Universality in fast quantum quenches
Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C
2014-01-01
We expand on the investigation of the universal scaling properties in the early time behaviour of fast but smooth quantum quenches in a general $d$-dimensional conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator of dimension $\\Delta$ with a time-dependent coupling. The quench consists of changing the coupling from an initial constant value $\\lambda_1$ by an amount of the order of $\\delta \\lambda$ to some other final value $\\lambda_2$, over a time scale $\\delta t$. In the fast quench limit where $\\delta t$ is smaller than all other length scales in the problem, $ \\delta t \\ll \\lambda_1^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\lambda_2^{1/(\\Delta-d)}, \\delta \\lambda^{1/(\\Delta-d)}$, the energy (density) injected into the system scales as $\\delta{\\cal E} \\sim (\\delta \\lambda)^2 (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$. Similarly, the change in the expectation value of the quenched operator at times earlier than the endpoint of the quench scales as $\\langle {\\cal O}_\\Delta\\rangle \\sim \\delta \\lambda\\, (\\delta t)^{d-2\\Delta}$, with further logarithmic...
Fast universal quantum gates on microwave photons with all-resonance operations in circuit QED.
Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-03-19
Stark shift on a superconducting qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) has been used to construct universal quantum entangling gates on superconducting resonators in previous works. It is a second-order coupling effect between the resonator and the qubit in the dispersive regime, which leads to a slow state-selective rotation on the qubit. Here, we present two proposals to construct the fast universal quantum gates on superconducting resonators in a microwave-photon quantum processor composed of multiple superconducting resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit, that is, the controlled-phase (c-phase) gate on two microwave-photon resonators and the controlled-controlled phase (cc-phase) gates on three resonators, resorting to quantum resonance operations, without any drive field. Compared with previous works, our universal quantum gates have the higher fidelities and shorter operation times in theory. The numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of our c-phase gate is 99.57% within about 38.1 ns and that of our cc-phase gate is 99.25% within about 73.3 ns.
On Universal Quantum Dimensions
Mkrtchyan, R L
2016-01-01
We derive universal expressions for quantum dimensions (universal characters) of some series of irreps of simple Lie algebras. This allows us to check Deligne's hypothesis on universal quantum dimensions for symmetric cube of adjoint representation.
Ionicioiu, Radu
2015-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) -- which direct photons according to their polarization -- and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any $d$-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Principles of Quantum Universe
Pervushin, V N
2014-01-01
The present monograph is devoted to the theory of gravitation derived consequently as joint nonlinear realization of conformal and affine symmetries by means of Cartan differential forms. In the framework of the joint nonlinear realization of conformal and affine symmetries the interpretation of the last cosmological observational data of Ia Supernovae, anisotropy of the primordial radiation temperature and the mass spectrum of electroweak bosons, including the Higgs particle mass in the expected region ~ 125 GeV, is given. All these observational and experimental data testify to the vacuum energy dominance. The vacuum Casimir energy is a source of intensive cosmological quantum creation gravitons and electroweak bosons including Higgs particles from the empty Universe during the first 10^(-12) sec. The products of decay of the electroweak bosons give the matter content of the present day Universe, including primordial radiation and its baryon asymmetry.
Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.
Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz
2011-01-01
We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.
Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio A Lagana
Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.
Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions
Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.
2016-12-01
We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.
Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement
Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2015-01-01
The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.
Quantum Cosmology for Tunneling Universes
Kim, Sang Pyo
2004-01-01
In a quantum cosmological model consisting of a Euclidean region and a Lorentzian region, Hartle-Hawking's no-bounary wave function, and Linde's wave function and Vilenkin's tunneling wave function are briefly described and compared with each other. We put a particular emphasis on semiclassical gravity from quantum cosmology and compare it with the conventional quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. Finally, we discuss the recent debate on catastrophic particle production in the tunneling universe between Rubakov and Vilenkin within the semiclassical gravity.
Universality in random quantum networks
Novotný, Jaroslav; Alber, Gernot; Jex, Igor
2015-12-01
Networks constitute efficient tools for assessing universal features of complex systems. In physical contexts, classical as well as quantum networks are used to describe a wide range of phenomena, such as phase transitions, intricate aspects of many-body quantum systems, or even characteristic features of a future quantum internet. Random quantum networks and their associated directed graphs are employed for capturing statistically dominant features of complex quantum systems. Here, we develop an efficient iterative method capable of evaluating the probability of a graph being strongly connected. It is proven that random directed graphs with constant edge-establishing probability are typically strongly connected, i.e., any ordered pair of vertices is connected by a directed path. This typical topological property of directed random graphs is exploited to demonstrate universal features of the asymptotic evolution of large random qubit networks. These results are independent of our knowledge of the details of the network topology. These findings suggest that other highly complex networks, such as a future quantum internet, may also exhibit similar universal properties.
A fast "hybrid" silicon double quantum dot qubit
Shi, Zhan; Prance, J R; Gamble, John King; Koh, Teck Seng; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hu, Xuedong; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Eriksson, M A; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N
2011-01-01
We propose a quantum dot qubit architecture that has an attractive combination of speed and fabrication simplicity. It consists of a double quantum dot with one electron in one dot and two electrons in the other. The qubit itself is a set of two states with total spin quantum numbers $S^2=3/4$ ($S=\\half$) and $S_z = -\\half$, with the two different states being singlet and triplet in the doubly occupied dot. The architecture is relatively simple to fabricate, a universal set of fast operations can be implemented electrically, and the system has potentially long decoherence times. These are all extremely attractive properties for use in quantum information processing devices.
Third Quantization and Quantum Universes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sang Pyo, E-mail: sangkim@kunsan.ac.kr
2014-01-15
We study the third quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with N-minimal massless fields. The third quantized Hamiltonian for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the minisuperspace consists of infinite number of intrinsic time-dependent, decoupled oscillators. The Hamiltonian has a pair of invariant operators for each universe with conserved momenta of the fields that play a role of the annihilation and the creation operators and that construct various quantum states for the universe. The closed universe exhibits an interesting feature of transitions from stable states to tachyonic states depending on the conserved momenta of the fields. In the classical forbidden unstable regime, the quantum states have googolplex growing position and conjugate momentum dispersions, which defy any measurements of the position of the universe.
Universal quantum computation with qudits
Luo, MingXing; Wang, XiaoJun
2014-09-01
Quantum circuit model has been widely explored for various quantum applications such as Shors algorithm and Grovers searching algorithm. Most of previous algorithms are based on the qubit systems. Herein a proposal for a universal circuit is given based on the qudit system, which is larger and can store more information. In order to prove its universality for quantum applications, an explicit set of one-qudit and two-qudit gates is provided for the universal qudit computation. The one-qudit gates are general rotation for each two-dimensional subspace while the two-qudit gates are their controlled extensions. In comparison to previous quantum qudit logical gates, each primitive qudit gate is only dependent on two free parameters and may be easily implemented. In experimental implementation, multilevel ions with the linear ion trap model are used to build the qudit systems and use the coupling of neighbored levels for qudit gates. The controlled qudit gates may be realized with the interactions of internal and external coordinates of the ion.
Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Steven [Tachyon Design Automation, San Francisco, CA (United States)
2013-07-01
Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.
A Universal Quantum Network Quantum Central Processing Unit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG An-Min
2001-01-01
A new construction scheme of a universal quantum network which is compatible with the known quantum gate- assembly schemes is proposed. Our quantum network is standard, easy-assemble, reusable, scalable and even potentially programmable. Moreover, we can construct a whole quantum network to implement the generalquantum algorithm and quantum simulation procedure. In the above senses, it is a realization of the quantum central processing unit.
Mysteries of the quantum universe
Damour, Thibault
2017-01-01
Famous explorer Bob and his dog Rick have been around the world and even to the Moon, but their travels through the quantum universe show them the greatest wonders they've ever seen. As they follow their tour guide, the giddy letter h (also known as the Planck constant), Bob and Rick have crepes with Max Planck, talk to Einstein about atoms, visit Louis de Broglie in his castle, and hang out with Heisenberg on Heligoland. On the way, we find out that a dog - much like a cat - can be both dead and alive, the gaze of a mouse can change the universe, and a comic book can actually make quantum physics fun, easy to understand and downright enchanting.
Optically simulated universal quantum computation
Francisco, D.; Ledesma, S.
2008-04-01
Recently, classical optics based systems to emulate quantum information processing have been proposed. The analogy is based on the possibility of encoding a quantum state of a system with a 2N-dimensional Hilbert space as an image in the input of an optical system. The probability amplitude of each state of a certain basis is associated with the complex amplitude of the electromagnetic field in a given slice of the laser wavefront. Temporal evolution is represented as the change of the complex amplitude of the field when the wavefront pass through a certain optical arrangement. Different modules that represent universal gates for quantum computation have been implemented. For instance, unitary operations acting on the qbits space (or U(2) gates) are represented by means of two phase plates, two spherical lenses and a phase grating in a typical image processing set up. In this work, we present CNOT gates which are emulated by means of a cube prism that splits a pair of adjacent rays incoming from the input image. As an example of application, we present an optical module that can be used to simulate the quantum teleportation process. We also show experimental results that illustrate the validity of the analogy. Although the experimental results obtained are promising and show the capability of the system for simulate the real quantum process, we must take into account that any classical simulation of quantum phenomena, has as fundamental limitation the impossibility of representing non local entanglement. In this classical context, quantum teleportation has only an illustrative interpretation.
Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system
Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang
2017-08-01
As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.
Quantum classifying spaces and universal quantum characteristic classes
Durdevic, M
1996-01-01
A construction of the noncommutative-geometric counterparts of classical classifying spaces is presented, for general compact matrix quantum structure groups. A quantum analogue of the classical concept of the classifying map is introduced and analyzed. Interrelations with the abstract algebraic theory of quantum characteristic classes are discussed. Various non-equivalent approaches to defining universal characteristic classes are outlined.
Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe
Pikovski, Igor
2015-01-01
Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semi-classical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. Our results show that quantum interference phenomena may be of relevance in cosmology.
Algorithms For A Fast Universal Noiseless Coder
Yeh, Pen-Shu; Miller, Warner H.; Rice, Robert F.
1994-01-01
Report discusses some algorithms for fast, high-performance universal noiseless coder adaptively generating nearly optimal variable-length codes. Coders based on principles discussed in reports described in "Some Practical Universal Noiseless Coding Techniques" (NPO-18833) and "Optimality of Variable-Length Codes" (NPO-18834). Coding algorithms of present report independently implemented in custom-made very-large-scale integrated-circuit coding modules.
The Quantum Echo of the Early Universe
Blasco, Ana; Martin-Benito, Mercedes; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We show that the fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by late comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early Universe, and therefore they transmit information about the nature of spacetime in timescales when quantum gravitational effects were non-negligible. We discuss how this may be observable even nowadays, and thus used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.
Universal quantum constraints on the butterfly effect
Berenstein, David
2015-01-01
Lyapunov exponents play an important role in the evolution of quantum chaotic systems in the semiclassical limit. We conjecture the existence of an upper bound on the Lyapunov exponents that contribute to the quantum motion. This is a universal feature in any quantum system or quantum field theory, including those with a gravity dual, at zero or finite temperature. It has its origin in the finite size of the Hilbert space that is available to an initial quasi-classical configuration. An important consequence of this result is a universal quantum bound on the maximum growth rate of the entanglement entropy.
Quantum behavior of a SQUID qubit manipulated with fast pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spilla, Samuele; Messina, Antonino; Napoli, Anna [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio [Istituto Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma (Italy); Migliore, Rosanna [Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council, via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)
2013-07-01
A SQUID qubit manipulated with fast variation of the energy potential is analyzed. Varying the potential shape from a single to a double-well configuration, quantum behaviors are brought into light and discussed. We show that the presence of quantum coherences in the initial state of the system plays a central role in the appearance of these quantum effects.
Geneva University - Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects
2007-01-01
Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 29 janvier 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects Prof. Hans Mooij / Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology The quantum conjugate variables of a superconductor are the charge or number of Cooper pairs, and the phase of the order parameter. In circuits that contain small Josephson junctions, these quantum properties can be brought forward. In Delft we study so-called flux qubits, superconducting rings that contain three small Josephson junctions. When a magnetic flux of half a flux quantum is applied to the loop, there are two states with opposite circulating current. For suitable junction parameters, a quantum superposition of those macroscopic states is possible. Transitions can be driven with resonant microwaves. These quantum ...
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati
2002-08-01
Entangling an unknown qubit with one type of reference state is generally impossible. However, entangling an unknown qubit with two types of reference states is possible. To achieve this, we introduce a new class of states called zero sum amplitude (ZSA) multipartite, pure entangled states for qubits and study their salient features. Using shared-ZSA states, local operations and classical communication, we give a protocol for creating multipartite entangled states of an unknown quantum state with two types of reference states at remote places. This provides a way of encoding an unknown pure qubit state into a multiqubit entangled state.
Universality of Entanglement and Quantum Computation Complexity
Orus, R; Orus, Roman; Latorre, Jose I.
2004-01-01
We study the universality of scaling of entanglement in Shor's factoring algorithm and in adiabatic quantum algorithms across a quantum phase transition for both the NP-complete Exact Cover problem as well as the Grover's problem. The analytic result for Shor's algorithm shows a linear scaling of the entropy in terms of the number of qubits, therefore difficulting the possibility of an efficient classical simulation protocol. A similar result is obtained numerically for the quantum adiabatic evolution Exact Cover algorithm, which also shows universality of the quantum phase transition the system evolves nearby. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's adiabatic algorithm remains a bounded quantity even at the critical point. A classification of scaling of entanglement appears as a natural grading of the computational complexity of simulating quantum phase transitions.
Quantum states of the bouncing universe
Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz
2013-01-01
In this paper we study quantum dynamics of the bouncing cosmological model. We focus on the model of the flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a free scalar field. The bouncing behavior, which replaces classical singularity, appears due to the modification of general relativity along the methods of loop quantum cosmology. We show that there exist a unitary transformation that enables to describe the system as a free particle with Hamiltonian equal to canonical momentum. We examine properties of the various quantum states of the Universe: boxcar state, standard coherent state, and soliton-like state, as well as Schr{\\"o}dinger's cat states constructed from these states. Characteristics of the states such as quantum moments and Wigner functions are investigated. We show that each of these states have, for some range of parameters, a proper semiclassical limit fulfilling the correspondence principle. Decoherence of the superposition of two universes is described and possible interpretations in terms of tr...
The Early Universe in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Bojowald, M.
2005-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology applies techniques derived for a background independent quantization of general relativity to cosmological situations and draws conclusions for the very early universe. Direct implications for the singularity problem as well as phenomenology in the context of inflation or bouncing universes result, which will be reviewed here. The discussion focuses on recent new results for structure formation and generalizations of the methods.
Criteria for universality of quantum gates
Sawicki, Adam; Karnas, Katarzyna
2017-06-01
We consider the problem of deciding if a set of quantum one-qudit gates S ={U1,...,Un} is universal. We provide the compact-form criteria leading to a simple algorithm that allows deciding the universality of any given set of gates in a finite number of steps. Moreover, for a nonuniversal S our criteria indicate what types of gates can be added to S to turn it into a universal set.
Learning robust pulses for generating universal quantum gates
Dong, Daoyi; Wu, Chengzhi; Chen, Chunlin; Qi, Bo; Petersen, Ian R.; Nori, Franco
2016-01-01
Constructing a set of universal quantum gates is a fundamental task for quantum computation. The existence of noises, disturbances and fluctuations is unavoidable during the process of implementing quantum gates for most practical quantum systems. This paper employs a sampling-based learning method to find robust control pulses for generating a set of universal quantum gates. Numerical results show that the learned robust control fields are insensitive to disturbances, uncertainties and fluctuations during the process of realizing universal quantum gates. PMID:27782219
Smooth and fast versus instantaneous quenches in quantum field theory
Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C
2015-01-01
We examine in detail the relationship between smooth fast quantum quenches, characterized by a time scale $\\delta t$, and instantaneous quenches, within the framework of exactly solvable mass quenches in free scalar field theory. We study UV finite quantities like correlators at finite spatial distances and the excess energy produced above the final ground state energy. We show that at late times and large distances (compared to the quench time scale) the correlator approaches the instantaneous quench correlator. At early times, we find that for small spatial separation and small $\\delta t$, the correlator scales universally with $\\delta t$, exactly as in the scaling of renormalized one point functions found in earlier work. At larger separation, the dependence on $\\delta t$ drops out. The excess energy also scales in a universal fashion: in the $m\\delta t \\rightarrow0$ limit it is finite for $d \\leq 3$ and agrees with the instantaneous quench, while it is divergent in higher dimensions. We argue that similar...
Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.
Van den Nest, Maarten
2013-02-01
We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers.
Quantum Origin of a Hot Universe
Dymnikova, Irina; Fil'Chenkov, Michael
We present the results on the quantum birth of a hot FRW universe in de Sitter vacuum from a quantum fluctuation which contains radiation and strings or some quintessence with the equation of state p=-ɛ/3.REFID="S0218271803003591FN001">The presence of radiation results in quantum tunnelling from a discrete energy level with a non-zero quantized temperature. Energy levels have non-zero width corresponding to temperature fluctuations. The observational constraint on the CMB anisotropy selects the admissible range of the model parameters. For the GUT scale initial de Sitter vacuum, the lower limit on temperature at the start of classical evolution is close to the values predicted by theories of reheating, while an upper limit is far from the threshold for a monopole rest mass. The probability of quantum birth from a level of non-zero energy is much bigger than the probability of quantum birth from nothing. The presence of material with p=-ɛ/3 mimics a positive curvature term which makes possible quantum tunnelling for an open and a flat universe. Most plausible case is a flat universe arising from an initial fluctuation with a small admixture of radiation and strings with the negative deficit angle.
Towards universal quantum computation through relativistic motion
Bruschi, David Edward; Kok, Pieter; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per; Fuentes, Ivette
2013-01-01
We show how to use relativistic motion to generate continuous variable Gaussian cluster states within cavity modes. Our results can be demonstrated experimentally using superconducting circuits where tunable boundary conditions correspond to mirrors moving with velocities close to the speed of light. In particular, we propose the generation of a quadripartite square cluster state as a first example that can be readily implemented in the laboratory. Since cluster states are universal resources for universal one-way quantum computation, our results pave the way for relativistic quantum computation schemes.
Discovering the quantum universe the role of particle colliders
2006-01-01
What does "Quantum Universe" mean? To discover what the universe is made of and how it works is the challenge of particle physics. "Quantum Universe" defines the quest to explain the universe in terms of quantum physics, which governs the behavior of the microscopic, subatomic world. It describes a revolution in particle physics and a quantum leap in our understanding of the mystery and beauty of the universe.
The Nonperturbative Quantum de Sitter Universe
Ambjørn, Jan; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R
2008-01-01
The dynamical generation of a four-dimensional classical universe from nothing but fundamental quantum excitations at the Planck scale is a long-standing challenge to theoretical physicists. A candidate theory of quantum gravity which achieves this goal without invoking exotic ingredients or excessive fine-tuning is based on the nonperturbative and background-independent technique of Causal Dynamical Triangulations. We demonstrate in detail how in this approach a macroscopic de Sitter universe, accompanied by small quantum fluctuations, emerges from the full gravitational path integral, and how the effective action determining its dynamics can be reconstructed uniquely from Monte Carlo data. We also provide evidence that it may be possible to penetrate to the sub-Planckian regime, where the Planck length is large compared to the lattice spacing of the underlying regularization of geometry.
Universality of Black Hole Quantum Computing
Dvali, Gia; Lust, Dieter; Omar, Yasser; Richter, Benedikt
2016-01-01
By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy e...
Quantum Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement Entropies in an Expanding Universe
Farahmand, Mehrnoosh; Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein
2016-01-01
We investigate an asymptotically spatially flat Robertson-Walker spacetime from two different perspectives. First, using von Neumann entropy, we evaluate the entanglement generation due to the encoded information in spacetime. Then, we work out the entropy of particle creation based on the quantum thermodynamics of the scalar field on the underlying spacetime. We show that the general behavior of both entropies are the same. Therefore, the entanglement can be applied to the customary quantum thermodynamics of the universe. Also, using these entropies, we can recover some information about the parameters of spacetime.
Quantum dynamics of fast chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Light, J.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
The aims of this research are to explore, develop, and apply theoretical methods for the evaluation of the dynamics of gas phase collision processes, primarily chemical reactions. The primary theoretical tools developed for this work have been quantum scattering theory, both in time dependent and time independent forms. Over the past several years, the authors have developed and applied methods for the direct quantum evaluation of thermal rate constants, applying these to the evaluation of the hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions, applied wave packet propagation techniques to the dissociation of Rydberg H{sub 3}, incorporated optical potentials into the evaluation of thermal rate constants, evaluated the use of optical potentials for state-to-state reaction probability evaluations, and, most recently, have developed quantum approaches for electronically non-adiabatic reactions which may be applied to simplify calculations of reactive, but electronically adiabatic systems. Evaluation of the thermal rate constants and the dissociation of H{sub 3} were reported last year, and have now been published.
Quantum Theory of Fast Chemical Reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Light, John C
2007-07-30
The aims of the research under this grant were to develop a theoretical understanding and predictive abiility for a variety of processes occurring in the gas phase. These included bimolecular chemical exchange reactions, photodissociation, predissociation resonances, unimolecular reactions and recombination reactions. In general we assumed a knowledge, from quantum chemistry, of the interactions of the atoms and molecular fragments involved. Our focus was primarily on the accurate (quantum) dynamics of small molecular systems. This has been important for many reactions related to combustion and atmospheric chemistry involving light atom transfer reactions and, for example, resonances in dissociation and recombination reactions. The rates of such reactions, as functions of temperature, internal states, and radiation (light), are fundamental for generating models of overall combustion processes. A number of new approaches to these problems were developed inclluding the use of discrete variable representations (DVR's) for evaluating rate constants with the flux-flux correlation approach, finite range approaches to exact quantum scattering calculations, energy selected basis representations, transition state wave packet approaches and improved semiclassical approaches. These (and others) were applied to a number of reactive systems and molecular systems of interest including (many years ago) the isotopic H + H2 exchange reactions, the H2 + OH (and H + H2O) systems, Ozone resonances, van der Waals molecule reactions, etc. A total of 7 graduate students, and 5 post-doctoral Research Associates were supported, at least in part, under this grant and seven papers were published with a total of 10 external collaborators. The majority of the 36 publications under this grant were supported entirely by DOE.
Fast quantum Monte Carlo on a GPU
Lutsyshyn, Y
2013-01-01
We present a scheme for the parallelization of quantum Monte Carlo on graphical processing units, focusing on bosonic systems and variational Monte Carlo. We use asynchronous execution schemes with shared memory persistence, and obtain an excellent acceleration. Comparing with single core execution, GPU-accelerated code runs over x100 faster. The CUDA code is provided along with the package that is necessary to execute variational Monte Carlo for a system representing liquid helium-4. The program was benchmarked on several models of Nvidia GPU, including Fermi GTX560 and M2090, and the latest Kepler architecture K20 GPU. Kepler-specific optimization is discussed.
Universality of black hole quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico
2017-01-15
By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum Einstein-Dirac Bianchi Universes
Damour, Thibault
2011-01-01
We study the mini--superspace quantization of spatially homogeneous (Bianchi) cosmological universes sourced by a Dirac spinor field. The quantization of the homogeneous spinor leads to a finite-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space and thereby to a multi-component Wheeler-DeWitt equation whose main features are: (i) the presence of spin-dependent Morse-type potentials, and (ii) the appearance of a q-number squared-mass term, which is of order ${\\cal O}(\\hbar^2)$, and which is affected by ordering ambiguities. We give the exact quantum solution of the Bianchi type-II system (which contains both scattering states and bound states), and discuss the main qualitative features of the quantum dynamics of the (classically chaotic) Bianchi type-IX system. We compare the exact quantum dynamics of fermionic cosmological billiards to previous works that described the spinor field as being either classical or Grassmann-valued.
Semiclassical approach to universality in quantum chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Sebastian [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom); Altland, Alexander [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuelpicher Str 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Braun, Peter [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg University, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Haake, Fritz; Heusler, Stefan [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2007-07-01
According to the so-called Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture the quantum spectra of classically chaotic systems display universal fluctuations. We explain this universality using periodic-orbit theory. To do so, we work with a generating function whose semiclassical limit is determined by quadruplets of sets of periodic orbits. We show that the interference between the contributions of these orbits gives rise to universal spectral correlations, agreeing with the predictions of random-matrix theory. In contrast to previous work the present approach yields both the non-oscillatory and the oscillatory parts of the universal spectral correlator. In particular, a semiclassical understanding of (the different possible degrees of) level repulsion is thus reached.
Universal features of quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology
Zhu, Tao; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin
2016-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides an elegant resolution of the classical big bang singularity by a quantum bounce in the deep Planck era. The evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background and its linear scalar and tensor perturbations are universal during the pre-inflationary phase. In this period the potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a P\\"oschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary models with a single scalar field. Matching them to those given in the slow-roll inflationary phase, we investigate the effects of the quantum bounce on the power spectra and find unique features that can be tested by current and forthcoming observations. In particular, fitting the power spectra to the Planck 2015 data, we find that the universe must have expanded at least 132 e-folds from the bounce until now.
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks
Xihua Yang; Bolin Xue; Junxiang Zhang; Shiyao Zhu
2014-01-01
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The a...
Universal C*-algebraic quantum groups arising from algebraic quantum groups
Kustermans, J
1997-01-01
In this paper, we construct a universal C*-algebraic quantum group out of an algebraic one. We show that this universal C*-algebraic quantum group has the same rich structure as its reduced companion. This universal C*-algebraic quantum group also satifies an upcoming definition of Masuda, Nakagami & Woronowicz except for the possible non-faithfulness of the left Haar weight.
Universality of quantum critical dynamics in a planar OPO
Drummond, P D; Drummond, Peter D.; Dechoum, Kaled
2005-01-01
We analyze the critical quantum fluctuations in a coherently driven planar optical parametric oscillator. We show that the presence of transverse modes combined with quantum fluctuations changes the behavior of the `quantum image' critical point. This zero-temperature non-equilibrium quantum system has the same universality class as a finite-temperature magnetic Lifshitz transition.
Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herzog, Bastian, E-mail: BHerzog@physik.tu-berlin.de; Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2015-11-16
Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.
Transport Properties of the Universal Quantum Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.I.Arbab
2012-01-01
The universal quantum equation (UQE) is found to describe the transport properties of the quantum particles.This equation describes a wave equation interacting with constant scalar and vector potentials propagating in spacetime.A new transformation that sends the Schr(o)dinger equation with a potential energy V =-1/2mc2 to Dirac's equation is proposed.The Cattaneo telegraph equation as well as a one-dimensional UQE are compatible with our recently proposed generalized continuity equations.Furthermore,a new wave equation resulted from the invariance of the UQE under the post-Galilean transformations is derived.This equation is found to govern a Klein Gordon's particle interacting with a photon-like vector field (ether) whose magnitude is proportional to the particle's mass.
Energetics of the quantum graphity universe
Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Greentree, Andrew D.
2014-12-01
Quantum graphity is a background independent model for emergent geometry, in which space is represented as a dynamical graph. The high-energy pregeometric starting point of the model is usually considered to be the complete graph; however, we also consider the empty graph as a candidate pregeometric state. The energetics as the graph evolves from either of these high-energy states to a low-energy geometric state is investigated as a function of the number of edges in the graph. Analytic results for the slope of this energy curve in the high-energy domain are derived, and the energy curve is determined exactly for small number of vertices N . To study the whole energy curve for larger (but still finite) N , an epitaxial approximation is introduced. This work may open the way to compare predictions from quantum graphity with observations of the early Universe, making the model falsifiable.
Energetics of the Quantum Graphity Universe
Wilkinson, Samuel A
2014-01-01
Quantum graphity is a background independent model for emergent geometry, in which space is represented as a complete graph. The high-energy pre-geometric starting point of the model is usually considered to be the complete graph, however we also consider the empty graph as a candidate pre-geometric state. The energetics as the graph evolves from either of these high-energy states to a low-energy geometric state is investigated as a function of the number of edges in the graph. Analytic results for the slope of this energy curve in the high-energy domain are derived, and the energy curve is plotted exactly for small number of vertices $N$. To study the whole energy curve for larger (but still finite) $N$, an epitaxial approximation is used. It is hoped that this work may open the way for future work to compare predictions from quantum graphity with observations of the early universe, making the model falsifiable.
The universe within from quantum to cosmos
Turok, Neil
2012-01-01
A visionary look at the way the human mind can shape the future by world-renowned physicist Neil Turok. Every technology we rely on today was created by the human mind, seeking to understand the universe around us. Scientific knowledge is our most precious possession, and our future will be shaped by the breakthroughs to come. In this personal and fascinating work, Neil Turok, Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, explores the transformative scientific discoveries of the past three centuries -- from classical mechanics, to the nature of light, to the bizarre world of the quantum, and the evolution of the cosmos. Each new discovery has, over time, yielded new technologies causing paradigm shifts in the organization of society. Now, he argues, we are on the cusp of another major transformation: the coming quantum revolution that will supplant our current, dissatisfying digital age. Facing this brave new world, Turok calls for creatively re-inventing the way advanced knowledge is developed...
Universal features of quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology
Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin
2017-10-01
In this Letter, we study analytically the evolutions of the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe and its linear perturbations in the framework of the dressed metric approach in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Assuming that the evolution of the background is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the quantum bounce, we find that both evolutions of the background and its perturbations are independent of the inflationary potentials during the pre-inflationary phase. During this period the effective potentials of the perturbations can be well approximated by a Pöschl-Teller (PT) potential, from which we find analytically the mode functions and then calculate the corresponding Bogoliubov coefficients at the onset of the slow-roll inflation, valid for any inflationary model with a single scalar field. Imposing the Bunch-Davies (BD) vacuum in the contracting phase prior to the bounce when the modes are all inside the Hubble horizon, we show that particles are generically created due to the pre-inflation dynamics. Matching them to those obtained in the slow-roll inflationary phase, we investigate the effects of the pre-inflation dynamics on the scalar and tensor power spectra and find features that can be tested by current and forthcoming observations. In particular, to be consistent with the Planck 2015 data, we find that the universe must have expanded at least 141 e-folds since the bounce.
Emergence of a classical Universe from quantum gravity and cosmology.
Kiefer, Claus
2012-09-28
I describe how we can understand the classical appearance of our world from a universal quantum theory. The essential ingredient is the process of decoherence. I start with a general discussion in ordinary quantum theory and then turn to quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. There is a whole hierarchy of classicality from the global gravitational field to the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, which serve as the seeds for the structure in the Universe.
Exact two-qubit universal quantum circuit
Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar
2003-01-01
We provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit unitary operation, given an entangling two-qubit gate together with local gates. This is shown to provide explicit construction of a universal quantum circuit that exactly simulates arbitrary two-qubit gates. Each block in this circuit is given in a closed form solution. We also analyze the efficiency of different entangling gates, and find that exactly half of all the controlled-unitary gates can be used to implement two-qubit operations as efficiently as the commonly used CNOT gate.
On the "Universal" Quantum Area Spectrum
Medved, A J M
2009-01-01
There has been much discourse about the form of the quantum area spectrum for a black hole horizon, with the evenly spaced conception of Bekenstein figuring prominently in the discussions. In this letter, we refine a very recent analysis that supports a proposed universal value for the spacing between adjacent levels in the Bekenstein spectral form. We argue that our refined treatment, although logistically similar to its predecessor, is conceptually more elegant, formally simpler and able to circumvent a couple of technical issues. As an added bonus, our rendition translates very readily to a fully generic theory of gravity.
Partitioned quantum cellular automata are intrinsically universal
Arrighi, Pablo
2010-01-01
There have been several non-axiomatic approaches taken to define Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA). Partitioned QCA (PQCA) are the most canonical of these non-axiomatic definitions. In this work we show that any QCA can be put into the form of a PQCA. Our construction reconciles all the non-axiomatic definitions of QCA, showing that they can all simulate one another, and hence that they are all equivalent to the axiomatic definition. This is achieved by defining generalised n-dimensional intrinsic simulation, which brings the computer science based concepts of simulation and universality closer to theoretical physics. The result is not only an important simplification of the QCA model, it also plays a key role in the identification of a minimal n-dimensional intrinsically universal QCA.
Quantum graviton creation in a model universe
Berger, B. K.
1974-01-01
Consideration of the mechanism of production of gravitons in the empty, anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous Gowdy three-torus cosmology. The Gowdy cosmology is an exact solution of the vacuum Einstein equations and is obtained as a generalization of the homogeneous empty Bianchi Type I (Kasner) cosmology by permitting the metric components to depend on one of the space variables in addition to time. The Hamiltonian methods of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner are employed to identify the dynamical variables which are to be quantized. The WKB regime solution is identical to that found by Doroshkevich, Zel'dovich, and Novikov (DZN) for a universe containing collisionless anisotropic radiation. Using a procedure similar to that of Parker (1971) or Zel'dovich and Starobinskii (1971) for defining quantum number, it is found that the DZN large-time radiation consists of quanta (gravitons) created from an initial vacuum. The quantum behavior is much like the semiclassical enhancement of quantum number with the added feature of creation of quanta from vacuum fluctuations.
Fruit, Vegatables and Fast Food Consumption among University Students
Claudiu Avram; Mihaela Oravitan
2013-01-01
Purpose: To establish the prevalence of fruit, vegetables and fast food consumption among students from Timisoara university center and provide evidence based information for increasing healthy food choices in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: We perform a cross-sectional study on 435 university students from the Timisoara university center, Romania (mean age: 22±4.8 years). The students were recruited using internet and public announcements in the student’s cam...
