to certain limitations in non-fasting serum sample. In the recent past efforts have been made to simplify blood sampling by replacing fasting lipid profile with non-fasting lipid profile. However, fasting specimen is preferred if cardiovascular risk assessment is based on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol. A lot has yet to be done in this area. Till then we have to believe...

  10. Serum Lipid Profile: Fasting or Non-fasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Serum lipid profile has now become almost a routine test. It is usually done in fasting state due to certain limitations in non-fasting serum sample. In the recent past efforts have been made to simplify blood sampling by replacing fasting lipid profile with non-fasting lipid profile. However, fasting specimen is preferred if cardiovascular risk assessment is based on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol. A lot has yet to be done in this area. Till then we have to believe...

  11. Role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghasemi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of fast ignitor in fast-shock ignition (FSI concept. The semi-analytical model indicates that the FSI target gain is a function of fast ignitor laser wavelength. If the energy of fast ignitor driver is and the laser wavelength is less than 0.53 micron, then with a fuel mass about 2 mg the FSI has a considerable advantage over pure shock ignition and the figure of merit is better than 1.2. When the wavelength of fast ignitor becomes shorter, the approaches , and for wavelengths shorter than 0.25 micron no additional is advantage is obtained.

  12. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evi

  13. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  14. Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Armada-Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes: parenchymal oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs and subventricular zone derived OPCs. In this review, we will discuss oligodendrogenesis derived from these two sources, and also highlight their main extrinsic and intrinsic modulators. In addition, the neuroinflammatory mediators of oligodendrogenesis will also be assessed.

  15. Methods of Fast Exponentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Maitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modular exponentiation constitutes the basis of many well-known and widely used public key cryptosystems. Approach: A fast portable modular exponentiation algorithm considerably enhanced the speed and applicability of these systems, also an efficient implementation of this algorithm was the key to high performance of such system. Results: In this study, two main approaches for solving this problem were proposed. The proposed approaches involved calculations without usage of extra operational memory for saving constants and calculations with usage of preliminary calculated constants. Conclusion/Recommendations: The estimation of complexity of the speedup and effectiveness of proposed approaches for the data were presented.

  16. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  17. An Investigation of VME-based DAQ System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-qing; CAOXiao-ping

    2003-01-01

    The aim of a nuclear physics experiment is to gather data about nuclear interactions. The data acquisition system formats and stores this information in a way which can be retrieved for later analysis.

  18. Post-fasting olfactory, transcriptional, and feeding responses in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadian, Shelli F; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Cho, Christine E; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2012-01-18

    The sensation of hunger after a period of fasting and of satiety after eating is crucial to behavioral regulation of food intake, but the biological mechanisms regulating these sensations are incompletely understood. We studied the behavioral and physiological adaptations to fasting in the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Here we show that both male and female flies increased their rate of food intake transiently in the post-fasted state. Although the basal feeding rate was higher in females than males, the magnitude of the post-fasting feeding response was the same in both sexes. Flies returned to a stable baseline feeding rate within 12 h after return to food for males and 24 h for females. This modulation in feeding was accompanied by a significant increase in the size of the crop organ of the digestive system, suggesting that fasted flies responded both by increasing their food intake and storing reserve food in their crop. Flies demonstrated increased behavioral attraction to an attractive odor when food-deprived. Expression profiling of head, body, and chemosensory tissues by microarray analysis revealed 415 genes regulated by fasting after 24 h and 723 genes after 48 h, with downregulated genes outnumbering upregulated genes in each tissue and fasting time point. These transcriptional changes showed rich temporal dynamics and affected genes across multiple functional gene ontology categories. These observations suggest that a coordinated transcriptional response to internal physiological state may regulate both ingestive behaviors and chemosensory perception of food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. All-Optical Photochromic Spatial Light Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Photochemical transfer of electrons enables fast reading and writing. New concept based on transfer of electrons between donor and acceptor molecules randomly distributed or covalently linked and dispersed in glassy-polymer host material. Transfer causes significant changes in optical-transmission characteristics of material and used to modulate transmission of reading beam of light impinging on material.

  20. Fasting and sport: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    2010-06-01

    Most humans observe an overnight fast on a daily basis, and the human body copes well with short duration fasting. Periodic fasting is widely practised for cultural, religious or health reasons. Fasting may take many different forms. Prolonged restriction of food and fluid is harmful to health and performance, and it is often automatically assumed that intermittent fasting will lead to decrements in exercise performance. Athletes who choose to fast during training or competitions may therefore be at a disadvantage. The available evidence does not entirely support this view, but there is little or no information on the effects on elite athletes competing in challenging environments. Prolonged periods of training in the fasted state may not allow optimum adaptation of muscles and other tissues. Further research on a wide range of athletes with special nutrition needs is urgently required. In events where performance might be affected, other strategies to eliminate or minimise any effects must be sought.

  1. Module Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MODULES IN LIFE TEST CHAMBER (LEFT SIDE) 68 MODULE TRANSMIT TEMP CA1 54.8°C CB1 65.3°C CC1 70.5°C CD1 75.2°C CE1 68.5°C CA2 72.1°C CB2 ...NO. PA (Contractor) PA (MELTS) DRV (Contractor) DRV (MELTS) CA1 058 +11.0 VOLTS +10.3 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 3.64 VOLTS CB1 085 +11.0 VOLTS +10.13...CE1 032 +11.0 VOLTS + 7.02 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 4.23 VOLTS CA2 065 +11.0 VOLTS +11.03 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 7.53 VOLTS CB2 057 +11.0 VOLTS + 9.49

  2. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  3. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...... students how to include marginalized young people and practitioners in the education of future social workers and social educators....

  4. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...... students how to include marginalized young people and practitioners in the education of future social workers and social educators....

  5. HIGH POWER FAST KICKER SYSTEM FOR SNS BEAM EXTRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; MI,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LOCKEY,R.; PAI,C.; TUOZZOLO,J.; NEHRING,T.; WARBURTON,D.

    2002-06-30

    A Blumlein topology based high peak power, high repetition rate, and low beam impedance fast extraction kicker system for ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The large magnet window size, large deflecting angle, low beam impedance termination and fast deflecting field rise time demand a very strong pulsed power source to drive the SNS extraction fast kicker magnet. This system consists of fourteen high voltage modulators and fourteen lumped kicker magnet sections. All modulators will be located in a service building outside the beam tunnel, which is a revised design requirement adopted in the mid 2000. The high current pulses generated by the high power modulators will be delivered through high voltage pulsed transmission cables to each kicker magnet sections. The designed output capacity of this system, is in multiple GVA. Its first article modulator has been constructed and is being tested. In this paper, we present the system overview, project status and the advantages of this new conceptual design.

  6. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  7. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  8. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  9. Fast track concept in the European fusion programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, Harald [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Recently an expert meeting regarding a possible acceleration of the fusion programme with a view to energy production ('fast track') was held on the initiative of the EU Research Council. In the course of the discussions about the fast track programme, it has turned out that successful extraction of reactor grade heat and tritium from the blanket modules is essential in the ITER operation. In parallel with ITER, material development using a high intensity neutron source is essential to establish a database for licensing. The operation of a reactor combining DEMO and PROTO generations into a single step could be around 2030. (author)

  10. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  11. Beyond Fast Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Susan

    2010-07-08

    Since the seminal 1957 studies of word learning by Roger Brown, most experimental studies of lexical acquisition have concerned fast mapping: the process through which a new lexical entry is established, and through which representations of the linguistic context of a newly heard word interact with representations of its nonlinguistic context to fix an initial partial meaning. Here I focus on the subsequent extended process through which the adult meaning is approximated. Two factors lead to an extended learning process; the size of the hypothesis space and the need, sometimes, for the creation of new semantic primitives. Sometimes lexical learning requires conceptual change. I sketch a learning mechanism through which this can be achieved. A case study of learning the meanings of verbal numerals illustrates the argument.

  12. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  13. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  14. The design and test of VME Control/Fanout module of Muon Counter Electronics System of BESⅢ%BESⅢ Muon鉴别器电子学系统的VME控制/扇出插件的设计和测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程泽浩; 梁昊; 虞孝麒; 周永钊

    2008-01-01

    本文介绍了BESⅢMuon鉴别器读出电子学系统的VME控制/扇出插件的设计,其中包括插件的功能和结构,插件上FPGA逻辑的设计等.插件在制作和调试完成后,进行了相关功能和稳定性的测试.

  15. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  16. A Fast π/4-DQPSK Demodulation Arithmetic and Realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-yong; ZHONG Hong-sheng; WANG Jun-mei

    2004-01-01

    The modulated signals of π /4-DQPSK can be demodulated with the differenced method,and the technology has been used in the communication. The traditional demodulated method needs a lot of calculation. In this paper, a new method based on fast arithmetic digital demodulation of DQPSK is presented. The new method only uses the sign of the modulated signal instead of digital signal through the A/D in the traditional method. With the new method, the system has higher speed, and can save some hardware in the FPGA. An experiment of the new method with the DQPSK is given in this paper.

  17. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  18. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTORa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-10-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the Dα spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion Dα spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  19. Sox17 regulates liver lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Gensollen, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Bourges, Christophe; Escalière, Bertrand; Du, Xin; Xia, Yu; Imbert, Jean; Beutler, Bruce; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/- mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting.

  20. Sox17 regulates liver lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rommelaere

    Full Text Available Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/- mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting.

  1. Asprosin, a Fasting-Induced Glucogenic Protein Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romere, Chase; Duerrschmid, Clemens; Bournat, Juan; Constable, Petra; Jain, Mahim; Xia, Fan; Saha, Pradip K; Del Solar, Maria; Zhu, Bokai; York, Brian; Sarkar, Poonam; Rendon, David A; Gaber, M Waleed; LeMaire, Scott A; Coselli, Joseph S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Sutton, V Reid; Butte, Nancy F; Moore, David D; Chopra, Atul R

    2016-04-21

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin. Asprosin is secreted by white adipose, circulates at nanomolar levels, and is recruited to the liver, where it activates the G protein-cAMP-PKA pathway, resulting in rapid glucose release into the circulation. Humans and mice with insulin resistance show pathologically elevated plasma asprosin, and its loss of function via immunologic or genetic means has a profound glucose- and insulin-lowering effect secondary to reduced hepatic glucose release. Asprosin represents a glucogenic protein hormone, and therapeutically targeting it may be beneficial in type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Responder fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  3. Fast dual tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  4. Fast dual tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA - Campus Universitario da Federacao, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects bad data which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model. In this paper, the author derives basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  5. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  6. Fast Flooding over Manhattan

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

  7. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences.In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors.Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  8. Fast feedback in classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmett, K.M.; Klaassen, K.; Eijkelhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 Aust. Sci. Teach. J. 28–34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to b

  9. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  10. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  11. Glycemic management during Jain fasts

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Julka; Alok Sachan; Sarita Bajaj; Rakesh Sahay; Rajeev Chawla; Navneet Agrawal; Banshi Saboo; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Baruah, Manash P.; Girish Parmar; Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the various fasts observed by adherents of the Jain religion. It attempts to classify them according to their suitability for people with diabetes and suggests appropriate regime and dose modification for those observing these fasts. The review is an endeavor to encourage rational and evidence-based management in this field of diabetology.

  12. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to D

  13. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  14. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained…

  15. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  16. Introduction to Reactor Statics Modules, RS-1. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Milton C.