Quantum aspects of early universe thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drewes, Marco
2010-03-15
Various features of the observable universe can be understood as the result of nonequilibrium processes during the early stages of its history, when it was filled with a hot primordial plasma. In many cases, including cosmological freezeout processes, only a few degrees of freedom were out of equilibrium and the background plasma can be viewed as a large heat bath to which these couple. We study scalar and fermionic quantum fields out of thermal equilibrium that are weakly coupled to a large thermal bath with the goal to formulate a full quantum mechanical description of such processes. The bath composition need not be specified. Our analysis is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations, which are the exact equations of motion for the correlation functions in a nonequilibrium quantum system. We solve the equations of motion for the most general Gaussian initial density matrix, without a specific ansatz or a-priori parameterisation and for arbitrarily large deviations from equilibrium. The solutions depend on integral kernels that contain memory effects. These can in good approximation be solved analytically when the field excitations have a small decay width. The full solutions are compared to results obtained by other methods. We prove that the description in terms of a stochastic Langevin equation is equivalent to the Kadanoff-Baym equations. We show the emergence of standard Boltzmann equations as a limit of the Kadanoff-Baym equations in a dilute gas when coherences play no role and discuss quantum Boltzmann equations as an intermediate step. We analyse the properties of the solutions in terms of the equation of state and investigate the validity and implications of quasiparticle approximations. We find that the equation of state can deviate significantly from that of a gas of quasiparticles even if the resonances in the plasma show quasiparticle behaviour in decays and scatterings. A detailed discussion is devoted to the influence of modified dispersion relations and
Thresholds for Universal Concatenated Quantum Codes
Chamberland, Christopher; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-07-01
Quantum error correction and fault tolerance make it possible to perform quantum computations in the presence of imprecision and imperfections of realistic devices. An important question is to find the noise rate at which errors can be arbitrarily suppressed. By concatenating the 7-qubit Steane and 15-qubit Reed-Muller codes, the 105-qubit code enables a universal set of fault-tolerant gates despite not all of them being transversal. Importantly, the cnot gate remains transversal in both codes, and as such has increased error protection relative to the other single qubit logical gates. We show that while the level-1 pseudothreshold for the concatenated scheme is limited by the logical Hadamard gate, the error suppression of the logical cnot gates allows for the asymptotic threshold to increase by orders of magnitude at higher levels. We establish a lower bound of 1.28 ×10-3 for the asymptotic threshold of this code, which is competitive with known concatenated models and does not rely on ancillary magic state preparation for universal computation.
Fast ion swapping for quantum-information processing
Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schulz, J.; von Lindenfels, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate a swap gate between laser-cooled ions in a segmented microtrap via fast physical swapping of the ion positions. This operation is used in conjunction with qubit initialization, manipulation, and readout and with other types of shuttling operations such as linear transport and crystal separation and merging. Combining these operations, we perform quantum process tomography of the swap gate, obtaining a mean process fidelity of 99.5(5)%. The swap operation is demonstrated with motional excitations below 0.05(1) quantum for all six collective modes of a two-ion crystal for a process duration of 42 μ s . Extending these techniques to three ions, we reverse the order of a three-ion crystal and reconstruct the truth table for this operation, resulting in a mean process fidelity of 99.96(13)% in the logical basis.
An arbitrated quantum signature scheme with fast signing and verifying
Liu, Feng; Qin, Su-Juan; Su, Qi
2013-11-01
Existing arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes are almost all based on the Leung quantum one-time pad (L-QOTP) algorithm. In these schemes, the receiver can achieve an existential forgery of the sender's signatures under the known message attack, and the sender can successfully disavow any of her/his signatures by a simple attack. In this paper, a solution of solving the problems is given, through designing a new QOTP algorithm relying largely on inserting decoy states into fixed insertion positions. Furthermore, we present an AQS scheme with fast signing and verifying, which is based on the new QOTP algorithm. It is just using single particle states and is unconditional secure. To fulfill the functions of AQS schemes, our scheme needs a significantly lower computational costs than that required by other AQS schemes based on the L-QOTP algorithm.
Fast synthesis of the Fredkin gate via quantum Zeno dynamics
Shao, Xiao-Qiang; Zheng, Tai-Yu; Zhang, Shou
2012-12-01
We propose a scheme for fast synthesizing the Fredkin gate with rf SQUID qubits. This scheme utilizes the quantum Zeno dynamics induced by continuous couplings and the non-identical couplings between SQUIDs and superconducting cavity. The effects of decoherence on the performance for the gate are analyzed in virtue of master equation and non-unitary evolution with full Hamiltonian. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of this Fredkin gate is relatively high corresponding to current typical experimental parameters. Furthermore, an equivalent physical model is also constructed in an array of coupled cavities.
Fundamentals of universality in one-way quantum computation
Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Miyake, A
2007-01-01
We build a framework allowing for a systematic investigation of the issue: "Which quantum states are universal resources for one-way quantum computation?" We start by re-examining what is exactly meant by "universality" in quantum computation, and what the implications are for universal one-way quantum computation. Given the framework of a measurement-based quantum computer, where quantum information is processed by local operations only, the most general universal one-way quantum computer is one which is capable of accepting arbitrary classical inputs and producing arbitrary quantum outputs--we refer to this property as CQ-universality. We then show that a systematic study of CQ-universality in one-way quantum computation is possible by identifying entanglement features that must be present in every universal resource. These insights are used to identify several states as being not universal, such as 1D cluster states, W states, and ground states of non-critical 1D spin systems. Our criteria are strengthened...
Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing
Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.
2000-01-01
We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.
Decoding reality the universe as quantum information
Vedral, Vlatko
2010-01-01
In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...
Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2009-10-16
A workshop titled "Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe" was held December 9-11, 2008, at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center-National Accelerator Laboratory. The primary purpose of the meeting was to examine how computing at the extreme scale can contribute to meeting forefront scientific challenges in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology. The workshop was organized around five research areas with associated panels. Three of these, "High Energy Theoretical Physics," "Accelerator Simulation," and "Experimental Particle Physics," addressed research of the Office of High Energy Physics’ Energy and Intensity Frontiers, while the"Cosmology and Astrophysics Simulation" and "Astrophysics Data Handling, Archiving, and Mining" panels were associated with the Cosmic Frontier.
Evidence for the quantum birth of our Universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C S Unnikrishnan; G T Gillies; R C Ritter
2002-08-01
We present evidence for a nonsingular origin of the Universe with intial conditions determined by quantum physics and relativistic gravity. In particular, we establish that the present temperature of the microwave background and the present density of the Universe agree well with our predictions from these intial conditions, after evolution to the present age using the Einstein–Friedmann equation. Remarkably, the quantum origin for the Universe naturally allows its evolution at exactly the critical density. We also discuss the consequences of these results to some fundamental aspects of quantum physics in the early Universe.
Overhead analysis of universal concatenated quantum codes
Chamberland, Christopher; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-01
We analyze the resource overhead of recently proposed methods for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using concatenated codes. Namely, we examine the concatenation of the 7-qubit Steane code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, which allows for the construction of the 49- and 105-qubit codes that do not require the need for magic state distillation for universality. We compute a lower bound for the adversarial noise threshold of the 105-qubit code and find it to be 8.33 ×10-6. We obtain a depolarizing noise threshold for the 49-qubit code of 9.69 ×10-4 which is competitive with the 105-qubit threshold result of 1.28 ×10-3 . We then provide lower bounds on the resource requirements of the 49- and 105-qubit codes and compare them with the surface code implementation of a logical T gate using magic state distillation. For the sampled input error rates and noise model, we find that the surface code achieves a smaller overhead compared to our concatenated schemes.
Quantum driven Bounce of the Universe near Sudden Future Singularity
Srivastava, S K
2004-01-01
Taking quantum effects of conformal fields into account, it is shown that future universe may escape from phantom menace when w $< -1$. It is demonstrated that due to back-reaction of quantum effects, expansion of the universe stops at its maximum and takes a turnaround. Later on, it contracts to a very small size in finite future time. This phenomenon is followed by a " bounce" with re-birth of an accelerating universe.
Universal Quantum Gates Based on Both Geometric and Dynamic Phases in Quantum Dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨开宇; 朱诗亮; 汪子丹
2003-01-01
A large-scalable quantum computer model, whose qubits are represented by the subspace subtended by the ground state and the single exciton state on semiconductor quantum dots, is proposed. A universal set of quantum gates in this system may be achieved by a mixed approach, composed of dynamic evolution and nonadiabatic geometric phase.
The universality question for noncommutative quantum field theory
Schlesinger, K G
2006-01-01
Present day physics rests on two main pillars: General relativity and quantum field theory. We discuss the deep and at the same time problematic interplay between these two theories. Based on an argument by Doplicher, Fredenhagen, and Roberts, we propose a possible universality property for noncommutative quantum field theory in the sense that any theory of quantum gravity should involve quantum field theories on noncommutative space-times as a special limit. We propose a mathematical framework to investigate such a universality property and start the discussion of its mathematical properties. The question of its connection to string theory could be a starting point for a new perspective on string theory.
Fast terahertz imaging using a quantum cascade amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Yuan, E-mail: yr235@cam.ac.uk; Wallis, Robert; Jessop, David Stephen; Degl' Innocenti, Riccardo; Klimont, Adam; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-07-06
A terahertz (THz) imaging scheme based on the effect of self-mixing in a 2.9 THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier has been demonstrated. By coupling an antireflective-coated silicon lens to the facet of a QC laser, with no external optical feedback, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress lasing action, creating a THz QC amplifier. The addition of reflection from an external target to the amplifier creates enough optical feedback to initiate lasing action and the resulting emission enhances photon-assisted transport, which in turn reduces the voltage across the device. At the peak gain point, the maximum photon density coupled back leads to a prominent self-mixing effect in the QC amplifier, leading to a high sensitivity, with a signal to noise ratio up to 55 dB, along with a fast data acquisition speed of 20 000 points per second.
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, Andre R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David
2016-01-01
Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb$^+$ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.
Possible universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants
Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2011-05-01
An emergent trend in quantum computation is the topological quantum computation (TQC). Briefly, TQC results from the application of quantum computation with the aim to solve the problems of quantum topology such as topological invariants for knots and links (Jones polynomials, HOMFLY polynomials, Khovanov polynomials); topological invariants for graphs (Tutte polynomial and Bollobás-Riordan polynomial); topological invariants for 3-manifolds (Reshetiskin-Turaev, Turaev-Viro and Turaer-Viro-Ocneanu invariants) and topological invariants for 4-manifolds( Crane-Yetter invariants). In a few words, TQC is concerned with the formulation of quantum algorithms for the computation of these topological invariants in quantum topology. Given that one of the fundamental achievements of quantum topology was the discovery of strong connections between monoidal categories and 3-dimensional manifolds, in TQC is possible and necessary to exploit such connections with the purpose to formulate universal quantum algorithms for topological invariants of 3-manifolds. In the present work we make an exploration of such possibilities. Specifically we search for universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants of 3-manifolds such as the Turaev-Viro-Ocneanu invariants, the Kashaev-Baseilhac-Benedetti invariants of 3-manifolds with links and the Geer-Kashaev-Turaev invariants of 3-manifolds with a link and a principal bundle. We also look for physical systems (three dimensional topological insulators and three-dimensional gravity) over which implement the resulting universal topological quantum algorithms.
Quantum cosmology in an anisotropic n-dimensional universe
Alves-Júnior, F A P; Barreto, A B; Romero, C
2016-01-01
We investigate quantum cosmological models in an n-dimensional anisotropic universe in the presence of a massless scalar field. Our basic inspiration comes from Chodos and Detweiler's classical model which predicts an interesting behaviour of the extra dimension, shrinking down as time goes by. We work in the framework of a recent geometrical scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Classically, we obtain two distinct type of solutions. One of them has an initial singularity while the other represents a static universe considered as a whole. By using the canonical approach to quantum cosmology, we investigate how quantum effects could have had an influence in the past history of these universes.
Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers
Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.
2013-12-01
Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.
Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding universe
Liu, Nana; Fuentes, Ivette; Vedral, Vlatko; Modi, Kavan; Bruschi, David Edward
2016-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our universe.
Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah
2008-12-05
We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.
FAST Mapping of Diffuse HI Gas in the Local Universe
Zhu, M.; Pisano, D. J.; Ai, M.; Jiao, Q.
2016-02-01
We propose to use the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) to map the diffuse intergalactic HI gas in the local universe at column densities of NHI=1018 cm-2 and below. The major science goal is to study gas accretion during galaxy evolution, and trace cosmic web features in the local universe. We disuss the technical feasibilty of such a deep survey, and have conducted test observations with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. Our preliminary results shows that, with about a few thousand hours of observing time, FAST will be able to map several hundred square degree regions at 1 σ of NHI=2×1017 cm-2 level out to a distance of 5-10 Mpc, and with a volume 1000 larger than that of the Local Group.
Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer
2016-06-02
trap quantum computer . This architecture has two separate layers of scalability: the first is to increase the number of ion qubits in a single trap...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 02-06-2016 1-Aug-2010 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ion trap quantum computation , scalable modular architectures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11
Universal quantum back-action evasion
Tsang, Mankei
2012-01-01
Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement back action often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement back action of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS). All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND) observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, opto...
Universal Three-Party Quantum Secret Sharing Against Collective Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Yu-Guang; WANG Yuan; TENG Yi-Wei; WEN Qiao-Yan
2011-01-01
we present a robust and universal quantum secret sharing protocol with four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states against collective noise. The transmission's safety is ensured by the nonorthogonality of the noiseless states traveling on the quantum channel. Although this scheme uses entangled states for encoding, only single-particle product measurements are required.
The Emergence of Consciousness in the Quantum Universe
Zhang, Xiaolei
2011-01-01
It is argued that human consciousness is likely to have emerged during self-consistent evolution of the physical universe through the gradual accumulation of biological entities' ability to tap into the intrinsic non-deterministic potentiality during the global non-equilibrium phase transitions in the quantum universe. Due to the fact that the matter and energy content participating in the global phase transitions in the quantum universe is a continuum, there is in effect an infinite degrees-of-freedom in the substratum, which invalidates the usual deterministic laws of the mechanical evolution, and allows a chance factor to appear in the emergent properties of resonantly-formed quantum particles, especially in the acquired phases of their wave functions. Such chance factors, though occurring mostly randomly during the early cosmic evolution phase, can be harnessed more "purposefully" by the biological entities co-evolving with the physical universe, due in part to the globally entangled nature of quantum int...
Time independent universal computing with spin chains: quantum plinko machine
Thompson, K. F.; Gokler, C.; Lloyd, S.; Shor, P. W.
2016-07-01
We present a scheme for universal quantum computing using XY Heisenberg spin chains. Information is encoded into packets propagating down these chains, and they interact with each other to perform universal quantum computation. A circuit using g gate blocks on m qubits can be encoded into chains of length O({g}3+δ {m}3+δ ) for all δ \\gt 0 with vanishingly small error.
Universe's memory and spontaneous coherence in loop quantum cosmology
Pawłowski, Tomasz
2016-01-01
The quantum bounce a priori connects several (semi)classical epochs of Universe evolution, however determining if and how well the semiclassicality is preserved in this transition is highly nontrivial. We review the present state of knowledge in that regards in the isotropic sector of loop quantum cosmology. This knowledge is next extended by studies of an isotropic universe admitting positive cosmological constant (featuring an infinite chain of large Universe epochs). It is also shown, that such universe always admits a semiclassical epoch thanks to spontaneous spontaneous coherence, provided it is semiclassical in certain constant of motion playing the role of energy.
Tempel, David G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-01-01
We prove that the theorems of TDDFT can be extended to a class of qubit Hamiltonians that are universal for quantum computation. The theorems of TDDFT applied to universal Hamiltonians imply that single-qubit expectation values can be used as the basic variables in quantum computation and information theory, rather than wavefunctions. From a practical standpoint this opens the possibility of approximating observables of interest in quantum computations directly in terms of single-qubit quantities (i.e. as density functionals). Additionally, we also demonstrate that TDDFT provides an exact prescription for simulating universal Hamiltonians with other universal Hamiltonians that have different, and possibly easier-to-realize two-qubit interactions. This establishes the foundations of TDDFT for quantum computation and opens the possibility of developing density functionals for use in quantum algorithms.
Fruit, Vegatables and Fast Food Consumption among University Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudiu Avram
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To establish the prevalence of fruit, vegetables and fast food consumption among students from Timisoara university center and provide evidence based information for increasing healthy food choices in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: We perform a cross-sectional study on 435 university students from the Timisoara university center, Romania (mean age: 22±4.8 years. The students were recruited using internet and public announcements in the student’s campus. All students completed a self administered diet questionnaire. Results: Two thirds of students are not eating fruits and vegetables daily. The prevalence of daily fruit consumption is even lower - 25%. Regarding fast food consumption we found that 26% of students are often consume these unhealthy products. Three main determinants was identified for choosing unhealthy diet: lack of time, school programme and lack of money. Conclusions: The unhealthy food consumption among students from Timisoara university center is highly prevalent. Increasing students’ nutrition-information knowledge and provision of nutrition education is recommended.
Zyskin, M
1995-01-01
We construct quantum operators solving the quantum versions of the Sturm-Liouville equation and the resolvent equation, and show the existence of conserved currents. The construction depends on the following input data: the basic quantum field O(k) and the regularization .
A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol
Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian
2017-01-01
Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.
A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol.
Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian
2017-01-12
Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-09-01
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B
2016-09-02
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.
Quantum Quenches in Free Field Theory: Universal Scaling at Any Rate
Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C
2016-01-01
Quantum quenches display universal scaling in several regimes. For quenches which start from a gapped phase and cross a critical point, with a rate slow compared to the initial gap, many systems obey Kibble-Zurek scaling. More recently, a different scaling behaviour has been shown to occur when the quench rate is fast compared to all other physical scales, but still slow compared to the UV cutoff. We investigate the passage from fast to slow quenches in scalar and fermionic free field theories with time dependent masses for which the dynamics can be solved exactly for all quench rates. We find that renormalized one point functions smoothly cross over between the regimes.
Thermodynamic universality of quantum Carnot engines
Gardas, Bartłomiej; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-01
The Carnot statement of the second law of thermodynamics poses an upper limit on the efficiency of all heat engines. Recently, it has been studied whether generic quantum features such as coherence and quantum entanglement could allow for quantum devices with efficiencies larger than the Carnot efficiency. The present study shows that this is not permitted by the laws of thermodynamics—independent of the model. We will show that rather the definition of heat has to be modified to account for the thermodynamic cost of maintaining non-Gibbsian equilibrium states. Our theoretical findings are illustrated for two experimentally relevant examples.
Thermodynamic universality of quantum Carnot engines.
Gardas, Bartłomiej; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-01
The Carnot statement of the second law of thermodynamics poses an upper limit on the efficiency of all heat engines. Recently, it has been studied whether generic quantum features such as coherence and quantum entanglement could allow for quantum devices with efficiencies larger than the Carnot efficiency. The present study shows that this is not permitted by the laws of thermodynamics-independent of the model. We will show that rather the definition of heat has to be modified to account for the thermodynamic cost of maintaining non-Gibbsian equilibrium states. Our theoretical findings are illustrated for two experimentally relevant examples.
Consciousness and values in the quantum universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, H.P.
1985-01-01
Application of quantum mechanical description to neurophysiological processes appears to provide for a natural unification of the physical and humanistic sciences. The categories of thought used to represent physical and psychical processes become united, and the mechanical conception of man created by classical physics is replaced by a profoundly different quantum conception. This revised image of man allows human values to be rooted in contemporary science.
Cosmic Christ in a Quantum Universe.
Kohli, Mary Ann
of noninstitutional spirituality has brought a new importance to the individual, who is represented by the cosmic Christ in a quantum universe.
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks.
Yang, Xihua; Xue, Bolin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao
2014-10-15
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The atomic coherence, produced through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the Λ-type configuration, acts as the QIP and has full functions of quantum beam splitter, quantum frequency converter, quantum entangler, and quantum repeater. By employing EIT-based nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes, the generation, exchange, distribution, and manipulation of light-light, atom-light, and atom-atom multipartite entanglement can be efficiently and flexibly achieved in a deterministic way with only coherent light fields. This method greatly facilitates the operations in quantum information processing, and holds promising applications in realistic scalable quantum communication and quantum networks.
Quantum Structures of Model-Universe: Questioning the Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Jeknic-Dugic, J; Francom, A
2011-01-01
Our objective is to demonstrate an inconsistency with both the original and modern Everettian Many Worlds Interpretations. We do this by examining two important corollaries of the universally valid quantum mechanics in the context of the Quantum Brownian Motion (QBM) model: "Entanglement Relativity" and the "parallel occurrence of decoherence." We conclude that the highlighted inconsistency demands that either there is a privileged spatial structure of the QBM model universe or that the Everettian Worlds are not physically real.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper
2010-01-01
We show that ultrafast carrier dynamics plays an important role on slow and fast light effects based on coherent population oscillations in quantum dot semiconductor waveguides. Fast light in the gain regime and slow light in the absorption regime are found to be enhanced at frequencies beyond th...... the usual limits of the carrier lifetime. The effects are investigated by a comprehensive model and shown to originate from non-equilibrium dynamics within the quantum dot carrier populations....
Smooth Quantum Dynamics of Mixmaster Universe
Bergeron, Hervé; Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2015-01-01
We present a quantum version of the vacuum Bianchi IX model by implementing affine coherent state quantization combined with a Born-Oppenheimer-like adiabatic approximation. The analytical treatment is carried out on both quantum and semiclassical levels. The resolution of the classical singularity occurs by means of a repulsive potential generated by our quantization procedure. The quantization of the oscillatory degrees of freedom produces a radiation energy density term in the semiclassical constraint equation. The Friedmann-like lowest energy eigenstates of the system are found to be dynamically stable.
Universal Critical Behavior at a Phase Transition to Quantum Turbulence
Takahashi, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Kazumasa A
2016-01-01
Turbulence is one of the most prototypical phenomena of systems driven out of equilibrium. While turbulence has been studied mainly with classical fluids like water, considerable attention is now drawn to quantum turbulence (QT), observed in quantum fluids such as superfluid helium and Bose-Einstein condensates. A distinct feature of QT is that it consists of quantum vortices, by which turbulent circulation is quantized. Yet, under strong forcing, characteristic properties of developed classical turbulence such as Kolmogorov's law have also been identified in QT. Here, we study the opposite limit of weak forcing, i.e., the onset of QT, numerically, and find another set of universal scaling laws known for classical non-equilibrium systems. Specifically, we show that the transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class, known to arise generically in transitions into an absorbing state, including transitions to classical shear-flow turbulence after very recent studies. We argue that quantum vort...
Universal locality of quantum thermal susceptibility
De Palma, Giacomo; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2017-05-01
The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [A. De Pasquale et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 12782 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12782] of the subsystem with which the thermometer interacts. If this subsystem can be described with the canonical ensemble, such quantity reduces to the variance of the local Hamiltonian, which is proportional to the heat capacity of the subsystem. However, the canonical ensemble might not apply in the presence of interactions between the subsystem and the rest of the system. In this work, we address this problem in the framework of locally interacting quantum systems. We prove that the local quantum thermal susceptibility of any subsystem is close to the variance of its local Hamiltonian, provided the volume-to-surface ratio of the subsystem is much larger than the correlation length. This result greatly simplifies the determination of the ultimate precision of any local estimate of the temperature and rigorously determines the regime where interactions can affect this precision.
Scaling and Universality at Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions.
Heyl, Markus
2015-10-02
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) at critical times appear as nonanalyticities during nonequilibrium quantum real-time evolution. Although there is evidence for a close relationship between DQPTs and equilibrium phase transitions, a major challenge is still to connect to fundamental concepts such as scaling and universality. In this work, renormalization group transformations in complex parameter space are formulated for quantum quenches in Ising models showing that the DQPTs are critical points associated with unstable fixed points of equilibrium Ising models. Therefore, these DQPTs obey scaling and universality. On the basis of numerical simulations, signatures of these DQPTs in the dynamical buildup of spin correlations are found with an associated power-law scaling determined solely by the fixed point's universality class. An outlook is given on how to explore this dynamical scaling experimentally in systems of trapped ions.
Quantum mechanics of the closed collapsing Universe
Viarenich, K A; Cherkas, S L
2008-01-01
Two approaches to quantization of Freedman's closed Universe are compared. In the first approach, the Shrodinger's norm of the wave function of Universe is used, and in the second approach, the Klein-Gordon's norm is used. The second one allows building the quasi-Heisenberg operators as functions of time and finding their average values. It is shown that the average value of the Universe scale factor oscillates with damping and approaches to some constant value at the end of the Universe evolution.
“Fast Atom Diffraction” IBA in the regime of quantum scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winter, H., E-mail: winter@physik.hu-berlin.de
2014-08-01
Recently, quantum effects were observed for the scattering of fast atoms from surfaces under a grazing angle of incidence. We discuss basic features of Fast Atom Diffraction (FAD) which adds a further powerful method to the established tools in ion beam analysis. Attractive features of FAD in studies on the structure of surfaces comprise negligible radiation damage, no charging effects, and an extreme sensitivity to the topmost layer of surface atoms. Scanning the quantum wavelength associated with the motion of a massive particle by the variation of its kinetic energy allows one to apply interferometric concepts to surface analysis based on the scattering of fast atoms.
Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.
Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu
2016-05-01
Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots.
A Fast Measurement based fixed-point Quantum Search Algorithm
Mani, Ashish
2011-01-01
Generic quantum search algorithm searches for target entity in an unsorted database by repeatedly applying canonical Grover's quantum rotation transform to reach near the vicinity of the target entity represented by a basis state in the Hilbert space associated with the qubits. Thus, when qubits are measured, there is a high probability of finding the target entity. However, the number of times quantum rotation transform is to be applied for reaching near the vicinity of the target is a function of the number of target entities present in the unsorted database, which is generally unknown. A wrong estimate of the number of target entities can lead to overshooting or undershooting the targets, thus reducing the success probability. Some proposals have been made to overcome this limitation. These proposals either employ quantum counting to estimate the number of solutions or fixed point schemes. This paper proposes a new scheme for stopping the application of quantum rotation transformation on reaching near the ...
Universal short-time quantum critical dynamics in imaginary time
Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan
2014-04-01
We propose a scaling theory for the universal imaginary-time quantum critical dynamics for both short and long times. We discover that there exists a universal critical initial slip related to a small initial order parameter M0. In this stage, the order parameter M increases with the imaginary time τ as M ∝M0τθ with a universal initial-slip exponent θ. For the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model, we estimate θ to be 0.373, which is markedly distinct from its classical counterpart. Apart from the local order parameter, we also show that the entanglement entropy exhibits universal behavior in the short-time region. As the critical exponents in the early stage and in equilibrium are identical, we apply the short-time dynamics method to determine quantum critical properties. The method is generally applicable in both the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm and topological phase transitions.
The Origin of our Universe: From Quantum to Cosmos
Hertog, Thomas
2016-03-01
The discovery in the late 1920s that our universe expands fundamentally changed the discussion about its origin. I first review the scientific, historical and philosophical background behind this discovery. A key player in this was Georges Lemaitre who was also a Catholic priest. Respecting meticulously the differences in methodology and language between science and religion he was first to conceive of a physical origin of our universe, based on quantum theory. Today Lemaitre's vision is realised concretely in inflationary cosmology where a phase of rapid expansion generates the seeds for a complex universe starting from a simple natural beginning. A fuzzy quantum origin however gives rise to a multiverse of possible universes. I discuss some of the challenges associated with the development of a truly predictive multiverse cosmology that is falsifiable to observers within one of its histories.
Euclidean Quantum Mechanics and Universal Nonlinear Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhashyam Balaji
2009-02-01
Full Text Available An important problem in applied science is the continuous nonlinear filtering problem, i.e., the estimation of a Langevin state that is observed indirectly. In this paper, it is shown that Euclidean quantum mechanics is closely related to the continuous nonlinear filtering problem. The key is the configuration space Feynman path integral representation of the fundamental solution of a Fokker-Planck type of equation termed the Yau Equation of continuous-continuous filtering. A corollary is the equivalence between nonlinear filtering problem and a time-varying Schr¨odinger equation.
Singularity avoidance in quantum Mixmaster universe
Bergeron, Hervé; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2015-01-01
We present the quantization of the vacuum Bianchi IX model. Using a compound quantization procedure (based on affine coherent states and Weyl quantization) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we develop a complete analytical treatment on the semi-classical level. The resolution of the classical singularity occurs due to a repulsive potential generated by the affine quantization. This procedure shows that during contraction the quantum energy of anisotropic degrees of freedom grows much slower than the classical one. Our treatment is put in the general context of methods of molecular physics which include both adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) and non-adiabatic (vibronic) approximations.
Quantum creation and inflationary universes a critical appraisal
Coule, D H
2000-01-01
We contrast the possibility of inflation starting a) from the universe's inception or b) from an earlier non-inflationary state. Neither case is ideal since a) assumes quantum mechanical reasoning is straightforwardly applicable to the early universe; while case b) requires that a singularity still be present. Further, in agreement with Vachaspati and Trodden [1] case b) can only solve the horizon problem if the non-inflationary phase has equation of state $\\gamma<4/3$.
Universal Quantum Cloning Machines for Two Identical Mixed Qubits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Shuai; ZHAO Mei-Sheng; LIU Nai-Le; CHEN Zeng-Bing
2007-01-01
We present a series of universal quantum cloning machines for two identical mixed qubits. Every machine is optimal in the sense that it achieves the optimal bound of the single copy shrinking factor. Unlike in the case of pure state cloning, the single copy shrinking factor does not uniquely determine the cloning map in the case of mixed state cloning.
The Magic of Universal Quantum Computing with Permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Planat
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The role of permutation gates for universal quantum computing is investigated. The “magic” of computation is clarified in the permutation gates, their eigenstates, the Wootters discrete Wigner function, and state-dependent contextuality (following many contributions on this subject. A first classification of a few types of resulting magic states in low dimensions d≤9 is performed.
Classical and Quantum Theory of Perturbations in Inflationary Universe Models
Brandenberger, R H; Mukhanov, V
1993-01-01
A brief introduction to the gauge invariant classical and quantum theory of cosmological perturbations is given. The formalism is applied to inflationary Universe models and yields a consistent and unified description of the generation and evolution of fluctuations. A general formula for the amplitude of cosmological perturbations in inflationary cosmology is derived.
Evolving Quantum-Universe Aggregates: A Theory of Every 'Thing'
Chew, Geoffrey F
2016-01-01
'Quc' here stands for 'quantum-universe constituent'. A quc's 3-vector momentum 'Dirac-displaces' its location in a curved Riemannian space; a quc's energy Dirac-boosts its rapidity. No quc is a 'thing' but quc-aggregates (photons, electrons, quarks, molecules, stars, galaxies...), via aggregating Noether-conserved quc attributes, enable human language and (Popper) science.
Squeezing of thermal and quantum fluctuations: Universal features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensmark, Henrik; Flensberg, Karsten
1993-01-01
We study the classical and quantum fluctuations of a general damped forced oscillator close to a bifurcation instability. Near the instability point, the fluctuations are strongly phase correlated and are squeezed. In the limit of low damping, it is shown that the system has universal features wh...
Causality and universality in low-energy quantum scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammer, H.-W., E-mail: hammer@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Lee, Dean [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)
2009-11-16
We generalize Wigner's causality bounds and Bethe's integral formula for the effective range to arbitrary dimension and arbitrary angular momentum. Moreover, we discuss the impact of these constraints on the separation of low- and high-momentum scales and universality in low-energy quantum scattering.
New Dynamical Scaling Universality for Quantum Networks Across Adiabatic Quantum Phase Transitions
Acevedo, Oscar L.; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil F.; Rey, Ana M.
2014-05-01
We reveal universal dynamical scaling behavior across adiabatic quantum phase transitions in networks ranging from traditional spatial systems (Ising model) to fully connected ones (Dicke and Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models). Our findings, which lie beyond traditional critical exponent analysis and adiabatic perturbation approximations, are applicable even where excitations have not yet stabilized and, hence, provide a time-resolved understanding of quantum phase transitions encompassing a wide range of adiabatic regimes. We show explicitly that even though two systems may traditionally belong to the same universality class, they can have very different adiabatic evolutions. This implies that more stringent conditions need to be imposed than at present, both for quantum simulations where one system is used to simulate the other and for adiabatic quantum computing schemes.
Polymer Quantum Dynamics of the Taub Universe
Battisti, Marco Valerio; Montani, Giovanni
2008-01-01
Within the framework of non-standard (Weyl) representations of the canonical commutation relations, we investigate the polymer quantization of the Taub cosmological model. The Taub model is analyzed within the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner reduction of its dynamics, by which a time variable arises. While the energy variable and its conjugate momentum are treated as ordinary Heisenberg operators, the anisotropy variable and its conjugate momentum are represented by the polymer technique. The model is analyzed at both classical and quantum level. As a result, classical trajectories flatten with respect to the potential wall, and the cosmological singularity is not probabilistically removed. In fact, the dynamics of the wave packets is characterized by an interference phenomenon, which, however, is not able to stop the evolution towards the classical singularity.
The quantum state of the universe from deformation quantization and classical-quantum correlation
Rashki, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.
2017-02-01
In this paper we study the quantum cosmology of homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, via the Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of phase space quantization, with perfect fluid as a matter source. The corresponding quantum cosmology is described by the Moyal-Wheeler-DeWitt equation which has exact solutions in Moyal phase space, resulting in Wigner quasiprobability distribution functions peaking around the classical paths for large values of scale factor. We show that the Wigner functions of these models are peaked around the non-singular universes with quantum modified density parameter of radiation.
A Simple n-Dimensional Intrinsically Universal Quantum Cellular Automaton
Arrighi, Pablo
2010-01-01
We describe a simple n-dimensional quantum cellular automaton (QCA) capable of simulating all others, in that the initial configuration and the forward evolution of any n-dimensional QCA can be encoded within the initial configuration of the intrinsically universal QCA. Several steps of the intrinsically universal QCA then correspond to one step of the simulated QCA. The simulation preserves the topology in the sense that each cell of the simulated QCA is encoded as a group of adjacent cells in the universal QCA.
The quantum universe: philosophical foundations and oriental medicine.
Kafatos, Menas C; Yang, Keun-Hang
2016-12-01
The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way. Common to both is the assertion that Consciousness is at the foundation of the universe and the inner core of all human beings. This view goes beyond both science and medicine and has strong philosophical foundations in Western philosophy as well as monistic systems of the East.
Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point.
Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P; Schmalian, Jörg
2014-11-28
We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.
Quantum Field Theory and Decoherence in the Early Universe
Koksma, J. F.
2011-06-01
Quantum field theory is indispensable for understanding many aspects of cosmology, both in the early Universe and today. For example, quantum processes could be paramount to understand the nature of the mysterious dark energy resulting in the Universe’s recently observed accelerated expansion. Inspired by these considerations, this PhD thesis is concerned with two aspects of quantum field theory relevant to cosmology: quantum backreaction and decoherence. Quantum backreaction is a line of research where the impact of quantum fluctuations on the background spacetime geometry in perturbative quantum gravity is investigated. The cosmological constant problem and the process of quantum backreaction are intimately related: quantum backreaction might provide us with a dynamical mechanism to effectively make the cosmological constant almost vanish. We investigate the quantum backreaction of the trace anomaly and of fermions. We find that the trace anomaly does not dynamically influence the effective value of the cosmological constant. We furthermore evaluate the fermion propagator in FLRW spacetimes with constant deceleration. Although the dynamics resulting from the one-loop stress-energy tensor need yet to be investigated, we find that we certainly cannot exclude a significant effect due to the quantum backreaction on the Universe’s expansion. Decoherence is a quantum theory which addresses the quantum-to-classical transition of a particular system. The idea of the decoherence formalism is that a macroscopic system cannot be separated from its environment. The framework of decoherence is widely used, e.g. in quantum computing, black hole physics, inflationary perturbation theory, and in elementary particle physics, such as electroweak baryogenesis models. We formulate a novel “correlator approach” to decoherence: neglecting observationally inaccessible correlators gives rise to an increase in entropy of the system, as perceived by an observer. This is inspired
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Quantum chaos on discrete graphs
Smilansky, Uzy
2007-07-01
Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76).
Fast Escape from Quantum Mazes in Integrated Photonics
Caruso, Filippo; Ciriolo, Anna Gabriella; Sciarrino, Fabio; Osellame, Roberto
2015-01-01
Escaping from a complex maze, by exploring different paths with several decision-making branches in order to reach the exit, has always been a very challenging and fascinating task. Wave field and quantum objects may explore a complex structure in parallel by interference effects, but without necessarily leading to more efficient transport. Here, inspired by recent observations in biological energy transport phenomena, we demonstrate how a quantum walker can efficiently reach the output of a maze by partially suppressing the presence of interference. In particular, we show theoretically an unprecedented improvement in transport efficiency for increasing maze size with respect to purely quantum and classical approaches. In addition, we investigate experimentally these hybrid transport phenomena, by mapping the maze problem in an integrated waveguide array, probed by coherent light, hence successfully testing our theoretical results. These achievements may lead towards future bio-inspired photonics technologies...
Fast Optically Driven Spin Qubit Gates in an InAs Quantum Dot
2010-01-01
epitaxy. The sample is placed in a magneto cryostat to enable operating temperatures of approximately 5 K. Optical excitation through 1μm diameter...Reinecke and D. Gammon, “ Optical Spin Initialization and Nondestructive Measurement in a Quantum Dot Molecule ”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 236804 (2008) 12...Theory of Fast Optical Spin Rotation in a Quantum Dot Based on Geometric Phases and Trapped States”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 217401 (2007) 16. Y
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper
2011-01-01
In this paper we review our theoretical work on slow and fast light effects in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD SOAs), in particular we investigate the carrier dynamical contributions to the dynamic gain grating and cross gain modulation induced by unique ultrafast inter...... in microwave photonics, especially targeting the millimeter wave range, we propose that quantum dot devices might be used to realize an optically fed microwave phase shifter in the frequency range of 100GHz....
Quantum leap from Dirac and Feynman, across the universe, to human body and mind
Ivancevic, Vladimir G
2008-01-01
This is a unique 21st-century monograph that reveals a basic, yet deep understanding of the universe, as well as the human mind and body - all from the perspective of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.This book starts with both non-mathematical and mathematical preliminaries. It presents the basics of both non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, and introduces Feynman path integrals and their application to quantum fields and string theory, as well as some non-quantum applications. It then describes the quantum universe in the form of loop quantum gravity and quantum cosm
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
We propose a modification of the Standard Hot Big Bang Cosmology (SHBBC), in which the Universe is flat, quantum matter dominated, and accelerating. The total energy density of the Universe is taken to be the sum of two terms: the quantum contributions from vacuum and plus an additional quantum (ghost) term (with negative pressure) which is responsible of the dominant driver of expansion at a late epoch of the Universe. When the new term dominates, the scalar factor varies as R propto t^frac{4}{3} (Accelerating Flat Ghost Universe). The quantum energy density required to close the Ghost Universe is found to be much smaller than in SHBBC, so that quantum matter can be sufficient to provide a flat geometry. Quantum matter particles interactions are interpreted as a quantum fifth force and it is found to vary as $F(r)\\propto r^{1/2}$.
Fast Quantum Algorithms for Numerical Integrals and Stochastic Processes
Abrams, D.; Williams, C.
1999-01-01
We discuss quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and descriptive statistics of stochastic processes. With either of two distinct approaches, one obtains an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algotithms and a quadratic speed increase incomparison to classical Monte Carlo methods.
What can quantum cosmology say about the inflationary universe?
Calcagni, Gianluca; Steinwachs, Christian F
2015-01-01
We propose a method to extract predictions from quantum cosmology for inflation that can be confronted with observations. Employing the tunneling boundary condition in quantum geometrodynamics, we derive a probability distribution for the inflaton field. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as setting the initial conditions for the subsequent phase of inflation. In this way, the peak sets the energy scale at which the inflationary phase has started. This energy scale must be consistent with the energy scale found from the inflationary potential and with the scale found from a potential observation of primordial gravitational waves. Demanding a consistent history of the universe from its quantum origin to its present state, which includes decoherence, we derive a condition that allows one to constrain the parameter space of the underlying model of inflation. We demonstrate our method by applying it to two models: Higgs inflation and natural inflation.
Universality of spectra for interacting quantum chaotic systems
Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Juergen; Zyczkowski, Karol
2010-01-01
We analyze a model quantum dynamical system subjected to periodic interaction with an environment, which can describe quantum measurements. Under the condition of strong classical chaos and strong decoherence due to large coupling with the measurement device, the spectra of the evolution operator exhibit an universal behavior. A generic spectrum consists of a single eigenvalue equal to unity, which corresponds to the invariant state of the system, while all other eigenvalues are contained in a disk in the complex plane. Its radius depends on the number of the Kraus measurement operators, and determines the speed with which an arbitrary initial state converges to the unique invariant state. These spectral properties are characteristic of an ensemble of random quantum maps, which in turn can be described by an ensemble of real random Ginibre matrices. This will be proven in the limit of large dimension.
Complex Quantum Networks: From Universal Breakdown to Optimal Transport
Muelken, Oliver; Galiceanu, Mircea
2015-01-01
We show that all sequentially growing networks yield the same universal behavior at the breakdown of single-particle quantum transport. For this, we study the global time-averaged transport efficiency of excitations on complex quantum networks. Further, we observe the transition to optimal transport by starting from a network with complete-graph-like sequential subgraphs and systematically reducing the number of loops. These effects are explained on the basis of the spectral properties of the network's Hamiltonian. Our theoretical considerations are supported by numerical Monte-Carlo simulations for complex quantum networks with a scale-free size distribution of sequential subgraphs and a small-world-type transition to optimal transport.
The universe a view from quantum and classical gravity
Bojowald, Martin
2012-01-01
Written by a well-known published author in the field of cosmology and quantum gravity, this book is an accessible introduction to the crucial theoretical ingredients to understand the universe, from the physics of Newton and developing subsequent theories all the way to the modern enigma of quantum gravity. This book assumes only a general knowledge of maths and physics, with a "two-level" approach. Equations will be kept throughout the chapters but set apart from the main text using boxes to allow for lay persons to understand the book. A useful reference for scientists, researchers, students and lecturers in cosmology, astronomy, gravitation-, quantum- and theoretical physics; also for mathematicians, and students, lecturers, academics and lay persons in related fields with interest in the field.
2011-01-01
We observe a Quantum Brownian Motion (QBM) Model Universe in conjunction with recently established Entanglement Relativity and Parallel Occurrence of Decoherence. The Parallel Occurrence of Decoherence establishes the simultaneous occurrence of decoherence for two mutually irreducible structures (decomposition into subsystems) of the total QBM model universe. First we find that Everett world branching for one structure excludes branching for the alternate structure and in order to reconcile t...
A Geometric Algebra Perspective On Quantum Computational Gates And Universality In Quantum Computing
Cafaro, Carlo
2010-01-01
We investigate the utility of geometric (Clifford) algebras (GA) methods in two specific applications to quantum information science. First, using the multiparticle spacetime algebra (MSTA, the geometric algebra of a relativistic configuration space), we present an explicit algebraic description of one and two-qubit quantum states together with a MSTA characterization of one and two-qubit quantum computational gates. Second, using the above mentioned characterization and the GA description of the Lie algebras SO(3) and SU(2) based on the rotor group Spin+(3, 0) formalism, we reexamine Boykin's proof of universality of quantum gates. We conclude that the MSTA approach does lead to a useful conceptual unification where the complex qubit space and the complex space of unitary operators acting on them become united, with both being made just by multivectors in real space. Finally, the GA approach to rotations based on the rotor group does bring conceptual and computational advantages compared to standard vectoria...
Fast scheme for generating quantum-interference states and G HZ state of N trapped ions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Cai Jian-Wu; Cao Shuai
2007-01-01
We propose a fast scheme to generate the quantum-interference states of N trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are driven by a standing-wave laser beam whose carrier frequency is tuned such that the ion transition can take place.We also propose a simple and fast scheme to produce the GHZ state of N hot trapped ions and this scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational motion, which is important from the viewpoint of decoherence.
Classical limit of quantum gravity in an accelerating universe
Schuller, F P; Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2005-01-01
A one-parameter deformation of Einstein-Hilbert gravity with an inverse curvature term is derived as the classical limit of quantum gravity compatible with an accelerating universe. This result is based on the investigation of semi-classical theories with sectional curvature bounds which are shown not to admit static black holes if otherwise of phenomenological interest. Consequences for classical gravity and the canonical quantization program are briefly discussed.
Classical limit of quantum gravity in an accelerating universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuller, Frederic P. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo N2L 2Y5 (Canada)]. E-mail: fschuller@perimeterinstitute.ca; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de
2005-04-21
A one-parameter deformation of Einstein-Hilbert gravity with an inverse Riemann curvature term is derived as the classical limit of quantum gravity compatible with an accelerating universe. This result is based on the investigation of semi-classical theories with sectional curvature bounds which are shown not to admit static spherically symmetric black holes if otherwise of phenomenological interest. We discuss the impact on the canonical quantization of gravity, and observe that worldsheet string theory is not affected.
Universal clusters as building blocks of stable quantum matter
Endo, Shimpei; García-García, Antonio M.; Naidon, Pascal
2016-05-01
We present an exploratory study that suggests that Efimov physics, a leading research theme in few-body quantum physics, can also induce stable many-body ground states whose building blocks are universal clusters. We identify a range of parameters in a mass-and-density-imbalanced two-species fermionic mixture for which the ground state is a gas of Efimov-related universal trimers. An explicit calculation of the trimer-trimer interaction reveals that the trimer phase is an SU(3) Fermi liquid stable against recombination losses. We propose to experimentally observe this phase in a fermionic 53Cr-6Li mixture.
Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes
Williams Colin P.
1999-01-01
Stochastic processes are used as a modeling tool in several sub-fields of physics, biology, and finance. Analytic understanding of the long term behavior of such processes is only tractable for very simple types of stochastic processes such as Markovian processes. However, in real world applications more complex stochastic processes often arise. In physics, the complicating factor might be nonlinearities; in biology it might be memory effects; and in finance is might be the non-random intentional behavior of participants in a market. In the absence of analytic insight, one is forced to understand these more complex stochastic processes via numerical simulation techniques. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm for performing such simulations. In particular, we show how a quantum algorithm can predict arbitrary descriptive statistics (moments) of N-step stochastic processes in just O(square root of N) time. That is, the quantum complexity is the square root of the classical complexity for performing such simulations. This is a significant speedup in comparison to the current state of the art.
Using Concatenated Quantum Codes for Universal Fault-Tolerant Quantum Gates
Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond
2014-01-01
We propose a method for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using concatenated quantum error correcting codes. The concatenation scheme exploits the transversal properties of two different codes, combining them to provide a means to protect against low-weight arbitrary errors. We give the required properties of the error correcting codes to ensure universal fault tolerance and discuss a particular example using the 7-qubit Steane and 15-qubit Reed-Muller codes. Namely, other than computational basis state preparation as required by the DiVincenzo criteria, our scheme requires no special ancillary state preparation to achieve universality, as opposed to schemes such as magic state distillation. We believe that optimizing the codes used in such a scheme could provide a useful alternative to state distillation schemes that exhibit high overhead costs.
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Petrasiunas, Matthew Joseph; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, André R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David
2016-07-25
Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb+ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.
Learning algorithm and application of quantum BP neural networks based on universal quantum gates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A quantum BP neural networks model with learning algorithm is proposed.First,based on the universality of single qubit rotation gate and two-qubit controlled-NOT gate,a quantum neuron model is constructed,which is composed of input,phase rotation,aggregation,reversal rotation and output.In this model,the input is described by qubits,and the output is given by the probability of the state in which |1＞ is observed.The phase rotation and the reversal rotation are performed by the universal quantum gates.Secondly,the quantum BP neural networks model is constructed,in which the output layer and the hide layer are quantum neurons.With the application of the gradient descent algorithm,a learning algorithm of the model is proposed,and the continuity of the model is proved.It is shown that this model and algorithm are superior to the conventional BP networks in three aspects: convergence speed,convergence rate and robustness,by two application examples of pattern recognition and function approximation.
Quantum phase transitions in an effective Hamiltonian: fast and slow systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sainz, I [School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Roa, L [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx
2008-09-05
An effective Hamiltonian describing interaction between generic fast and slow systems is obtained in the strong interaction limit. The result is applied for studying the effect of quantum phase transition as a bifurcation of the ground state of the slow subsystem. Examples such as atom-field and atom-atom interactions are analyzed in detail.
A Hybrid Quantum Search Engine: A Fast Quantum Algorithm for Multiple Matches
Younes, A; Miller, J; Younes, Ahmed; Rowe, Jon; Miller, Julian
2003-01-01
In this paper we will present a quantum algorithm which works very efficiently in case of multiple matches within the search space and in the case of few matches, the algorithm performs classically. This allows us to propose a hybrid quantum search engine that integrates Grover's algorithm and the proposed algorithm here to have general performance better that any pure classical or quantum search algorithm.
Fast and accurate calculation of dilute quantum gas using Uehling-Uhlenbeck model equation
Yano, Ryosuke
2017-02-01
The Uehling-Uhlenbeck (U-U) model equation is studied for the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas. In particular, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to solve the U-U model equation. DSMC analysis based on the U-U model equation is expected to enable the thermalization to be accurately obtained using a small number of sample particles and the dilute quantum gas dynamics to be calculated in a practical time. Finally, the applicability of DSMC analysis based on the U-U model equation to the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas is confirmed by calculating the viscosity coefficient of a Bose gas on the basis of the Green-Kubo expression and the shock layer of a dilute Bose gas around a cylinder.
Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2012-01-01
We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...
Fast quantum-optical random-number generators
Durt, Thomas; Belmonte, Carlos; Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Panajotov, Krassimir; Van den Berghe, Frederik; Thienpont, Hugo
2013-02-01
In this paper we study experimentally the properties of three types of quantum -optical random-number generators and characterize them using the available National Institute for Standards and Technology statistical tests, as well as four alternate tests. The generators are characterized by a trade-off between, on one hand, the rate of generation of random bits and, on the other hand, the degree of randomness of the series which they deliver. We describe various techniques aimed at maximizing this rate without diminishing the quality (degree of randomness) of the series generated by it.
Quantum Rényi relative entropies affirm universality of thermodynamics
Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Rajagopal, A. K.
2015-10-01
We formulate a complete theory of quantum thermodynamics in the Rényi entropic formalism exploiting the Rényi relative entropies, starting from the maximum entropy principle. In establishing the first and second laws of quantum thermodynamics, we have correctly identified accessible work and heat exchange in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases. The free energy (internal energy minus temperature times entropy) remains unaltered, when all the entities entering this relation are suitably defined. Exploiting Rényi relative entropies we have shown that this "form invariance" holds even beyond equilibrium and has profound operational significance in isothermal process. These results reduce to the Gibbs-von Neumann results when the Rényi entropic parameter α approaches 1. Moreover, it is shown that the universality of the Carnot statement of the second law is the consequence of the form invariance of the free energy, which is in turn the consequence of maximum entropy principle. Further, the Clausius inequality, which is the precursor to the Carnot statement, is also shown to hold based on the data processing inequalities for the traditional and sandwiched Rényi relative entropies. Thus, we find that the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium state and its deviation from equilibrium together determine the thermodynamic laws. This is another important manifestation of the concepts of information theory in thermodynamics when they are extended to the quantum realm. Our work is a substantial step towards formulating a complete theory of quantum thermodynamics and corresponding resource theory.
Quantum Rényi relative entropies affirm universality of thermodynamics.
Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Rajagopal, A K
2015-10-01
We formulate a complete theory of quantum thermodynamics in the Rényi entropic formalism exploiting the Rényi relative entropies, starting from the maximum entropy principle. In establishing the first and second laws of quantum thermodynamics, we have correctly identified accessible work and heat exchange in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases. The free energy (internal energy minus temperature times entropy) remains unaltered, when all the entities entering this relation are suitably defined. Exploiting Rényi relative entropies we have shown that this "form invariance" holds even beyond equilibrium and has profound operational significance in isothermal process. These results reduce to the Gibbs-von Neumann results when the Rényi entropic parameter α approaches 1. Moreover, it is shown that the universality of the Carnot statement of the second law is the consequence of the form invariance of the free energy, which is in turn the consequence of maximum entropy principle. Further, the Clausius inequality, which is the precursor to the Carnot statement, is also shown to hold based on the data processing inequalities for the traditional and sandwiched Rényi relative entropies. Thus, we find that the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium state and its deviation from equilibrium together determine the thermodynamic laws. This is another important manifestation of the concepts of information theory in thermodynamics when they are extended to the quantum realm. Our work is a substantial step towards formulating a complete theory of quantum thermodynamics and corresponding resource theory.
Intrinsically universal n-dimensional quantum cellular automata
Arrighi, Pablo
2009-01-01
We describe an n-dimensional quantum cellular automaton (QCA) capable of simulating all others, in that the initial configuration and the forward evolution of any n-dimensional QCA can be encoded within the initial configuration of the universal QCA. Several steps of the universal QCA then correspond to one step of the simulated QCA. The simulation preserves the topology in the sense that each cell of the simulated QCA is encoded as a group of adjacent cells in the universal QCA. The encoding is linear and hence does not carry any of the cost of the computation. Part of our proof consists of showing that any QCA can be presented in the more canonical, operational form of a Partitioned QCA, thereby showing an equivalence between many definitions of QCA that are present in the literature.
Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip
Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-01-01
The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135
A fast quantum algorithm for the affine Boolean function identification
Younes, Ahmed
2015-02-01
Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm (the one-query algorithm) can identify a completely specified linear Boolean function using a single query to the oracle with certainty. The first aim of the paper is to show that if the provided Boolean function is affine, then one more query to the oracle (the two-query algorithm) is required to identify the affinity of the function with certainty. The second aim of the paper is to show that if the provided Boolean function is incompletely defined, then the one-query and the two-query algorithms can be used as bounded-error quantum polynomial algorithms to identify certain classes of incompletely defined linear and affine Boolean functions respectively with probability of success at least 2/3.
Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2012-01-01
the need for classical communication during growth. Entanglement is generated in subsequent connection processes. Furthermore the growth procedure is optimized. We review the main elements of the original protocol and present the two modifications. Finally the two protocols are compared and the modified......We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...
Universal quantum computation using all-optical hybrid encoding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭奇; 程留永; 王洪福; 张寿
2015-01-01
By employing displacement operations, single-photon subtractions, and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we propose an alternative way of implementing several universal quantum logical gates for all-optical hybrid qubits encoded in both single-photon polarization state and coherent state. Since these schemes can be straightforwardly implemented only using local operations without teleportation procedure, therefore, less physical resources and simpler operations are required than the existing schemes. With the help of displacement operations, a large phase shift of the coherent state can be obtained via currently available tiny cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Thus, all of these schemes are nearly deterministic and feasible under current technology conditions, which makes them suitable for large-scale quantum computing.
On-shell Techniques and Universal Results in Quantum Gravity
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Vanhove, Pierre
2013-01-01
We compute the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the Coulomb and Newtonian potentials using the full modern arsenal of on-shell techniques; we employ spinor-helicity variables everywhere, use the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations to derive gravity amplitudes from gauge theory and use unitarity methods to extract the terms needed at one-loop order. We stress that our results are universal and thus will hold in any quantum theory of gravity with the same low-energy degrees of freedom as we are considering. Previous results for the corrections to the same potentials, derived historically using Feynman graphs, are verified explicitly, but our approach presents a huge simplification, since starting points for the computations are compact and tedious index contractions and various complicated integral reductions are eliminated from the onset, streamlining the derivations. We also analyze the spin dependence of the results using the KLT factorization, and show how the spinless correction in the fram...
Nonlocal quantum gravity and the size of the universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reuter, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Saueressig, F. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2004-06-01
Motivated by the conjecture that the cosmological constant problem is solved by strong quantum effects in the infrared we use the exact flow equation of Quantum Einstein Gravity to determine the renormalization group behavior of a class of nonlocal effective actions. They consist of the Einstein-Hilbert term and a general nonlinear function F{sub k}(V) of the Euclidean spacetime volume V. For the V+V ln V-invariant the renormalization group running enormously suppresses the value of the renormalized curvature which results from Planck-size parameters specified at the Planck scale. One obtains very large, i.e., almost flat universes without finetuning the cosmological constant. A critical infrared fixed point is found where gravity is scale invariant. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Effects of quantum fluctuations of metric on the universe
Yang, Rongjia
2016-09-01
We consider a model of modified gravity from the nonperturbative quantization of a metric. We obtain the modified gravitational field equations and the modified conservational equations. We apply it to the FLRW spacetime and find that due to the quantum fluctuations a bounce universe can be obtained and a decelerated expansion can also possibly be obtained in a dark energy dominated epoch. We also discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on inflation parameters (such as slow-roll parameters, spectral index, and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation) and find values of parameters in the comparing the predictions of inflation can also work to drive the current epoch of acceleration. We obtain the constraints on the parameter of the theory from the observation of the big bang nucleosynthesis.
Fast quantum control and light-matter interactions at the 10,000 quanta level
Alonso, J; Soler, Z U; Fadel, M; Marinelli, M; Keitch, B C; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-01
Fast control of quantum systems is essential in order to make use of quantum properties before they are degraded by decoherence. This is important for quantum-enhanced information processing, as well as for pushing quantum systems into macroscopic regimes at the boundary between quantum and classical physics. Bang-bang control attains the ultimate speed limit by making large changes to control fields on timescales much faster than the system can respond, however these methods are often challenging to implement experimentally. Here we demonstrate bang-bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator using nano-second switching of the trapping potentials. We perform controlled displacements which allow us to realize quantum states with up to 10,000 quanta of energy. We use these displaced states to verify the form of the ion-light interaction at high excitations which are far outside the usual regime of operation. These methods provide new possibilities for quantum-state manipulation and generation, alongside the poten...
Asymptotic teleportation scheme as a universal programmable quantum processor.
Ishizaka, Satoshi; Hiroshima, Tohya
2008-12-12
We consider a scheme of quantum teleportation where a receiver has multiple (N) output ports and obtains the teleported state by merely selecting one of the N ports according to the outcome of the sender's measurement. We demonstrate that such teleportation is possible by showing an explicit protocol where N pairs of maximally entangled qubits are employed. The optimal measurement performed by a sender is the square-root measurement, and a perfect teleportation fidelity is asymptotically achieved for a large N limit. Such asymptotic teleportation can be utilized as a universal programmable processor.
Clifford algebras, noncommutative tori and universal quantum computers
Vlasov, A Yu
2001-01-01
Recently author suggested [quant-ph/0010071] an application of Clifford algebras for construction of a "compiler" for universal binary quantum computer together with later development [quant-ph/0012009] of the similar idea for a non-binary base. The non-binary case is related with application of some extension of idea of Clifford algebras. It is noncommutative torus defined by polynomial algebraic relations of order l. For l=2 it coincides with definition of Clifford algebra. Here is presented the joint consideration and comparison of both cases together with some discussion on possible physical consequences.
A universal coherent source for quantum key distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG ShengLi; ZOU XuBo; LI ChuanFeng; JIN ChenHui; GUO GuangCan
2009-01-01
We propose a concept of universal coherent source for quantum key distribution. The weak coherent pulse (WCP) and heralded single photon source (HSPS) are the most common photon sources for state-of-art quantum key distribution (QKD). However, there exists a prominent crossover between the maximal secure distance and the secure key generating rate in short and middle distance if one applies these two sources in a practical decoy state quantum key distribution. It is shown that by combining the heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) photon source and the practical decoy state method together, one can not only strengthen the maximal secure transmission distance, but also improve key generat-ing rate at short and medium distance. Moreover, the advancement in key generating is not confined in the particular protocol utilized and can be easily checked for both BB84 and SARG protocol. Finally, we clearly demonstrate how the HPCS-based decoy method works effectively and feasibly by proposing an efficient HPCS-based "1 signal+2 decoy" state method.
2011-07-01
WE RECOMMEND Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Fun fly stick introduces electrostatics to youngsters Special Relativity Text makes a useful addition to the study of relativity as an undergraduate LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition LabVIEW sets industry standard for gathering and analysing data, signal processing, instrumentation design and control, and automation and robotics Edison and Ford Winter Estates Thomas Edison's home is open to the public The Computer History Museum Take a walk through technology history at this computer museum WORTH A LOOK Fast Car Physics Book races through physics Beautiful Invisible The main subject of this book is theoretical physics Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You A guide to physics on the large and small scale Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book explores the mathematics behind chaotic behaviour Seven Wonders of the Universe A textual trip through the wonderful universe HANDLE WITH CARE Marie Curie: A Biography Book fails to capture Curie's science WEB WATCH Web clips to liven up science lessons
Slow and fast dynamics of gain and phase in a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier.
Vallaitis, T; Koos, C; Bonk, R; Freude, W; Laemmlin, M; Meuer, C; Bimberg, D; Leuthold, J
2008-01-07
Gain and phase dynamics in InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers are investigated. It is shown that gain recovery is dominated by fast processes, whereas phase recovery is dominated by slow processes. Relative strengths and time constants of the underlying processes are measured. We find that operation at high bias currents optimizes the performance for nonlinear cross-gain signal processing if a low chirp is required.
Fast and Straightforward Synthesis of Luminescent Titanium(IV Dioxide Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav Štengl
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The nucleus of titania was prepared by reaction of solution titanium oxosulphate with hydrazine hydrate. These titania nuclei were used for titania quantum dots synthesis by a simple and fast method. The prepared titanium(IV dioxide quantum dots were characterized by measurement of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The optical properties were determined by photoluminescence (PL spectra. The prepared titanium(IV dioxide quantum dots have the narrow range of UV excitation (365–400 nm and also a close range of emission maxima (450–500 nm.
Duals of coloured quantum universal enveloping algebras and coloured universal $T$-matrices
Quesne, C
1997-01-01
We extend the notion of dually conjugate Hopf (super)algebras to the coloured Hopf (super)algebras ${\\cal H}^c$ that we recently introduced. We show that if the standard Hopf (super)algebras ${\\cal H}_q$ that are the building blocks of ${\\cal H}^c$ have Hopf duals ${\\cal H}_q^*$, then the latter may be used to construct coloured Hopf duals ${\\cal H}^{c*}$, endowed with coloured algebra and antipode maps, but with a standard coalgebraic structure. Next, we review the case where the ${\\cal H}_q$'s are quantum universal enveloping algebras of Lie (super)algebras $U_q(g)$, so that the corresponding ${\\cal H}_q^*$'s are quantum (super)groups $G_q$. We extend the Fronsdal and Galindo universal ${\\cal T}$-matrix formalism to the coloured pairs $(U^c(g), G^c)$ by defining coloured universal ${\\cal T}$-matrices. We then show that together with the coloured universal $\\cal R$-matrices previously introduced, the latter provide an algebraic formulation of the coloured RTT-relations, proposed by Basu-Mallick. This establi...
Classical Universe emerging from quantum cosmology without horizon and flatness problems
Fathi, M; Moniz, P V
2016-01-01
We apply the complex de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics [1] to a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic early Universe whose matter content are radiation and dust perfect fluids. We then show that an expanding classical Universe can emerge from an oscillating (with complex scale factor) quantum Universe without singularity. Furthermore, the Universe obtained in this process has no horizon or flatness problems.
The perturbed universe in the deformed algebra approach of Loop Quantum Cosmology
Grain, J
2016-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology is a tentative approach to model the universe down to the Planck era where quantum gravity settings are needed. The quantization of the universe as a dynamical space-time is inspired by Loop Quantum Gravity ideas. In addition, loop quantum cosmology could bridge contact with astronomical observations, and thus potentially investigate quantum cosmology modellings in the light of observations. To do so however, modelling both the background evolution and its perturbations is needed. The latter describe cosmic inhomogeneities that are the main cosmological observables. In this context, we present the so-called deformed algebra approach implementing the quantum corrections to the perturbed universe at an effective level by taking great care of gauge issues. We particularly highlight that in this framework, the algebra of hypersurface deformation receives quantum corrections, and we discuss their meaning. The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor inhomogeneities are then presented, a...
Alvarenga, F G; Freitas, R C; Gonçalves, S V B
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the quantum Kantowski-Sachs model and we solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in minisuperspace to obtain the wave function of the corresponding universe. The perfect fluid is described by the Schutz's canonical formalism, which allows to attribute dynamical degrees of freedom to matter. The time is introduced phenomenologically using the fluid's degrees of freedom. In particular, we adopt a stiff matter fluid. The Kantowski-Sachs model is also presented with the introduction of so-called geometric time. Finally, the agreement between the results is analyzed and the possibility of equivalence between the two approaches is discussed.
Quantum-to-classical transition and imprints of wavefunction collapse in bouncing universes
Stargen, D Jaffino
2016-01-01
Quantum perturbations produced in the early universe are a result of an interplay of quantum field theory and gravitation. Since these perturbations lead to anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and then to inhomogeneities in the Large Scale Structure (LSS), this provides a unique opportunity to probe issues which are fundamental to our understanding of quantum physics and gravitation. One such fundamental issue is how exactly does the quantum perturbations produce something as classical as LSS. In other words, how does the quantum perturbations produced in the early universe turn classical as the universe evolves. In this work, we study certain aspects of this question in the context of tensor perturbations produced in bouncing universes. We investigate this issue mainly from two perspectives. Firstly, we approach this issue by studying the squeezing of a quantum state corresponding to the tensor perturbations using the Wigner function. Secondly, we analyze this issue from the perspective of the qu...
Universal corrections to entanglement entropy of local quantum quenches
David, Justin R; Kumar, S Prem
2016-01-01
We study the time evolution of single interval Renyi and entanglement entropies following local quantum quenches in two dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperature for which the locally excited states have a finite temporal width, \\epsilon. We show that, for local quenches produced by the action of a conformal primary field, the time dependence of Renyi and entanglement entropies at order \\epsilon^2 is universal. It is determined by the expectation value of the stress tensor in the replica geometry and proportional to the conformal dimension of the primary field generating the local excitation. We also show that in CFTs with a gravity dual, the \\epsilon^2 correction to the holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench precisely agrees with the CFT prediction. We then consider CFTs admitting a higher spin symmetry and turn on a higher spin chemical potential \\mu. We calculate the time dependence of the order \\epsilon^2 correction to the entanglement entropy for small \\mu, and show th...
Universal quantum computation in waveguide QED using decoherence free subspaces
Paulisch, V.; Kimble, H. J.; González-Tudela, A.
2016-04-01
The interaction of quantum emitters with one-dimensional photon-like reservoirs induces strong and long-range dissipative couplings that give rise to the emergence of the so-called decoherence free subspaces (DFSs) which are decoupled from dissipation. When introducing weak perturbations on the emitters, e.g., driving, the strong collective dissipation enforces an effective coherent evolution within the DFS. In this work, we show explicitly how by introducing single-site resolved drivings, we can use the effective dynamics within the DFS to design a universal set of one and two-qubit gates within the DFS of an ensemble of two-level atom-like systems. Using Liouvillian perturbation theory we calculate the scaling with the relevant figures of merit of the systems, such as the Purcell factor and imperfect control of the drivings. Finally, we compare our results with previous proposals using atomic Λ systems in leaky cavities.
Universality at Breakdown of Quantum Transport on Complex Networks.
Kulvelis, Nikolaj; Dolgushev, Maxim; Mülken, Oliver
2015-09-18
We consider single-particle quantum transport on parametrized complex networks. Based on general arguments regarding the spectrum of the corresponding Hamiltonian, we derive bounds for a measure of the global transport efficiency defined by the time-averaged return probability. For treelike networks, we show analytically that a transition from efficient to inefficient transport occurs depending on the (average) functionality of the nodes of the network. In the infinite system size limit, this transition can be characterized by an exponent which is universal for all treelike networks. Our findings are corroborated by analytic results for specific deterministic networks, dendrimers and Vicsek fractals, and by Monte Carlo simulations of iteratively built scale-free trees.
Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation
Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.
2013-10-01
Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.
Duality Theory and Categorical Universal Logic: With Emphasis on Quantum Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshihiro Maruyama
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Categorical Universal Logic is a theory of monad-relativised hyperdoctrines (or fibred universal algebras, which in particular encompasses categorical forms of both first-order and higher-order quantum logics as well as classical, intuitionistic, and diverse substructural logics. Here we show there are those dual adjunctions that have inherent hyperdoctrine structures in their predicate functor parts. We systematically investigate into the categorical logics of dual adjunctions by utilising Johnstone-Dimov-Tholen's duality-theoretic framework. Our set-theoretical duality-based hyperdoctrines for quantum logic have both universal and existential quantifiers (and higher-order structures, giving rise to a universe of Takeuti-Ozawa's quantum sets via the tripos-to-topos construction by Hyland-Johnstone-Pitts. The set-theoretical hyperdoctrinal models of quantum logic, as well as all quantum hyperdoctrines with cartesian base categories, turn out to give sound and complete semantics for Faggian-Sambin's first-order quantum sequent calculus over cartesian type theory; in addition, quantum hyperdoctrines with monoidal base categories are sound and complete for the calculus over linear type theory. We finally consider how to reconcile Birkhoff-von Neumann's quantum logic and Abramsky-Coecke's categorical quantum mechanics (which is modernised quantum logic as an antithesis to the traditional one via categorical universal logic.
Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins.
Zu, C; Wang, W-B; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Dai, C-Y; Wang, F; Duan, L-M
2014-10-02
Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an 'all-geometric' approach to quantum computation, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies, from geometric transformation of quantum states in the Hilbert space. Apart from its fundamental interest and rich mathematical structure, the geometric approach has some built-in noise-resilience features. On the experimental side, geometric phases and holonomies have been observed in thermal ensembles of liquid molecules using nuclear magnetic resonance; however, such systems are known to be non-scalable for the purposes of quantum computing. There are proposals to implement geometric quantum computation in scalable experimental platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting quantum bits and quantum dots, and a recent experiment has realized geometric single-bit gates in a superconducting system. Here we report the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using the solid-state spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres. These diamond defects provide a scalable experimental platform with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing, which has attracted strong interest in recent years. Our experiment shows that all-geometric and potentially robust quantum computation can be realized with solid-state spin quantum bits, making use of recent advances in the coherent control of this system.
Universal corrections to entanglement entropy of local quantum quenches
David, Justin R.; Khetrapal, Surbhi; Kumar, S. Prem
2016-08-01
We study the time evolution of single interval Rényi and entanglement entropies following local quantum quenches in two dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperature for which the locally excited states have a finite temporal width ɛ. We show that, for local quenches produced by the action of a conformal primary field, the time dependence of Rényi and entanglement entropies at order ɛ2 is universal. It is determined by the expectation value of the stress tensor in the replica geometry and proportional to the conformal dimension of the primary field generating the local excitation. We also show that in CFTs with a gravity dual, the ɛ2 correction to the holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench precisely agrees with the CFT prediction. We then consider CFTs admitting a higher spin symmetry and turn on a higher spin chemical potential μ. We calculate the time dependence of the order ɛ2 correction to the entanglement entropy for small μ, and show that the contribution at order μ 2 is universal. We verify our arguments against exact results for minimal models and the free fermion theory.
Evaluation of the Fast-Food Consumption Habits of Students at Gaziosmanpasa University
Murat SAYILI; Bilge GÖZENER
2013-01-01
Aim of this study was to investigate the fast-food consumption habits of students at Gaziosmanpasa University and factors affecting the consumption habits were determined by chi-square analyses. In addition, factor analysis was performed to obtain the students' thoughts on the location of fast-food consumption. The data obtained through questionnaires conducted with 297 students in April-May 2010 period were used. According to the survey results, most of the students (71,38%) consume fas...
Fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography with error detection
Lai, Hong; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Lei; Li, Shudong; Orgun, Mehmet A.
2017-04-01
Quantum cryptography is commonly used to generate fresh secure keys with quantum signal transmission for instant use between two parties. However, research shows that the relatively low key generation rate hinders its practical use where a symmetric cryptography component consumes the shared key. That is, the security of the symmetric cryptography demands frequent rate of key updates, which leads to a higher consumption of the internal one-time-pad communication bandwidth, since it requires the length of the key to be as long as that of the secret. In order to alleviate these issues, we develop a matrix algorithm for fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography. Our scheme can achieve secure private communication with fresh keys generated from Fibonacci- and Lucas- valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for the seed to construct recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. Moreover, the proposed matrix algorithm for quantum cryptography can ultimately be simplified to matrix multiplication, which is implemented and optimized in modern computers. Most importantly, considerably information capacity can be improved effectively and efficiently by the recursive property of Fibonacci and Lucas matrices, thereby avoiding the restriction of physical conditions, such as the communication bandwidth.
Fast Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Simple Organic Liquids under Shock Compression
Cawkwell, Marc; Niklasson, Anders; Manner, Virginia; McGrane, Shawn; Dattelbaum, Dana
2013-06-01
The responses of liquid formic acid, acrylonitrile, and nitromethane to shock compression have been studied using quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations with the self-consistent tight-binding code LATTE. Microcanonical Born-Oppenheimer trajectories with precise energy conservation were computed without relying on an iterative self-consistent field optimization of the electronic degrees of freedom at each time step via the Fast Quantum Mechanical Molecular Dynamics formalism. The input shock pressures required to initiate chemistry in our simulations agree very well with recent laser- and flyer-plate-driven shock compression experiments. On-the-fly analysis of the electronic structure of the liquids over hundreds of picoseconds after dynamic compression revealed that their reactivity is strongly correlated with the temperature and pressure dependence of their HOMO-LUMO gap.
Super fast detection of latent fingerprints with water soluble CdTe quantum dots.
Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin; Wang, Yanji; Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun
2013-03-10
A new method based on the use of highly fluorescent water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was explored to develop latent fingerprints. After optimized the effectiveness of QDs method contains pH value and developing time, super fast detection was achieved. Excellent fingerprint images were obtained in 1-3s after immersed the latent fingerprints into quantum dots solution on various non-porous surfaces, i.e. adhesive tape, transparent tape, aluminum foil and stainless steel. High sensitivity of the new latent fingerprints develop method was obtained by developing the fingerprints pressed on aluminum foil successively with the same finger. Compared with methyl violet and rhodamine 6G, the MSA-CdTe QDs showed the higher develop speed and fingerprint image quality. Clear image can be maintained for months by extending exposure time of CCD camera, storing fingerprints in a low temperature condition and secondary development.
Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system
Akram, M Javed; Saif, Farhan
2015-01-01
The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \
Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Boltzmann formula
Saida, Hiromi
2013-01-01
We search for a universal property of quantum gravity. By "universal", we mean the independence from any existing model of quantum gravity (such as the super string theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulation, and so on). To do so, we try to put the basis of our discussion on theories established by some experiments. Thus, we focus our attention on thermodynamical and statistical-mechanical basis of the black hole thermodynamics: Let us assume that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is given by the Boltzmann formula applied to the underlying theory of quantum gravity. Under this assumption, the conditions justifying Boltzmann formula together with uniqueness of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy imply a reasonable universal property of quantum gravity. The universal property indicates a repulsive gravity at Planck length scale, otherwise stationary black holes can not be regarded as thermal equilibrium states of gravity. Further, in semi-classical level, we discuss a possible correction of Einstein equat...
Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation
Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.
Gauge/gravity duality. Exploring universal features in quantum matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klug, Steffen
2013-07-09
density states. Thus, all aspects of quantum field theory relevant for the application of linear response theory, the computation of correlation functions, and the description of critical phenomena are covered with emphasis on elucidating connections between thermodynamics, statistical physics, statistical field theory and quantum field theory. Furthermore, the renormalization group formalism in the context of effective field theories and critical phenomena will be developed explaining the critical exponents in terms of hyperscaling relations. The main topics covered in this thesis are: the analysis of optical properties of holographic metals and their relation to the Drude-Sommerfeld model, an attempt to understand Homes' law of high temperature superconductors holographically by computing different diffusion constants and related timescales, the mesonic spectrum at zero temperature and holographic quantum matter at finite density. Crucially for the application of this framework to strongly correlated condensed matter systems is the renormalization flow interpretation of the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence and the resulting emergent holographic duals relaxing most of the constraints of the original formulation. These so-called bottom up approaches are geared especially towards applications in condensed matter physics and to linear response theory, via the central operational prescription, the holographic fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The main results of the present work are an extensive analysis of the R-charge- and momentum diffusion in holographic s- and p-wave superconductors, described by Einstein-Maxwell theory and the Einstein-Yang-Mills model, respectively, and the lessons learned how to improve the understanding of universal features in such systems. Secondly, the stability of cold holographic quantum matter is investigated. So far, there are no instabilities detected in such systems. Instead, an interesting additional diffusion mode is discovered
The running of the Universe and the quantum structure of time
Jaroszkiewicz, G A
2001-01-01
Some principles underpinning the running of the Universe are discussed. The most important, the machine principle, states that the Universe is a fully autonomous, self-organizing and self-testing quantum automaton. Continuous space and time, consciousness and the semi-classical observers of quantum mechanics are all emergent phenomena not operating at the fundamental level of the machine Universe. Quantum processes define the present, the interface between the future and the past, giving a time ordering to the running of the Universe which is non-integrable except on emergent scales. A diagrammatic approach is used to discuss the quantum topology of the EPR paradox, particle decays and scattering processes. A toy model of a self-referential universe is given.
Universal crossover from ground-state to excited-state quantum criticality
Kang, Byungmin; Potter, Andrew C.; Vasseur, Romain
2017-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium properties of a nonergodic random quantum chain in which highly excited eigenstates exhibit critical properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states. The ground state and excited states of this system belong to different universality classes, characterized by infinite-randomness quantum critical behavior. Using strong-disorder renormalization group techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.
Universality of quantum computation with cluster states and (X, Y)-plane measurements
Mantri, Atul; Demarie, Tommaso F.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.
2017-01-01
Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation where quantum information is coherently processed by means of projective measurements on highly entangled states. Following the introduction of MBQC, cluster states have been studied extensively both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Indeed, the study of MBQC was catalysed by the realisation that cluster states are universal for MBQC with (X, Y)-plane and Z measurements. Here we examine the question of whether the requirement for Z measurements can be dropped while maintaining universality. We answer this question in the affirmative by showing that universality is possible in this scenario. PMID:28216652
Noncommutative tori and universal sets of non-binary quantum gates
Vlasov, A Yu
2002-01-01
Problem of universality in simulation of evolution of quantum system and in theory of quantum computations related with possibility of expression or approximation of arbitrary unitary transformation by composition of specific unitary transformations (quantum gates) from given set. In earlier paper (quant-ph/0010071) was shown application of Clifford algebras to constructions of universal sets of binary quantum gates $U_k \\in U(2^n)$. For application of similar approach to non-binary quantum gates $U_k \\in U(l^n)$ in present work is used rational noncommutative torus ${\\Bbb T}^{2n}_{1/l}$. Set of universal non-binary two-gates is presented here as one of examples.
Probing University Students' Pre-Knowledge in Quantum Physics with QPCS Survey
Asikainen, Mervi A.
2017-01-01
The study investigated the use of Quantum Physics Conceptual Survey (QPCS) in probing student understanding of quantum physics. Altogether 103 Finnish university students responded to QPCS. The mean scores of the student responses were calculated and the test was evaluated using common five indices: Item difficulty index, Item discrimination…
Classical universe emerging from quantum cosmology without horizon and flatness problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departmento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)
2016-10-15
We apply the complex de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics in Chou and Wyatt (Phys Rev A 76: 012115, 2007), Gozzi (Phys Lett B 165: 351, 1985), Bhalla et al. (Am J Phys 65: 1187, 1997) to a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter contents are radiation and dust perfect fluids. We then show that an expanding classical universe can emerge from an oscillating (with complex scale factor) quantum universe without singularity. Furthermore, the universe obtained in this process has no horizon or flatness problems. (orig.)
Robles-Pérez, S J
2012-01-01
The third quantization formalism of quantum cosmology adds simplicity and conceptual insight into the quantum description of the multiverse. Within such a formalism, the existence of squeezed and entangled states raises the question of whether the complementary principle of quantum mechanics has to be extended to the quantum description of the whole space-time manifold. If so, the 'particle' description entails the consideration of a multiverse scenario and the 'wave' description induces us to consider as well correlations and interactions among the universes of the multiverse.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Zhen; ZHANG Wen-Hai; HE Juan; YE Liu
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme to implement the optimal symmetric 1 → 2 universal quantum telecloning through cavity-assisted interaction. In our scheme, an arbitrary single atomic state can be telecloned to two single atomic states. And three atoms are trapped in three spatially separated cavities respectively. With a particular multiparticle entangled state acting as a quantum information channel and the trapped single atom acting as a quantum network node for its long-lived internal state, quantum information can be telecloned among nodes and can stored in the nodes.
Universal programmable quantum circuit schemes to emulate an operator.
Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos; Kais, Sabre
2012-12-21
Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix-which can be non-unitary-in an efficient way. We also give both the classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations. For the electronic structure simulation on a quantum computer, one has to perform the following steps: prepare the initial wave function of the system; present the evolution operator U = e(-iHt) for a given atomic and molecular Hamiltonian H in terms of quantum gates array and apply the phase estimation algorithm to find the energy eigenvalues. Thus, in the circuit model of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, a crucial step is presenting the evolution operator for the atomic and molecular Hamiltonians in terms of quantum gate arrays. Since the presented circuit designs are independent from the matrix decomposition techniques and the global optimization processes used to find quantum circuits for a given operator, high accuracy simulations can be done for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians on quantum computers. As an example, we show how to build the circuit design for the hydrogen molecule.
Size and quality control of fast grown CdS quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fregnaux, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse et Chimie Laser, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Dalmasso, Stephane; Laurenti, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz (France); Gaumet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse et Chimie Laser, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz (France)
2012-08-15
The synthesis of high quality II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is fundamental for developing new devices in several applications such as biomarkers, solar cells or blue-UV lasers. These emerging technologies are funded on the size-dependent optical properties of the QDs. Consequently, it is a crucial aspect to get insight into different ways for syntheses of their nanosized particles. In this work, we use two different QD elaboration methods: (i) a single source precursor thermal growth methodology and (ii) a microwave synthetic route. Using both protocols, high quality small QDs (Oe < 5 nm) are produced. Both growing techniques offer the advantage to be simple and fast: 2 hours (i) and less than 25 minutes (ii) in duration, growth temperatures do not exceed 280 C. For both elaboration procedures, we report a unique physics/chemistry cross-disciplinary study on these small size QDs: mass spectrometry (MS) technique provides background data about composition, size and stability of particles; crystalline structure and size distribution of the QDs are obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); room temperature (RT) optical spectrometry of nanodispersions - photoluminescence (PL) and absorption - reveals quantum size effects. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Fast Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shock-induced Chemistry in Organic Liquids
Cawkwell, Marc
2014-03-01
The responses of liquid formic acid and phenylacetylene to shock compression have been investigated via quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations with the self-consistent tight-binding code LATTE. Microcanonical Born-Oppenheimer trajectories with precise conservation of the total energy were computed without relying on an iterative self-consistent field optimization of the electronic degrees of freedom at each time step via the Fast Quantum Mechanical Molecular Dynamics formalism [A. M. N. Niklasson and M. J. Cawkwell, Phys. Rev. B, 86, 174308 (2012)]. The conservation of the total energy in our trajectories was pivotal for the capture of adiabatic shock heating as well as temperature changes arising from endo- or exothermic chemistry. Our self-consistent tight-binding parameterizations yielded very good predictions for the gas-phase geometries of formic acid and phenylacetylene molecules and the principal Hugoniots of the liquids. In accord with recent flyer-plate impact experiments, our simulations revealed i) that formic acid reacts at relatively low impact pressures but with no change in volume between products and reactants, and ii) a two-step polymerization process for phenylacetylene. Furthermore, the evolution of the HOMO-LUMO gap tracked on-the-fly during our simulations could be correlated with changes transient absorption measured during laser-driven shock compression experiments on these liquids.
How to simulate a universal quantum computer using negative probabilities
Hofmann, Holger F.
2009-07-01
The concept of negative probabilities can be used to decompose the interaction of two qubits mediated by a quantum controlled-NOT into three operations that require only classical interactions (that is, local operations and classical communication) between the qubits. For a single gate, the probabilities of the three operations are 1, 1 and -1. This decomposition can be applied in a probabilistic simulation of quantum computation by randomly choosing one of the three operations for each gate and assigning a negative statistical weight to the outcomes of sequences with an odd number of negative probability operations. The maximal exponential speed-up of a quantum computer can then be evaluated in terms of the increase in the number of sequences needed to simulate a single operation of the quantum circuit.
Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.
2013-01-01
The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...... that graphene - a single layer of carbon atoms - beats these well-established semiconductor materials as the system of choice for the realisation of the quantum resistance standard. Here we shall briefly describe graphene technology, discuss the structure and electronic properties of graphene, including...
Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence in de Sitter universe
Huang, Zhiming
2017-09-01
In this article, we investigate the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with massless scalar field in the background de Sitter spacetime. We firstly analyze the solving process of master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Werner state. Then, we discuss the degradation, generation, revival and enhancement of quantum correlation and coherence for three cases of different initial states: zero correlation state, nonzero correlation separable state and maximally entangled state.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
Recently, a novel three-dimensional entangled state called tree-type entanglement, which is likely to have applications for improving quantum communication security, was prepared via adiabatic passage by Song et al. Here we propose two schemes for fast generating tree-type three-dimensional entanglement among three spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. With the help of quantum Zeno dynamics, two kinds of different but equivalent methods, Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and transitionless quantum driving, are applied to construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The comparisons between the two methods are discussed. The strict numerical simulations show that the tree-type three-dimensional entangled states can be fast prepared with quite high fidelities and the two schemes are both robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the cavity-fiber photon leakages. PMID:27667583
Classical and Quantum Surgery of Geometries in an Open Inflationary Universe
Kim, S P
2001-01-01
We study classically and quantum mechanically the Euclidean geometries compatible with an open inflationary universe of a Lorentzian geometry. The Lorentzian geometry of the open universe with an ordinary matter state matches either an open or a closed Euclidean geometry at the cosmological singularity. With an exotic matter state it matches only the open Euclidean geometry and describes a genuine instanton regular at the boundary of a finite radius. The wave functions are found that describe the quantum creation of the open inflationary universe.
Observing a scale anomaly and a universal quantum phase transition in graphene.
Ovdat, O; Mao, Jinhai; Jiang, Yuhang; Andrei, E Y; Akkermans, E
2017-09-11
One of the most interesting predictions resulting from quantum physics, is the violation of classical symmetries, collectively referred to as anomalies. A remarkable class of anomalies occurs when the continuous scale symmetry of a scale-free quantum system is broken into a discrete scale symmetry for a critical value of a control parameter. This is an example of a (zero temperature) quantum phase transition. Such an anomaly takes place for the quantum inverse square potential known to describe 'Efimov physics'. Broken continuous scale symmetry into discrete scale symmetry also appears for a charged and massless Dirac fermion in an attractive 1/r Coulomb potential. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the universality of this quantum phase transition and to present convincing experimental evidence of its existence for a charged and massless fermion in an attractive Coulomb potential as realized in graphene.When the continuous scale symmetry of a quantum system is broken, anomalies occur which may lead to quantum phase transitions. Here, the authors provide evidence for such a quantum phase transition in the attractive Coulomb potential of vacancies in graphene, and further envision its universality for diverse physical systems.
Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains
Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao
2016-12-01
Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.
Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiong-Peng [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Shao, Bin, E-mail: sbin610@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)
2016-12-15
Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.
An origin of the Universe determined by quantum physics and relativistic gravity
Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Gillies, G. T.; Ritter, R. C.
2001-01-01
We discuss the evolution of the Universe from what might be called its quantum origin. We apply the uncertainty principle to the origin of the Universe with characteristic time scale equal to the Planck time to obtain its initial temperature and density. We establish that the subsequent evolution obeying the Einstein equation gives the present temperature of the microwave background close to the observed value. The same origin allows the possibility that the Universe started with exactly the ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.
2012-01-01
ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...
Localization of quantum objects in an expanding universe and cosmologically induced classicality
Herzenberg, C L
2010-01-01
Independent studies by different authors have proposed that classicality may be induced in quantum objects by cosmological constraints presented by an expanding universe of finite extent in space-time. Cosmological effects on a quantum system can be explored in one approach by considering an object at rest in space with a universal Hubble expansion taking place away from it, and developing a Schroedinger type governing differential equation incorporating an intrinsic expansion speed. Wave function solutions to this governing equation exhibit pronounced central localization. The extent of concentration of probability depends on mass; objects with small masses tend to behave in a delocalized manner as ordinary quantum objects do in a static space, while quantum objects with large masses are concentrated into much smaller regions. To develop a criterion for classicality, we consider that if the size of the localized region of concentrated probability density is larger than the size of the corresponding extended ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smolyaninov, Igor I., E-mail: smoly@umd.edu
2014-11-15
Modern advances in transformation optics and electromagnetic metamaterials made possible experimental demonstrations of highly unusual curvilinear “optical spaces”, such as various geometries necessary for electromagnetic cloaking. Recently we demonstrated that mapping light intensity in a hyperbolic metamaterial may also model the flow of time in an effective (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Curving such an effective spacetime creates experimental model of a toy “big bang”. Here we demonstrate that at low light levels this model may be used to emulate a fully covariant version of quantum mechanics in a (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When quantum mechanical description is applied near the toy “big bang”, the Everett's “universal wave function” formalism arises naturally, in which the wave function of the model “universe” appears to be a quantum superposition of mutually orthogonal “parallel universe” states.
Wenzel, Sandro; Bogacz, Leszek; Janke, Wolfhard
2008-09-19
The two-dimensional J-J' dimerized quantum Heisenberg model is studied on the square lattice by means of (stochastic series expansion) quantum Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the coupling ratio alpha=J'/J. The critical point of the order-disorder quantum phase transition in the J-J' model is determined as alpha_c=2.5196(2) by finite-size scaling for up to approximately 10 000 quantum spins. By comparing six dimerized models we show, contrary to the current belief, that the critical exponents of the J-J' model are not in agreement with the three-dimensional classical Heisenberg universality class. This lends support to the notion of nontrivial critical excitations at the quantum critical point.
Universal holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free subspace on superconducting circuits
Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Z. D.
2015-08-01
To implement a set of universal quantum logic gates based on non-Abelian geometric phases, it is conventional wisdom that quantum systems beyond two levels are required, which is extremely difficult to fulfill for superconducting qubits and appears to be a main reason why only single-qubit gates were implemented in a recent experiment [A. A. Abdumalikov, Jr. et al., Nature (London) 496, 482 (2013), 10.1038/nature12010]. Here we propose to realize nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspace on circuit QED, where one can use only the two levels in transmon qubits, a usual interaction, and a minimal resource for the decoherence-free subspace encoding. In particular, our scheme not only overcomes the difficulties encountered in previous studies but also can still achieve considerably large effective coupling strength, such that high-fidelity quantum gates can be achieved. Therefore, the present scheme makes realizing robust holonomic quantum computation with superconducting circuits very promising.
Reconstructing the Universe Evolution from Loop Quantum Cosmology Scalar Fields
Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations does the quantum framework brings along, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both these solutions. Also we discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example in a case that a Big Rip occurs. As we show this issue is non-trivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are ge...
Singlet-state creation and universal quantum computation in NMR using a genetic algorithm
Manu, V. S.; Kumar, Anil
2012-08-01
The experimental implementation of a quantum algorithm requires the decomposition of unitary operators. Here we treat unitary-operator decomposition as an optimization problem, and use a genetic algorithm—a global-optimization method inspired by nature's evolutionary process—for operator decomposition. We apply this method to NMR quantum information processing, and find a probabilistic way of performing universal quantum computation using global hard pulses. We also demonstrate the efficient creation of the singlet state (a special type of Bell state) directly from thermal equilibrium, using an optimum sequence of pulses.
Singlet state creation and Universal quantum computation in NMR using Genetic Algorithm
Manu, V S
2012-01-01
Experimental implementation of a quantum algorithm requires unitary operator decomposition. Here we treat the unitary operator decomposition as an optimization problem and use Genetic Algorithm, a global optimization method inspired by nature's evolutionary process for operator decomposition. As an application, we apply this to NMR Quantum Information Processing and find a probabilistic way of doing universal quantum computation using global hard pulses. We also demonstrate efficient creation of singlet state (as a special case of Bell state) directly from thermal equilibrium using an optimum sequence of pulses.
Sknepnek, Rastko; Vojta, Thomas; Vojta, Matthias
2004-08-27
We present Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional bilayer quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet with random dimer dilution. In contrast with exotic scaling scenarios found in other random quantum systems, the quantum phase transition in this system is characterized by a finite-disorder fixed point with power-law scaling. After accounting for corrections to scaling, with a leading irrelevant exponent of omega approximately 0.48, we find universal critical exponents z=1.310(6) and nu=1.16(3). We discuss the consequences of these findings and suggest new experiments.
An Explicit Universal Gate-set for Exchange-Only Quantum Computation
Hsieh, M; Myrgren, S; Whaley, K B
2003-01-01
A single physical interaction might not be universal for quantum computation in general. It has been shown, however, that in some cases it can generate universal quantum computation over a subspace. For example, by encoding logical qubits into arrays of multiple physical qubits, a single isotropic or anisotropic exchange interaction can generate a universal logical gate-set. Recently, encoded universality for the exchange interaction was explicitly demonstrated on three-qubit arrays, the smallest nontrivial encoding. We now present the exact specification of a discrete universal logical gate-set on four-qubit arrays. We show how to implement the single qubit operations exactly with at most 3 nearest neighbor exchange operations and how to generate the encoded controlled-not with 29 parallel nearest neighbor exchange interactions or 54 serial gates, obtained from extensive numerical optimization using genetic algorithms and Nelder-Mead searches. Our gate-sequences are immediately applicable to implementations ...
Quantum Creation of Closed Universe with Both Effects of Tunnelling and Well
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG De-Hai
2001-01-01
A new "twice loose shoe" method in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of the universe wavefunction on the cosmic scale factor a and a scalar field φ is suggested.We analyze both the affections coming from the tunnelling effect of a and the potential well effect ofφ,and obtain the initial values a0 and φ0 about a primary closed universe which is born with the largest probability in the quantum manner.Our result is able to overcome the "large field difficulty" of the universe quantum creation probability with only tunnelling effect.This new born universe has to suffer a startup of inflation,and then comes into the usual slow rolling inflation.The universe with the largest probability maybe has a "gentle" inflation or an eternal chaotic inflation,this depends on a new parameter q which describes the tunnelling character.
Tanaka, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Nam, Sae W; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Seigo; Maeda, Wakako; Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Miki, Shigehito; Baek, Burm; Wang, Zhen; Tajima, Akio; Sasaki, Masahide; Tomita, Akihisa
2008-07-21
We demonstrated ultra fast BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) transmission at 625 MHz clock rate through a 97 km field-installed fiber using practical clock synchronization based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). We succeeded in over-one-hour stable key generation at a high sifted key rate of 2.4 kbps and a low quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 2.9%. The asymptotic secure key rate was estimated to be 0.78- 0.82 kbps from the transmission data with the decoy method of average photon numbers 0, 0.15, and 0.4 photons/pulse.
Universal Topological Quantum Computation from a Superconductor-Abelian Quantum Hall Heterostructure
Mong, Roger S. K.; Clarke, David J.; Alicea, Jason; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fendley, Paul; Nayak, Chetan; Oreg, Yuval; Stern, Ady; Berg, Erez; Shtengel, Kirill; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2014-01-01
Non-Abelian anyons promise to reveal spectacular features of quantum mechanics that could ultimately provide the foundation for a decoherence-free quantum computer. A key breakthrough in the pursuit of these exotic particles originated from Read and Green's observation that the Moore-Read quantum Hall state and a (relatively simple) two-dimensional p+ip superconductor both support so-called Ising non-Abelian anyons. Here we establish a similar correspondence between the Z_3 Read-Rezayi quantu...
Mindful universe. Quantum mechanics and the participating observer. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, Henry P. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.
2011-07-01
The classical mechanistic idea of nature that prevailed in science during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was an essentially mindless conception: the physically described aspects of nature were asserted to be completely determined by prior physically described aspects alone, with our conscious experiences entering only passively. During the twentieth century the classical concepts were found to be inadequate. In the new theory, quantum mechanics, our conscious experiences enter into the dynamics in specified ways not fixed by the physically described aspects alone. Consequences of this radical change in our understanding of the connection between mind and brain are described. This second edition contains two new chapters investigating the role of quantum phenomena in the problem of free will and in the placebo effect. (orig.)
Mindful Universe Quantum Mechanics and the Participating Observer
Stapp, Henry P
2011-01-01
The classical mechanistic idea of nature that prevailed in science during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was an essentially mindless conception: the physically described aspects of nature were asserted to be completely determined by prior physically described aspects alone, with our conscious experiences entering only passively. During the twentieth century the classical concepts were found to be inadequate. In the new theory, quantum mechanics, our conscious experiences enter into the dynamics in specified ways not fixed by the physically described aspects alone. Consequences of this radical change in our understanding of the connection between mind and brain are described. This second edition contains two new chapters investigating the role of quantum phenomena in the problem of free will and in the placebo effect.
Jain, S
1996-01-01
Random matrix theory (RMT) provides a common mathematical formulation of distinct physical questions in three different areas: quantum chaos, the 1-d integrable model with the $1/r^2$ interaction (the Calogero-Sutherland-Moser system), and 2-d quantum gravity. We review the connection of RMT with these areas. We also discuss the method of loop equations for determining correlation functions in RMT, and smoothed global eigenvalue correlators in the 2-matrix model for gaussian orthogonal, unitary and symplectic ensembles.
Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusuf Mohammed
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: paul.tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludwig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)
2015-03-14
Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.
Universal Voltage Conveyor and Current Conveyor in Fast Full-Wave Rectifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef Burian
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals about the design of a fast voltage-mode full-wave rectifier, where universal voltage conveyor and second-generation current conveyor are used as active elements. Thanks to the active elements, the input and output impedance of the non-linear circuit is infinitely high respectively zero in theory. For the rectification only two diodes and three resistors are required as passive elements. The performance of the circuit is shown on experimental measurement results showing the dynamic range, time response, frequency dependent DC transient value and RMS error for different values of input voltage amplitudes.
Design of an MeV ultra-fast electron diffraction experiment at Tsinghua university
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ren-Kai; TANG Chuan-Xiang; HUANG Wen-Hui; DU Ying-Chao; SHI Jia-Ru; YAN Li-Xin
2009-01-01
Time-resolved MeV ultra-fast electron difiraction(UED)is a powerful tool for structure dynamics studies.In this paper.we present a design of a MeV UED facility based on a photocathode RF gun at Tsinghua University.Electron beam qualities are optimized with numerical simulations,indicating that resolutions of 250 fs and 0.01 A.and bunch charge exceeding 105 electrons are expected with technically achievable machine parameters.Status of experiment preparation is also presented.
Majumdar, Arka; Faraon, Andrei; Vuckovic, Jelena
2009-01-01
We describe a proposal for fast electron spin initialization in a negatively charged quantum dot coupled to a microcavity without the need for a strong magnetic field. We employ two-photon excitation to access trion states that are spin forbidden by one-photon excitation. Our simulation shows a maximum initialization speed of 1.3 GHz and maximum fidelity of 99.7% with realistic system parameters.
Tachyon fields with effects of quantum matter in an Anti-de Sitter Universe
Elizalde, E; Elizalde, Emilio; Hurtado, John Quiroga
2004-01-01
We consider an Anti-de Sitter universe filled by quantum conformal matter with the contribution from the usual tachyon and a perfect fluid. The model represents the combination of a trace-anomaly annihilated and a tachyon driven Anti-de Sitter universe. The influence exerted by the quantum effects and by the tachyon on the AdS space is studied. The radius corresponding to this universe is calculated and the effect of the tachyon potential is discussed, in particular, concerning to the possibility to get an accelerated scale factor for the proposed model (implying an accelerated expansion of the AdS type of universe). Fulfillment of the cosmological energy conditions in the model is also investigated
Marochnik, Leonid; Vereshkov, Grigory
2013-01-01
We discuss a special class of quantum gravity phenomena that occur on the scale of the Universe as a whole at any stage of its evolution. These phenomena are a direct consequence of the zero rest mass of gravitons, conformal non-invariance of the graviton field, and one-loop finiteness of quantum gravity. The effects are due to graviton-ghost condensates arising from the interference of quantum coherent states. Each of coherent states is a state of gravitons and ghosts of a wavelength of the order of the horizon scale and of different occupation numbers. The state vector of the Universe is a coherent superposition of vectors of different occupation numbers. To substantiate the reliability of macroscopic quantum effects, the formalism of one-loop quantum gravity is discussed in detail. The theory is constructed as follows: Faddeev-Popov path integral in Hamilton gauge -> factorization of classical and quantum variables, allowing the existence of a self-consistent system of equations for gravitons, ghosts and m...
Perfect Fluid Quantum Anisotropic Universe: Merits and Challenges
Majumder, Barun
2012-01-01
The present paper deals with quantization of perfect fluid anisotropic cosmological models. Bianchi type V and IX models are discussed following Schutz's method of expressing fluid velocities in terms of six potentials. The wave functions are found for several examples of equations of state. In one case a complete wave packet could be formed analytically. The initial singularity of a zero proper volume can be avoided in this case, but it is plagued by the usual problem of non-unitarity of anisotropic quantum cosmological models. It is seen that a particular operator ordering alleviates this problem.
Mindful universe quantum mechanics and the participating observer
Stapp, H P
2007-01-01
The classical mechanistic idea of nature that prevailed in science during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was an essentially mindless conception: the physically described aspects of nature were asserted to be completely determined by prior physically described aspects alone, with our conscious experiences entering only passively. During the twentieth century the classical concepts were found to be inadequate. In the new theory, quantum mechanics, our conscious experiences enter into the dynamics in specified ways not fixed by the physically described aspects alone. Consequences of this radical change in our understanding of the connection between mind and brain are described
Nonadiabatic bounce and an inflationary phase in the quantum mixmaster universe
Bergeron, Hervé; Czuchry, Ewa; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław
2016-06-01
Following our previous paper, Bergeron et al., Smooth quantum dynamics of the mixmaster universe, Phys. Rev. D 92, 061302(R) (2015), concerning the quantization of the vacuum Bianchi IX model and the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer framework, we present a further analysis of the dynamical properties of the model. Consistently with the deep quantum regime, we implement the harmonic approximation of the anisotropy potential. We thus obtain manageable dynamical equations. We study the quantum anisotropic oscillations during the bouncing phase of the universe. Neglecting the backreaction from transitions between quantum anisotropy states, we obtain analytical results. In particular, we identify a parameter that is associated with dynamical properties of the quantum model and describes a sort of phase transition. Once the parameter exceeds its critical value, the Born-Huang-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. The application of the present result to a simple model of the universe indicates that the parameter indeed exceeds its critical value and that there takes place a huge production of anisotropy at the bounce. This in turn must lead to a sustained phase of accelerated expansion, an inflationary phase. The quantitative inclusion of backreaction shall be examined in a follow-up paper based on the vibronic approach.