    The nine Reactor Statics Modules are designed to introduce students to the use of numerical methods and digital computers for calculation of neutron flux distributions in space and energy which are needed to calculate criticality, power distribution, and fuel burn-up for both slow neutron and fast neutron fission reactors. The diffusion…

  17. On associating Fast Radio Bursts with afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Vedantham, H K; Mooley, K; Frail, D; Hallinan, G; Kulkarni, S R

    2016-01-01

    A radio source that faded over 6 days, with a redshift $z\\approx0.5$ host, has been identified by Keane et al. (2016) as the transient afterglow to a Fast Radio Burst (FRB 150418). We report follow-up radio and optical observations of the afterglow candidate, and find a source that is consistent with an active galactic nucleus (AGN). If the afterglow-candidate is nonetheless a prototypical FRB afterglow, existing surveys limit the fraction of FRBs that produce afterglows to 0.25 for modulation-index $m=\\Delta S/\\bar{S}\\geq0.7$, and 0.07 for $m\\geq1$, at 95\\% confidence. Afterglow associations with the barrage of bursts expected from future FRB surveys must satisfy constraints on the afterglow rate set by state of the art slow-transient surveys.

  18. Acropolis: A Fast Protoyping Robotic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zalzal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Acropolis is an open source middleware robotic framework for fast software prototyping and reuse of program codes. It is made up of a core software and a collection of several extension modules called plugins. Each plugin encapsulates a specific functionality needed for robotic applications. To design a robot behavior, a circuit of the involved plugins is built with a graphical user interface. A high degree of decoupling between components and a graph-based representation allow the user to build complex robot behaviors with minimal need for code writing. In addition, the Acropolis core is hardware platform independent. Well-known design patterns and layered software architecture are its key features. Through the description of three applications, we illustrate some of its usability.

  19. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Luke McCormack, M.; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1–2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5–2 years and represented 62–87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%–81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  20. ITER fast plant system controller prototype based on ATCA platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, B., E-mail: bruno@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Batista, A.; Neto, A.; Santos, B.; Duarte, A.; Valcarcel, D.; Alves, D.; Correia, M.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, P.F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, J.M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    The ITER fast plan system controllers (FPSC) are based on embedded technologies. The FPSCs [1] will be devoted to data acquisition tasks (sampling rates >1 kSPS) and control purposes in closed-control loops whose cycle times are below 1 ms. Fast controllers will be dedicated industrial controllers with the ability to supervise other fast and/or slow controllers and interface to actuators, sensors and high performance networks. This contribution presents an FPSC prototype, specialized for data acquisition, based on the ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture) standard. This prototyping activity contributes to the ITER Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) effort of standardization, specifically regarding fast controller characteristics. For the prototype, IPFN has developed a new family of ATCA modules targeting ITER requirements. This family of modules comprises an AMC (Advanced Mezzanine Card) carrier/data hub/timing hub, compliant with the upcoming ATCA extensions for Physics, and a multi-channel galvanically isolated PnP digitizer, designed for serviceability. The design and test of a peer-to-peer communications layer for the implementation of a reflective memory over PCI Express and the design and test of an IEEE-1588 transport layer over an high performance serial link were also performed. In this contribution, a complete description of the solution is presented as well as the integration of the controller into the standard CODAC environment. The most relevant test results will be addressed, focusing in the benefits and limitations of the applied technologies.

  1. Fast and slow effects of medial olivocochlear efferent activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medial olivocochlear (MOC pathway modulates basilar membrane motion and auditory nerve activity on both a fast (10-100 ms and a slow (10-100 s time scale in guinea pigs. The slow MOC modulation of cochlear activity is postulated to aide in protection against acoustic trauma. However in humans, the existence and functional roles of slow MOC effects remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By employing contralateral noise at moderate to high levels (68 and 83 dB SPL as an MOC reflex elicitor, and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs as a non-invasive probe of the cochlea, we demonstrated MOC modulation of human cochlear output both on a fast and a slow time scale, analogous to the fast and slow MOC efferent effects observed on basilar membrane vibration and auditory nerve activity in guinea pigs. The magnitude of slow effects was minimal compared with that of fast effects. Consistent with basilar membrane and auditory nerve activity data, SOAE level was reduced by both fast and slow MOC effects, whereas SOAE frequency was elevated by fast and reduced by slow MOC effects. The magnitudes of fast and slow effects on SOAE level were positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contralateral noise up to 83 dB SPL elicited minimal yet significant changes in both SOAE level and frequency on a slow time scale, consistent with a high threshold or small magnitude of slow MOC effects in humans.

  2. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  3. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  4. Glucagon receptors: effect of exercise and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Carole

    2005-06-01

    One paradox of hormonal regulation during exercise is the maintenance of glucose homeostasis after endurance training despite a lower increase in plasma glucagon. One explanation could be that liver sensitivity to glucagon is increased by endurance training. Glucagon exerts its effect through a 62 KDa glycoprotein receptor, member of the G protein-coupled receptor. To determine whether changes with exercise in glucagon sensitivity occurred at the level of the glucagon receptor (GR), binding characteristics of hepatic glucagon receptors were ascertained in rat purified plasma membranes. Saturation kinetics indicated no difference in the dissociation constant or affinity of glucagon receptor, but a significantly higher glucagon receptor binding density in liver in endurance trained compared to untrained animals. Along with endurance training, it appears that fasting also changes GR binding characteristics. In animals fasting 24 hrs, a significant increase in glucagon receptor density was also reported. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, there is no doubt that the liver can adapt to physiological stress through modulation of GR binding characteristics to enhance the hepatic glucose production responsiveness to glucagon.

  5. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    or fs/ð range respectively, where fs is the switching frequency of the converter. For some applications this will require unacceptable high switching frequency to achieve enough control loop bandwidth for the desired dynamic performance. With self oscillating modulators, the open loop bandwidth is equal...... to fs which makes this type of modulators an excellent choice for a wide range of applications. Self oscillating PWM modulators can be made in a number of ways, either as voltage or current mode modulators, and the self oscillating behavior can be achieved either by using hysteresis control......High precision control of the output voltage or current of a switch mode converter with fast response is required for a number of applications. Dependent on the type of application, the desired precision and transient response can be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with standard PWM...

  6. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains.

  7. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  8. FastID: Extremely Fast Forensic DNA Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    FastID: Extremely Fast Forensic DNA Comparisons Darrell O. Ricke, PhD Bioengineering Systems & Technologies Massachusetts Institute of...Technology Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA USA Darrell.Ricke@ll.mit.edu Abstract—Rapid analysis of DNA forensic samples can have a critical impact on...time sensitive investigations. Analysis of forensic DNA samples by massively parallel sequencing is creating the next gold standard for DNA

  9. fast,rapid,quick和speedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德兴

    2003-01-01

    fast,rapid,quick和speedy这组词都有“快的”意思,但将它们放在一起略作议论,仍有必要,并不乏词趣。 fast和rapid虽然有时可以互换使用,彼此仍有差异,fast在作形容词的时候,强调物体进行相对运动。如a fast horse,a fast train.除形容词外,fast可做副词。如:

  10. Molecular imaging with fast beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, O. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics; Zajfman, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics; Kella, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics; Vager, Z. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics; Watson, R.L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Horvat, V. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Three dimensional imaging of the molecular dissociation process in fast collisions is presented with two different setups. One setup is for a fast molecular beam from an accelerator colliding with a gas target. The second setup is for a molecular target system and the collision process is with highly ionized fast beam. The advantages of each system are discussed. The three dimensional imaging of the molecular fragments is done with special detectors that combine the CCD image with time of flight data. An example of the molecular beam measurement is given for an 11 MeV B{sub 2} beam. (orig.).

  11. Module design for EC pilot projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donon, J.; Anguet, J.; Desombre, A.; Coureau, P.

    1982-10-01

    The solar cell module designed for use at the Nice Airport and Mont Bouquet, France pilot projects has a 73 W output and is made up of 72 100-mm diameter single-crystal silicon cells. A cost reduction is obtained through the use of a laminated encapsulation structure which incorporates low iron content glass, polyvinyl butyral, and a Tedlar/aluminum sheet backing. These technologies have been selected to yield high reliability in severe environmental conditions and to permit fast on-site installation. It is hoped that this solar cell module can be used in tropical climates.

  12. Robust laser frequency stabilization by serrodyne modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlhaas, Ralf; Bernon, Simon; Bertoldi, Andrea; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We report the frequency stabilization of a distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber laser on an optical cavity by serrodyne frequency shifting. A correction bandwidth of 2.4 MHz and a dynamic range of 220 MHz are achieved, which leads to a strong robustness against large disturbances up to high frequencies. Serrodyne frequency shifting allows to use an electro-optical modulator as a fast external transducer with a correction range which exceeds the one of acousto-optical modulators by at least one order of magnitude.

  13. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  14. FastStats: Sinus Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . FastStats Homepage Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Arthritis ... Statistics Tables for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table A-2 [PDF - 219 KB] Physician ...

  15. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  16. Fast generation of dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistborg, P; Bøgh, Marie; Claesson, M H

    2009-01-01

    we have developed fast DC protocol by comparing two different fast DC protocols with SDDC. DC were evaluated by FACS analysis, and the optimal profile was considered: CD14(low), CD80(high), CD83(high), CD86(high), CCR7(high), HLA class I and II(high). FACS profiles were used as the selection criteria...... together with yield and morphology. Two fast DC protocols fulfilled these criteria and were selected for functional analysis. Our results demonstrate that DC generated within 5days or 48h are comparable with SDDC both phenotypically and functionally. However, we found that 48h DC were more susceptible than...... SDDC to the IL-10 inducing stimulus of TLR ligands (R848 and LPS). Thus to determine the clinical relevance of fast DC protocols in cancer settings, small phase I trials should be conducted monitoring regulatory T cells carefully....

  17. Still on the Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    North China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region’s development is progressing comparatively fast,though there is still a long way to go until it catches up with advances being made in other parts of China, officials said.

  18. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  19. Allegheny County Fast Food Establishments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny County Health Department has generated this list of fast food restaurants by exporting all chain restaurants without an alcohol permit from the...

  20. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  1. Automated measurement of fast mitochondrial transport in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle E; Liu, Xin-An; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that fast mitochondrial transport in neurons is disrupted in multiple neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, a major constraint in identifying novel therapeutics based on mitochondrial transport is that the large-scale analysis of fast transport is time consuming. Here we describe methodologies for the automated analysis of fast mitochondrial transport from data acquired using a robotic microscope. We focused on addressing questions of measurement precision, speed, reliably, workflow ease, statistical processing, and presentation. We used optical flow and particle tracking algorithms, implemented in ImageJ, to measure mitochondrial movement in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. With it, we are able to generate complete descriptions of movement profiles in an automated fashion of hundreds of thousands of mitochondria with a processing time of approximately one hour. We describe the calibration of the parameters of the tracking algorithms and demonstrate that they are capable of measuring the fast transport of a single mitochondrion. We then show that the methods are capable of reliably measuring the inhibition of fast mitochondria transport induced by the disruption of microtubules with the drug nocodazole in both hippocampal and cortical neurons. This work lays the foundation for future large-scale screens designed to identify compounds that modulate mitochondrial motility.

  2. Automated Measurement of Fast Mitochondrial Transport in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle eMiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition that fast mitochondrial transport in neurons is disrupted in multiple neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. However a major constraint in identifying novel therapeutics based on mitochondrial transport is that the large-scale analysis of fast transport is time consuming. Here we describe methodologies for the automated analysis of fast mitochondrial transport from data acquired using a robotic microscope. We focused on addressing questions of measurement precision, speed, reliably, workflow ease, statistical processing and presentation. We used optical flow and particle tracking algorithms, implemented in ImageJ, to measure mitochondrial movement in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. With it, we are able to generate complete descriptions of movement profiles in an automated fashion of hundred of thousands of mitochondria with a processing time of approximately one hour. We describe the calibration of the parameters of the tracking algorithms and demonstrate that they are capable of measuring the fast transport of a single mitochondrion. We then show that the methods are capable of reliably measuring the inhibition of fast mitochondria transport induced by the disruption of microtubules with the drug nocodazole in both hippocampal and cortical neurons. This work lays the foundation for future large-scale screens designed to identify compounds that modulate mitochondrial motility.

  3. Fast magnetoacoustic wave trains of sausage symmetry in cylindrical waveguides of the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Shestov, S; Kuzin, S

    2015-01-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves guided along the magnetic field by plasma non-uniformities, in particular coronal loops, fibrils and plumes, are known to be highly dispersive, which leads to the formation of quasi-periodic wave trains excited by a broadband impulsive driver, e.g. a solar flare. We investigated effects of cylindrical geometry on the fast sausage wave train formation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of fast magnetoacoustic perturbations of a sausage symmetry, propagating from a localised impulsive source along a field-aligned plasma cylinder with a smooth radial profile of the fast speed. The wave trains are found to have pronounced period modulation, with the longer instant period seen in the beginning of the wave train. The wave trains have also a pronounced amplitude modulation. Wavelet spectra of the wave trains have characteristic tadpole features, with the broadband large-amplitude heads preceding low-amplitude quasi-monochromatic tails. The mean period of the wave train...

  4. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  5. On generalized extending modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called generalized extending if for any submodule N of M, there is a direct summand K of M such that N≤K and K/N is singular. Any extending module and any singular module are generalized extending. Any homomorphic image of a generalized extending module is generalized extending. Any direct sum of a singular (uniform) module and a semi-simple module is generalized extending. A ring R is a right Co-H-ring ifand only ifall right R modules are generalized extending modules.

  6. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  7. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  8. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  9. A Walsh Function Module Users' Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) with Walsh functions offers new opportunities to simulate many challenging problems in mathematical physics. The approach was developed to better simulate hypersonic flows with shocks on unstructured grids. It is unique in that integrals and derivatives are computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions without the need for divided differences. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that radically changes an algorithm for solving PDEs. A FORTRAN module for supporting Walsh function simulations is documented. A FORTRAN code is also documented with options for solving time-dependent problems: an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the usage of the Walsh function module including such features as operator overloading, Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions, and a Fast Walsh reciprocal.

  10. The preliminary results of fast neutron flux measurements in the DULB laboratory at Baksan

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    One of the main sources of a background in underground physics experiments (such as the investigation of solar neutrino flux, neutrino oscillations, neutrinoless double beta decay, and the search for annual and daily Cold Dark Matter particle flux modulation) are fast neutrons originating from the surrounding rocks. The measurements of fast neutron flux in the new DULB Laboratory situated at a depth of 4900 m w.e. in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory have been performed. The relative neutron sh...

  11. Spatial Light Modulator for wavefront correction

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Akondi; Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Prasad, B Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    We present a liquid crystal method of correcting the phase of an aberrated wavefront using a spatial light modulator. A simple and efficient lab model has been demonstrated for wavefront correction. The crux of a wavefront correcting system in an adaptive optics system lies in the speed and the image quality that can be achieved. The speeds and the accuracy of wavefront representation using Zernike polynomials have been presented using a very fast method of computation.

  12. Theory of Fast Electron Transport for Fast Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A P L; Davies, J R; Gremillet, L; Honrubia, J J; Johzaki, T; Kingham, R J; Sherlock, M; Solodov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion is a variant of inertial fusion in which DT fuel is first compressed to high density and then ignited by a relativistic electron beam generated by a fast (< 20 ps) ultra-intense laser pulse, which is usually brought in to the dense plasma via the inclusion of a re-entrant cone. The transport of this beam from the cone apex into the dense fuel is a critical part of this scheme, as it can strongly influence the overall energetics. Here we review progress in the theory and numerical simulation of fast electron transport in the context of Fast Ignition. Important aspects of the basic plasma physics, descriptions of the numerical methods used, a review of ignition-scale simulations, and a survey of schemes for controlling the propagation of fast electrons are included. Considerable progress has taken place in this area, but the development of a robust, high-gain FI `point design' is still an ongoing challenge.

  13. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  14. High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, W.; Boccardi, A.; Zamantzas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance

  15. Neutronic calculation of fast reactors by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltashev, D. A.; Stakhanova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article considers neutronic calculation of a fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code. The main goal of development and application of integrated codes is a nuclear power plant safety justification. EUCLID/V1 is integrated code designed for coupled neutronics, thermomechanical and thermohydraulic fast reactor calculations under normal and abnormal operating conditions. EUCLID/V1 code is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The integrated code has a modular structure and consists of three main modules: thermohydraulic module HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1, thermomechanical module BERKUT and neutronic module DN3D. In addition, the integrated code includes databases with fuel, coolant and structural materials properties. Neutronic module DN3D provides full-scale simulation of neutronic processes in fast reactors. Heat sources distribution, control rods movement, reactivity level changes and other processes can be simulated. Neutron transport equation in multigroup diffusion approximation is solved. This paper contains some calculations implemented as a part of EUCLID/V1 code validation. A fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 transient simulation (fuel assembly floating, decompression of passive feedback system channel) and cross-validation with MCU-FR code results are presented in this paper. The calculations demonstrate EUCLID/V1 code application for BREST-OD-300 simulating and safety justification.

  16. A Comparison of Fast Marching, Fast Sweeping and Fast Iterative Methods for the Solution of the Eikonal Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capozzoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We compare the computational performance of the Fast Marching Method, the Fast Sweeping Method and the Fast Iterative Method to determine a numerical solution to the eikonal equation. We point out how the Fast Iterative Method outperforms the other two thanks to its parallel processing capabilities.

  17. Module utilization committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  18. MI 4010 Thermoelectric Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report covers the design justification, physical specification and characterization of the MI 4010 module . The purpose of the contract was to...demonstrate the capability to fabricate pieceparts, process into assemblies, and test thermoelectric modules equivalent to the module used in the Hand...Held Thermal Viewer. The completed modules were also subjected to limited demonstration tests of reliability and useful life.

  19. Preoperative fasting time in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adeel, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of preoperative fasting is to prevent regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration while limiting potential problems of thirst, dehydration and hypoglycaemia. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) has suggested guidelines for preoperative fasting for children undergoing elective surgery. We did a postal survey to determine the current practice regarding these guidelines amongst all specialist registrars in anaesthesia in Ireland. A questionnaire was sent to all specialist registrars in anaesthesia (90 in total), 60 (67%) were returned and analysed. The question asked was how long children should be kept fasting before elective surgery. The results of our survey suggest that most of the respondents are following the ASA guidelines for clear fluids and solids however there were differing opinion regarding the duration of fasting for formula milk and breast milk. In conclusion, we would recommend greater awareness and collaboration between anaesthetists, nurses and surgeons to ensure that fasting instructions are consistent with the ASA guidelines and that patient and their parents understand these directives as well.

  20. SEASONAL MODULE DYNAMICS IN SARGASSUM SUBREPANDUM (FUCALES, PHAEOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Breeman, And Anneke M

    2008-04-01

    Module dynamics of the fucoid alga SARGASSUM SUBREPANDUM (Forssk.) C. Agardh was studied in the southern Red Sea. Seasonal variation in thallus density and size was determined, and the initiation, growth, reproduction, and shedding of modules (primary laterals) were ascertained, using a tagging approach. Possible effects of different size-related parameters on module initiation, growth, reproduction, and shedding were analyzed in the context of contradicting results for other macroalgae, in comparison with terrestrial plants. Thallus density varied little; most of the seasonal variation occurred at the modular level. A restricted period of new module formation early in the cooler season was followed by fast growth and reproduction. Massive shedding of modules occurred toward the end of the cooler season leading to strongly reduced biomass in summer. There was some evidence that high module numbers inhibited new module formation and enhanced the maximum module elongation rate (fastest-growing module per thallus). On the other hand, elongation rates generally decreased, and apical tissue losses increased with increasing module length. This response was observed over a wide size range, suggesting grazing losses. There was no evidence of suppressed growth in small modules due to intraspecific competition. Elongation rates remained unaffected by reproductive status, indicating that there was no direct trade-off between growth and reproduction. Module survivorship was independent of module number and size, but fertile modules were more persistent than vegetative ones. We conclude that module dynamics are determined by seasonal changes in the environment, size-dependent processes, and interactions among the modules. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  2. HI intensity mapping with FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Bigot-Sazy, Marie-Anne; Battye, Richard A; Browne, Ian W A; Chen, Tianyue; Dickinson, Clive; Harper, Stuart; Maffei, Bruno; Olivari, Lucas C; Wilkinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST $19$-beam L-band receivers ($1.05$--$1.45$ GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters ($w_{0},w_{a}$) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is $6000\\,{\\rm deg}^2$. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift ($0.95$--$1.35$ GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than $2~\\sigma$ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  3. Innovative use of power integrated modules for DC power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørndrup Nielsen, Rasmus; Elkiær, Alexander; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    In this article several innovative ways of utilizing Power Integrated Modules (PIM) as switching device in a DC power supply are presented. PIM have advantages in compactness of design, cost and fast prototype due to easier PCB layout. A PIM converter topology is chosen and designed resulting...... in an experimental setup. Results from the setup are presented showing the feasibility of using a PIM module as almost all power semiconductors in a DC power supply....

  4. Nonlinear evolution of the modulational instability of whistler waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the modulational instability of whistler waves coupled to fast magnetosonic waves is investigated in two spatial dimensions by numerical simulations. The long time evolution of the modulational instability shows a quasirecurrent behavior with a slow spreading...... of the energy, originally confined to the lowest wave numbers, to larger and larger wave numbers resulting in an apparently chaotic or random wave field. © 1990 The American Physical Society...

  5. Control of Decoherence and Relaxation by Frequency Modulation of Heat Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate in a very general fashion, considerable slowing down of decoherence and relaxation by fast frequency modulation of the system heat bath coupling. The slowing occurs as the decoherence rates are now determined by the spectral components of bath correlations which are shifted due to fast modulation. We present several examples including the slowing down of the heating of a trapped ion, where the system - bath interaction is not necessarily Markovian.

  6. Printtimalliston suunnitteluprosessi fast fashion -yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Inna

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni käsittelee suunnitteluprosessia fast fashion -yrityksessä. Oman prosessini kautta selvitän, millaisia vaikutuksia fast fashion -ilmiöllä on tekstiilisuunnittelijan työhön ja, mitä suunnittelijalta vaaditaan nopeatempoisessa suunnitteluprosessissa. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimii Seppälä. Toiminnallinen osuus koostuu viiden t-paitaprintin suunnittelusta Seppälä Womanin elokuun 2016 mallistoon Seppälän suunnittelijoiden Katja Tuhkasaaren ja Elina Savolaisen ohjauksessa. Teo...

  7. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T logT . For mode......We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  8. Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    materials does produce early set times and high strengths . It is re- ported, also, that the addition of 1.5 percent Ca"l 2 to clinkers contain- Ing more than...produce high strength concrete. They include addition of iron asggregate, physical treatment of clinker , ’ addition of highly reactive SiO2 or Ca0, and...Fast-Fix. The Western Co. has developed materials designated as Fast-Fix with rapid setting and high strength properties. Published data show i .1

  9. Fast Food Problems and Responsibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jing

    2015-01-01

    <正>People are living in a world that acquires almost everyone to chase efficiency and speed.The real inner quality of daily life is not approximately taken into people’s consideration.Fast food is one of the common model reactions of this rapid developing society.Recently,it’s getting popular that people would rather have fast food to save time for other extra work.Problems and public concern are following that kind of life condition and someone or something should be put blame on for this.