(Non) singular Kantowski-Sachs Universe from quantum spherically reduced matter
Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Osetrin, K E
1999-01-01
Using s-wave and large $N$ approximation the one-loop effective action for 2d dilaton coupled scalars and spinors which are obtained by spherical reduction of 4d minimal matter is found. Quantum effective equations for reduced Einstein gravity are written. Their analytical solutions corresponding to 4d Kantowski-Sachs (KS) Universe are presented. For quantum-corrected Einstein gravity we get non-singular KS cosmology which represents 1) quantum-corrected KS cosmology which existed on classical level or 2)purely quantum solution which had no classical limit. The analogy with Nariai BH is briefly mentioned. For purely induced gravity (no Einstein term) we found general analytical solution but all KS cosmologies under discussion are singular. The corresponding equations of motion are reformulated as classical mechanics problem of motion of unit mass particle in some potential $V$.
Universal transport signatures of topological superconductivity in quantum spin Hall architectures
Lee, Shu-Ping; Aasen, David; Karzig, Torsten; Alicea, Jason
2015-03-01
Interfacing s-wave superconductors with quantum spin Hall systems provides a promising route to ``engineered'' topological superconductivity. Given exciting recent progress on the fabrication side, identifying experiments that definitively expose the topological superconducting phase (and clearly distinguish it from a trivial state) raises an increasingly important problem. With this goal in mind we use renormalization group methods to extract universal transport characteristics of superconductor/quantum spin Hall heterostructures where the native edge states serve as a lead. Interestingly, arbitrarily weak interactions induce qualitative changes in the behavior relative to the free-fermion limit, leading to a sharp dichotomy in conductance for the trivial (narrow superconductor) and topological (wide superconductor) cases. Furthermore, we find that strong interactions can in principle induce power-law-localized ``parafermion'' excitations at a superconductor/quantum spin Hall junction. NSF Grant DMR-1341822. (2) Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF physics frontier center with support from the Moore Foundation.
Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Tu, Tao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2013-01-01
A basic requirement for quantum information processing is the ability to universally control the state of a single qubit on timescales much shorter than the coherence time. Although ultrafast optical control of a single spin has been achieved in quantum dots, scaling up such methods remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate complete control of the quantum-dot charge qubit on the picosecond scale [corrected], orders of magnitude faster than the previously measured electrically controlled charge- or spin-based qubits. We observe tunable qubit dynamics in a charge-stability diagram, in a time domain, and in a pulse amplitude space of the driven pulse. The observations are well described by Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. These results establish the feasibility of a full set of all-electrical single-qubit operations. Although our experiment is carried out in a solid-state architecture, the technique is independent of the physical encoding of the quantum information and has the potential for wider applications.
Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Tu, Tao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2013-01-01
A basic requirement for quantum information processing is the ability to universally control the state of a single qubit on timescales much shorter than the coherence time. Although ultrafast optical control of a single spin has been achieved in quantum dots, scaling up such methods remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate complete control of the quantum-dot charge qubit on the picosecond scale, orders of magnitude faster than the previously measured electrically controlled charge- or spin-based qubits. We observe tunable qubit dynamics in a charge-stability diagram, in a time domain, and in a pulse amplitude space of the driven pulse. The observations are well described by Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference. These results establish the feasibility of a full set of all-electrical single-qubit operations. Although our experiment is carried out in a solid-state architecture, the technique is independent of the physical encoding of the quantum information and has the potential for wider applications. PMID:23360992
Detecting quantum gravitational effects of loop quantum cosmology in the early universe
Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin; Wu, Qiang
2015-01-01
We derive the primordial power spectra and spectral indexes of the density fluctuations and gravitational waves in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with holonomy and inverse-volume corrections, by using the uniform asymptotic approximation method to its third-order, at which the upper error bounds are $\\lesssim 0.15\\%$, accurate enough for the current and forthcoming cosmological observations. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain new constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be well within the detection of the current and forthcoming experiments.
Universal adiabatic quantum computation via the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction.
Gosset, David; Terhal, Barbara M; Vershynina, Anna
2015-04-10
We show how to perform universal adiabatic quantum computation using a Hamiltonian which describes a set of particles with local interactions on a two-dimensional grid. A single parameter in the Hamiltonian is adiabatically changed as a function of time to simulate the quantum circuit. We bound the eigenvalue gap above the unique ground state by mapping our model onto the ferromagnetic XXZ chain with kink boundary conditions; the gap of this spin chain was computed exactly by Koma and Nachtergaele using its q-deformed version of SU(2) symmetry. We also discuss a related time-independent Hamiltonian which was shown by Janzing to be capable of universal computation. We observe that in the limit of large system size, the time evolution is equivalent to the exactly solvable quantum walk on Young's lattice.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MEI Yu-Xue; CHEN Lin; CHEN Yi-Xin
2006-01-01
@@ In a process of remote state preparation, the universality of quantum channel is an essential ingredient. That is, one quantum channel should be feasible to remotely prepare any given qubit state. This problem appears in a process where one uses non-maximally entangled state as the passage. We present a scheme in which any given qubit |φ〉 = cosθ|0〉 + sinθeiψ|1〉 could be remotely prepared by using minimum classical bits and the previously shared non-maximally entangled state with a high fidelity, under the condition that the receiver holds the knowledge of θ. This condition is helpful to reduce the necessary amount of quantum channels, which is proven to be a low quantity to realize the universality. We also give several methods to investigate the trade-off between this amount and the achievable fidelity of the protocol.
Effects of quantum gravity on the inflationary parameters and thermodynamics of the early universe
Tawfik, A; Ali, A Farag
2014-01-01
The effects of generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on the inflationary dynamics and the thermodynamics of the early universe are studied. Using the GUP approach, the tensorial and scalar density fluctuations in the inflation era are evaluated and compared with the standard case. We find a good agreement with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. Assuming that a quantum gas of scalar particles is confined within a thin layer near the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe which satisfies the boundary condition, the number and entropy densities and the free energy arising form the quantum states are calculated using the GUP approach. A qualitative estimation for effects of the quantum gravity on all these thermodynamic quantities is introduced.
Effects of quantum gravity on the inflationary parameters and thermodynamics of the early universe
Tawfik, A.; Magdy, H.; Farag Ali, Ahmed
2013-06-01
The effects of generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on the inflationary dynamics and the thermodynamics of the early universe are studied. Using the GUP approach, the tensorial and scalar density fluctuations in the inflation era are evaluated and compared with the standard case. We find a good agreement with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. Assuming that a quantum gas of scalar particles is confined within a thin layer near the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe which satisfies the boundary condition, the number and entropy densities and the free energy arising form the quantum states are calculated using the GUP approach. A qualitative estimation for effects of the quantum gravity on all these thermodynamic quantities is introduced.
,
2014-01-01
The evolution of the universe is studied in exactly solvable dynamical quantum model with the Robertson-Walker metric. It is shown that the equation of motion which describes the expansion or contraction of the universe can be represented in the form of the law of conservation of zero total energy for a particle with arbitrary mass being an analogue of the universe. The analogue particle moves in the potential well under the action of the internal force produced by the curvature of space, matter, and pressures of classical and quantum gravitational sources. This force has two components: one performs the positive work on the universe which is equivalent to the work of the repulsive forces of dark energy, and the other component does the negative work analogous to the work of the attractive forces of dark matter. Their competition determines the regime of the expansion of the universe: whether the universe would be accelerating or decelerating. It is demonstrated that predictions of the quantum model do not co...
Implementing a Universal Quantum Cloning Machine via Adiabatic Evolution in Ion-Trap System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YI Xiao-Jie; YANG Rong-Can; NIE Yi-You; LI Hong-Cai; ZHOU Nan-Run; LIN Xiu; HUANG Yi-Bing; HUANG Zhi-Ping; HONG Zhi-Hui; XIE Hong; LI Song-Song
2008-01-01
A scheme for the realization of a universal quantum cloning machine is proposed in this paper. The present protocol does not need the vibrational mode to act as the memory and it is robust against small changes of experimental parameters due to adiabatic passages. Furthermore, the scheme may be realized based on current technology.
Balakrishnan, G
2015-03-06
In the recent publication by Hospodková et al, the authors investigate III-N quantum well structures as potential fast scintillators (Hospodková et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 455501). The InGaN/GaN quantum well structures are grown using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate and the fast carrier decay times are characterized by time resolved photo and radioluminescence.
Hollow fiber based quantum cascade laser spectrometer for fast and sensitive drug identification
Herbst, J.; Scherer, B.; Ruf, A.; Erb, J.; Lambrecht, A.
2012-01-01
Sensitive and fast identification of drugs or drug precursors is important and necessary in scenarios like baggage or container check by customs or police. Fraunhofer IPM is developing a laser spectrometer using external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) to obtain mid-infrared (IR) absorption spectra in the wavelength range of the specific vibrational bands of amphetamines and their precursors. The commercial EC-QCL covers a tuning range of about 225 cm-1 within 1.4 s. The system could be used for different sample types like bulk samples or liquid solutions. A sampling unit evaporates the sample. Because of small sample amounts a 3 m long hollow fiber with an inner volume smaller than 1ml is used as gas cell and wave guide for the laser beam. This setup is suitable as a detector of a gas chromatograph instead of a standard detector (TCD or FID). The advantage is the selective identification of drugs by their IR spectra in addition to the retention time in the gas chromatographic column. In comparison to Fourier Transform IR systems the EC-QCL setup shows a good mechanical robustness and has the advantage of a point light source. Because of the good fiber incoupling performance of the EC-QCL it is possible to use hollow fibers. So, a good absorption signal is achieved because of the long optical path in the small cell volume without significant dilution. In first laboratory experiments a detection limit in the microgram range for pseudo ephedrine is achieved.
The universal expression for the amplitude square in quantum electrodynamics
Karplyuk, K S
2015-01-01
The universal expression for the amplitude square |u_f M u_i|^2 for any matrix of interaction M is derived. It has obvious covariant form. It allows the avoidance of calculation of products of the Dirac's matrices traces and allows easy calculation of cross-sections of any different processes with polarized and unpolarized particles.
Solvable model for a dynamical quantum phase transition from fast to slow scrambling
Banerjee, Sumilan; Altman, Ehud
2017-04-01
We propose an extension of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model that exhibits a quantum phase transition from the previously identified non-Fermi-liquid fixed point to a Fermi-liquid-like state, while still allowing an exact solution in a suitable large-N limit. The extended model involves coupling the interacting N -site SYK model to a new set of p N peripheral sites with only quadratic hopping terms between them. The conformal fixed point of the SYK model remains a stable low-energy phase below a critical ratio of peripheral sites p NFL) phase is characterized by a universal Lyapunov exponent λL→2 π T in the low-temperature limit; however, the temperature scale marking the crossover to the conformal regime vanishes continuously at the critical point pc. The residual entropy at T →0 , nonzero in the NFL, also vanishes continuously at the critical point. For p >pc the quadratic sites effectively screen the SYK dynamics, leading to a quadratic fixed point in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit. The interactions have a perturbative effect in this regime leading to scrambling with Lyapunov exponent λL∝T2 .
Fast LiH destruction in reaction with H: quantum calculations and astrophysical consequences
Bovino, S; Gianturco, F A; 10.1088/0004-637X/699/1/383
2009-01-01
We present a quantum-mechanical study of the exothermic 7LiH reaction with H. Accurate reactive probabilities and rate coefficients are obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation for the motion of the three nuclei on a single Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) and using a coupled-channel hyperspherical coordinate method. Our new rates indeed confirm earlier, qualitative predictions and some previous theoretical calculations, as discussed in the main text. In the astrophysical domain we find that the depletion process largely dominates for redshift (z) between 400 and 100, a range significant for early Universe models. This new result from first-principle calculations leads us to definitively surmise that LiH should be already destroyed when the survival processes become important. Because of this very rapid depletion reaction, the fractional abundance of LiH is found to be drastically reduced, so that it should be very difficult to manage to observe it as an imprinted species in the cosmic back...
Universal behavior of the Shannon mutual information in nonintegrable self-dual quantum chains
Alcaraz, F. C.
2016-09-01
An existing conjecture states that the Shannon mutual information contained in the ground-state wave function of conformally invariant quantum chains, on periodic lattices, has a leading finite-size scaling behavior that, similarly as the von Neumann entanglement entropy, depends on the value of the central charge of the underlying conformal field theory describing the physical properties. This conjecture applies whenever the ground-state wave function is expressed in some special basis (conformal basis). Its formulation comes mainly from numerical evidences on exactly integrable quantum chains. In this paper, the above conjecture was tested for several general nonintegrable quantum chains. We introduce new families of self-dual Z (Q ) symmetric quantum chains (Q =2 ,3 ,... ). These quantum chains contain nearest-neighbor as well next-nearest-neighbor interactions (coupling constant p ). In the cases Q =2 and Q =3 , they are extensions of the standard quantum Ising and three-state Potts chains, respectively. For Q =4 and Q ≥5 , they are extensions of the Ashkin-Teller and Z (Q ) parafermionic quantum chains. Our studies indicate that these models are interesting on their own. They are critical, conformally invariant, and share the same universality class in a continuous critical line. Moreover, our numerical analysis for Q =2 -8 indicate that the Shannon mutual information exhibits the conjectured behavior irrespective if the conformally invariant quantum chain is exactly integrable or not. For completeness we also calculated, for these new families of quantum chains, the two existing generalizations of the Shannon mutual information, which are based on the Rényi entropy and on the Rényi divergence.
From Three-Photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States to Ballistic Universal Quantum Computation
Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Shadbolt, Pete; Browne, Dan E.; Rudolph, Terry
2015-07-01
Single photons, manipulated using integrated linear optics, constitute a promising platform for universal quantum computation. A series of increasingly efficient proposals have shown linear-optical quantum computing to be formally scalable. However, existing schemes typically require extensive adaptive switching, which is experimentally challenging and noisy, thousands of photon sources per renormalized qubit, and/or large quantum memories for repeat-until-success strategies. Our work overcomes all these problems. We present a scheme to construct a cluster state universal for quantum computation, which uses no adaptive switching, no large memories, and which is at least an order of magnitude more resource efficient than previous passive schemes. Unlike previous proposals, it is constructed entirely from loss-detecting gates and offers a robustness to photon loss. Even without the use of an active loss-tolerant encoding, our scheme naturally tolerates a total loss rate ˜1.6 % in the photons detected in the gates. This scheme uses only 3 Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as a resource, together with a passive linear-optical network. We fully describe and model the iterative process of cluster generation, including photon loss and gate failure. This demonstrates that building a linear-optical quantum computer needs to be less challenging than previously thought.
Hierarchy of universal entanglement in 2D measurement-based quantum computation
Miller, Jacob; Miyake, Akimasa
2016-11-01
Measurement-based quantum computation (MQC) is a paradigm for studying quantum computation using many-body entanglement and single-qubit measurements. Although MQC has inspired wide-ranging discoveries throughout quantum information, our understanding of the general principles underlying MQC seems to be biased by its historical reliance upon the archetypal 2D cluster state. Here we utilise recent advances in the subject of symmetry-protected topological order (SPTO) to introduce a novel MQC resource state, whose physical and computational behaviour differs fundamentally from that of the cluster state. We show that, in sharp contrast to the cluster state, our state enables universal quantum computation using only measurements of single-qubit Pauli X, Y, and Z operators. This novel computational feature is related to the 'genuine' 2D SPTO possessed by our state, and which is absent in the cluster state. Our concrete connection between the latent computational complexity of many-body systems and macroscopic quantum orders may find applications in quantum many-body simulation for benchmarking classically intractable complexity.
Quantum Process Tomography of a Universal Entangling Gate Implemented with Josephson Phase Qubits
Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Hofheinz, Max; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, Matthew; O'Connell, Aaron; Sank, Daniel; Wang, Haohua; Wenner, James; Steffen, Matthias; Cleland, Andrew; Martinis, John
2009-01-01
Quantum logic gates must perform properly when operating on their standard input basis states, as well as when operating on complex superpositions of these states. Experiments using superconducting qubits have validated the truth table for particular implementations of e.g. the controlled-NOT gate [1,2], but have not fully characterized gate operation for arbitrary superpositions of input states. Here we demonstrate the use of quantum process tomography (QPT) [3,4] to fully characterize the performance of a universal entangling gate between two superconducting quantum bits. Process tomography permits complete gate analysis, but requires precise preparation of arbitrary input states, control over the subsequent qubit interaction, and simultaneous single-shot measurement of the output states. We use QPT to measure the fidelity of the entangling gate and to quantify the decoherence mechanisms affecting the gate performance. In addition to demonstrating a promising fidelity, our entangling gate has a on/off ratio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available DNA or gene signal detection is of great significance in many fields including medical examination, intracellular molecular monitoring, and gene disease signal diagnosis, but detection of DNA or gene signals in a low concentration with instant visual results remains a challenge. In this work, a universal fast and visual colorimetric detection method for DNA signals is proposed. Specifically, a DNA signal amplification “circuit” based on DNA strand displacement is firstly designed to amplify the target DNA signals, and then thiol modified hairpin DNA strands and gold nanoparticles are used to make signal detection results visualized in a colorimetric manner. If the target DNA signal exists, the gold nanoparticles aggregate and settle down with color changing from dark red to grey quickly; otherwise, the gold nanoparticles’ colloids remain stable in dark red. The proposed method provides a novel way to detect quickly DNA or gene signals in low concentrations with instant visual results. When applied in real-life, it may provide a universal colorimetric method for gene disease signal diagnosis.
Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter
2010-12-01
Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands
The Grammatical Universe and the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement
Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter
2010-11-01
The universal nilpotent computational rewrite system (UNCRS) is shown to formalize an irreversible process of evolution in conformity with the First, Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics, in terms of a single algebraic creation operator (ikE+ip+jm) which delivers the whole quantum mechanical language apparatus, where k, i, j are quaternions units and E, p, m are energy, momentum and rest mass. This nilpotent evolution describes `a dynamic zero totality universe' in terms of its fermion states (each of which, by Pauli exclusion, is unique and nonzero), where, together with their boson interactions, these define physics at the fundamental level. (The UNCRS implies that the inseparability of objects and fields in the quantum universe is based on the fact that the only valid mathematical representations are all automorphisms of the universe itself, and that this is the mathematical meaning of quantum entanglement. It thus appears that the nilpotent fermion states are in fact what is called the splitting field in Quantum Mechanics of the Galois group which leads to the roots of the corresponding algebraic equation, and concerns in this case the alternating group of even permutations which are themselves automorphisms). In the nilpotent evolutionary process: (i) the Quantum Carnot Engine (QCE) extended model of thermodynamic irreversibility, consisting of a single heat bath of an ensemble of Standard Model elementary particles, retains a small amount of quantum coherence / entanglement, so as to constitute new emergent fermion states of matter, and (ii) the metric (E2-p2m2) = 0 ensures the First Law of the conservation of energy operates at each nilpotent stage, so that (iii) prior to each creation (and implied corresponding annihilation / conserve operation), E and m can be postulated to constitute dark energy and matter respectively. It says that the natural language form of the rewrite grammar of the evolution consists of the well known precepts of the Laws of
Fast Tuneable InGaAsP DBR Laser Using Quantum-Confined Stark-Effect-Induced Refractive Index Change
Pantouvaki, M.; Renaud, C. C.; Cannard, P; Robertson, M. J.; Gwilliam, R; Seeds, A. J.
2007-01-01
We report a monolithically integrated InGaAsP DBR ridge waveguide laser that uses the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) to achieve fast tuning response. The laser incorporates three sections: a forward-biased gain section, a reverse-biased phase section, and a reverse-biased DBR tuning section. The laser behavior is modeled using transmission matrix equations and tuning over similar to 8 nm is predicted. Devices were fabricated using post-growth shallow ion implantation to reduce the loss ...
Universality of Holographic Phase Transitions and Holographic Quantum Liquids
Benincasa, Paolo
2009-01-01
We explore the phase structure for defect theories in full generality using the gauge/gravity correspondence. On the gravity side, the systems are constructed by introducing M (probe) D(p+4-2k)-branes in a background generated by N Dp-branes to obtain a codimension-k intersection. The dual gauge theory is a U(N) Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a (1+p-k)-dimensional defect with both adjoint and fundamental degrees of freedom. We focus on the phase structure in the chemical potential versus temperature plane. We observe the existence of two universality classes for holographic gauge theories, which are identified by the order of the phase transition in the interior of the chemical potential/temperature plane. Specifically, all the sensible systems with no defect show a third order phase transition. Gauge theories on a defect with (p-1)-spatial directions are instead characterised by a second order phase transition. One can therefore state that the order of this phase transition is intimately related to the ...
Universal space-time scaling symmetry in the dynamics of bosons across a quantum phase transition
Clark, Logan W; Chin, Cheng
2016-01-01
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond is hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics is expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop anti-ferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from sub-Poisson generation of topological defects. The characteristic times and lengths scale as power-laws of the crossing rate, yielding the temporal exponent 0.50(2) and the spatial exponent 0.26(2), consistent with theory. Furthermore, the fluctuations and correlations are invariant in scaled space-time coordinates, in support of the scaling symmetry of quantum crit...
Universal order parameters and quantum phase transitions: a finite-size approach.
Shi, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Batchelor, Murray T
2015-01-08
We propose a method to construct universal order parameters for quantum phase transitions in many-body lattice systems. The method exploits the H-orthogonality of a few near-degenerate lowest states of the Hamiltonian describing a given finite-size system, which makes it possible to perform finite-size scaling and take full advantage of currently available numerical algorithms. An explicit connection is established between the fidelity per site between two H-orthogonal states and the energy gap between the ground state and low-lying excited states in the finite-size system. The physical information encoded in this gap arising from finite-size fluctuations clarifies the origin of the universal order parameter. We demonstrate the procedure for the one-dimensional quantum formulation of the q-state Potts model, for q = 2, 3, 4 and 5, as prototypical examples, using finite-size data obtained from the density matrix renormalization group algorithm.
Unitary evolution of the quantum universe with a Brown-Kuchar dust
Maeda, Hideki
2015-01-01
We study the time evolution of a wave function for the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe governed by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in both analytic and numerical methods. We consider a Brown-Kuchar dust as a matter field in order to introduce a "clock" in quantum cosmology and adopt the Laplace-Beltrami operator-ordering. The Hamiltonian operator admits an infinite number of self-adjoint extensions corresponding to a one-parameter family of boundary conditions at the origin in the minisuperspace. For any value of the extension parameter in the boundary condition, the evolution of a wave function is unitary and the classical initial singularity is avoided and replaced by the big bounce in the quantum system. It is shown that the expectation value of the spatial volume of the universe obeys the classical time evolution in the late time.
Evolving Quantum Oracles with Hybrid Quantum-inspired Evolutionary Algorithm
Ding, S; Yang, Q; Ding, Shengchao; Jin, Zhi; Yang, Qing
2006-01-01
Quantum oracles play key roles in the studies of quantum computation and quantum information. But implementing quantum oracles efficiently with universal quantum gates is a hard work. Motivated by genetic programming, this paper proposes a novel approach to evolve quantum oracles with a hybrid quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm. The approach codes quantum circuits with numerical values and combines the cost and correctness of quantum circuits into the fitness function. To speed up the calculation of matrix multiplication in the evaluation of individuals, a fast algorithm of matrix multiplication with Kronecker product is also presented. The experiments show the validity and the effects of some parameters of the presented approach. And some characteristics of the novel approach are discussed too.
de Vega, Sandra; Cox, Joel D.; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2016-08-01
We study the potential of highly doped finite carbon nanotubes to serve as plasmonic elements that mediate the interaction between quantum emitters. Similar to graphene, nanotubes support intense plasmons that can be modulated by varying their level of electrical doping. These excitations exhibit large interaction with light and electron beams, as revealed upon examination of the corresponding light extinction cross-section and electron energy-loss spectra. We show that quantum emitters experience record-high Purcell factors, while they undergo strong mutual interaction mediated by their coupling to the tube plasmons. Our results show the potential of doped finite nanotubes as tunable plasmonic materials for quantum optics applications.
Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiromi Saida
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second part, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third part, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravity may become repulsive at Planck length. Also, a relation of these suggestions with action integral of gravity at semi-classical level is given. These suggestions about quantum gravity are universal in the sense that they are independent of any existing model of quantum gravity.
Arkhipov, S M; Odesskii, A V; Feigin, B; Vassiliev, V
1998-01-01
This volume presents the first collection of articles consisting entirely of work by faculty and students of the Higher Mathematics College of the Independent University of Moscow (IUM). This unique institution was established to train elite students to become research scientists. Covered in the book are two main topics: quantum groups and low-dimensional topology. The articles were written by participants of the Feigin and Vassiliev seminars, two of the most active seminars at the IUM.
Fast, Low Loss, Electro-Optic Switch for Quantum Information Processing Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single photon sources and detectors hold the key to achieving success in several quantum communication and computation applications. Many of these goals can be...
Enhancing slow and fast light effects in quantum dot optical amplifiers through ultrafast dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper
2009-01-01
We numerically demonstrate potential roles of ultrafast carrier dynamics in Quantum dot amplifiers to achieve tunable microwave phase shifting at frequencies beyond the limits of carrier lifetime in coherent population oscillations mechanism.......We numerically demonstrate potential roles of ultrafast carrier dynamics in Quantum dot amplifiers to achieve tunable microwave phase shifting at frequencies beyond the limits of carrier lifetime in coherent population oscillations mechanism....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena
2016-01-01
, was complemented with qualitative observational data using an observation checklist. The sample was 100 female students who eat at the University canteen. The study was conducted between October-December 2015. Data analysis was done using Excel to calculate frequencies of the respective variables. Results: Fast...
Fast-type high-accuracy universal polarimeter using charge-coupled device spectrometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akifumi Takanabe
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A fast, high-accuracy universal polarimeter was developed using a charge-coupled device (CCD spectrometer (CCD-HAUP, to carry out simultaneous optical anisotropic (linear birefringence, LB; linear dichroism, LD and chiroptical (circular birefringence, CB; circular dichroism, CD measurements on single crystals without any pretreatment, in the visible region between 400–680 nm. The principle of the HAUP method is to measure the intensities of emergent light passing through a polarizer, a crystal sample, and then an analyzer, as the azimuth angles of the polarizer and analyzer are independently altered. The CCD-HAUP has the unique feature that white transmitted light intensity can be measured using a CCD spectrometer, compared with the generalized HAUP (G-HAUP system in which monochromatic transmitted light is measured using a photomultiplier. The CCD-HAUP measurements across the entire wavelength region are completed within the G-HAUP measurement time for a single wavelength. The CCD-HAUP drastically reduces the measurement time for a dataset to only 1.5 h, from the 24 h required for the G-HAUP system. LB, LD, CB, and CD measurements of single crystals of α-quartz and enantiomeric photomechanical salicylidenephenylethylamines before, during, and after ultraviolet light irradiation show results comparable to those obtained using the G-HAUP system. The newly developed system is very effective for samples susceptible to degradation induced by external stimuli, such as light and heat.
Universal transport near a quantum critical Mott transition in two dimensions
Witczak-Krempa, William; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Senthil, T.; Kim, Yong Baek
2012-12-01
We discuss the universal-transport signatures near a zero-temperature continuous Mott transition between a Fermi liquid and a quantum spin liquid in two spatial dimensions. The correlation-driven transition occurs at fixed filling and involves fractionalization of the electron: upon entering the spin liquid, a Fermi surface of neutral spinons coupled to an internal gauge field emerges. We present a controlled calculation of the value of the zero-temperature universal resistivity jump predicted to occur at the transition. More generally, the behavior of the universal scaling function that collapses the temperature- and pressure-dependent resistivity is derived, and is shown to bear a strong imprint of the emergent gauge fluctuations. We further predict a universal jump of the thermal conductivity across the Mott transition, which derives from the breaking of conformal invariance by the damped gauge field, and leads to a violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the quantum critical region. A connection to the quasitriangular organic salts is made, where such a transition might occur. Finally, we present some transport results for the pure rotor O(N) conformal field theory.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira
2017-09-01
We propose a scalable scheme for optical quantum computing using measurement-induced continuous-variable quantum gates in a loop-based architecture. Here, time-bin-encoded quantum information in a single spatial mode is deterministically processed in a nested loop by an electrically programmable gate sequence. This architecture can process any input state and an arbitrary number of modes with almost minimum resources, and offers a universal gate set for both qubits and continuous variables. Furthermore, quantum computing can be performed fault tolerantly by a known scheme for encoding a qubit in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a single light mode.
de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.
2017-02-01
The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f( E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r_h , mass M_h , velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M_h ≳ 2.3 × 10^6 M_⊙ and effective temperatures T_0 > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 × 10^6 M_⊙ ≳ M_h ≳ M_{h,min} ˜eq 3.10 × 10^4 (2 {keV}/m)^{16/5} M_⊙, T_0 < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T_0 = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r_h , the squared velocity v^2(r_h) and the temperature T_0 turn to exhibit square-root of M_h scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ (r)/ρ (0) and the normalized velocity profiles v^2(r)/ v^2(0) are universal functions of r/r_h reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For the small galaxies, 10^6 ≳ M_h ≥ M_{h,min} , the equation of state is galaxy mass dependent and the density and velocity profiles are not
The Gtr-Model a Universal Framework for Quantum-Like Measurements
Aerts, Diederik; Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli De
We present a very general geometrico-dynamical description of physical or more abstract entities, called the general tension-reduction (GTR) model, where not only states, but also measurement-interactions can be represented, and the associated outcome probabilities calculated. Underlying the model is the hypothesis that indeterminism manifests as a consequence of unavoidable uctuations in the experimental context, in accordance with the hidden-measurements interpretation of quantum mechanics. When the structure of the state space is Hilbertian, and measurements are of the universal kind, i.e., are the result of an average over all possible ways of selecting an outcome, the GTR-model provides the same predictions of the Born rule, and therefore provides a natural completed version of quantum mechanics. However, when the structure of the state space is non-Hilbertian and/or not all possible ways of selecting an outcome are available to be actualized, the predictions of the model generally differ from the quantum ones, especially when sequential measurements are considered. Some paradigmatic examples will be discussed, taken from physics and human cognition. Particular attention will be given to some known psychological effects, like question order effects and response replicability, which we show are able to generate non-Hilbertian statistics. We also suggest a realistic interpretation of the GTR-model, when applied to human cognition and decision, which we think could become the generally adopted interpretative framework in quantum cognition research.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2017-01-01
We propose a dressed-state scheme to achieve shortcuts to adiabaticity in atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics for speeding up adiabatic two-atom quantum state transfer and maximum entanglement generation. Compared with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the dressed-state scheme greatly shortens the operation time in a non-adiabatic way. By means of some numerical simulations, we determine the parameters which can guarantee the feasibility and efficiency both in theory and experiment. Besides, numerical simulations also show the scheme is robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the photon leakages from the cavity.
Berkolaiko, Gregory; Kuipers, Jack
2012-04-01
Electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots exhibits universal, system-independent properties, consistent with random-matrix theory. The quantum transport can also be rooted, via the semiclassical approximation, in sums over the classical scattering trajectories. Correlations between such trajectories can be organized diagrammatically and have been shown to yield universal answers for some observables. Here, we develop the general combinatorial treatment of the semiclassical diagrams, through a connection to factorizations of permutations. We show agreement between the semiclassical and random matrix approaches to the moments of the transmission eigenvalues. The result is valid for all moments to all orders of the expansion in inverse channel number for all three main symmetry classes (with and without time-reversal symmetry and spin-orbit interaction) and extends to nonlinear statistics. This finally explains the applicability of random-matrix theory to chaotic quantum transport in terms of the underlying dynamics as well as providing semiclassical access to the probability density of the transmission eigenvalues.
Appearance of classical Mixmaster Universe from the No-Boundary Quantum State
Fujio, Kazuya
2009-01-01
We investigate the appearance of the classical anisotropic universe from the no-boundary quantum state according to the prescription proposed by Hartle, Hawking and Hertog. Our model is homogeneous, anisotropic, closed universes with a minimally coupled scalar field and cosmological constant. We found that there are an ensemble of classical Lorentzian histories with anisotropies and experience inflationary expansion at late time, and the probability of histories with anisotropies are lower than isotropic histories. Thus the no-boundary condition may be able to explain the emergence of our universe. If the classical late time histories are extended back, some become singular by the existence of initial anisotropies with large accelerations. However we do not find any chaotic behavior of anisotropies near the initial singularity.
Dudley, J. M.; Kwan, A. M.
1996-06-01
The subject of quantum electrodynamics (QED) was the subject of QED—The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, the popular book by Richard Feynman which was published by Princeton University Press in 1985. On p. 1, Feynman makes passing reference to the fact that the book is based on a series of general lectures on QED which were, however, first delivered in New Zealand. At Auckland University, these lectures were delivered in 1979, as the Sir Douglas Robb lectures, and videotapes of the lectures are held by the Auckland University Physics Department. We have carried out a detailed examination of these videotapes, and we discuss here the major differences between the original Auckland lectures and the published version. We use selected quotations from the lectures to show that the original lectures provide additional insight into Feynman's character, and have great educational value.
Large-scale structure from quantum fluctuations in the early universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Turner
2000-05-25
A better understanding of the formation of large-scale structure in the Universe is arguably the most pressing question in cosmology. The most compelling and promising theoretical paradigm, Inflation + Cold Dark Matter, holds that the density inhomogeneities that seeded the formation of structure in the Universe originated from quantum fluctuations arising during inflation and that the bulk of the dark matter exists as slowing moving elementary particles (cold dark matter) left over from the earliest, fiery moments. Large redshift surveys (such as the SDSS and 2dF) and high-resolution measurements of CBR anisotropy (to be made by the MAP and Planck Surveyor satellites) have the potential to decisively test Inflation + Cold Dark Matter and to open a window to the very early Universe and fundamental physics.