  10. A NOVEL FAST MOVING OBJECT CONTOUR TRACKING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Guocheng; Yang Hao; Wu Zhenyang

    2009-01-01

    If a somewhat fast moving object exists in a complicated tracking environment, snake's nodes may fall into the inaccurate local minima. We propose a mean shift snake algorithm to solve this problem. However, if the object goes beyond the limits of mean shift snake module operation in successive sequences, mean shift snake's nodes may also fall into the local minima in their moving to the new object position. This paper presents a motion compensation strategy by using particle filter; therefore a new Particle Filter Mean Shift Snake (PFMSS) algorithm is proposed which combines particle filter with mean shift snake to fulfill the estimation of the fast moving object contour. Firstly, the fast moving object is tracked by particle filter to create a coarse position which is used to initialize the mean shift algorithm. Secondly, the whole relevant motion information is used to compensate the snake's node positions. Finally, snake algorithm is used to extract the exact object contour and the useful information of the object is fed back. Some real world sequences are tested and the results show that the novel tracking method have a good performance with high accuracy in solving the fast moving problems in cluttered background.

  11. Fast Drug Release Using Rotational Motion of Magnetic Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Takimoto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated drug release has been achieved by means of the fast rotation of magnetic gel beads. The magnetic gel bead consists of sodium alginate crosslinked by calcium chlorides, which contains barium ferrite of ferrimagnetic particles, and ketoprofen as a drug. The bead underwent rotational motion in response to rotational magnetic fields. In the case of bead without rotation, the amount of drug release into a phosphate buffer solution obeyed non-Fickian diffusion. The spontaneous drug release reached a saturation value of 0.90 mg at 25 minutes, which corresponds to 92% of the perfect release. The drug release was accelerated with increasing the rotation speed. The shortest time achieving the perfect release was approximately 3 minutes, which corresponds to 1/8 of the case without rotation. Simultaneous with the fast release, the bead collapsed probably due to the strong water flow surrounding the bead. The beads with high elasticity were hard to collapse and the fast release was not observed. Hence, the fast release of ketoprofen is triggered by the collapse of beads. Photographs of the collapse of beads, time profiles of the drug release, and a pulsatile release modulated by magnetic fields were presented.

  12. Fast data processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Sankar, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Fast Data Processing with Spark - Second Edition is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too big to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  13. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Serra, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is impor

  14. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Rodney J. [Research Applications Corporation, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  15. Micro mixer with fast diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyake, Ryo; Miyake, R.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new concept for micro-mixing of liquid is introduced and feasibility is demonstrated. The mixer allows fast mixing of small amounts of two liquids and it is application to micro-liquid handling systems [1]. The mixer has a channel for the liquid, an inlet port for the reagent, and a 2.2 mm × 2 mm

  16. Fast, Massively Parallel Data Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Robert A.; Blevins, Donald W.; Davis, ED

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fast, massively parallel data processor contains 8x16 array of processing elements with efficient interconnection scheme and options for flexible local control. Processing elements communicate with each other on "X" interconnection grid with external memory via high-capacity input/output bus. This approach to conditional operation nearly doubles speed of various arithmetic operations.

  17. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

  18. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. The thereby achieved possible speed-up in detector simulation of up to a factor 100 makes subsequent digitization and reconstruction the dominant contributions to the Monte Carlo (MC) production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitization and reconstruction are inside the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modeling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitization modules, which achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector track...

  19. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. With the ISF, the simulation execution speed could be increased up to a factor 100, which makes subsequent digitisation and reconstruction processing the dominant contributions to the MC production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitisation and reconstruction are within the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modelling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitisation modules, and achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector tra...

  20. Interplay between fast ions and turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, R. J.; Zarzoso, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Strugarek, A.; Abiteboul, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph; Girardo, J.-B.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Thomine, O.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for the impact of energetic particles (EPs) on turbulence is given in this paper. Firstly, the excitation of electrostatic instabilities in linear gyrokinetic simulations performed with the global GYSELA code by introducing distribution functions typical of fast ions in tokamak plasmas is presented. The obtained mode is unambiguously characterized as an EGAM, i.e. a geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excited by EPs. The influence of EGAMs on turbulence and associated transport is then analyzed by implementing a source adapted to the inclusion of fast particle populations in non-linear simulations. This source successfully excites EGAMs in the presence of turbulence, which leads to a drastic reduction of the turbulent transport. However, this reduction is only transient; it is followed by an increase of the turbulent activity, characterized by a complex interaction between the EGAMs and the turbulence. In the subsequent steady-state regime, turbulent transport appears to be modulated at the EGAM frequency.

  1. Does dragonfly's abdomen flexion help with fast turning maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Dragonflies are able to achieve fast turning maneuvers during take-off flights. Both asymmetric wing flapping and abdomen flexion have been observed during the fast turning. It's widely thought that the asymmetric wing beats are responsible of producing the aerodynamic moment needed for the body rotation. However, the dynamic effect of the abdomen flexion is not clear yet. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational approach is used to study the underlying dynamic effect of dragonfly abdomen flexion. It's found that dragonfly abdomen tended to bend towards the same side as the body reorienting to. Quantitative analysis have shown that during take-off turning maneuver the abdomen flexion can modulate the arm of force by changing the position of the center of mass relative to the thorax. As a result, roll and yaw moments produced by the wing flapping can be enhanced. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.

  2. Simultaneous slow and fast light involving Faraday effect

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the linear transmission of linearly polarized light pulses in an ensemble of cold atoms submitted to a static magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation. The carrier frequency of the incident pulses coincides with a resonance frequency of the atoms in absence of magnetic field and the light transmitted in presence of magnetic field is examined in the polarizations parallel and perpendicular to that of the incident pulses. We give explicit analytic expressions of the transfer functions of the system for both polarizations. We demonstrate that slow light can be observed in a polarization whereas fast light is simultaneously observed in the perpendicular polarization. Moreover we point out that, due to the polarization post-selection, the system is not necessarily minimum-phase-shift. Slow light can then be obtained in situations where an irrelevant application of the Kramers-Kronig relations leads to expect fast light. When the incident light is step-modulated, we finally sho...

  3. Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eisden, J.; Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Varanasi, M.; Mohammed, E. M.; Young, I. A.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2007-02-01

    We have studied the modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity multiple quantum well (MQW) electroabsorption modulator integrated into the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) [1]. Small signal analysis of rate equations for loss modulation shows an intrinsic high-frequency roll-off slope of 1/ω instead of 1/ω2 in directly modulated laser diodes, and consequently bandwidths in excess of 40 GHz are obtainable with this configuration [2]. Possible limiting factors to high bandwidth were examined by fitting high frequency characteristics to a multi-pole transfer function, and include RC delay and carrier drift-limited time of flight (TOF) in the modulator intrinsic region. Intracavity loss modulation shows a strong (+20dB) relaxation oscillation resonant feature in both theory and experiment. As demonstrated, this feature can be significantly reduced in amplitude using parasitics. We have extracted relative contribution of TOF and parasitic capacitance by varying the modulator intrinsic region width (105 and 210 nm) and lateral size of the modulator (18 and 12μm). It was estimated that the small size modulator exhibits parasitics f -3dB at 8GHz. To estimate the carrier TOF contribution to bandwidth limits, low temperature growth of a 210 nm absorber i-region and MQW was employed to reduce photogenerated carrier lifetime. Bandwidth limitations were found to be mostly due to diode and metallization capacitances, in addition to one pole set by the optoelectronic resonance frequency. We have used p-modulation doping of the gain region to increase the relaxation frequency. Pronounced active Q-switching was observed, yielding pulse widths of 40 ps at a 4 GHz rate.

  4. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends...

  5. Efficient and Fast Implementation of Embedded Time-of-Flight Ranging System Based on FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Weiguo; Lyu, Congyi; Jiang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Time-of-flight cameras perceive depth information about the surrounding environment with an amplitude-modulated near-infrared light source. The distance between the sensor and objects is calculated through measuring the time the light needs to travel. To be used in fast and embedded applications...

  6. Fast, daily linac verification for segmented IMRT using electronic portal imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, S.C.; Bolt, R.A.; Dirkx, M.L.; Visser, A.G.; Heijmen, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) requires dedicated quality assurance (QA). Recently, we have published a method for fast (1-2 min) and accurate linac quality control for dynamic multileaf collimation, using a portal imaging device. This method is in routine use for daily leaf motion

  7. Fast, daily linac verification for segmented IMRT using electronic portal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Sandra C.; Bolt, Rene A.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Visser, Andries G.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) requires dedicated quality assurance (QA). Recently, we have published a method for fast (1-2 min) and accurate linac quality control for dynamic multileaf collimation, using a portal imaging device. This method is in routine use for daily leaf motion

  8. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  9. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  10. Fast and scalable image auto-tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Frejaville, Camille; Lepetit, Vincent

    Inside Invenio, the web-based integrated system for handling digital libraries developed at CERN, there is a media module, enabling users to upload photos and videos. Especially in CDS, the Invenio instance used at CERN, people use this digital library to upload pictures of official events that took place at CERN. However, so far, there was no way of tagging what’s inside these photos. This project is meant to solve the problem of tagging persons in a photo in an easy and fast way. First, by implementing a complete tagging interface that allows the user to square parts of the photo, resize them, move them and give them a name. Second, by running face detection so that squares already appear on faces and the user just has to fill the title field. Finally, by running a face recognition system that learned from previous tags created by users. In this report, we will show how we implemented the tagging interface, how we improved the existing face detector to make it more efficient, which face detection methods ...

  11. Fast notification architecture for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hahk

    2013-03-01

    In an emergency, since it is vital to transmit the message to the users immediately after analysing the data to prevent disaster, this article presents the deployment of a fast notification architecture for a wireless sensor network. The sensor nodes of the proposed architecture can monitor an emergency situation periodically and transmit the sensing data, immediately to the sink node. We decide on the grade of fire situation according to the decision rule using the sensing values of temperature, CO, smoke density and temperature increasing rate. On the other hand, to estimate the grade of air pollution, the sensing data, such as dust, formaldehyde, NO2, CO2, is applied to the given knowledge model. Since the sink node in the architecture has a ZigBee interface, it can transmit the alert messages in real time according to analysed results received from the host server to the terminals equipped with a SIM card-type ZigBee module. Also, the host server notifies the situation to the registered users who have cellular phone through short message service server of the cellular network. Thus, the proposed architecture can adapt an emergency situation dynamically compared to the conventional architecture using video processing. In the testbed, after generating air pollution and fire data, the terminal receives the message in less than 3 s. In the test results, this system can also be applied to buildings and public areas where many people gather together, to prevent unexpected disasters in urban settings.

  12. Fast Solar Polarimeter: First Light Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnappa, N.; Feller, A.; Iglesia, F. A.; Solanki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurements of magnetic fields on the Sun are crucial to understand various physical processes that take place in the solar atmosphere such as solar eruptions, coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, etc. The Fast Solar Polarimeter (FSP) is a new instrument that is being developed to probe magnetic fields on the Sun. One of the main goals of this polarimeter is to carry out high precision spectropolarimetric observations with spatial resolution close to the telescope diffraction limit. The polarimeter is based on pnCCD technology with split frame transfer and simultaneous multi-channel readout, resulting in frame rate upto 1 kHz. The FSP prototype instrument uses a small format pnCCD of 264x264 pixels which has been developed by PNSensor and by the semiconductor lab of the Max Planck Society. The polarization modulator is based on two ferro-electric liquid crystals (FLCs) interlaced between two static retarders. The first solar observations have been carried out with this prototype during May-June, 2013 at German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Here we present the instrument performance assessments and the first results on the magnetic field measurements. Further, we briefly discuss about the next phase of FSP which will be a dual beam system with 1k x 1k CCDs.