Caliari, Marco; Zuccher, Simone
2017-04-01
Although Fourier series approximation is ubiquitous in computational physics owing to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, efficient techniques for the fast evaluation of a three-dimensional truncated Fourier series at a set of arbitrary points are quite rare, especially in MATLAB language. Here we employ the Nonequispaced Fast Fourier Transform (NFFT, by J. Keiner, S. Kunis, and D. Potts), a C library designed for this purpose, and provide a Matlab® and GNU Octave interface that makes NFFT easily available to the Numerical Analysis community. We test the effectiveness of our package in the framework of quantum vortex reconnections, where pseudospectral Fourier methods are commonly used and local high resolution is required in the post-processing stage. We show that the efficient evaluation of a truncated Fourier series at arbitrary points provides excellent results at a computational cost much smaller than carrying out a numerical simulation of the problem on a sufficiently fine regular grid that can reproduce comparable details of the reconnecting vortices.
de Gosson, Maurice A
2012-01-01
A positive definite symmetric matrix {\\sigma} qualifies as a quantum mechanical covariance matrix if and only if {\\sigma}+(1/2)i\\hbar{\\Omega}\\geq0 where {\\Omega} is the standard symplectic matrix. This well-known condition is a strong version of the uncertainty principle, which can be reinterpreted in terms of the topological notion of symplectic capacity, closely related to Gromov's non-squeezing theorem. We show that a recent refinement of the latter leads to a new class of geometric invariants. These are the volumes of the orthogonal projections of the covariance ellipsoid on symplectic subspaces of the phase space. We compare these geometric invariants to the algebraic "universal quantum invariants" of Dodonov and Serafini.
Zhu, Lijun; Garst, Markus; Rosch, Achim; Si, Qimiao
2003-08-08
At a generic quantum critical point, the thermal expansion alpha is more singular than the specific heat c(p). Consequently, the "Grüneisen ratio," Gamma=alpha/c(p), diverges. When scaling applies, Gamma approximately T(-1/(nu z)) at the critical pressure p=p(c), providing a means to measure the scaling dimension of the most relevant operator that pressure couples to; in the alternative limit T-->0 and p not equal p(c), Gamma approximately 1/(p-p(c)) with a prefactor that is, up to the molar volume, a simple universal combination of critical exponents. For a magnetic-field driven transition, similar relations hold for the magnetocaloric effect (1/T) partial differential T/ partial differential H|(S). Finally, we determine the corrections to scaling in a class of metallic quantum critical points.
Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe
Moriconi, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni; Capozziello, Salvatore
2016-07-01
We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum big bounce is connected to the Universe's turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cutoff on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the big-bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosmological constant is replaced via a polymer discretization of the Universe's volume. A direct proportionality law between these two parameters is then established.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)
2015-07-20
In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.
Simple and Fast Scheme for Realizing Quantum Logic Gates in an Ion Trap
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2004-01-01
We propose a simple and fast scheme to realize a controlled-NOT gate between two trapped ions using a resonant laser pulse. Our scheme allows the Rabi frequency of the laser field to be of the order of the vibrational frequency and thus the time required to complete the operation is greatly shortened, which is of importance in view of decoherence.
Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan
2016-11-01
In this paper, we propose a protocol to prepare W states with superconducting quantum interference devices by using dressed states. Through choosing a set of dressed states suitably, the protocol can be used to accelerate the adiabatic passages while additional couplings are unnecessary. Moreover, we can optimize the evolution of the system with the restraint to the populations of the intermediate states by choosing suitable control parameters. Numerical simulations show that the protocol is robust against the parameter variations and decoherence mechanisms. Furthermore, the protocol is faster and more robust against the dephasing compared with that by the adiabatic passages. As for the Rabi frequencies of pulses designed by the method, they can be expressed by the linear superpositions of Gaussian functions, which does not increase difficulty in the experiments. In addition, the protocol could be controlled and manipulated easily in experiments with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system.
Closed timelike curves, superluminal signals, and "free will" in universal quantum mechanics
Nikolic, H
2010-01-01
We explore some implications of the hypothesis that quantum mechanics (QM) is universal, i.e., that QM does not merely describe information accessible to observers, but that it also describes the observers themselves. From that point of view, "free will" (FW) - the ability of experimentalists to make free choices of initial conditions - is merely an illusion. As a consequence, by entangling a part of brain (responsible for the illusion of FW) with a distant particle, one may create nonlocal correlations that can be interpreted as superluminal signals. In addition, if FW is an illusion, then QM on a closed timelike curve can be made consistent even without the Deutch nonlinear consistency constraint.
Non commutative quantum spacetime with topological vortex states, and dark matter in the universe
Patwardhan, A
2003-01-01
Non commutative geometry is creating new possibilities for physics. Quantum spacetime geometry and post inflationary models of the universe with matter creation have an enormous range of scales of time, distance and energy in between. There is a variety of physics possible till the nucleosynthesis epoch is reached. The use of topology and non commutative geometry in cosmology is a recent approach. This paper considers the possibility of topological solutions of a vortex kind given by non commutative structures. These are interpreted as dark matter, with the grand unified Yang-Mills field theory energy scale used to describe its properties. The relation of the model with other existing theories is discussed.
Periodic-orbit theory of universal level correlations in quantum chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Sebastian [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Heusler, Stefan [Institut fuer Didaktik der Physik, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Altland, Alexander [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: Petr.Braun@uni-due.de
2009-10-15
Using Gutzwiller's semiclassical periodic-orbit theory, we demonstrate universal behavior of the two-point correlator of the density of levels for quantum systems whose classical limit is fully chaotic. We go beyond previous work in establishing the full correlator such that its Fourier transform, the spectral form factor, is determined for all times, below and above the Heisenberg time. We cover dynamics with and without time-reversal invariance (from the orthogonal and unitary symmetry classes). A key step in our reasoning is to sum the periodic-orbit expansion in terms of a matrix integral, like the one known from the sigma model of random matrix theory.
Comment on "Quantum Creation of an Open Universe" by Andrei Linde
Hawking, Stephen William; Turok, Neil
1998-01-01
We comment on Linde's claim that one should change the sign in the action for a Euclidean instanton in quantum cosmology, resulting in the formula $P \\sim e^{-|S|}$ for the probability of various classical universes. There are serious problems with doing so. First, the action for perturbations about the classical solution has the wrong sign and such perturbations are therefore unsuppressed. Second, with this sign for the action the nucleation of primordial black holes during inflation is unsuppressed, with a disastrous resulting cosmology. We regard these as compelling arguments for adhering to the usual sign given by the Wick rotation.
Ke, Han-Ping; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan-Qin; Wei, Zhi-Liang; Cai, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Zhong
2014-06-01
In many cases, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are virtually impossible to obtain by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance methods because of inhomogeneity of magnetic field and inherent heterogeneity of sample. Although conventional intramolecular zero-quantum coherence (ZQC) can be used to obtain high-resolution spectrum in inhomogeneous field, the acquisition takes rather long time. In this paper, a spatially encoded intramolecular ZQC technique is proposed to fast acquire high-resolution NMR spectrum in inhomogeneous field. For the first time, the gradient-driven decoding technique is employed to selectively acquire intramolecular ZQC signals. Theoretical analyses and experimental observations demonstrate that high-resolution NMR spectral information can be retrieved within several scans even when the field inhomogeneity is severe enough to erase most spectral information. This work provides a new way to enhance the acquisition efficiency of high-resolution intramolecular ZQC spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields.
Fast Rydberg antiblockade regime and its applications in quantum logic gates
Su, Shi-Lei; Gao, Ya; Liang, Erjun; Zhang, Shou
2017-02-01
Unlike the Rydberg blockade regime, the Rydberg antiblockade regime (RABR) allows more than one Rydberg atom to be excited, which can bring other interesting phenomena and applications. We propose an alternative scheme to quickly achieve the RABR. The proposed RABR can be implemented by adjusting the detuning of the classical driving field, which is, in turn, based on the former numbers of the excited Rydberg atoms. In contrast to the former schemes, the current one enables more than two atoms to be excited to Rydberg states in a short period of time and thus is useful for large-scale quantum information processing. The proposed RABR can be used to construct two- and multiqubit quantum logic gates. In addition, a Rydberg excitation superatom, which can decrease the blockade error and enlarge the blockade radius for Rydberg blockade-based schemes, is constructed based on the suggested RABR and used to realize a more robust quantum logic gate. The mechanical effect and the ionization are discussed, and the performance is investigated using the master-equation method. Finally, other possible applications of the present RABR are also given.
Superconducting Switch for Fast On-Chip Routing of Quantum Microwave Fields
Pechal, M.; Besse, J.-C.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Gasparinetti, S.; Wallraff, A.
2016-08-01
A switch capable of routing microwave signals at cryogenic temperatures is a desirable component for state-of-the-art experiments in many fields of applied physics, including but not limited to quantum-information processing, communication, and basic research in engineered quantum systems. Conventional mechanical switches provide low insertion loss but disturb operation of dilution cryostats and the associated experiments by heat dissipation. Switches based on semiconductors or microelectromechanical systems have a lower thermal budget but are not readily integrated with current superconducting circuits. Here we design and test an on-chip switch built by combining tunable transmission-line resonators with microwave beam splitters. The device is superconducting and as such dissipates a negligible amount of heat. It is compatible with current superconducting circuit fabrication techniques, operates with a bandwidth exceeding 100 MHz, is capable of handling photon fluxes on the order of 1 05 μ s-1 , equivalent to powers exceeding -90 dBm , and can be switched within approximately 6-8 ns. We successfully demonstrate operation of the device in the quantum regime by integrating it on a chip with a single-photon source and using it to route nonclassical itinerant microwave fields at the single-photon level.
Al-Aklabi, Nouf; Al-Dowsari, Wejdan; Andrioti, Despena
2016-01-01
Background: The price of a given food product is an indicative measure of its nutritious value. Forthis reason, people belonging to low-income groups are specifically vulnerable to malnutrition. Thisstudy aims to identify nutritional patterns among students at the Princess Nora University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia, quantify students’ level of awareness of health risks associated with fast food consumption,examine how price affects their choice of food, and provide general guidelines for improving ...
Hospodková, Alice; Nikl, Martin; Pacherová, Oliva; Oswald, Jiří; Brůža, Petr; Pánek, Dalibor; Foltynski, Bartosz; Hulicius, Eduard; Beitlerová, Alena; Heuken, Michael
2014-11-01
We prepare InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy and characterize it by fine XRD measurements. We demonstrate its suitability for scintillator application including a unique measurement of wavelength-resolved scintillation response under nanosecond pulse soft x-ray source in extended dynamical and time scales. The photoluminescence and radioluminescence were measured: we have shown that the ratio of the intensity of quantum well (QW) exciton luminescence to the intensity of the yellow luminescence (YL) band IQW/IYL depends strongly on the type and intensity of excitation. Slower scintillation decay measured at YL band maximum confirmed the presence of several radiative recombination centres responsible for wide YL band, which also partially overlap with the QW peak. Further improvements of the structure are suggested, but even the presently reported decay characteristics of the excitonic emission in MQW are better compared to the currently widely used single crystal YAP:Ce or YAG:Ce scintillators. Thus, such a type of a semiconductor scintillator is highly promising for fast detection of soft x-ray and related beam diagnostics.
Hospodková, Alice; Nikl, Martin; Pacherová, Oliva; Oswald, Jiří; Brůža, Petr; Pánek, Dalibor; Foltynski, Bartosz; Hulicius, Eduard; Beitlerová, Alena; Heuken, Michael
2014-11-14
We prepare InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy and characterize it by fine XRD measurements. We demonstrate its suitability for scintillator application including a unique measurement of wavelength-resolved scintillation response under nanosecond pulse soft x-ray source in extended dynamical and time scales. The photoluminescence and radioluminescence were measured: we have shown that the ratio of the intensity of quantum well (QW) exciton luminescence to the intensity of the yellow luminescence (YL) band IQW/IYL depends strongly on the type and intensity of excitation. Slower scintillation decay measured at YL band maximum confirmed the presence of several radiative recombination centres responsible for wide YL band, which also partially overlap with the QW peak. Further improvements of the structure are suggested, but even the presently reported decay characteristics of the excitonic emission in MQW are better compared to the currently widely used single crystal YAP:Ce or YAG:Ce scintillators. Thus, such a type of a semiconductor scintillator is highly promising for fast detection of soft x-ray and related beam diagnostics.
A new quantum mechanical theory of evolution of universe and life.
Nigam, M C
1990-10-01
Based upon the principles of ancient science of Life, which admits both consciousness and matter, a new Quantum Mechanical theory of evolution of universe and life is propounded. The theory advocates: Right from the time, the evolution of universe takes place, life also starts evolving energies and ethereal - consciousness (subtler and real) in anti-electrons, as the complimentary partners. The material body acquires electrons for cordoning of atomic nuclei and displaying its manifestation, in the three spatial dimensions in scale of time. The ethereal consciousness acquires anti electrons for gaining necessary energy for superimposing itself over any of the manifested bodies of equivalent electronic energy and deriving the bliss of materialization. The theory is based upon the solid foundation of the ancient science (ethereal consciousness) laid down by the ancient seekers of knowledge like Kapila and Caraka who interpret many of the riddles of modern science on the frontiers of various disciplines of knowledge.
Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji; Sorella, Sandro
2016-01-01
The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.
Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Müller, Tina; Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Goff, Lucy E.; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.
2017-07-01
Efficient sources of individual pairs of entangled photons are required for quantum networks to operate using fiber-optic infrastructure. Entangled light can be generated by quantum dots (QDs) with naturally small fine-structure splitting (FSS) between exciton eigenstates. Moreover, QDs can be engineered to emit at standard telecom wavelengths. To achieve sufficient signal intensity for applications, QDs have been incorporated into one-dimensional optical microcavities. However, combining these properties in a single device has so far proved elusive. Here, we introduce a growth strategy to realize QDs with small FSS in the conventional telecom band, and within an optical cavity. Our approach employs ``droplet-epitaxy'' of InAs quantum dots on (001) substrates. We show the scheme improves the symmetry of the dots by 72%. Furthermore, our technique is universal, and produces low FSS QDs by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs emitting at ˜900 nm , and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on InP emitting at ˜1550 nm , with mean FSS 4 × smaller than for Stranski-Krastanow QDs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi Otsuka
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.
External meeting - Geneva University: A lab in a trap: quantum gases in optical lattices
2007-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél: 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Monday 16 April 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium A lab in a trap: quantum gases in optical lattices by Prof. Tilman Esslinger / Department of Physics, ETH Zurich The field of ultra cold quantum gases has seen an astonishing development during the last ten years. With the demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation in weakly interacting atomic gases a theoretical concept of unique beauty could be witnessed experimentally. Very recent developments have now made it possible to engineer atomic many-body systems which are dominated by strong interactions. A major driving force for these advances are experiments in which ultracold atoms are trapped in optical lattices. These systems provide anew avenue for designing and studying quantum many-body systems. Exposed to the crystal structure of interfering laser wave...
Lin, C C Y; Wu, Y Z; Zhang, W M; Lin, Cyrus C.Y.; Soo, Chopin; Wu, Yin-Zhong; Zhang, Wei-Min
2004-01-01
Using electrostatic gates to control the electron positions, we present a new controlled-NOT gate based on quantum dots. The qubit states are chosen to be the spin states of an excess conductor electron in the quantum dot; and the main ingredients of our scheme are the superpositions of space-time paths of electrons and the effect of Coulomb blockade. All operations are performed only on individual quantum dots and are based on fundamental interactions. Without resorting to spin-spin terms or other assumed interactions, the scheme can be realized with a dedicated circuit and a necessary number of quantum dots. Gate fidelity of the quantum computation is also presented.
Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Nagesh, Jayashree; Izmaylov, Artur F
2015-11-05
We have developed a numerical differentiation scheme that eliminates evaluation of overlap determinants in calculating the time-derivative nonadiabatic couplings (TDNACs). Evaluation of these determinants was the bottleneck in previous implementations of mixed quantum-classical methods using numerical differentiation of electronic wave functions in the Slater determinant representation. The central idea of our approach is, first, to reduce the analytic time derivatives of Slater determinants to time derivatives of molecular orbitals and then to apply a finite-difference formula. Benchmark calculations prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme showing impressive several-order-of-magnitude speedups of the TDNAC calculation step for midsize molecules.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2014-02-03
We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.
Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-02-01
We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.
Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempel, Martin, E-mail: hempel@pdi-berlin.de; Röben, Benjamin; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2016-05-09
GaAs-based terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are continuously tuned in their emission frequency by illuminating the rear facet with a near-infrared, high-power diode laser. For QCLs emitting around 3.1 THz, the maximum tuning range amounts to 2.8 GHz for continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 55 K, while in pulsed mode 9.1 and 8.0 GHz are achieved at 35 and 55 K, respectively.
Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating.
Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2016-03-01
Since de Broglie's work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie's formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection.
Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe
Moriconi, Riccardo; Capozziello, Salvatore
2016-01-01
We analyse the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum Big-Bounce is connected to the Universe turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical Universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cut-off on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the Big-Bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosm...
Objective past of a quantum universe: Redundant records of consistent histories
Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Zwolak, Michael
2016-03-01
Motivated by the advances of quantum Darwinism and recognizing the role played by redundancy in identifying the small subset of quantum states with resilience characteristic of objective classical reality, we explore the implications of redundant records for consistent histories. The consistent histories formalism is a tool for describing sequences of events taking place in an evolving closed quantum system. A set of histories is consistent when one can reason about them using Boolean logic, i.e., when probabilities of sequences of events that define histories are additive. However, the vast majority of the sets of histories that are merely consistent are flagrantly nonclassical in other respects. This embarras de richesses (known as the set selection problem) suggests that one must go beyond consistency to identify how the classical past arises in our quantum universe. The key intuition we follow is that the records of events that define the familiar objective past are inscribed in many distinct systems, e.g., subsystems of the environment, and are accessible locally in space and time to observers. We identify histories that are not just consistent but redundantly consistent using the partial-trace condition introduced by Finkelstein as a bridge between histories and decoherence. The existence of redundant records is a sufficient condition for redundant consistency. It selects, from the multitude of the alternative sets of consistent histories, a small subset endowed with redundant records characteristic of the objective classical past. The information about an objective history of the past is then simultaneously within reach of many, who can independently reconstruct it and arrive at compatible conclusions in the present.
Kam, Chon-Fai; Liu, Ren-Bao
2017-08-29
Berry phases and gauge structures are fundamental quantum phenomena. In linear quantum mechanics the gauge field in parameter space presents monopole singularities where the energy levels become degenerate. In nonlinear quantum mechanics, which is an effective theory of interacting quantum systems, there can be phase transitions and hence critical surfaces in the parameter space. We find that these critical surfaces result in a new type of gauge field singularity, namely, a conic singularity that resembles the big bang of a 2 + 1 dimensional de Sitter universe, with the fundamental frequency of Bogoliubov excitations acting as the cosmic scale, and mode softening at the critical surface, where the fundamental frequency vanishes, causing a causal singularity. Such conic singularity may be observed in various systems such as Bose-Einstein condensates and molecular magnets. This finding offers a new approach to quantum simulation of fundamental physics.
Strongly interacting ultracold quantum gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui ZHAI
2009-01-01
This article reviews recent progresses in ul- tracold quantum gases, and it includes three subjects which are the Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance, quantum gases in the optical lattices and the fast ro- tating quantum gases. In this article, we discuss many basic physics pictures and concepts in quantum gases, for examples, the resonant interaction, universality and condensation in the lowest Landau level; we introduce fundamental theoretical tools for studying these systems, such as mean-field theory for BEC-BCS crossover and for the boson Hubbard model; also, we emphasize the im- portant unsolved problems in the forefront of this field, for instance, the temperature effect in optical lattices.
Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers
Jofre, M; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; Juan, J L San; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V; 10.1364/OE.19.003825
2011-01-01
A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as $1.14\\times 10^{-2}$ while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size,...
Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.
Jofre, M; Gardelein, A; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; San Juan, J L; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-02-28
A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10⁻² while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konecna, Marie [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotny, Karel [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, CZ-625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Krizkova, Sona [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Blazkova, Iva [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kopel, Pavel [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Hodek, Petr [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030/8, CZ-128 00 Prague,Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kizek, Rene [Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others
2014-11-01
The technique described in this paper allows detection of quantum dots (QDs) specifically deposited on the polystyrene surface by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Using LIBS, the distribution of QDs or their conjugates with biomolecules deposited on the surface can be observed, regardless of the fact if they exhibit fluorescence or not. QDs deposited on the specific surface of polystyrene microplate in the form of spots are detected by determination of the metal included in the QDs structure. Cd-containing QDs (CdS, CdTe) stabilized with mercaptopropionic (MPA) or mercaptosuccinic (MSA) acid, respectively, alone or in the form of conjugates with metallothionein (MT) biomolecule are determined by using the 508.58 nm Cd emission line. The observed absolute detection limit for Cd in CdTe QDs conjugates with MT in one spot was 3 ng Cd. Due to the high sensitivity of this technique, the immunoanalysis in combination with LIBS was also investigated. Cd spatial distribution in sandwich immunoassay was detected. - Highlights: • We describe determination of biomolecules labeled with quantum dots by LIBS. • LIBS and immunoassay are applied for the determination of metallothionein. • Metallothionein amount detected by LIBS is 10-times lower compared to ELISA.
Liu, Xi-Jing; Hu, Bing-Quan; Cho, Sam Young; Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Shi, Qian-Qian
2016-10-01
Recently, the finite-size corrections to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site in the spin-1/2 chain have been numerically shown to scale inversely with system size, and its prefactor b has been suggested to be possibly universal [Q-Q. Shi et al., New J. Phys. 12, 025008 (2010)]. As possible evidence of its universality, the numerical values of the prefactors have been confirmed analytically by using the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy with a Neumann boundary condition for a free compactified field [J-M. Stephan et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 180406(R) (2010)]. However, the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy is not unique and does depend on conformally invariant boundary conditions. Here, we show that a unique Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy corresponding to a finitesize correction to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site exists and show that the ratio of the prefactor b to the corresponding minimum groundstate degeneracy gmin for the Affleck- Ludwig boundary entropy is a constant for any critical region of the spin-1 XXZ system with the single-ion anisotropy, i.e., b/(2 log2 g min ) = -1. Previously studied spin-1/2 systems, including the quantum three-state Potts model, have verified the universal ratio. Hence, the inverse finite-size correction to the geometrical entanglement per lattice site and its prefactor b are universal for one-dimensional critical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monendra Grover
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The human consciousness has been proposed to have several levels of consciousness, some of which are higher than others. I propose that the universe also has several levels of consciousness. To quantify the states of consciousness I propose the term consciousness vector. I further propose a extended deep ecology hypothesis which states that all human activity, including in the fields of medicine, agriculture and technology should be targeted so as to achieve the highest levels of consciousness of the universe (or the highest magnitude of the consciousness vector. The elementary particles have been proposed to have consciousness which is “lost” in bigger chunks of non living mater due to quantum decoherence. The non-living matter may also become quantum coherent in the higher states of consciousness of the universe. Thus I envisage that higher levels of consciousness of universe would include non living matter which may become conscious in the described state of consciousness of universe.
Dattani, Nikesh S.
2013-12-01
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega, H.J. de [Sorbonne Universites, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie UPMC Paris VI, LPTHE CNRS UMR 7589, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sanchez, N.G. [Observatoire de Paris PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universites UPMC Paris VI, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France)
2017-02-15
The Thomas-Fermi approach to galaxy structure determines self-consistently and non-linearly the gravitational potential of the fermionic warm dark matter (WDM) particles given their quantum distribution function f(E). This semiclassical framework accounts for the quantum nature and high number of DM particles, properly describing gravitational bounded and quantum macroscopic systems as neutron stars, white dwarfs and WDM galaxies. We express the main galaxy magnitudes as the halo radius r{sub h}, mass M{sub h}, velocity dispersion and phase space density in terms of the surface density which is important to confront to observations. From these expressions we derive the general equation of state for galaxies, i.e., the relation between pressure and density, and provide its analytic expression. Two regimes clearly show up: (1) Large diluted galaxies for M{sub h} >or similar 2.3 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} and effective temperatures T{sub 0} > 0.017 K described by the classical self-gravitating WDM Boltzman gas with a space-dependent perfect gas equation of state, and (2) Compact dwarf galaxies for 1.6 x 10{sup 6} M {sub CircleDot} >or similar M{sub h} >or similar M{sub h,min} ≅ 3.10 x 10{sup 4} (2 keV/m){sup (16)/(5)} M {sub CircleDot}, T{sub 0} < 0.011 K described by the quantum fermionic WDM regime with a steeper equation of state close to the degenerate state. In particular, the T{sub 0} = 0 degenerate or extreme quantum limit yields the most compact and smallest galaxy. In the diluted regime, the halo radius r{sub h}, the squared velocity v{sup 2}(r{sub h}) and the temperature T{sub 0} turn to exhibit square-root of M{sub h} scaling laws. The normalized density profiles ρ(r)/ρ(0) and the normalized velocity profiles v{sup 2}(r)/v{sup 2}(0) are universal functions of r/r{sub h} reflecting the WDM perfect gas behavior in this regime. These theoretical results contrasted to robust and independent sets of galaxy data remarkably reproduce the observations. For
A fast and efficient algorithm for Slater determinant updates in quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Nukala, Phani K V V; Kent, P R C
2009-05-28
We present an efficient low-rank updating algorithm for updating the trial wave functions used in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. The algorithm is based on low-rank updating of the Slater determinants. In particular, the computational complexity of the algorithm is O(kN) during the kth step compared to traditional algorithms that require O(N(2)) computations, where N is the system size. For single determinant trial wave functions the new algorithm is faster than the traditional O(N(2)) Sherman-Morrison algorithm for up to O(N) updates. For multideterminant configuration-interaction-type trial wave functions of M+1 determinants, the new algorithm is significantly more efficient, saving both O(MN(2)) work and O(MN(2)) storage. The algorithm enables more accurate and significantly more efficient QMC calculations using configuration-interaction-type wave functions.
Solvable model for a dynamical quantum phase transition from fast to slow scrambling
Banerjee, Sumilan
2016-01-01
We propose an extension of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model that exhibits a quantum phase transition from the previously identified non-Fermi liquid fixed point to a Fermi liquid like state, while still allowing an exact solution in a suitable large $N$ limit. The extended model involves coupling the interacting $N$-site SYK model to a new set of $pN$ peripheral sites with only quadratic hopping terms between them. The conformal fixed point of the SYK model remains a stable low energy phase below a critical ratio of peripheral sites $pp_c$ the quadratic sites effectively screen the SYK dynamics, leading to a quadratic fixed point in the low temperature and frequency limit. The interactions have a perturbative effect in this regime leading to scrambling with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L\\propto T^2$.
Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M
2013-02-08
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.
Darabi, F
2009-01-01
We study a $(4+D)$-dimensional Kaluza-Klein cosmology with a Robertson-Walker type metric having two scale factors $a$ and $R$, corresponding to $D$-dimensional internal space and 4-dimensional universe, respectively. By introducing an exotic matter in the form of perfect fluid with an special equation of state, as the space-time part of the higher dimensional energy-momentum tensor, a four dimensional effective decaying cosmological term appears as $\\lambda \\sim R^{-m}$ with $0 \\leq m\\leq 2$, playing the role of an evolving dark energy in the universe. By taking $m=2$, which has some interesting implications in reconciling observations with inflationary models and is consistent with quantum tunneling, the resulting Einstein's field equations yield the exponential solutions for the scale factors $a$ and $R$. These exponential behaviors may account for the dynamical compactification of extra dimensions and the accelerating expansion of the 4-dimensional universe in terms of Hubble parameter, $H$. The accelerat...
Moura, Gustavo L C; Simas, Alfredo M
2012-04-05
In this article, we advance the foundations of a strategy to develop a molecular mechanics method based not on classical mechanics and force fields but entirely on quantum mechanics and localized electron-pair orbitals, which we call quantum molecular mechanics (QMM). Accordingly, we introduce a new manner of calculating Hartree-Fock ab initio wavefunctions of closed shell systems based on variationally preoptimized nonorthogonal electron pair orbitals constructed by linear combinations of basis functions centered on the atoms. QMM is noniterative and requires only one extremely fast inversion of a single sparse matrix to arrive to the one-particle density matrix, to the electron density, and consequently, to the ab initio electrostatic potential around the molecular system, or cluster of molecules. Although QMM neglects the smaller polarization effects due to intermolecular interactions, it fully takes into consideration polarization effects due to the much stronger intramolecular geometry distortions. For the case of methane, we show that QMM was able to reproduce satisfactorily the energetics and polarization effects of all distortions of the molecule along the nine normal modes of vibration, well beyond the harmonic region. We present the first practical applications of the QMM method by examining, in detail, the cases of clusters of helium atoms, hydrogen molecules, methane molecules, as well as one molecule of HeH(+) surrounded by several methane molecules. We finally advance and discuss the potentialities of an exact formula to compute the QMM total energy, in which only two center integrals are involved, provided that the fully optimized electron-pair orbitals are known.
A Universal Damping Mechanism of Quantum Vibrations in Deep Sub-Barrier Fusion Reactions
Ichikawa, Takatoshi
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the damping of quantum octupole vibrations near the touching point when two colliding nuclei approach each other in the mass-asymmetric $^{208}$Pb + $^{16}$O system, for which the strong fusion hindrance was clearly observed. We, for the first time, apply the random-phase approximation method to the heavy-mass asymmetric di-nuclear system to calculate the transition strength $B$(E3) as a function of the center-of-mass distance. The obtained $B$(E3) strengths are substantially damped near the touching point, because the single-particle wave functions of the two nuclei strongly mix with each other and a neck is formed. The energy-weighted sums of $B$(E3) are also strongly correlated with the damping factor which is phenomenologically introduced in the standard coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the fusion hindrance. This strongly indicates that the damping of the quantum vibrations universally occurs in the deep sub-barrier fusion reactions.
Quantum Gravity as an Information Network: Self-Organization of a 4D Universe
Trugenberger, Carlo A
2015-01-01
I propose a quantum gravity model in which the fundamental degrees of freedom are pure information bits. The Hamiltonian is a very simple network model consisting of a ferromagnetic Ising model for space-time vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for the links between them. As a result of the frustration arising between these two terms, the ground state self-organizes as a new type of low-clustering, lattice-like graph with finite Hausdorff dimension. The model has three quantum phases: a mean field phase in which the spectral and Hausdorff dimensions coincide and are larger then 4. A fluctuations-dominated phase in which the Hausdorff dimension can only be 4 and the spectral dimension is lower than the Hausdorff dimension and a disordered phase in which there is no space-time interpretation. The large-scale dimension 4 of the universe is related to the upper critical dimension 4 of the Ising model. An ultraviolet fixed point at the lower critical dimension of the Ising model is conjectured to imply t...
Amaral, Marcelo M.; Aschheim, Raymond; Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Irwin, Klee; Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Woolridge, Daniel
2017-09-01
The goal of this work is to elaborate on new geometric methods of constructing exact and parametric quasiperiodic solutions for anamorphic cosmology models in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. There exist previously studied generic off-diagonal and diagonalizable cosmological metrics encoding gravitational and matter fields with quasicrystal like structures, QC, and holonomy corrections from loop quantum gravity, LQG. We apply the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, in order to decouple the (modified) gravitational and matter field equations in general form. This allows us to find integral varieties of cosmological solutions determined by generating functions, effective sources, integration functions and constants. The coefficients of metrics and connections for such cosmological configurations depend, in general, on all spacetime coordinates and can be chosen to generate observable (quasi)-periodic/aperiodic/fractal/stochastic/(super) cluster/filament/polymer like (continuous, stochastic, fractal and/or discrete structures) in MGTs and/or GR. In this work, we study new classes of solutions for anamorphic cosmology with LQG holonomy corrections. Such solutions are characterized by nonlinear symmetries of generating functions for generic off-diagonal cosmological metrics and generalized connections, with possible nonholonomic constraints to Levi–Civita configurations and diagonalizable metrics depending only on a time like coordinate. We argue that anamorphic quasiperiodic cosmological models integrate the concept of quantum discrete spacetime, with certain gravitational QC-like vacuum and nonvacuum structures. And, that of a contracting universe that homogenizes, isotropizes and flattens without introducing initial conditions or multiverse problems.
Universal Quantum Computation and Leakage Reduction in the 3-Qubit Decoherence Free Subsystem
Fong, Bryan H
2011-01-01
We describe exchange-only universal quantum computation and leakage reduction in the 3-qubit decoherence free subsystem (DFS). We discuss the angular momentum structure of the DFS, the proper forms for the DFS CNOT and leakage reduction operators in the total angular momentum basis, and new exchange-only pulse sequences for the CNOT and leakage reduction operators. Our new DFS CNOT sequence requires 22 pulses in 13 time steps. The DFS leakage reduction sequence, the first explicit leakage reduction sequence of its kind, requires 30 pulses in 20 time steps. Although the search for sequences was performed numerically using a genetic algorithm, the solutions presented here are exact, with closed-form expressions.
Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.
Hofmann, Johannes
2012-05-01
In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects.
Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.
Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J
2008-03-21
We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.
Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition
Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu
2016-05-01
The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.
Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian
2017-01-01
This work is devoted to the spatially open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe evolving from the stiff matter era to the dust dominated one. Within the quantum analysis based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we derive the wave function of the (k = -1)-FRW Universe with combined matter sources. On the classical level, one has to deal with the Friedmann equation which leads on a dependence of the scale function on time generally expressed from functional relations involving elliptic integrals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanco, E., E-mail: eduardo.blanco@uca.es; Blanco, G.; Gonzalez-Leal, J. M.; Barrera, M. C.; Domínguez, M.; Ramirez-del-Solar, M. [University of Cádiz, Institute of Electron Microscopy and Materials (Spain)
2015-05-15
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared using a top-down approach with a green microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis from ultrathin graphite, previously ultrasound delaminated. Results obtained by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the so-fabricated GQDs are plates with 6 nm of average diameter, mostly single- or bi-layered. Photoluminescence characterization shows that the strongest emission occurs at 410–415 nm wavelength when the samples are excited at 310–320 nm wavelength. In addition to these down-conversion features, GQDs also exhibit up-conversion photoluminescence when excited in the range 560–800 nm wavelength, with broad emission peaks at 410–450 nm wavelength. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicates a higher proportion of C–C sp{sup 2} than sp{sup 3} bonds, with the sp{sup 3} ones mainly located at the GQD surfaces. Also evidences of C–O and C–N bonds at the GQD surface have been observed. The combination of these results with Raman and ultraviolet–visible absorption experiments allows envisaging the GQDs to be composed of amino-functionalized sp{sup 2} islands with a high degree of surface oxidation. This would explain the photoluminescent properties observed in the samples under study. The combined up- and down-conversion photoluminescence processes would made these GQDs a powerful energy-transfer component in GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite systems, which could be used in photocatalyst devices with superior performance compared to simple TiO{sub 2} systems.