  13. The Fast-Casual Conundrum: Fast-Casual Restaurant Entrées Are Higher in Calories than Fast Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Davidson, Charis R; Hales, Sarah B; Crimarco, Anthony E; Dahl, Alicia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-10-01

    Frequently eating fast food has been associated with consuming a diet high in calories, and there is a public perception that fast-casual restaurants (eg, Chipotle) are healthier than traditional fast food (eg, McDonald's). However, research has not examined whether fast-food entrées and fast-casual entrées differ in calorie content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the caloric content of entrées at fast-food restaurants differed from that found at fast-casual restaurants. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Calorie information from 2014 for lunch and dinner entrées for fast-food and fast-casual restaurants was downloaded from the MenuStat database. Mean calories per entrée between fast-food restaurants and fast-casual restaurants and the proportion of restaurant entrées that fell into different calorie ranges were assessed. A t test was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was no difference between the average calories per entrée at fast-food and fast-casual restaurants. To examine the difference in distribution of entrées in different calorie ranges between fast-food and fast-casual restaurants, χ(2) tests were used. There were 34 fast-food and 28 fast-casual restaurants included in the analysis (n=3,193 entrées). Fast-casual entrées had significantly more calories per entrée (760±301 kcal) than fast-food entrées (561±268; Pfast-casual entrées compared with fast-food entrées exceeded the median of 640 kcal per entrée (Pfast-casual entrées contained more calories than fast-food entrées in the study sample, future studies should compare actual purchasing patterns from these restaurants to determine whether the energy content or nutrient density of full meals (ie, entrées with sides and drinks) differs between fast-casual restaurants and fast-food restaurants. Calorie-conscious consumers should consider the calorie content of entrée items before purchase, regardless of restaurant type. Copyright

  14. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  15. CDC 7600 module slice

    CERN Multimedia

    Each module contained 8 circuit cards for a total of about 300-500 uncovered transistors packaged with face plates so the Freon plates wouldn't touch the circuits. (cooling plates that surrounded each module).

  16. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiWei; WU QuanShui

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc (A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  17. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc(A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  18. One magnet module of the full-aperture kicker

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Nine such modules, in a single vacuum tank, form the complete kicker. Ferrite rings (not visible), in conjunction with the capacitance between the plates, create the electrical equivalent of a transmission line. A fast 40 kV pulse is applied, and field rise times of 70-80 nanoseconds can be obtained.

  19. Firing regulation of fast-spiking interneurons by autaptic inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.

  20. A fast image encryption algorithm based on chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; Zhu, Congxu

    2016-09-01

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a new two-dimensional Sine ICMIC modulation map (2D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) model, and its chaotic performance is analyzed by means of phase diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum and complexity. It shows that this map has good ergodicity, hyperchaotic behavior, large maximum Lyapunov exponent and high complexity. Based on this map, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, the confusion and diffusion processes are combined for one stage. Chaotic shift transform (CST) is proposed to efficiently change the image pixel positions, and the row and column substitutions are applied to scramble the pixel values simultaneously. The simulation and analysis results show that this algorithm has high security, low time complexity, and the abilities of resisting statistical analysis, differential, brute-force, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  1. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  2. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  3. On Matlis dualizing modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Enochs

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider rings admitting a Matlis dualizing module E. We argue that if R admits two such dualizing modules, then a module is reflexive with respect to one if and only if it is reflexive with respect to the other. Using this fact we argue that the number (whether finite or infinite of distinct dualizing modules equals the number of distinct invertible (R,R-bimodules. We show by example that this number can be greater than one.

  4. Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Kulkova, Irina V.; Malureanu, Radu;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate plasmonic modulators with a gain material to be implemented as ultra-compact and ultra-fast active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. We analyze metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers as ultra-compact plasmonic modulators. The...

  5. A Ray-tracing Method to Analyzing Modulated Planar Fabry-Perot Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, Mikkel Dahl; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for fast modelling of Fabry-Perot antennas with modulated partially reflective surfaces (PRS) using ray-tracing is proposed. For validation of the method, a configuration is introduced which consists of a cavity with a modulated PRS, fed internally by a magnetic dipole. The PRS con...

  6. A Ray-tracing Method to Analyzing Modulated Planar Fabry-Perot Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, Mikkel Dahl; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for fast modelling of Fabry-Perot antennas with modulated partially reflective surfaces (PRS) using ray-tracing is proposed. For validation of the method, a configuration is introduced which consists of a cavity with a modulated PRS, fed internally by a magnetic dipole. The PRS...

  7. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  8. Relatively Endocoherent Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Mao

    2007-01-01

    Let MR be a right R-module over a ring R with S= End(MR)We study the coherence of the left S-module sM relative to a torsion theory for the category of right R-modules.Various results are developed, many extending known results.

  9. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  10. MI 6040 Thermoelectric Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report covers the design justification, physical specification and characterization of the MI 6040 module . The purpose of the thermoelectric... modules is the cooling of infrared detector arrays to temperature of 170K or colder. The completed modules were also subjected to limited demonstration tests of reliability and useful life.

  11. Gigahertz optical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesz, R P; Biazzo, M R

    1969-07-01

    Light pulses from a mode-locked He-Ne laser have been modulated by a LiTaO(3) electrooptic crystal mounted on a thin film substrate. The crystal was driven by pulses from a GaAs Gunn effect diode. Amplitude modulation of 20% has been achieved at 2 GHz for a single pass through the modulator.

  12. Generalised Multi-sequence Shift-Register Synthesis using Module Minimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde

    2013-01-01

    We show how to solve a generalised version of the Multi-sequence Linear Feedback Shift-Register (MLFSR) problem using minimisation of free modules over F[x]. We show how two existing algorithms for minimising such modules run particularly fast on these instances. Furthermore, we show how one...... of them can be made even faster for our use. With our modelling of the problem, classical algebraic results tremendously simplify arguing about the algorithms. For the non-generalised MLFSR, these algorithms are as fast as what is currently known. We then use our generalised MLFSR to give a new fast...

  13. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  15. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  16. ATLAS FTK: The Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    T, Iizawa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept to enable the software-based High Level Trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector in approximately 100 microseconds with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms. It allows a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by the High Level Trigger algorithms, allowing highly improved trigger performance for the important signatures such as b-jets. In this paper, the architecture and the hardware development status of FT...

  17. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  18. Fast Moreau envelope computation I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucet, Yves

    2006-11-01

    The present article summarizes the state of the art algorithms to compute the discrete Moreau envelope, and presents a new linear-time algorithm, named NEP for NonExpansive Proximal mapping. Numerical comparisons between the NEP and two existing algorithms: The Linear-time Legendre Transform (LLT) and the Parabolic Envelope (PE) algorithms are performed. Worst-case time complexity, convergence results, and examples are included. The fast Moreau envelope algorithms first factor the Moreau envelope as several one-dimensional transforms and then reduce the brute force quadratic worst-case time complexity to linear time by using either the equivalence with Fast Legendre Transform algorithms, the computation of a lower envelope of parabolas, or, in the convex case, the non expansiveness of the proximal mapping.

  19. Chemo-tolerance and sensitization by short-term fasting: The autophagy connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Van Niekerk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that fasting prior to chemotherapy may be an effective strategy to protect patients against the adverse effects of chemo-toxicity. Fasting may also sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. It is further suggested that fasting may similarly augment the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The primary mechanism mediating these beneficial effects is thought to relate to the fact that fasting results in a decrease of circulating growth factors. In turn, such fasting cues would prompt normal cells to redirect energy towards cell maintenance and repair processes, rather than growth and proliferation. However, fasting is also known to up-regulate autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that is up-regulated in response to various cell stressors. Here we review a number of mechanisms by which fasting-induced autophagy may have an impact on both chemo-tolerance and chemo-sensitization. Firstly, fasting may exert a protective effect by mobilizing autophagic components prior to chemo-induction. In turn, the autophagic apparatus can be repurposed for removing cellular components damaged by chemotherapy. Autophagy also plays a key role in epitope expression as well as in modulating inflammation. Chemo-sensitization resulting from fasting may in fact be an effect of enhanced immune surveillance as a result of better autophagy-dependent epitope processing. Finally, autophagy is involved in host defense against viruses, and aspects of the autophagic process are also often targets for viral subversion. Consequently, altering autophagic flux by fasting may alter viral infectivity. These observations suggest that fasting-induced autophagy may have an impact on therapeutic efficacy in various oncological contexts.

  20. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Le logiciel FastCart

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    FastCart est un logiciel destiné à l'enseignement de la géographie. Il permet aux élèves de créer leurs propres documents d'études: histogrammes, cartes en hachures, cartes de classification de l'espace. Sa rapidité d'exécution et sa facilité d'utilisation en font un outil adapté aux exigences des enseignants.

  2. The FastGas detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Dalgliesh, R.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; McPhail, D.J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    The development and testing of the FastGas neutron detector is described. Based on a Gas Microstrip Chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing {sup 3}He tubes for specular reflectometry, currently in use on the ISIS reflectometer instruments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  3. Instrumentation of the fast detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A.; Malgeri, L.; Casella, C.; Pohl, M.; Deiters, K.; Dick, P.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Fiber Active Scintillator Target (FAST) is an imaging particle detector intended for high precision muon lifetime measurement. This measurement will lead to a determination of the Fermi coupling constant (GF) with an uncertainty of 1 ppm, one order of magnitude better than the current world average. This contribution presents a description of the detector instrumentation and the first results, which have validated the design of the system.

  4. Programmable fast data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bianchi, G.; Zoni, L.

    The goal of this work is to investigate the possibility to install on modern radiotelescopes a fast and programmable backend instead of several backends, each dedicated to a single acquisition task. Such an approach could lower the costs and make available a more compact and flexible back end. Exploiting the state-of-the-art of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) and innovative architectures, a programmable system might be conceived.

  5. Fast regularized image interpolation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongchen Liu; Yong Feng; Linjing Li

    2007-01-01

    The regularized image interpolation method is widely used based on the vector interpolation model in which down-sampling matrix has very large dimension and needs large storage consumption and higher computation complexity. In this paper, a fast algorithm for image interpolation based on the tensor product of matrices is presented, which transforms the vector interpolation model to matrix form. The proposed algorithm can extremely reduce the storage requirement and time consumption. The simulation results verify their validity.

  6. ATLAS Fast Physics Monitoring: TADA

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, Markus; The ATLAS collaboration; Sabato, Gabriele; Kamioka, Shusei; Nairz, Armin Michael; Moyse, Edward; Gumpert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment at the LHC is recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data. TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities nearly final analysis level object calibrations. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration that gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combined performance groups...

  7. ATLAS Fast Physics Monitoring: TADA

    CERN Document Server

    Sabato, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data.TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0, the CERN Data Center. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities nearly final analysis level object calibrations. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration that gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combin...

  8. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  9. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition.

  10. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  11. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  12. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  13. MWIR optical modulation using structured silicon membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakar, A.; Park, S. J.; Zerova, V.; Kaplan, A.; Canham, Leigh T.; Lewis, K. L.; Burgess, C. D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used near IR pump - Mid IR probe techniques to compare the feasibility and potential of using free standing nano-porous and micro-porous silicon (ordered hole arrays) as optically controlled modulators operating in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) covering the range from 3.3-5 μm. We employed 800 nm pumping pulses with the duration of 60 fs to reduce 4 μm light transmission modulation to about 25% and 45% for both silicon structures, respectively, at excitation powers of 50mW (4 mJ=cm2). However, at 5 μm both structures shown similar contrast of about 60%. The time resolved measurements revealed a fast sub-picosecond rise time for both structures suggesting that the optically generated carriers are a dominant mechanism for the modulation. However, the measurements demonstrated a significant difference in the relaxation dynamics. The nanoporous silicon demonstrated recovery as fast as a few tens of picoseconds and a possibility to effectively work in the GHz regime, while hole arrays shown almost three orders of magnitude slower response making it suitable for the MHz regime.

  14. The digital backend of FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinying; Zhang, Xia; Duan, Ran; li, di; Hao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The receiver system is an important part of FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope) and plays a key role in determining the performance of the telescope.This research covers three major aspects: establishment of system synchronization and timestamps, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data transmission and analysis, and the rear receiver monitoring system. We intend to combine the use of GPS and a frequency standard instrument with network access to Unix timestamps to form actual timestamps. The data are stored with timestamps that contain integer and fractional seconds to be precise and headers, which are primarily intended to distinguish the data from each other.The data analysis procedures includes converting the timestamp information to real-time information, and merging the 8 channels’ data conversion results into frequency and energy data using corresponding conversion formulae. We must develop tailored monitoring software for the FAST receiver to customize the data format and perform data transmission. Signals on the front-end and back-end of the receiver can be monitored and controlled by adjusting the parameters on the software to increase the flexibility of the receiver.Most operations are performed on FPGA board, which can be shown from the figure, including the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and pulse per second (1PPS) and Unix timestamp access operations.When analog data arrive, we initialize two ADCs at a sampling rate of 3Gsps, following by 8-channel FFT parallel processing.In collaboration with the Institute of Automation, we have developed a custom FPGA board which we call "FDB"("FAST Digital Backend"). The board is integrated with two Virtex-6 and one Virtex-5 high-speed Xilinx chips. The main function of the two Virtex-6 devices is to run the FFT and PFB programs, whereas the main function of Virtex-5 is configuration of the board.This research is indispensable for realizing the

  15. High-speed FSK Modulator Using Switched-capacitor Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-fast frequency shift-keying (FSK) modulation technique based on switched capacitor resonators is presented. It is demonstrated that switching a reactive component such as a capacitor, in a high-Q resonator with proper switching signal can preserve the stored energy and shift it to a different frequency. Switching boundaries are found by continuity of electric charge and magnetic flux. It is shown that if switching time is synchronous with zero crossing of the voltage signal across the switched capacitor, impulsive components can be avoided and continuity of electric charge is satisfied without energy dissipation. We use this property to realize a fast binary frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulator with only a single RF source. In this technique, the modulation rate is independent of the resonator bandwidth and can be as high as the lower carrier frequency. Experimental results are presented to validate the simulations.

  16. Fast Food Paradox: Freedom and Cultural Imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea

    2012-01-01

    Fast food is often regarded as a form of cultural imperialism. Fast-food products, originating in the U.S.A., are considered by the critics of this phenomenon as responsible for eroding the interest in local food traditions and affecting their continuity. Based on the results of some researches realized at international and national level, the paper highlights the main issues underlying young people preference for fast-food. The consumption of fast food is associated with the idea of independ...

  17. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  18. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-24

    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  19. Kinematic principles of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. I. Spatial organization of fast phase velocity axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial organization of fast phase velocity vectors of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was studied in rhesus monkeys during yaw rotations about an earth-horizontal axis that changed continuously the orientation of the head relative to gravity ("barbecue spit" rotation). In addition to a velocity component parallel to the rotation axis, fast phases also exhibited a velocity component that invariably was oriented along the momentary direction of gravity. As the head rotated through supine and prone positions, torsional components of fast phase velocity axes became prominent. Similarly, as the head rotated through left and right ear-down positions, fast phase velocity axes exhibited prominent vertical components. The larger the speed of head rotation the greater the magnitude of this fast phase component, which was collinear with gravity. The main sequence properties of VOR fast phases were independent of head position. However, peak amplitude as well as peak velocity of fast phases were both modulated as a function of head orientation, exhibiting a minimum in prone position. The results suggest that the fast phases of vestibulo-ocular reflexes not only redirect gaze and reposition the eye in the direction of head motion but also reorient the eye with respect to earth-vertical when the head moves relative to gravity. As further elaborated in the companion paper, the underlying mechanism could be described as a dynamic, gravity-dependent modulation of the coordinates of ocular rotations relative to the head.

  20. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  1. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  2. A New Fast Approximate Hilbert Transform with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulnasir Hossen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new and fast approximate Hilbert transform based on subband decomposition is presented. This new algorithm is called the subband (SB-Hilbert transform.  The reduction in complexity is obtained for narrow-band signal applications by considering only the band of most energy.  Different properties of the SB-Hilbert transform are discussed with simulation examples.  The new algorithm is compared with the full band Hilbert transform in terms of complexity and accuracy. The aliasing errors taking place in the algorithm are found by applying the Hilbert transform to the inverse FFT (time signal of the aliasing errors of the SB-FFT of the input signal.  Different examples are given to find the analytic signal using SB-Hilbert transform with a varying number of subbands.  Applications of the new algorithm are given in single-sideband amplitude modulation and in demodulating frequency-modulated signals in communication systems.Key Words:  Fast Algorithms, Hilbert Transform, Analytic Signal Processing.

  3. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  4. Isochoric implosions for fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2006-06-05

    Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. In conventional ICF implosions, however, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] may be employed to implode a dense, quasi-uniform fuel assembly with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. A scheme for realizing these specialized implosions in a practical ICF target is also described.

  5. Fast, efficient lossless data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents lossless data compression and decompression algorithms which can be easily implemented in software. The algorithms can be partitioned into their fundamental parts which can be implemented at various stages within a data acquisition system. This allows for efficient integration of these functions into systems at the stage where they are most applicable. The algorithms were coded in Forth to run on a Silicon Composers Single Board Computer (SBC) using the Harris RTX2000 Forth processor. The algorithms require very few system resources and operate very fast. The performance of the algorithms with the RTX enables real time data compression and decompression to be implemented for a wide range of applications.

  6. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  7. Fast-acting valve actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A fast-acting valve actuator utilizes a spring driven pneumatically loaded piston to drive a valve gate. Rapid exhaust of pressurized gas from the pneumatically loaded side of the piston facilitates an extremely rapid piston stroke. A flexible selector diaphragm opens and closes an exhaust port in response to pressure differentials created by energizing and de-energizing a solenoid which controls the pneumatic input to the actuator as well as selectively providing a venting action to one side of the selector diaphragm.

  8. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Fast structured illumination microscopy using rolling shutter cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Lu-Walther, Hui-Wen; Förster, Ronny; Jost, Aurélie; Kielhorn, Martin; Zhou, Jianying; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    Spatial light modulators (SLM) update in a synchronous manner, whereas the data readout process in fast structured illumination systems is usually done using a rolling shutter camera with asynchronous readout. In structured illumination microscopy (SIM), this leads to synchronization problems causing a speed limit for fast acquisition. In this paper we present a configuration to overcome this limit by exploiting the extremely fast SLM display and dividing it into several segments along the direction of the rolling shutter of the sCMOS camera and displaying multiple SLM frames per camera acquisition. The sCMOS runs in continuous rolling shutter mode and the SLM keeps the readout-line always inside a dark region presenting different SIM patterns before and after the readout/start-exposure line. Using this approach, we reached a raw frame rate of 714 frames per second (fps) resulting in a two-beam SIM acquisition rate of 79 fps with a region of interest (ROI) of 16.5  ×  16.5 μm2.

  10. Fast semivariogram computation using FPGA architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadapati, Yamuna; Shirvaikar, Mukul; Dong, Xuanliang

    2015-02-01

    The semivariogram is a statistical measure of the spatial distribution of data and is based on Markov Random Fields (MRFs). Semivariogram analysis is a computationally intensive algorithm that has typically seen applications in the geosciences and remote sensing areas. Recently, applications in the area of medical imaging have been investigated, resulting in the need for efficient real time implementation of the algorithm. The semivariogram is a plot of semivariances for different lag distances between pixels. A semi-variance, γ(h), is defined as the half of the expected squared differences of pixel values between any two data locations with a lag distance of h. Due to the need to examine each pair of pixels in the image or sub-image being processed, the base algorithm complexity for an image window with n pixels is O(n2). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are an attractive solution for such demanding applications due to their parallel processing capability. FPGAs also tend to operate at relatively modest clock rates measured in a few hundreds of megahertz, but they can perform tens of thousands of calculations per clock cycle while operating in the low range of power. This paper presents a technique for the fast computation of the semivariogram using two custom FPGA architectures. The design consists of several modules dedicated to the constituent computational tasks. A modular architecture approach is chosen to allow for replication of processing units. This allows for high throughput due to concurrent processing of pixel pairs. The current implementation is focused on isotropic semivariogram computations only. Anisotropic semivariogram implementation is anticipated to be an extension of the current architecture, ostensibly based on refinements to the current modules. The algorithm is benchmarked using VHDL on a Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T development Kit, which utilizes the Virtex5 FPGA. Medical image data from MRI scans are utilized for the experiments

  11. Concept and canons of fasting in Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shripathi Adiga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, manoeuvres mankind to head a healthy life in order to pursue four-fold bliss. With a view to combat physical and mental annoyances, classics have explicated two-fold therapeutic modalities; langhana/depletion and brihmana/nourishing. Upavasa /fasting is one among ten depletion therapies explained. It is envisioned at all three levels of Ayurvedic therapies- rational/objectively planned, psychological, and spiritual. Fasting is reckoned to be refraining from all forms of food intake for a given period, under supervision of a qualified physician. Acharya Charaka advocates fasting in diseases of milder intensity, in those due to aama (metabolic toxin, after purificatory procedures. Fasting person should avoid beautifying oneself, day sleep, sexual acts, and feasting prior and ulterior to fasting. Fasting is contraindicated in very young, elderly, emaciated, pregnant lady, and shortly after strenuous exercise. The principle avers that fasting kindles metabolic/digestive fire which, in absence of food, brings about paachana of vitiated doshas, thereby riposting health. Sound fasting ensues proper elimination of excretory wastes, clear belch, sweat, and taste for food. Benefits of fasting include lucidity of sense organs, lightness of body and mind, control of diseases, and enthusiasm. Yoga Shastra describes fasting with respect to three levels of food: physical, impressions, and associations and a means to unite three bodies: astral, physical, and causal. Ayurveda thus advocates fasting depending upon the dosha, agni, vaya, kala, and bala of the individual, as a preventive as well as therapeutic modality.

  12. Fast wavefront optimization for focusing through biological tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blochet, Baptiste; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissues is rapidly dominated by multiple scattering: ballistic light is exponentially attenuated, which limits the penetration depth of conventional microscopy techniques. For coherent light, the recombination of the different scattered paths creates a complex interference: speckle. Recently, different wavefront shaping techniques have been developed to coherently manipulate the speckle. It opens the possibility to focus light through complex media and ultimately to image in them, provided however that the medium can be considered as stationary. We have studied the possibility to focus in and through time-varying biological tissues. Their intrinsic temporal dynamics creates a fast decorrelation of the speckle pattern. Therefore, focusing through biological tissues requires fast wavefront shaping devices, sensors and algorithms. We have investigated the use of a MEMS-based spatial light modulator (SLM) and a fast photodetector, combined with FPGA electronics to implement a closed-loop optimization. Our optimization process is just limited by the temporal dynamics of the SLM (200µs) and the computation time (45µs), thus corresponding to a rate of 4 kHz. To our knowledge, it's the fastest closed loop optimization using phase modulators. We have studied the focusing through colloidal solutions of TiO2 particles in glycerol, allowing tunable temporal stability, and scattering properties similar to biological tissues. We have shown that our set-up fulfills the required characteristics (speed, enhancement) to focus through biological tissues. We are currently investigating the focusing through acute rat brain slices and the memory effect in dynamic scattering media.

  13. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W.; Sonmez, Gul T

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n ...

  14. New Modularization Framework for the FAST Wind Turbine CAE Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.

    2013-01-01

    NREL has recently put considerable effort into improving the overall modularity of its FAST wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool to (1) improve the ability to read, implement, and maintain source code; (2) increase module sharing and shared code development across the wind community; (3) improve numerical performance and robustness; and (4) greatly enhance flexibility and expandability to enable further developments of functionality without the need to recode established modules. The new FAST modularization framework supports module-independent inputs, outputs, states, and parameters; states in continuous-time, discrete-time, and in constraint form; loose and tight coupling; independent time and spatial discretizations; time marching, operating-point determination, and linearization; data encapsulation; dynamic allocation; and save/retrieve capability. This paper explains the features of the new FAST modularization framework, as well as the concepts and mathematical background needed to understand and apply it correctly. It is envisioned that the new modularization framework will transform FAST into a powerful, robust, and flexible wind turbine modeling tool with a large number of developers and a range of modeling fidelities across the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, servo-dynamic, and structural-dynamic components.

  15. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  16. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...Coherent states are the most classical of quantum states. Generation and detection of their polarization and phase modulations are well...stream cipher maps message bits onto random blocks of bits producing modulated states that are intrinsically noisy. The ciphertext so generated is

  17. GRIFFIN's Fast-Timing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaizola, Bruno; Griffin Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is the new β-decay spectrometer facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Consists of an array of 16 large-volume HPGe clover detectors with an unparalleled efficiency of 19% at 1.33 MeV. Its strongest advantage is the versatility of the ancillary detectors that can be coupled to the main array to tag on β particles, neutrons or precisely measure conversion electron spectra. An ancillary array of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors for γ-rays and a fast plastic scintillator for β-particles has been optimized for fast-timing experiments with GRIFFIN. The 51 mm x 51 mm cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) crystals are coupled to Hamamatsu R2083 photomultipliers. Timing resolutions as good as FWHM 200 ps and time-walks below +/- 30 ps have been obtained for individual crystals using analog electronics. There is also an ongoing project to develop an active BGO shield for the LaBr3(Ce) crystals. The LaBr3(Ce) array commissioning experiment to measure the 145,146Cs decay to 145,146Ba will test its capabilities over a wide range of lifetimes. Preliminary results on the lifetimes of some of the low-laying states will be presented.

  18. RCD+: Fast loop modeling server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo

    2016-07-08

    Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  20. Universality in fast quantum quenches

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    We expand on the investigation of the universal scaling properties in the early time behaviour of fast but smooth quantum quenches in a general $d$-dimensional conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator of dimension $\\Delta$ with a time-dependent coupling. The quench consists of changing the coupling from an initial constant value $\\lambda_1$ by an amount of the order of $\\delta \\lambda$ to some other final value $\\lambda_2$, over a time scale $\\delta t$. In the fast quench limit where $\\delta t$ is smaller than all other length scales in the problem, $ \\delta t \\ll \\lambda_1^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\lambda_2^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\delta \\lambda^{1/(\\Delta-d)}$, the energy (density) injected into the system scales as $\\delta{\\cal E} \\sim (\\delta \\lambda)^2 (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$. Similarly, the change in the expectation value of the quenched operator at times earlier than the endpoint of the quench scales as $\\langle {\\cal O}_\\Delta\\rangle \\sim \\delta \\lambda\\, (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$, with further logarithmic...

  1. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    -compatible materials, both passive and active plasmonic waveguide components are important. Among other proposed plasmonic waveguides and modulators, the structures where the dielectric core is sandwiched between metal plates have been shown as one of the most compact and efficient layout. Because of the tight mode...... confinement that can be achieved in metal-insulator-metal structures, they provide a base for extremely fast and efficient ultracompact plasmonic devices, including modulators, photodetectors, lasers and amplifiers. The main result of this thesis is a systematic study of various designs of plasmonic......Metal-dielectric interfaces can support the waves known as surface plasmon polaritons, which are tightly coupled to the interface and allow manipulation of light at the nanoscale. Plasmonics as a subject which studies such waves enables the merge between two major technologies: nanometer...

  2. RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

  3. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  4. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  5. THERMOELECTRIC POWER MODULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MODULES (ELECTRONICS), GENERATORS, THERMOELECTRICITY, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), TABLES(DATA), HEAT, ALUMINUM, WEIGHT, SEMICONDUCTORS, SILICON, GERMANIUM, MEASUREMENT, VOLTAGE, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, POWER, TEMPERATURE, TIME.

  6. Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptin's role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.

  7. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  8. Random sub-Nyquist polarimetric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Ramos, A

    2016-02-20

    We show that it is possible to measure polarization with a polarimeter that gets rid of the seeing while still measuring at a frequency well below that of the seeing. We study a standard polarimeter made of two retarders and a beam splitter. The retarders are modulated at ∼500  Hz, a frequency comparable to that of the variations of the refraction index in the earth's atmosphere, which is usually termed as seeing in astronomical observations. However, we assume that the camera is slow so that our measurements are time integrations of these modulated signals. In order to recover the time variation of the seeing and obtain the Stokes parameters we use the theory of compressed sensing to solve the demodulation by imposing a sparsity constraint on the Fourier coefficients of the seeing. We demonstrate the feasibility of this sub-Nyquist polarimeter using numerical simulations, both in the case without noise and with noise. We show that a sensible modulation scheme is obtained by randomly changing the fast axis of the modulators or their retardances in specific ways. We finally demonstrate that the value of the Stokes parameters can be recovered with great precision at almost maximum efficiency although it slightly degrades when the signal-to-noise ratio of the observations increases, a consequence of the multiplexing under the presence of photon noise.

  9. A Tool for Fast Development of Modular and Hierarchic Neural Network-based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Reinaldo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents PyramidNet tool as a fast and easy way to develop Modular and Hierarchic Neural Network-based Systems. This tool facilitates the fast emergence of autonomous behaviors in agents because it uses a hierarchic and modular control methodology of heterogeneous learning modules: the pyramid. Using the graphical resources of PyramidNet the user is able to specify a behavior system even having little understanding of artificial neural networks. Experimental tests have shown that a very significant speedup is attained in the development of modular and hierarchic neural network-based systems by using this tool.

  10. Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only...... three clock cycles from the time the A/D converter result is read by the control algorithm to the time the duty cycle command is updated. A typical POL converter has been built and the experimental results show that the transient response of the converter is very fast. The output voltage overshoot...

  11. Observaton of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides shifted longitudinally by half of modulation period. According to the symmetry analysis, such a coupler supports two electromagnetic modes with exactly matched slow or fast...... group velocities but different phase velocities for frequencies close to the edge of the photonic band. We confirm the predicted properties of the modes by directly extracting their dispersion and group velocities from the near-field measurements using specialized Bloch-wave spectral analysis method....

  12. THE OPTIMISTIC ADAPTIVE MODULATION TECHNIQUE FOR FUTURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugalur Muthusamy Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Future Wireless Communication requires 100 Mbits/s Data rate, streaming audio/video, asymmetric access/multiple access, Adaptive modulation and coding, dynamic packet arrangement, smart antenna adaptation andIPv6 facility to enhance error free communication. Various digital modulation techniques have been taken for simulation and bit error rate is calculated in both MC-CDMA System and OFDMA system. The continuous phase modulation techniques ensures large bandwidth, high data rate and error free data communication. The convolution coder is mainly chosen to facilitate the Wireless communication. The output from serial to parallel converter is inhibited to various Adaptive modulation schemes like M-ary PSK, M-ary QAM, M-ary CPM and M-ary MHPM systems. The modulated output is then fed to MC-CDMA System and OFDMA system in fast fading Rayleigh environment. The BER performance and SNR ratio are observed for both the MC-CDMA system and OFDMA System inhibiting various modulation schemes and the corresponding simulation result are plotted using Mat lab and Simulink software. The outputs of various modulation schemes are plotted for both OFDMA and MC-CDMA systems. It is found that MHPM is found to be the optimistic Adaptive modulation technique for future Wireless communication.

  13. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL(3) + L(4)), while existing algorithms take O(nL(4)). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier-Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA.

  14. First results on fast baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bvisentin@cea.fr; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  15. First results on fast baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J. P.

    2006-07-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120 °C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the “fast baking” (145 °C/3 h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to: time reduction and possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  16. Fast Reference-Based MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Weizman, Lior; Ben-Basaht, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In some cases, a previously acquired image can serve as a reference image, that may exhibit similarity to the image being acquired. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient. In this paper we present a general framework for utilizing reference images for fast MRI. We take into account that the reference image may exhibit low similarity with the acquired image and develop an iterative weighted approach for reconstruction, which tunes the weights according to the degree of similarity. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the method in three different clinical MRI scenarios: SNR improvement in high resolution brain MRI, utilizing similarity between T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)...

  17. Fast-Growing Vestibular Schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcioni, Maurizio; Taibah, Abdelkader; De Donato, Giuseppe; Piccirillo, Enrico; Russo, Alessandra; Sanna, Mario

    2000-01-01

    A case of a Jehovah's witness affected by an intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma with an extremely fast growth rate is presented. Nine months after presentation, the tumor reached 23 mm in the cerebellopontine angle. A partial removal through a retrosigmoid approach was planned. Because of the presence of a dominant high jugular bulb masquering the internal auditory canal, the intracanalicular portion of the tumor was left in place. The residual tumor grew 12 mm in 2 months. Even after a gross total removal through a middle cranial fossa approach, the tumor recurred, reaching the size of 30 mm in 17 months. A modified transcochlear approach was then performed, and the patient was free of disease at the last radiologic follow-up, 8 months after the surgery. We illustrate our strategy in treating this aggressive benign lesion with unusual behavior. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17171109

  18. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  19. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  20. Parabolic Dish Stirling Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washom, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and assembly of a commercially designed parabolic dish Stirling 25 kWe module is examined. The cost, expected performance, design uniquenesses, and future commercial potential of this module, which is regarded as the most technically advanced in the parabolic dish industry is discussed.

  1. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Modulation RF Radio Frequency SVM Space Vector Modulation VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator VSI Voltage Source Inverter xvi THIS PAGE...examining the literature, an NE566 voltage controlled oscillator ( VCO ) chip as seen in Figure 10 was used to design a circuit that produced the

  2. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  3. The Structure of Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕艮; 佟文廷

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce two concepts:projective radical and semi-reflexive radical of a module,and establish some elementary relations among subprojective,semi-reflexive and torsion-free modules Using these properties,ws give classifications of some rings.

  4. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  5. FastBit Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  6. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  7. Studies on the Mechanism of Fasting Hyperbilirubinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    bilirubin from the plasma (CBr) was reduced by 28 to 54% during fasting , accounting for the increase in Br. The ratio of the plasma bilirubin...turnover during fasting to that in base line state was 0.99 plus or minus 0.16 (mean plus or minus SD) for these five individuals, indicating that increased...plasma bilirubin turnover did not contribute to the rise in Br. In 5 additional subjects the mean change in carbon monoxide production with fasting

  8. Fast Computation on the Modern Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ARL-TR-7276 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Fast Computation on the Modern Battlefield by David L Doria, Jamie K...when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7276 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Fast ...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) April 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) NA 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fast

  9. Fast plunges into Kerr black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hadar, Shahar; Porfyriadis, Achilleas; Strominger, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges i...

  10. Fast Generation of Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two methods and provide C programs for generating discrete random variables with functions that are simple and fast, averaging ten times as fast as published methods and more than five times as fast as the fastest of those. We provide general procedures for implementing the two methods, as well as specific procedures for three of the most important discrete distributions: Poisson, binomial and hypergeometric.

  11. Ramadan fasting: Do we need more evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nematy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a billion of Muslims fast worldwide during Ramadan each year. Through this religious custom, fasting contributes to their health as well as their spiritual growth. However, available evidence regarding the health-benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many fast conceivably, and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate due to persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations of fasting and the consensus that should be taken into account to implements guided managing of various patient groups during Ramadan fasting among health care professionals. In this article, we summarized the results of initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition and clinically important outcomes of patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease, asthma and renal colic disease. Our studies have shed light on several outcomes in favor of Ramadan fasting, and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. In this review we aimed to present a piece of relevant evidence, clarify future scope and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  12. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter, that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  13. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. PMID:24440038

  14. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  15. Prevention and control system of hypokalemia in fast recovery after abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanzhen; Yan, Qiang; Huang, Yutao; Zhong, Yan; Shi, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Blood potassium levels were very important during perioperative management of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. According to various worldwide studies on the causes of hypokalemia and fast-track surgeries, prehospital hypokalemia was ignored. The aim of this study to construct a prevention and control system of hypokalemia through proper clinical pathways and investigate the effects in terms of fast postoperative recovery of patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. A total of 104 patients were randomized to an observation group or a control group. The prevention and control system of hypokalemia was constructed; it was composed of 3 major modules: blood potassium monitoring, etiologic intervention, and treatment of hypokalemia. In the observation group, blood was sampled at scheduled time points (the blood potassium monitoring module) and interventions involved the preadmission and pre- and postoperative periods (etiologic intervention module). In the control group, blood sampling was delayed until after admission (blood potassium monitoring module) and interventions were only performed during the pre- and postoperative periods (etiologic intervention module). In terms of blood potassium, indices regarding gastrointestinal motility and postoperative complications were compared. The severity of hypokalemia, postoperative defecation time, arrhythmia, fatigue syndrome, and urine retention differed statistically between the 2 groups (P control system of hypokalemia with the starting point being before admission was more effective and allows early prevention, detection, correction, surgery, and recovery of patients undergoing open abdominal surgeries and also could be used in other specialized nursing fields.

  16. FAST Modular Wind Turbine CAE Tool: Nonmatching Spatial and Temporal Meshes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jonkman, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose and examine numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. In particular, we examine algorithms for coupling modules where spatial grids are non- matching at interfaces and module solutions are time advanced with different time increments and different time integrators. Sharing of data between modules is accomplished with a predictor-corrector approach, which allows for either implicit or explicit time integration within each module. Algorithms are presented in a general framework, but are applied to simple problems that are representative of the systems found in a whole-turbine analysis. Numerical experiments are used to explore the stability, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. The algorithms described here will greatly increase the flexibility and efficiency of FAST.

  17. On Modules Whose Singular Subgenerated Modules Are Weakly Injective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Dhompongsa; J. Sanwong; S.Plubtieng; H.Tansee

    2001-01-01

    Rings over which every singular right module is injective (briefly,right SI-rings) were introduced and investigated by Goodearl. Weakly injective modules, as a generalization of injective modules, were introduced by Jain and modules are weakly injective, which we call SwI-rings. This concept is extended to SwI-modules, i.e., modules whose singular subgenerated modules are weakly injective. Several characterizations and properties of SwI-rings and SwI-modules are obtained which generalize some earlier known results on SI-rings and weakly semisimple rings.

  18. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  19. Essentially normal Hilbert modules and Khomology Ⅲ: Homogenous quotient modules of Hardy modules on the bidisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-yu GUO; Peng-hui WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the homogenous quotient modules of the Hardy module on the bidisk. The essential normality of the homogenous quotient modules is completely characterized. We also describe the essential spectrum for a general quotient module. The paper also considers K-homology invariant defined in the case of the homogenous quotient modules on the bidisk.

  20. Amplitude-Modulated Bursting: A Novel Class of Bursting Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Theodore; Kramer, Mark A.; Kaper, Tasso J.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the discovery of a novel class of bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting (AMB), in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics. We find that these rhythms are robust and exist on open parameter sets. We develop a new mathematical framework with broad applicability to detect, classify, and rigorously analyze AMB. Here we illustrate this framework in the context of AMB in a model of intracellular calcium dynamics. In the process, we discover a novel family of singularities, called toral folded singularities, which are the organizing centers for the amplitude modulation and exist generically in slow-fast systems with two or more slow variables.

  1. Research on Threshold Adjustment Algorithm in Adaptive Modulation and Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chen; CHEN Mei-ya; SU Li-jun; YANG Da-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) has gained a lot of attentions in the research of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). The idea is to adapt the transmission to the fast changing channel conditions by the use of different Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS). This paper presents an adaptive AMC algorithm and introduces a theoretical analysis model in order to to investigate its throughput and Frame Error Rate (FER). Subject to the given FER target, our numerical and link level simulation results both show that our algorithm outperforms other existing adaptive algorithms.

  2. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Yasumitsu; Shirai, Sadaharu.

    1989-09-29

    In the solar cell module of this invention, such junctions as CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} are contained as a photoelectromotive force part coexists with air in a closed space which consists of glass, metal parts and a bonding resin layer; the photoelectromotive force part is coated either with a fluorine resin or a silicone resin. The fluorine resin contains a fundamental skeleton of an alternative copolymer of fluoroolefin and a hydrocarbon-based vinyl monomer; the silicone resin has three types, i.e., addition-reacted, condensated or UV-curing type, and the released oxygen is sealed in the closed space. The resin layer which adheres the glass and the metal plate is a thermoplastic resin which is polyethylene modified by copolymerization of acid anhydride. By this, the reliability of the solar cell module was enhanced. 3 figs.

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. Analytic Hilbert modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaoman

    2003-01-01

    The seminal 1989 work of Douglas and Paulsen on the theory of analytic Hilbert modules precipitated a number of major research efforts. This in turn led to some intriguing and valuable results, particularly in the areas of operator theory and functional analysis. With the field now beginning to blossom, the time has come to collect those results under one cover. Written by two of the most active and often-cited researchers in the field, Analytic Hilbert Modules reports on the progress made by the authors and others, including the characteristic space theory, rigidity, the equivalence problem, the Arveson modules, extension theory, and reproducing Hilbert spaces on n-dimensional complex space.

  5. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  6. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail: lafoux@cea.fr; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.

    2002-05-21

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  7. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  8. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Hall, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  9. A Fast Channel Switching Method in EPON System for IPTV Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yaling; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    This paper presents a fast channel switching method in Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) system for IPTV service. Fast channel switching is one of the important features of successful IPTV systems. Users surely prefer IPTV systems with small channel switching time rather than a longer one. Thus a channel switching control module and a channel/permission list in EPON system’s ONU or OLT is designed. When EPON system receives channel switching message from IPTV end user, the channel switching control module will catch the message and search the channel list and permission list maintained in EPON system, then got the matching parameter of EPON for the new channel. The new channel’s data transmission will be enabled by directly updating the optical filter of the ONU that end user connected. By using this method in EPON system, it provides a solution for dealing with channel switching delays in IPTV service.

  10. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  11. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.; Hall, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  12. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. ATLAS Fast Tracker Simulation Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, Jahred; The ATLAS collaboration; Borodin, Mikhail; Chakraborty, Dhiman; García Navarro, José Enrique; Golubkov, Dmitry; Kama, Sami; Panitkin, Sergey; Smirnov, Yuri; Stewart, Graeme; Tompkins, Lauren; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Volpi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    To deal with Big Data flood from the ATLAS detector most events have to be rejected in the trigger system. the trigger rejection is complicated by the presence of a large number of minimum-bias events – the pileup. To limit pileup effects in the high luminosity environment of the LHC Run-2, ATLAS relies on full tracking provided by the Fast TracKer (FTK) implemented with custom electronics. The FTK data processing pipeline has to be simulated in preparation for LHC upgrades to support electronics design and develop trigger strategies at high luminosity. The simulation of the FTK - a highly parallelized system - has inherent performance bottlenecks on general-purpose CPUs. To take advantage of the Grid Computing power, the FTK simulation is integrated with Monte Carlo simulations at the Production System level above the ATLAS workload management system PanDA. We report on ATLAS experience with FTK simulations on the Grid and next steps for accommodating the growing requirements for resources during the LHC R...

  14. Fast and scalable inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2016-09-07

    Inequality joins, which is to join relations with inequality conditions, are used in various applications. Optimizing joins has been the subject of intensive research ranging from efficient join algorithms such as sort-merge join, to the use of efficient indices such as (Formula presented.)-tree, (Formula presented.)-tree and Bitmap. However, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are notably very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms based on sorted arrays and space-efficient bit-arrays. We further introduce a simple method to estimate the selectivity of inequality joins which is then used to optimize multiple predicate queries and multi-way joins. Moreover, we study an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef. By comparing our algorithms against well-known optimization techniques for inequality joins, we show our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  15. Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2007-04-04

    Various gain models have shown the potentially great advantages of Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) over its conventional hot spot ignition counterpart [e.g., S. Atzeni, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3316 (1999); M. Tabak et al., Fusion Sci. & Technology 49, 254 (2006)]. These gain models, however, all assume nearly uniform-density fuel assemblies. In contrast, conventional ICF implosions yield hollowed fuel assemblies with a high-density shell of fuel surrounding a low-density, high-pressure hot spot. Hence, to realize fully the advantages of FI, an alternative implosion design must be found which yields nearly isochoric fuel assemblies without substantial hot spots. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942)] may be employed to yield precisely such quasi-isochoric imploded states. The difficulty remains, however, of accessing these self-similarly imploding configurations from initial conditions representing an actual ICF target, namely a uniform, solid-density shell at rest. Furthermore, these specialized implosions must be realized for practicable drive parameters and at the scales and energies of interest in ICF. A direct-drive implosion scheme is presented which meets all of these requirements and reaches a nearly isochoric assembled density of 300 g=cm{sup 3} and areal density of 2.4 g=cm{sup 2} using 485 kJ of laser energy.

  16. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  17. GROMACS: fast, flexible, and free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Spoel, David; Lindahl, Erik; Hess, Berk; Groenhof, Gerrit; Mark, Alan E; Berendsen, Herman J C

    2005-12-01

    This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is http://www.gromacs.org.

  18. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  19. HIGHER FREQUENCY ULTRASONIC LIGHT MODULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGHT), (* MODULATORS , (*ULTRASONIC RADIATION, MODULATORS ), OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, BANDWIDTH, TRANSDUCERS, HIGH FREQUENCY, VERY HIGH FREQUENCY, ATTENUATION, DATA PROCESSING, OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, ANALOG COMPUTERS, THEORY.

  20. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…