Wang, Li; Tu, Tao; Gong, Bo; Zhou, Cheng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-07
High fidelity universal gates for quantum bits form an essential ingredient of quantum information processing. In particular, geometric gates have attracted attention because they have a higher intrinsic resistance to certain errors. However, their realization remains a challenge because of the need for complicated quantum control on a multi-level structure as well as meeting the adiabatic condition within a short decoherence time. Here, we demonstrate non-adiabatic quantum operations for a two-level system by applying a well-controlled geometric Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry. By characterizing the gate quality, we also investigate the operation in the presence of realistic dephasing. Furthermore, the result provides an essential model suitable for understanding an interplay of geometric phase and Landau-Zener-Stückelberg process which are well explored separately.
Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Jian-Yang
2013-01-01
The dynamical behaviors of FRW Universe containing a posivive/negative potential scalar field in loop quantum cosmology scenario are discussed. The method of the phase-plane analysis is used to investigate the stability of the Universe. It is found that the stability properties in this situation are quite different from the classical cosmology case. For a positive potential scalar field coupled with a barotropic fluid, the cosmological autonomous system has five fixed points and one of them is stable if the adiabatic index $\\gamma$ satisfies $0<\\gamma<2$. This leads to the fact that the universe just have one bounce point instead of the singularity which lies in the quantum dominated area and it is caused by the quantum geometry effect. There are four fixed points if one considers a scalar field with a negative potential, but none of them is stable. Therefore, the universe has two kinds of bounce points, one is caused by the quantum geometry effect and the other is caused by the negative potential, the ...
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Arrows of Time in the Bouncing Universes of the No-boundary Quantum State
Hartle, James
2012-01-01
We derive the arrows of time of our universe that follow from the no-boundary theory of its quantum state (NBWF) in a minisuperspace model. Arrows of time are viewed four-dimensionally as properties of the four-dimensional Lorentzian histories of the universe. Probabilities for these histories are predicted by the NBWF. For histories with a regular `bounce' at a minimum radius we find that fluctuations are small at the bounce and grow in the direction of expansion on either side. For recollapsing classical histories with big bang and big crunch singularities we find that the fluctuations are small near one singularity and grow through the expansion and recontraction to the other singularity. The arrow of time defined by the growth in fluctuations thus points in one direction over the whole of a recollapsing spacetime but is bidirectional in a bouncing spacetime. We argue that the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and psychological arrows of time are aligned with the fluctuation arrow. The implications of a bidi...
Efficient and universal quantum key distribution based on chaos and middleware
Jiang, Dong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditionally secure communications, however, the low bit rate of QKD cannot meet the requirements of high-speed applications. Despite the many solutions that have been proposed in recent years, they are neither efficient to generate the secret keys nor compatible with other QKD systems. This paper, based on chaotic cryptography and middleware technology, proposes an efficient and universal QKD protocol that can be directly deployed on top of any existing QKD system without modifying the underlying QKD protocol and optical platform. It initially takes the bit string generated by the QKD system as input, periodically updates the chaotic system, and efficiently outputs the bit sequences. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our protocol can efficiently increase the bit rate of the QKD system as well as securely generate bit sequences with perfect statistical properties. Compared with the existing methods, our protocol is more efficient and universal, it can be rapidly deployed on the QKD system to increase the bit rate when the QKD system becomes the bottleneck of its communication system.
On Universal Gate Libraries and Generic Minimal Two-qubit Quantum Circuits
Shende, V V; Bullock, S S; Shende, Vivek V.; Markov, Igor L.; Bullock, Stephen S.
2003-01-01
We show how to implement exactly an arbitrary two-qubit unitary operation in several universal gate libraries using the smallest possible number of gates. To this end, we prove that n-qubit circuits using CNOT and one-qubit gates require at least ceil((4^n - 3n -1)/4) CNOT gates in the worst case. For two-qubit operators, this yields a lower bound of three gates, which we match with an upper bound of three gates. Using quantum circuit identities, we improve an earlier lower bound of 17 elementary gates by Bullock and Markov to 18, and their upper bound of 23 elementary gates to 18. We also improve upon the generic circuit with six CNOT gates by Zhang et al. (our circuit uses three), and that by Vidal and Dawson with 11 basic gates (we use 10). Given the available results, it appears that some universal gate libraries are at a disadvantage, at least in the sense that no construction is known to produce smallest possible circuits.
Hawking Radiation of a Quantum Black Hole in an Inflationary Universe
Huang, W H
1992-01-01
The quantum stress-energy tensor of a massless scalar field propagating in the two-dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter metric, which describes a classical model spacetime for a dynamical evaporating black hole in an inflationary universe, is analyzed. We present a possible way to obtain the Hawking radiation terms for the model with arbitrary functions of mass. It is used to see how the expansion of universe will affect the dynamical process of black hole evaporation. The results show that the cosmological inflation has an inclination to depress the black hole evaporation. However, if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large then the back-reaction effect has the inclination to increase the black hole evaporation. We also present a simple method to show that it will always produce a divergent flux of outgoing radiation along the Cauchy horizon where the curvature is a finite value. This means that the Hawking radiation will be very large in there and shall modify the classical spacetime drastically. Therefore ...
Quantum algorithm for universal implementation of the projective measurement of energy.
Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio
2015-05-15
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context.
Tortora, M.; Biasiol, G.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Plaisier, J. R.; Antonelli, M.
2017-03-01
In order to improve the characterisation of the delivered beams in many types of photon sources, innovative beam profilers based on III/V semiconductor materials (InGaAs/InAlAs) have been deeply investigated. Owing to a tunable and direct band gap these devices allow radiation detection in a wide spectral range. In order to increase the sensitivity of the device in radiation detection charge amplification on the sensor level is implemented. This is obtained by exploiting In0.75Ga0.25As/In0.75Al0.25As quantum wells (QW) hosting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) through molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Internal charge-amplification mechanism can be achieved for very low applied voltages, while the high carrier mobility allows the design of very fast photon detectors with sub-nanosecond response times. This technology has been preliminarily exploited to fabricate prototype beam profilers with a strip geometry (with 50-μm-wide strips). Tests were carried out both with conventional X-ray tubes and at the Elettra synchrotron facility. The results testify how these profilers are capable of reconstructing the shape of the beam, as well as estimating the position of the beam centroid with a precision of about 400 nm. Further measurements with different samples of decreasing thickness have shown how this precision could be further improved by an optimised microfabrication. For this reason a new design, based on a membrane-photodetector, is proposed. Results regarding the spatial resolution as function of the sensor thickness will be presented and discussed.
A Fast Radio Burst Occurs Every Second throughout the Observable Universe
Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham
2017-09-01
Recent multi-telescope observations of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 reveal a Gaussian-like spectral profile and associate the event with a dwarf metal-poor galaxy at a cosmological redshift of 0.19. Assuming that this event represents the entire FRB population, we make predictions for the expected number counts of FRBs observable by future radio telescopes between 50 MHz and 3.5 GHz. We vary our model assumptions to bracket the expected rate of FRBs and find that it exceeds one FRB per second per sky when accounting for faint sources. We show that future low-frequency radio telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array, could detect more than one FRB per minute over the entire sky originating from the epoch of reionization.
Adjei, Christian Amevi
The main objective of this thesis is twofold. The starting objective was to develop a model for meaningful benchmarking of different versions of GEANT4 against an experimental set-up and MCNP5 pertaining to photon transport and interactions. The following objective was to develop a preliminary design of a Fast Neutron Pencil Beam (FNPB) Facility to be applicable for the University of Utah research reactor (UUTR) using MCNP5 and GEANT4. The three various GEANT4 code versions, GEANT4.9.4, GEANT4.9.3, and GEANT4.9.2, were compared to MCNP5 and the experimental measurements of gamma attenuation in air. The average gamma dose rate was measured in the laboratory experiment at various distances from a shielded cesium source using a Ludlum model 19 portable NaI detector. As it was expected, the gamma dose rate decreased with distance. All three GEANT4 code versions agreed well with both the experimental data and the MCNP5 simulation. Additionally, a simple GEANT4 and MCNP5 model was developed to compare the code agreements for neutron interactions in various materials. Preliminary FNPB design was developed using MCNP5; a semi-accurate model was developed using GEANT4 (because GEANT4 does not support the reactor physics modeling, the reactor was represented as a surface neutron source, thus a semi-accurate model). Based on the MCNP5 model, the fast neutron flux in a sample holder of the FNPB is obtained to be 6.52×107 n/cm2s, which is one order of magnitude lower than gigantic fast neutron pencil beam facilities existing elsewhere. The MCNP5 model-based neutron spectrum indicates that the maximum expected fast neutron flux is at a neutron energy of ~1 MeV. In addition, the MCNP5 model provided information on gamma flux to be expected in this preliminary FNPB design; specifically, in the sample holder, the gamma flux is to be expected to be around 108 γ/cm 2s, delivering a gamma dose of 4.54×103 rem/hr. This value is one to two orders of magnitudes below the gamma
Effective boson-spin model for nuclei ensemble based universal quantum memory
Song, Z; Shi, T; Sun, C P
2004-01-01
We study the collective excitation of a macroscopic ensemble of polarized nuclei fixed in a quantum dot. Under the approximately homogeneous condition that we explicitly present in this paper, this many-particle system behaves as a single mode boson interacting with the spin of a single conduction band electron confined in this quantum dot. Within this effective spin-boson system, the quantum information carried by the electronic spin can be coherently transferred into the collective bosonic mode of excitation in the ensemble of nuclei. In this sense, the collective bosonic excitation can serve as a stable quantum memory to store the quantum information of spin state of electron.
Marochnik, Leonid; Vereshkov, Grigory
2008-01-01
We show that cosmological acceleration, Dark Energy (DE) effect is a consequence of the zero rest mass, conformal non-invariance of gravitons, and 1-loop finiteness of quantum gravity (QG). The effect is due to graviton-ghost condensates arising from the interference of quantum coherent states. The theory is constructed as follows: De Witt-Faddeev-Popov gauged path integral -> factorization of classical and quantum variables -> transition to the 1-loop approximation -> choice of ghost sector, satisfying 1-loop finiteness of the theory off the mass shell. The Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirckwood-Yvon (BBGKY) chain for the spectral function of gravitons renormalized by ghosts is used to build a theory of gravitons in the isotropic Universe. We found three exact solutions of the equations that describe virtual graviton and ghost condensates as well as condensates of instanton fluctuations. Exact solutions correspond to various condensates with different graviton-ghost compositions. The formalism of the BBGKY chain ta...
Chaoui, Hicham
2017-05-13
This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.
Quantum CPU and Quantum Algorithm
Wang, An Min
1999-01-01
Making use of an universal quantum network -- QCPU proposed by me\\upcite{My1}, it is obtained that the whole quantum network which can implement some the known quantum algorithms including Deutsch algorithm, quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm.
Steane, A M
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarise not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, the review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the EPR experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory, and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are described, including key distribution, teleportation, data compression, quantum error correction, the universal quantum computer and qua...
Can a primordial black hole or wormhole grow as fast as the universe?
Carr, B J; Maeda, Hideki
2010-01-01
This review addresses the issue of whether there are physically realistic self-similar solutions in which a primordial black hole is attached to an exact or asymptotically Friedmann model for an equation of state of the form $p=(\\gamma-1)\\rho c^2$. In the positive pressure case ($1 < \\gamma < 2$), there is no such solution when the black hole is attached to an exact Friedmann background via a sonic point. However, it has been claimed that there is a one-parameter family of asymptotically Friedmann black hole solutions providing the ratio of the black hole size to the cosmological horizon size is in a narrow range above some critical value. There are also "universal" black holes in which the black hole has an apparent horizon but no event horizon. It turns out that both these types of solution are only asymptotically {\\it quasi}-Friedmann, because they contain a solid angle deficit at large distances, but they are not necessarily excluded observationally. We also consider the possibility of self-similar ...
The High Time Resolution Universe surveys for pulsars and fast transients
Keith, Michael J
2012-01-01
The High Time Resolution Universe survey for pulsars and transients is the first truly all-sky pulsar survey, taking place at the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany. Utilising multibeam receivers with custom built all-digital recorders the survey targets the fastest millisecond pulsars and radio transients on timescales of 64 us to a few seconds. The new multibeam digital filter-bank system at has a factor of eight improvement in frequency resolution over previous Parkes multibeam surveys, allowing us to probe further into the Galactic plane for short duration signals. The survey is split into low, mid and high Galactic latitude regions. The mid-latitude portion of the southern hemisphere survey is now completed, discovering 107 previously unknown pulsars, including 26 millisecond pulsars. To date, the total number of discoveries in the combined survey is 135 and 29 MSPs. These discoveries include the first magnetar to be discovered by it's radio emission, unusua...
基于快速Jacket变换的量子纠错码%Quantum error-correction codes based on fast Jacket transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄成荣; 郭迎; 李门浩
2011-01-01
Motivated by the fast block Jacket transform based on Pauli matrices, this paper showed how block Jacket matrix could simplify the coding theory of quantum error-correction.Quantum Jacket codes (QJCs) did not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correction codes (QECCs), thus allowing to construct quantum codes of large block length with efficiency.These QJCs were generated from some Abelian subgroups of Pauli group that were composed of different rows of the yielded block Jacket matrix, and had advantages of being fast constructed with asymptotically good behaviors.%受到基于Pauli矩阵的快速Jacket变换的启发,提出一种利用分块Jacket矩阵简化量子纠错码编码方案的方法.与已有的量子纠错码构造法相比,在构造量子Jacket码的稳定子的时候,不需要检验经典纠错码的自对偶条件,因此,它能促使高效地利用由分块Jacket矩阵产生的Pauli矩阵群的Abelian子群直接生成辛内积为零的独立向量,在此基础上构造出码长较大、参数较好的量子纠错码.该量子Jacket码具有构造快速、纠错行为渐进好的优点.
Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino
2016-03-01
A quantum system (with Hilbert space {H}1) entangled with its environment (with Hilbert space {H}2) is usually not attributed to a wave function but only to a reduced density matrix {ρ1}. Nevertheless, there is a precise way of attributing to it a random wave function {ψ1}, called its conditional wave function, whose probability distribution {μ1} depends on the entangled wave function {ψ in H1 ⊗ H2} in the Hilbert space of system and environment together. It also depends on a choice of orthonormal basis of H2 but in relevant cases, as we show, not very much. We prove several universality (or typicality) results about {μ1}, e.g., that if the environment is sufficiently large then for every orthonormal basis of H2, most entangled states {ψ} with given reduced density matrix {ρ1} are such that {μ1} is close to one of the so-called GAP (Gaussian adjusted projected) measures, {GAP(ρ1)}. We also show that, for most entangled states {ψ} from a microcanonical subspace (spanned by the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with energies in a narrow interval {[E, E+ δ E]}) and most orthonormal bases of H2, {μ1} is close to {GAP({tr}2 ρ_{mc})} with {ρ_{mc}} the normalized projection to the microcanonical subspace. In particular, if the coupling between the system and the environment is weak, then {μ1} is close to {GAP(ρ_β)} with {ρ_β} the canonical density matrix on H1 at inverse temperature {β=β(E)}. This provides the mathematical justification of our claim in Goldstein et al. (J Stat Phys 125: 1193-1221, 2006) that GAP measures describe the thermal equilibrium distribution of the wave function.
String Versus Einstein Frame in AdS/CFT Induced Quantum Dilatonic Brane-World Universe
Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Tkach, V I; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Obregon, Octavio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Tkach, Vladimir I.
2001-01-01
AdS/CFT induced quantum dilatonic brane-world where 4d boundary is flat or de Sitter (inflationary) or Anti-de Sitter brane is considered. The classical brane tension is fixed but boundary QFT produces the effective brane tension via the account of corresponding conformal anomaly induced effective action. This results in inducing of brane-worlds in accordance with AdS/CFT set-up as warped compactification. The explicit, independent construction of quantum induced dilatonic brane-worlds in two frames: string and Einstein one is done. It is demonstrated their complete equivalency for all quantum cosmological brane-worlds under discussion, including several examples of classical brane-world black holes. This is different from quantum corrected 4d dilatonic gravity where de Sitter solution exists in Einstein but not in Jordan (string) frame. The role of quantum corrections on massive graviton perturbations around Anti-de Sitter brane is briefly discussed.
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...
Universal set of single-qubit gates based on geometric phase of electron spin in a quantum dot
Malinovsky, Vladimir; Rudin, Sergey
2012-02-01
The electron spin in a single quantum dot is one of the perspective realizations of a qubit for the implementation of a quantum computer. During last decade several control schemes to perform single gate operations on a single quantum dot spin have been reported. We propose a scheme that allows performing ultrafast arbitrary unitary operations on a single qubit. We demonstrate how to use the geometric phase, which the Bloch vector gains along the cyclic path, to prepare an arbitrary state of a single qubit. It is shown that, the geometrical phase is fully controllable by the relative phase between the external fields. Using the analytic expression of the evolution operator for the electron spin in a quantum dot, we propose a scheme to design a universal set of single-qubit gates based solely on the geometrical phase that the qubit state acquires after a cyclic evolution in the parameter space. The scheme is utilizing ultrafast linearly-chirped pulses providing adiabatic excitation of the qubit states and the geometric phase is fully controlled by the relative phase between pulses.
Ion chemistry in the early universe: revisiting the role of HeH+ with new quantum calculations
Bovino, Stefano; Gianturco, Francesco A; Galli, Daniele
2011-01-01
The role of HeH+ has been newly assessed with the aid of newly calculated rates which use entirely ab initio methods, thereby allowing us to compute more accurately the relevant abundances within the global chemical network of the early universe. A comparison with the similar role of the ionic molecule LiH+ is also presented. Quantum calculations have been carried out for the gas-phase reaction of HeH+ with H atoms with our new in-house code, based on the negative imaginary potential method. Integral cross sections and reactive rate coefficients obtained under the general conditions of early universe chemistry are presented and discussed. With the new reaction rate, the abundance of HeH+ in the early universe is more than one order of magnitude larger than in previous studies. Our more accurate findings further buttress the possibility to detect cosmological signatures of HeH+.
Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2012-06-01
Possible quantum algorithms for generalized Khovanov homology and the Rasmussen's invariant are proposed. Such algorithms are resulting from adaptations of the recently proposed Kauffman's algorithm for the standard Khovanov homology. The method that was applied consists in to write the relevant quantum invariant as the trace of a certain unitary operator and then to compute the trace using the Hadamard test. We apply such method to the quantum computation of the Jones polynomial, HOMFLY polynomial, Chromatic polynomial, Tutte polynomial and Bollobàs- Riordan polynomial. These polynomials are quantum topological invariants for knots, links, graphs and ribbon graphs respectively. The Jones polynomial is categorified by the standard Khovanov homology and the others polynomials are categorified by generalized Khovanov homologies, such as the Khovanov-Rozansky homology and the graph homologies. The algorithm for the Rasmussen's invariant is obtained using the gauge theory; and the recently introduced program of homotopyfication is linked with the super-symmetric quantum mechanics. It is claimed that a new program of analytification could be development from the homotopyfication using the celebrated Atiyah-Singer theorem and its super-symmetric interpretations. It is hoped that the super-symmetric quantum mechanics provides the hardware for the implementation of the proposed quantum algorithms.
Florens, Serge; Freyn, Axel; Roch, Nicolas; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Balestro, Franck; Roura-Bas, Pablo; Aligia, A A
2011-06-22
We review here some universal aspects of the physics of two-electron molecular transistors in the absence of strong spin-orbit effects. Several recent quantum dot experiments have shown that an electrostatic backgate could be used to control the energy dispersion of magnetic levels. We discuss how the generally asymmetric coupling of the metallic contacts to two different molecular orbitals can indeed lead to a gate-tunable Hund's rule in the presence of singlet and triplet states in the quantum dot. For gate voltages such that the singlet constitutes the (non-magnetic) ground state, one generally observes a suppression of low voltage transport, which can yet be restored in the form of enhanced cotunneling features at finite bias. More interestingly, when the gate voltage is controlled to obtain the triplet configuration, spin S = 1 Kondo anomalies appear at zero bias, with non-Fermi liquid features related to the underscreening of a spin larger than 1/2. Finally, the small bare singlet-triplet splitting in our device allows fine-tuning with the gate between these two magnetic configurations, leading to an unscreening quantum phase transition. This transition occurs between the non-magnetic singlet phase, where a two-stage Kondo effect occurs, and the triplet phase, where the partially compensated (underscreened) moment is akin to a magnetically 'ordered' state. These observations are put theoretically into a consistent global picture by using new numerical renormalization group simulations, tailored to capture sharp finite-voltage cotunneling features within the Coulomb diamonds, together with complementary out-of-equilibrium diagrammatic calculations on the two-orbital Anderson model. This work should shed further light on the complicated puzzle still raised by multi-orbital extensions of the classic Kondo problem.
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems.
Wild, Dominik S; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y; Lukin, Mikhail D
2016-10-07
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems
Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2016-10-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
Reconstructing the evolution of the Universe from loop quantum cosmology scalar fields
Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-08-01
We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations the quantum framework introduces, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show, the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit, while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both of these solutions. We also discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example to the case in which the big rip occurs. As we show, this issue is nontrivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are generalized in the loop quantum framework.
Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王安民
2002-01-01
Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.
Dohnalová, K.; Fučiková, A.; Umesh, C.P.; Humpoličková, J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Valenta, J.; Zuilhof, H.; Hof, M.; Gregorkiewicz, T.
2012-01-01
The microscopic origin of the bright nanosecond blue-green photoluminescence (PL), frequently reported for synthesized organically terminated Si quantum dots (Si-QDs), has not been fully resolved, hampering potential applications of this interesting material. Here a comprehensive study of the PL
Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fucíková, A.; Valenta, J.; Umesh, C.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Zuilhof, H.; Humpolícková, J.; Hof, van M.
2012-01-01
The microscopic origin of the bright nanosecond blue-green photoluminescence (PL), frequently reported for synthesized organically terminated Si quantum dots (Si-QDs), has not been fully resolved, hampering potential applications of this interesting material. Here a comprehensive study of the PL
Dattani, Nikesh S
2012-01-01
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled by the Feynman-Vernon model. The user gives the program a vector describing the coordinate of an open quantum system, a hamiltonian matrix describing its energy, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment's influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system's intial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all (or some) moments specified by that grid of times. This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time-propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup ...
Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myrzakulov, R. [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Odintsov, S.D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ICE/CSIC-IEEC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR) 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sebastiani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.sebastiani@unitn.it [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2016-06-15
We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space–time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.
Universal Quantum Computation by Scattering in the Fermi-Hubbard Model
Bao, Ning; Salton, Grant; Thomas, Nathaniel
2014-01-01
The Hubbard model may be the simplest model of particles interacting on a lattice, but simulation of its dynamics remains beyond the reach of current numerical methods. In this article, we show that general quantum computations can be encoded into the physics of wave packets propagating through a planar graph, with scattering interactions governed by the fermionic Hubbard model. Therefore, simulating the model on planar graphs is as hard as simulating quantum computation. We give two different arguments, demonstrating that the simulation is difficult both for wave packets prepared as excitations of the fermionic vacuum, and for hole wave packets at filling fraction one-half in the limit of strong coupling. In the latter case, which is described by the t-J model, there is only reflection and no transmission in the scattering events, as would be the case for classical hard spheres. In that sense, the construction provides a quantum mechanical analog of the Fredkin-Toffoli billiard ball computer.
Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy
Saida, Hiromi
2011-01-01
This paper consists of three steps. In the first, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity) but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravi...
Universal Set of Quantum Gates for Double-Dot Exchange-Only Spin Qubits Under Realistic Conditions
de Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Rotta, Davide; Mazzeo, Giovanni; Tagliaferri, Marco; Crippa, Alessandro; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2014-03-01
We report on a universal set of quantum logic gates for hybrid qubits. In a hybrid qubit the information is encoded in the spin state of three electrons elettrostatically confined in a silicon double quantum dot (QD), in (2,1) filling. All electrical operations, reduced fabrication complexity and high scalability are the strengths of this technology. Schrieffer-Wolff effective models for both one and two coupled hybrid qubit are developed including the inescapable exchange interaction between electrons in the same QD. Optimal sequences of exchange interactions creating a complete set of quantum operations, namely Hadamard, π/8 and CNOT gates, are obtained by using a search algorithm, based on simplex and genetic ones. Silicon devices have been designed by SDFT-based program and efforts in its fabrication have produced in-plane inter-QDs distances down to 100 nm by means of electron beam lithography. Double QDs devices operating in few electron filling regime have been preliminary characterized at 4.2 K. Second affiliation: DSM, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano, Italy.
Symbols, pictures, and quantum reality on the theoretical foundations of the physical universe
Schommers, Wolfram
1995-01-01
Information about the reality outside flow via our sense organs into the body, and the brain forms a picture of reality. It is argued that the symbols in the picture have in general no similarity with the objects in the outside world, and many facts support such a view. This conception is discussed in connection with quantum reality. In particular, the role of space and time within quantum theory is also investigated from the historical point of view, highlighting the original ideas. New aspects are covered in connection with the particle concept, particle-wave dualism, locality, the time oper
Chaicherdsakul, Kanokkuan
2006-08-01
Quantum theory of cosmological fluctuations with other matters is studied to higher order to understand the origin of the universe during the time of inflation. This study also links gravitational and all matter fluctuations with the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. It is important to keep in mind that what is tested observationally is the paradigm that the primordial spectrum of inhomogeneities was nearly scale invariant and predominantly adiabatic. Therefore, if other matters such as fermion and gauge fields which do not drive inflation predict the scale invariant spectrums, their existence during inflation cannot be ruled out. We therefore extend the calculation of quantum corrections to the cosmological correlation which has been done by Weinberg for a loop of minimally coupled scalars, to other types of matters loops and a general and realistic potential. This dissertation shows that departures from scale invariance are never large even when Dirac, vector, and conformal scalar fields are present during inflation and even when the two-loop spectrum is calculated. No fine tuning is needed, in the sense that effective masses can be arbitrary values. Although the loop power spectrum was generally expected to be smaller than the classical one by a factor of GH2, I find that the quantum effect could be in the order of the classical value at the two loop level. The momentum dependence of the quantum spectrum goes as q -3ln q for all massless matters at one-loop and goes as q-3 ln 2 q at two-loop. For massive matters, the momentum dependence goes as q-3+eta (m), where |eta| interactions between gravity and various matters during the time of Big Bang inflation.
Goudarzi, H.; Dousti, M. J.; Shafaei, A.; Pedram, M.
2014-05-01
This paper presents a physical mapping tool for quantum circuits, which generates the optimal universal logic block (ULB) that can, on average, perform any logical fault-tolerant (FT) quantum operations with the minimum latency. The operation scheduling, placement, and qubit routing problems tackled by the quantum physical mapper are highly dependent on one another. More precisely, the scheduling solution affects the quality of the achievable placement solution due to resource pressures that may be created as a result of operation scheduling, whereas the operation placement and qubit routing solutions influence the scheduling solution due to resulting distances between predecessor and current operations, which in turn determines routing latencies. The proposed flow for the quantum physical mapper captures these dependencies by applying (1) a loose scheduling step, which transforms an initial quantum data flow graph into one that explicitly captures the no-cloning theorem of the quantum computing and then performs instruction scheduling based on a modified force-directed scheduling approach to minimize the resource contention and quantum circuit latency, (2) a placement step, which uses timing-driven instruction placement to minimize the approximate routing latencies while making iterative calls to the aforesaid force-directed scheduler to correct scheduling levels of quantum operations as needed, and (3) a routing step that finds dynamic values of routing latencies for the qubits. In addition to the quantum physical mapper, an approach is presented to determine the single best ULB size for a target quantum circuit by examining the latency of different FT quantum operations mapped onto different ULB sizes and using information about the occurrence frequency of operations on critical paths of the target quantum algorithm to weigh these latencies. Experimental results show an average latency reduction of about 40 % compared to previous work.
The universe would not be perfect without randomness: a quantum physicist's reading of Aquinas
Scarani, Valerio
2015-01-01
Randomness is an unavoidable notion in discussing quantum physics, and this may trigger the curiosity to know more of its cultural history. This text is an invitation to explore the position on the matter of Thomas Aquinas, one of the most prominent philosophers and theologians of the European Middle Ages.
Abrams, D.; Williams, C.
1999-01-01
This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases for which all know classical algorithms require exponential time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn
2010-01-01
Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....
Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing a dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of non-interacting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.
An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response
Mario Stipčević; Rupert Ursin
2015-01-01
Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of p...
Kumar, Parvendra; Nakajima, Takashi
2016-07-01
We theoretically show that under the Faraday geometry fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of electron spin (ES) state in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) can be realized by utilizing the light-hole (LH)-trion states. Initialization is completed within the time scale of ten nanoseconds with high fidelity, and the initialization laser pulse can be linearly, right-circularly, or left-circularly polarized. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time required for initialization can be further shortened down to a few hundreds of picoseconds if we introduce a pillar-microcavity to promote the relaxation of a LH-trion state towards the desired ES state through the Purcell effect. We also clarify the role of heavy-hole and light-hole mixing induced transitions on the fidelity of ES state initialization.
Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias
2012-09-01
We report novel symmetry-based radio-frequency (rf) pulse sequences for efficient excitation of double-quantum (2Q) coherences under very fast (>60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The recursively generated pulse-scheme series, R22p1R22p-1(p=1,2,3,…), offers broadband 13C-13C recoupling in organic solids at a very low rf power. No proton decoupling is required. A high-order average Hamiltonian theory analysis reveals a progressively enhanced resonance-offset compensation for increasing p, as verified both by numerical simulations and 2Q filtration NMR experiments on 13C2-glycine, [2,3-13C2]alanine, and [U-13C]tyrosine at 14.1 T and 66 kHz MAS, where the pulse schemes with p⩾3 compare favorably to current state-of-the-art recoupling options.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Andrianov
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Creation of quantum computer is outstanding fundamental and practical problem. The quantum computer could be used for execution of very complicated tasks which are not solvable with the classical computers. The first prototype of solid state quantum computer was created in 2009 with superconducting qubits. However, it suffers from the decoherent processes and it is desirable to find more practical encoding of qubits with long-lived coherence. It could be single impurity or vacancy centers in solids, but their interaction with electromagnetic radiation is rather weak. So, here, ensembles of atoms were proposed for the qubit encoding by using the dipole blockade mechanism in order to turn multilevel systems in two level ones. But dipole-dipole based blockade introduces an additional decoherence that limits its practical significance. Recently, the collective blockade mechanism has been proposed for the system of three-level atoms by using the different frequency shifts for the Raman transitions between the collective atomic states characterized by a different number of the excited atoms. Here, we propose two qubit gate by using another collective blockade mechanism in the system of two level atoms based on exchange interaction via the virtual photons between the multi-atomic ensembles in the resonator. Also we demonstrate the possibility of three qubit gate (Controlled SWAP gate using a suppression of the swap-process between two multi-atomic ensembles due to dynamical shift of the atomic levels controlled by the states of photon encoded qubit.
Homomorphisms of quantum groups
Meyer, Ralf; Woronowicz, Stanisław Lech
2010-01-01
We introduce some equivalent notions of homomorphisms between quantum groups that behave well with respect to duality of quantum groups. Our equivalent definitions are based on bicharacters, coactions, and universal quantum groups, respectively.
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Ancilla-driven universal blind quantum computation%辅助量子比特驱动型通用盲量子计算
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Chen; LI Shun-dong; XUE Dan
2014-01-01
应用量子隐形传态将Broadbent等人提出的通用盲量子计算（universal blind quantum computation）模型和辅助量子比特驱动型量子计算（ancilla-driven universal quantum computation）模型进行结合，构造一个新的混合模型来进行计算。此外，用计算寄存器对量子纠缠的操作来代替量子比特测量操作。因为后者仅限于两个量子比特，所以代替后的计算优势十分明显。基于上述改进，设计了实现辅助驱动型通用盲量子计算的协议。协议的实现，能够使Anders等人%This paper proposed a protocol for ancilla-driven universal blind quantum computation by incorporating the idea of quantum teleportation model to computation named as "universal blind quantum computation" by Broadbent et al. In addition， it used compute r
Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Pengfei; Gong, Ping; Lian, Shuhong; Lu, Yangyang; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao
2011-11-01
Highly luminescent near-infrared (NIR) emitting CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared through a fast and convenient method, and a new type of multivalent polymer ligands was used as the surface substituents to prepare highly stable hydrophilic QDs with small sizes. The well-defined CdTe/CdSe QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. The as-prepared CdTe/CdSe QDs were photostable with high PL quantum yields (QYs) (up to 66% at room temperature), low toxicity to cells at experimental dosages, and the QDs' fluorescence emissions were tunable between 700 and 820 nm. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging using CdTe/CdSe QDs conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer (targeting nucleolin) probe in cancer cells was reported, and the CdTe/CdSe QDs were also successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of living animals. Our preliminary results illustrated that the CdTe/CdSe NIR-QDs with small sizes would be an alternative probe for ultrasensitive, multicolor, and multiplex applications, especially for in vivo imaging applications.
Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Pengfei; Gong, Ping; Lian, Shuhong; Lu, Yangyang; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao
2011-11-01
Highly luminescent near-infrared (NIR) emitting CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared through a fast and convenient method, and a new type of multivalent polymer ligands was used as the surface substituents to prepare highly stable hydrophilic QDs with small sizes. The well-defined CdTe/CdSe QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. The as-prepared CdTe/CdSe QDs were photostable with high PL quantum yields (QYs) (up to 66% at room temperature), low toxicity to cells at experimental dosages, and the QDs' fluorescence emissions were tunable between 700 and 820 nm. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging using CdTe/CdSe QDs conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer (targeting nucleolin) probe in cancer cells was reported, and the CdTe/CdSe QDs were also successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of living animals. Our preliminary results illustrated that the CdTe/CdSe NIR-QDs with small sizes would be an alternative probe for ultrasensitive, multicolor, and multiplex applications, especially for in vivo imaging applications.
Unified meta-theory of information, consciousness, time and the classical-quantum universe
Green, Martin A
2013-01-01
As time advances in our perceived real world, existing information is preserved and new information is added to history. All the information that may ever be encoded in history must be about some fundamental, unique, atemporal and pre-physical structure: the bare world. Scientists invent model worlds to efficiently explain aspects of the real world. This paper explores the features of and relationships between the bare, real, and model worlds. Time -- past, present and future -- is naturally explained. Both quantum uncertainty and state reduction are needed for time to progress, since unpredictable new information must be added to history. Deterministic evolution preserves existing information. Finite, but steadily increasing, information about the bare world is jointly encoded in equally uncertain spacetime geometry and quantum matter. Because geometry holds no information independent of matter, there is no need to quantize gravity. At the origin of time, information goes to zero and geometry and matter fade...
No Quantum Process Can Explain the Existence of the Preferred Basis: Decoherence Is Not Universal
Inamori, Hitoshi
2016-01-01
Environment induced decoherence, and other quantum processes, have been proposed in the literature to explain the apparent spontaneous selection - out of the many mathematically eligible bases - of a privileged measurement basis that corresponds to what we actually observe. This paper describes such processes, and demonstrates that - contrary to common belief - no such process can actually lead to a preferred basis in general. The key observation is that environment induced decoherence implicitly assumes a prior independence of the observed system, the observer and the environment. However, such independence cannot be guaranteed, and we show that environment induced decoherence does not succeed in establishing a preferred measurement basis in general. We conclude that the existence of the preferred basis must be postulated in quantum mechanics, and that changing the basis for a measurement is, and must be, described as an actual physical process.
A modular design of molecular qubits to implement universal quantum gates
Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Chiesa, Alessandro; Fernandez, Antonio; Magee, Samantha A.; Carretta, Stefano; Santini, Paolo; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Tuna, Floriana; Timco, Grigore A.; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.
2016-04-01
The physical implementation of quantum information processing relies on individual modules--qubits--and operations that modify such modules either individually or in groups--quantum gates. Two examples of gates that entangle pairs of qubits are the controlled NOT-gate (CNOT) gate, which flips the state of one qubit depending on the state of another, and the gate that brings a two-qubit product state into a superposition involving partially swapping the qubit states. Here we show that through supramolecular chemistry a single simple module, molecular {Cr7Ni} rings, which act as the qubits, can be assembled into structures suitable for either the CNOT or gate by choice of linker, and we characterize these structures by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We introduce two schemes for implementing such gates with these supramolecular assemblies and perform detailed simulations, based on the measured parameters including decoherence, to demonstrate how the gates would operate.
2004-01-01
We study the role of the information deposited in the environment of an open quantum system in course of the decoherence process. Redundant spreading of information -- the fact that some observables of the system can be independently ``read-off'' from many distinct fragments of the environment -- is investigated as the key to effective objectivity, the essential ingredient of ``classical reality''. This focus on the environment as a communication channel through which observers learn about ph...
Long-range quantum Ising spin glasses at t=0: gapless collective excitations and universality.
Andreanov, A; Müller, M
2012-10-26
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Long-Range Quantum Ising Spin Glasses at T=0: Gapless Collective Excitations and Universality
Andreanov, A.; Müller, M.
2012-10-01
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F
2015-01-01
We have developed a numerical differentiation scheme which eliminates evaluation of overlap determinants in calculating the time-derivative non-adiabatic couplings (TDNACs). Evaluation of these determinants was a bottleneck in previous implementations of mixed quantum-classical methods using numerical differentiation of electronic wave functions in the Slater-determinant representation. The central idea of our approach is, first, to reduce the analytic time derivatives of Slater determinants to time derivatives of molecular orbitals, and then to apply a finite-difference formula. Benchmark calculations prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme showing impressive several-order-of-magnitude speedups of the TDNAC calculation step for midsize molecules.
Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.
Harnessing Disordered-Ensemble Quantum Dynamics for Machine Learning
Fujii, Keisuke; Nakajima, Kohei
2017-08-01
The quantum computer has an amazing potential of fast information processing. However, the realization of a digital quantum computer is still a challenging problem requiring highly accurate controls and key application strategies. Here we propose a platform, quantum reservoir computing, to solve these issues successfully by exploiting the natural quantum dynamics of ensemble systems, which are ubiquitous in laboratories nowadays, for machine learning. This framework enables ensemble quantum systems to universally emulate nonlinear dynamical systems including classical chaos. A number of numerical experiments show that quantum systems consisting of 5-7 qubits possess computational capabilities comparable to conventional recurrent neural networks of 100-500 nodes. This discovery opens up a paradigm for information processing with artificial intelligence powered by quantum physics.
Lu, Xingyu; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana
2015-01-01
Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35-40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD-RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD-RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-(13)C,(15)N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD-RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD-RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD-RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD-RFDR experiment is beneficial in a broad range of conditions
Dattani, Nikesh S; Pollock, Felix A
2012-01-01
Today's most popular techniques for accurately calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator in an open quantum system, either require, or gain great computational benefits, from representing the bath response function a(t) in the form a(t)={\\Sigma}_k^K p_k e^{O_k t} . For some of these techniques, the number of terms in the series K plays the lead role in the computational cost of the calculation, and is therefore often a limiting factor in simulating open quantum system dynamics. We present an open source MATLAB program called BATHFIT 1, whose input is any spectral distribution functions J(w) or bath response function, and whose output attempts to be the set of parameters {p_k,w_k}_k=1^K such that for a given value of K, the series {\\Sigma}_k^k p_k e^{O_k t} is as close as possible to a(t). This should allow the user to represent a(t) as accurately as possible with as few parameters as possible. The program executes non-linear least squares fitting, and for a very wide variety of spectral distrib...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seliger, M. [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens Universitat Graz
2007-03-01
We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the time evolution of electronic states of highly charged hydrogenic ions formed by capture during transmission through solids as they undergo multiple collisions and radiative decay. For this transport problem we have developed an inhomogeneous nonunitary Lindblad master equation that allows for a description of open quantum systems with both sinks (electron loss) and source (capture) present. We apply this theoretical framework to study transient coherences created in electron capture by 13.6 MeV/amu Ar^{18+} ions transmitted through amorphous carbon foils and decoherence during subsequent interaction with the foil. In the limit of thin targets we can directly probe electron capture cross sections under single collision conditions, while for thicker targets we follow the partially coherent dynamics of the open quantum system in interaction with the solid as a function of interaction time. The calculated results are in close agreement with experimental data obtained at the LISE facility in GANIL. Photon intensities from excited argon ions were determined through high resolution x-ray spectroscopy in which individual fine structure components were resolved. Measurements were performed for a wide range of carbon foil thickness to study the time development of the excited state populations.
Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation
Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-11-01
Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.
Spin network quantum simulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario
2002-12-30
We propose a general setting for a universal representation of the quantum structure on which quantum information stands, whose dynamical evolution (information manipulation) is based on angular momentum recoupling theory. Such scheme complies with the notion of 'quantum simulator' in the sense of Feynman, and is shown to be related with the topological quantum field theoretical approach to quantum computation.
Superadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in cavity QED
Liu, Bao-Jie; Huang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Ding
2017-06-01
Adiabatic quantum control is a powerful tool for quantum engineering and a key component in some quantum computation models, where accurate control over the timing of the involved pulses is not needed. However, the adiabatic condition requires that the process be very slow and thus limits its application in quantum computation, where quantum gates are preferred to be fast due to the limited coherent times of the quantum systems. Here, we propose a feasible scheme to implement universal holonomic quantum computation based on non-Abelian geometric phases with superadiabatic quantum control, where the adiabatic manipulation is sped up while retaining its robustness against errors in the timing control. Consolidating the advantages of both strategies, our proposal is thus both robust and fast. The cavity QED system is adopted as a typical example to illustrate the merits where the proposed scheme can be realized in a tripod configuration by appropriately controlling the pulse shapes and their relative strength. To demonstrate the distinct performance of our proposal, we also compare our scheme with the conventional adiabatic strategy.
Universal and nonuniversal level statistics in a chaotic quantum spin chain.
Pineda, Carlos; Prosen, Tomaz
2007-12-01
We study the level statistics of an interacting multiqubit system, namely the kicked Ising spin chain, in the regime of quantum chaos. Long range quasienergy level statistics show effects analogous to the ones observed in semiclassical systems due to the presence of short classical periodic orbits, while short range level statistics display perfect statistical agreement with random matrix theory. Even though our system possesses no classical limit, our results suggest existence of an important nonuniversal system specific behavior at short time scale, which clearly goes beyond finite size effects in random matrix theory.
Das Mandal, Jyotirmay; Debnath, Ujjal
2016-08-01
We have studied the tachyon intermediate and logamediate warm inflation in loop quantum cosmological background by taking the dissipative co-efficient Γ = Γ0 (where Γ0 is a constant) in “intermediate” inflation and Γ = V(ϕ), (where V(ϕ) is the potential of tachyonic field) in “logamediate” inflation. We have assumed slow-roll condition to construct scalar field ϕ, potential V, N-folds, etc. Various slow-roll parameters have also been obtained. We have analyzed the stability of this model through graphical representations.
Dohnalová, Kateřina; Fučíková, Anna; Umesh, Chinnaswamy P; Humpolíčková, Jana; Paulusse, Jos M J; Valenta, Jan; Zuilhof, Han; Hof, Martin; Gregorkiewicz, Tom
2012-10-22
The microscopic origin of the bright nanosecond blue-green photoluminescence (PL), frequently reported for synthesized organically terminated Si quantum dots (Si-QDs), has not been fully resolved, hampering potential applications of this interesting material. Here a comprehensive study of the PL from alkyl-terminated Si-QDs of 2-3 nm size, prepared by wet chemical synthesis is reported. Results obtained on the ensemble and those from the single nano-object level are compared, and they provide conclusive evidence that efficient and tunable emission arises due to radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs confined in the Si-QDs. This understanding paves the way towards applications of chemical synthesis for the development of Si-QDs with tunable sizes and bandgaps. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure
Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N
1999-01-01
The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.
An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.
Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert
2015-06-09
Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.
Universal behavior of magnetoresistance in quantum dot arrays with different degrees of disorder.
Stepina, N P; Koptev, E S; Pogosov, A G; Dvurechenskii, A V; Nikiforov, A I; Zhdanov, E Yu; Galperin, Y M
2013-12-18
The magnetoresistance in a two-dimensional array of Ge/Si quantum dots was studied in a wide range of zero magnetic field conductances, where the transport regime changes from a hopping to a diffusive one. The behavior of the magnetoresistance is found to be similar for all samples--it is negative in weak fields and becomes positive with increasing magnetic field. The result apparently contradicts existing theories. To explain experimental data we suggest that clusters of overlapping quantum dots are formed. These clusters are assumed to have metal-like conductance, the charge transfer taking place via hopping between the clusters. Relatively strong magnetic field shrinks electron wavefunctions, decreasing inter-cluster hopping and, therefore, leading to a positive magnetoresistance. Weak magnetic field acts on 'metallic' clusters, destroying the interference of the electron wavefunctions corresponding to different paths (weak localization) inside clusters. The interference may be restricted either by inelastic processes, or by the cluster size. Taking into account weak localization inside clusters and hopping between them within the effective medium approximation, we extract effective parameters characterizing charge (magneto-) transport.
Quantum field theory in curved space-time and the early Universe
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2002-01-01
New results on finite density of particle creation for nonconformal massive scalar particles in Friedmann Universe as well as new counterterms in dimensions higher than 5 are presented. Possible role of creation of superheavy particles for explaining observable density of visible and dark matter is discussed.
Amaral, Marcelo M; Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Irwin, Klee; Vacaru, Sergiu I; Woolridge, Daniel
2016-01-01
The goal of this work is to elaborate on new geometric methods of constructing exact and parametric quasiperiodic solutions for anamorphic cosmology models in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. There exist previously studied generic off-diagonal and diagonalizable cosmological metrics encoding gravitational and matter fields with quasicrystal like structures, QC, and holonomy corrections from loop quantum gravity, LQG. We apply the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, in order to decouple the (modified) gravitational and matter field equations in general form. This allows us to find integral varieties of cosmological solutions determined by generating functions, effective sources, integration functions and constants. The coefficients of metrics and connections for such cosmological configurations depend, in general, on all spacetime coordinates and can be chosen to generate observable (quasi)-periodic/ aperiodic/ fractal / stochastic / (super) cluster / filament / polymer like...
Herrera, Felipe; Kais, Sabre; Whaley, K Birgitta
2014-01-01
Implementing a scalable quantum information processor using polar molecules in optical lattices requires precise control over the long-range dipole-dipole interaction between molecules in selected lattice sites. We present here a scheme using trapped open-shell $^2\\Sigma$ polar molecules that allows dipolar exchange processes between nearest and next-nearest neighbors to be controlled to construct a generalized transverse Ising spin Hamiltonian with tunable $XX$, $YY$ and $XY$ couplings in the rotating frame of the driving lasers. The scheme requires a moderately strong bias magnetic field with near-infrared light to provide local tuning of the qubit energy gap, and mid-infrared pulses to perform rotational state transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. No interaction between qubits is present in the absence of the infrared driving. We analyze the fidelity of the resulting two-qubit matchgate, and demonstrate its robustness as a function of the driving parameters. We discuss a realistic application of...
The string universe high T$_{c}$ superconductor or quantum Hall conductor?
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1992-01-01
Our answer is the latter. Space-time singularities, including the initial one, are described by world-sheet topological Abelian gauge theories with a Chern-Simons term. Their effective $N=2$ supersymmetry provides an initial fixed point where the Bogomolny bound is saturated on the world-sheet, corresponding to an extreme Reissner-Nordstrom solution in space-time. Away from the singularity the gauge theory has world-sheet matter fields, bosons and fermions, associated with the generation of target space-time. Because the fermions are complex (cf the Quantum Hall Effect) rather than real (cf high-$T_c$ superconductors) the energetically-preferred vacuum is not parity or time-reversal invariant, and the associated renormalization group flow explains the cosmological arrow of time, as well as the decay of real or virtual black holes, with a monotonic increase in entropy.
Studies in quantum information theory
Menicucci, Nicolas C.
Quantum information theory started as the backdrop for quantum computing and is often considered only in relation to this technology, which is still in its infancy. But quantum information theory is only partly about quantum computing. While much of the interest in this field is spurred by the possible use of quantum computers for code breaking using fast factoring algorithms, to a physicist interested in deeper issues, it presents an entirely new set of questions based on an entirely different way of looking at the quantum world. This thesis is an exploration of several topics in quantum information theory. But it is also more than this. This thesis explores the new paradigm brought about by quantum information theory---that of physics as the flow of information. The thesis consists of three main parts. The first part describes my work on continuous-variable cluster states, a new platform for quantum computation. This begins with background material discussing classical and quantum computation and emphasizing the physical underpinnings of each, followed by a discussion of two recent unorthodox models of quantum computation. These models are combined into an original proposal for quantum computation using continuous-variable cluster states, including a proposed optical implementation. These are followed by a mathematical result radically simplifying the optical construction. Subsequent work simplifies this connection even further and provides a constructive proposal for scalable generation of large-scale cluster states---necessary if there is to be any hope of using this method in practical quantum computation. Experimental implementation is currently underway by my collaborators at The University of Virginia. The second part describes my work related to the physics of trapped ions, starting with an overview of the basic theory of linear ion traps. Although ion traps are often discussed in terms of their potential use for quantum computation, my work looks at their
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krennrich, Frank [Iowa State University
2013-09-24
This work was to enable the development of a proof-of-principle nanosecond trigger system that is designed to perform a real time analysis of fast Cherenkov light flashes from air showers. The basic building blocks of the trigger system have been designed and constructed, and a real world system is now operating in the VERITAS experiment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Pekker
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We study a new class of unconventional critical phenomena that is characterized by singularities only in dynamical quantities and has no thermodynamic signatures. One example of such a transition is the recently proposed many-body localization-delocalization transition, in which transport coefficients vanish at a critical temperature with no singularities in thermodynamic observables. Describing this purely dynamical quantum criticality is technically challenging as understanding the finite-temperature dynamics necessarily requires averaging over a large number of matrix elements between many-body eigenstates. Here, we develop a real-space renormalization group method for excited states that allows us to overcome this challenge in a large class of models. We characterize a specific example: the 1 D disordered transverse-field Ising model with generic interactions. While thermodynamic phase transitions are generally forbidden in this model, using the real-space renormalization group method for excited states we find a finite-temperature dynamical transition between two localized phases. The transition is characterized by nonanalyticities in the low-frequency heat conductivity and in the long-time (dynamic spin correlation function. The latter is a consequence of an up-down spin symmetry that results in the appearance of an Edwards-Anderson-like order parameter in one of the localized phases.
Quantum chromodynamics phase transition in the early Universe and quark nuggets
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Shibaji Banerjee; Sanjay K Ghosh; Sibaji Raha; Bikash Sinha; Hiroshi Toki
2003-05-01
A ﬁrst-order quark hadron phase transition in the early Universe may lead to the formation of quark nuggets. The baryon number distribution of these quark nuggets have been calculated and it has been found that there are sizeable number of quark nuggets in the stable sector. The nuggets can clump and form bigger objects in the mass range of 0.0003$M_{\\odot}$ to 0.12$M_{\\odot}$. It has been discussed that these bigger objects can be possible candidates for cold dark matter.
Universally Composable Secure Just Fast Keying Protocol%一种通用可组合安全的快速密钥交换协议
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐庆磊; 张浩军; 王逸芳
2011-01-01
Aiming at the redundancy of Just Fast Keying(JFKi) and the absence of its forma proof, a new Lightly Just Fast Keying(LJFKi) is proposed. Through the contrast analysis, it is found that the protocol proved is one-third shorter than the natural protocol, which has higher communication efficiency and is more convenient for the sensitive network to communication payload. The proposed protocol can realize secure session ideal function and afford Universally Composable(UC) security by proving with universally composable secure model.%针对快速密钥交换协议JFKi信息冗余及缺乏形式化证明的问题,提出一种轻量级快速密钥交互协议LJFKi.通过对比分析,发现所提协议的消息长度较原有协议减少1/3,具有较高的通信效率,更适用于对通信负载比较敏感的网络.利用通用可组合安全模型证明该协议能够实现安会会话理想函数,具有通用可组合安全性.
Kong, Chang Sun; Haverty, Michael; Simka, Harsono; Shankar, Sadasivan; Rajan, Krishna
2017-09-01
We present a hybrid approach based on both machine learning and targeted ab-initio calculations to determine adhesion energies between dissimilar materials. The goals of this approach are to complement experimental and/or all ab-initio computational efforts, to identify promising materials rapidly and identify in a quantitative manner the relative contributions of the different material attributes affecting adhesion. Applications of the methodology to predict bulk modulus, yield strength, adhesion and wetting properties of copper (Cu) with other materials including metals, nitrides and oxides is discussed in this paper. In the machine learning component of this methodology, the parameters that were chosen can be roughly divided into four types: atomic and crystalline parameters (which are related to specific elements such as electronegativities, electron densities in Wigner-Seitz cells); bulk material properties (e.g. melting point), mechanical properties (e.g. modulus) and those representing atomic characteristics in ab-initio formalisms (e.g. pseudopotentials). The atomic parameters are defined over one dataset to determine property correlation with published experimental data. We then develop a semi-empirical model across multiple datasets to predict adhesion in material interfaces outside the original datasets. Since adhesion is between two materials, we appropriately use parameters which indicate differences between the elements that comprise the materials. These semi-empirical predictions agree reasonably with the trend in chemical work of adhesion predicted using ab-initio techniques and are used for fast materials screening. For the screened candidates, the ab-initio modeling component provides fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions at the interface, and explains the wetting thermodynamics of thin Cu layers on various substrates. Comparison against ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experiments for well-characterized Cu/Ta and Cu/α-Al2O3 interfaces is
Ambikasaran, Sivaram
2015-01-01
Using accurate multi-component diffusion treatment in numerical combustion studies remains formidable due to the computational cost associated with solving for diffusion velocities. To obtain the diffusion velocities, for low density gases, one needs to solve the Stefan-Maxwell equations along with the zero diffusion flux criteria, which scales as $\\mathcal{O}(N^3)$, when solved exactly. In this article, we propose an accurate, fast, direct and robust algorithm to compute multi-component diffusion velocities. To our knowledge, this is the first provably accurate algorithm (the solution can be obtained up to an arbitrary degree of precision) scaling at a computational complexity of $\\mathcal{O}(N)$ in finite precision. The key idea involves leveraging the fact that the matrix of the reciprocal of the binary diffusivities, $V$, is low rank, with its rank being independent of the number of species involved. The low rank representation of matrix $V$ is computed in a fast manner at a computational complexity of $\\...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Liu, Xin-Chang
2016-12-01
Recently, entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science. Here we propose an efficient and applicable method which transforms arbitrary three-qubit unknown state to a maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the proposed method could be further generalized to multi-qubit case. The proposed setup exploits only linear optical elements and quantum non-demolition detectors using cross-Kerr media. As the quantum non-demolition detection could reveal us the output state of the photons without destroying them. This property may make our proposed setup flexible and can be widely used in current quantum information science and technology.
Liu, Xin-Chang
2017-02-01
Recently, entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science. Here we propose an efficient and applicable method which transforms arbitrary three-qubit unknown state to a maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the proposed method could be further generalized to multi-qubit case. The proposed setup exploits only linear optical elements and quantum non-demolition detectors using cross-Kerr media. As the quantum non-demolition detection could reveal us the output state of the photons without destroying them. This property may make our proposed setup flexible and can be widely used in current quantum information science and technology.
Non-adiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots
Solinas, P; Zanghì, N; Rossi, F; Solinas, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo; Zanghì, Nino; Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
In this paper we study the implementation of non-adiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding/manipulation schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be in principle implemented
Sun, Hui; Lai, Jia-Ping; Chen, Fang; Zhu, De-Rong
2015-02-01
A simple, fast, and universal suspension polymerization method was used to synthesize the molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for the topical anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). The desired diameter (10-20 μm) and uniform morphology of the MIMs were obtained easily by changing one or more of the synthesis conditions, including type and amount of surfactant, stirring rate, and ratio of organic to water phase. The MIMs obtained were used as a molecular-imprinting solid-phase-extraction (MISPE) material for extraction of BZC in human serum and fish tissues. The MISPE results revealed that the BZC in these biosamples could be enriched effectively after the MISPE operation. The recoveries of BZC on MIMs cartridges were higher than 90% (n = 3). Finally, an MISPE-HPLC method with UV detection was developed for highly selective extraction and fast detection of trace BZC in human serum and fish tissues. The developed method could also be used for the enrichment and detection of BZC in other complex biosamples.
Huang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Panyu; Yuan, Xinxing; Chang, Xiuying; Zu, Chong; He, Li; Duan, Luming; CenterQuantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China Team; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA Team
2016-05-01
Quantum teleportation is of great importance to various quantum technologies, and has been realized between light beams, trapped atoms, superconducting qubits, and defect spins in solids. Here we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. In our experiment, the ultrafast laser technology provides the key tool for fast processing and detection of quantum states within its short life time in macroscopic objects consisting of many strongly interacting atoms that are coupled to the environment, and finally we demonstrate an average teleportation fidelity (90 . 6 +/- 1 . 0) % , clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. Quantum control of the optomechanical coupling may provide efficient ways for realization of transduction of quantum signals, processing of quantum information, and sensing of small mechanical vibrations. Center for Quantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...
Tang, Tingting; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu
2016-01-01
Based on the highly sensitivity and stable-fluorescence of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with broad-specificity DNA aptamers, a novel ratiometric detection strategy was proposed for the sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The as-prepared QDs were first conjugated with the amino-modified oligonucleotide (AMO) by amidation reaction, which is partial complementary to the DNA aptamer of organophosphorus pesticides. Then QD-labeled AMO (QD-AMO) was incubated with the DNA aptamer to form QD-AMO-aptamer duplex. When the target organophosphorus pesticides were added, they could specifically bind the DNA aptamer, leading to the cleavage of QD-AMO-aptamer duplex, accompany with the release of QD-AMO. As a result, the ratio of peak height between QD-AMO and QD-AMO-aptamer duplex changed in the detection process of CE-LIF. This strategy was subsequently applied for the detection of phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate with the detection limits of 0.20, 0.10, 0.17, and 0.23μM, respectively. This is the first report about using QDs as the signal indicators for organophosphorus pesticides detection based on broad-specificity DNA aptamers by CE-LIF, thus contributing to extend the scope of application of QDs in different fields. The proposed method has great potential to be a universal strategy for rapid detection of aptamer-specific small molecule targets by simply changing the types of aptamer sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Héctor Torres-Silva
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The accepted structure of space and vacuum derives from the results of relativistic cosmology and quantum field theory. It is demonstrated that a chiral interface between enantiomeric regions of a closed universe, or a (right R-Universe and (left L-Universe, related by an element of PCT symmetry along the interface, represents a construct with all the attributes required of the theoretical vacuum, in-so-far as quantum behaviour is then seen to be induced by the vacuum interface. Quantum mechanics emerges as a special case of classical mechanics, rather than the latter being a subset of the former. This removes the quantum-mechanical observational problem, explains the cosmological large-number coincidences, and accounts for the anti-matter in the cosmos.La estructura aceptada del espacio y el vacío se derivan de los resultados de la cosmología relativística y de la teoría cuántica de campo. Se demuestra que una interfaz quiral entre regiones enantioméricas de un universo cerrado, o un universo derecho y un universo izquierdo, relacionados por un elemento de simetría PCT a lo largo de la interfaz, representa un modelo con todos los atributos requeridos por el vacío teórico. Se desprende que el comportamiento cuántico es entonces visto que es inducido por la interfaz de vacío. La mecánica quántica emerge como un caso especial de la mecánica clásica, más bien que siendo la última un subconjunto de la primera. Esto resuelve el problema observacional mecánico cuántico, explica las coincidencias de los grandes números cosmológicos y toma en cuenta la antimateria en el cosmos.
FUX-Sim: Implementation of a fast universal simulation/reconstruction framework for X-ray systems.
Abella, Monica; Serrano, Estefania; Garcia-Blas, Javier; García, Ines; de Molina, Claudia; Carretero, Jesus; Desco, Manuel
2017-01-01
The availability of digital X-ray detectors, together with advances in reconstruction algorithms, creates an opportunity for bringing 3D capabilities to conventional radiology systems. The downside is that reconstruction algorithms for non-standard acquisition protocols are generally based on iterative approaches that involve a high computational burden. The development of new flexible X-ray systems could benefit from computer simulations, which may enable performance to be checked before expensive real systems are implemented. The development of simulation/reconstruction algorithms in this context poses three main difficulties. First, the algorithms deal with large data volumes and are computationally expensive, thus leading to the need for hardware and software optimizations. Second, these optimizations are limited by the high flexibility required to explore new scanning geometries, including fully configurable positioning of source and detector elements. And third, the evolution of the various hardware setups increases the effort required for maintaining and adapting the implementations to current and future programming models. Previous works lack support for completely flexible geometries and/or compatibility with multiple programming models and platforms. In this paper, we present FUX-Sim, a novel X-ray simulation/reconstruction framework that was designed to be flexible and fast. Optimized implementation for different families of GPUs (CUDA and OpenCL) and multi-core CPUs was achieved thanks to a modularized approach based on a layered architecture and parallel implementation of the algorithms for both architectures. A detailed performance evaluation demonstrates that for different system configurations and hardware platforms, FUX-Sim maximizes performance with the CUDA programming model (5 times faster than other state-of-the-art implementations). Furthermore, the CPU and OpenCL programming models allow FUX-Sim to be executed over a wide range of hardware
2011-01-01
Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.
2009-01-01
The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes. Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp. Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.
Quantum correlations and measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sperling, Jan
2015-07-16
The present thesis is a state of the art report on the characterization techniques and measurement strategies to verify quantum correlations. I mainly focus on research which has been performed in the theoretical quantum optics group at the University of Rostock during the last few years. The results include theoretical findings and analysis of experimental studies of radiation fields. We investigate the verification of quantum properties, the quantification of these quantum effects, and the characterization of quantum optical detector systems.
Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang
2016-06-01
The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J >0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J'Monte Carlo method. By calculating the Binder ratio Q2 and spin stiffness ρ in two directions for various coupling ratios α =J'/J under different lattice sizes, we found that a quantum phase transition from the dimerized phase to the stripe phase occurs at the quantum critical point αc=-0.93 . Through the finite-size scaling analysis on Q2, ρx, and ρy, we determined the critical exponent related to the correlation length ν to be 0.7212(8), implying that this transition falls into a classical Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α . A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α -magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C (T ) for different α 's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid 3He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q2, ρ , and C (T ) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanda Katila
2016-12-01
Full Text Available International students in Masters programs come to the US optimistic and willing to learn. Upon arrival and entrance into programs, they often encounter unexpected environments. Culture shock and language barriers may seem like obvious hurdles, but work ethic and scope of visual knowledge also pose unique challenges for both students and design educators. Although all students share new challenges in graduate school, international students face tougher impediments in studio environments where they express themselves both visually and verbally. Additionally, much of design uses humor, idioms, and visual clues only understood in English. So how do educators help international students build on what they already know? How do educators break barriers between domestic and international students so they may teach one another through a shared language? In fall 2015, my Conceptual Development and Implementation class was struggling to exchange ideas in the classroom. We moved through that struggle by developing a shared language around each student's experiences with healthcare clinics in their country of origin. Students explained what makes healthcare clinics reputable; how people access information in India, China, small towns and larger urban areas; and where people look for trustworthy information. This paper discusses how one educator used student experience of healthcare clinics to find a universal language to maximize learning for international students in design education.
Quantum walks: a comprehensive review
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E
2012-01-01
Quantum walks, the quantum mechanical counterpart of classical random walks, is an advanced tool for building quantum algorithms that has been recently shown to constitute a universal model of quantum computation. Quantum walks is now a solid field of research of quantum computation full of exciting open problems for physicists, computer scientists, mathematicians and engineers. In this paper we review theoretical advances on the foundations of both discrete- and continuous-time quantum walks, together with the role that randomness plays in quantum walks, the connections between the mathematical models of coined discrete quantum walks and continuous quantum walks, the quantumness of quantum walks, a summary of papers published on discrete quantum walks and entanglement as well as a succinct review of experimental proposals and realizations of discrete-time quantum walks. Furthermore, we have reviewed several algorithms based on both discrete- and continuous-time quantum walks as well as a most important resul...
Quantum Computation Toward Quantum Gravity
Zizzi, P. A.
2001-08-01
The aim of this paper is to enlighten the emerging relevance of Quantum Information Theory in the field of Quantum Gravity. As it was suggested by J. A. Wheeler, information theory must play a relevant role in understanding the foundations of Quantum Mechanics (the "It from bit" proposal). Here we suggest that quantum information must play a relevant role in Quantum Gravity (the "It from qubit" proposal). The conjecture is that Quantum Gravity, the theory which will reconcile Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity, can be formulated in terms of quantum bits of information (qubits) stored in space at the Planck scale. This conjecture is based on the following arguments: a) The holographic principle, b) The loop quantum gravity approach and spin networks, c) Quantum geometry and black hole entropy. From the above arguments, as they stand in the literature, it follows that the edges of spin networks pierce the black hole horizon and excite curvature degrees of freedom on the surface. These excitations are micro-states of Chern-Simons theory and account of the black hole entropy which turns out to be a quarter of the area of the horizon, (in units of Planck area), in accordance with the holographic principle. Moreover, the states which dominate the counting correspond to punctures of spin j = 1/2 and one can in fact visualize each micro-state as a bit of information. The obvious generalization of this result is to consider open spin networks with edges labeled by the spin -1/ 2 representation of SU(2) in a superposed state of spin "on" and spin "down." The micro-state corresponding to such a puncture will be a pixel of area which is "on" and "off" at the same time, and it will encode a qubit of information. This picture, when applied to quantum cosmology, describes an early inflationary universe which is a discrete version of the de Sitter universe.
Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang
2016-06-01
The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J>0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J^{'}Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α. A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α-magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C(T) for different α's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid ^{3}He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q_{2}, ρ, and C(T) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.
Bovino, Stefano; Gianturco, Franco A; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco
2011-01-01
The relative efficiencies of the chemical pathways that can lead to the destruction of LiH and LiH+ molecules, conjectured to be present in the primordial gas and to control molecular cooling processes in the gravitational collapse of the post-recombination era, are revisited by using accurate quantum calculations for the several reactions involved. The new rates are employed to survey the behavior of the relative abundance of these molecules at redshifts of interest for early universe conditions. We find significant differences with respect to previous calculations, the present ones yielding LIH abundances higher than LiH+ at all redshifts.
Bojowald, Martin
1999-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
Quantum-enhanced Sensing and Efficient Quantum Computation
2015-07-27
Quantum -enhanced sensing and efficient quantum computation Ian Walmsley THE UNIVERSITY OF...COVERED (From - To) 1 February 2013 - 31 January 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum -enhanced sensing and efficient quantum computation 5a. CONTRACT...1895616013 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final report for “ Quantum ‐Enhanced Sensing and Efficient Quantum Computation
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
Dugic, M
2011-01-01
The quantum Universe can be decomposed into subsystems in different ways. We consider the global linear-canonical-transformations-based decompositions (structures) of the Universe. These structures bear the same physical time and the common the fundamental physical law--the Schrodinger law. The Universe quantum state is unique in every instant of time yet bearing the different forms for the different structures of the Universe. This simple corollary of the universally valid quantum mechanics points out that the intelligent agents in a structure may (globally) affect the other structures--the other "worlds". Locally considered non-spontaneous, such effects may seem "ghostly" within the alternative worlds. This picture of the one and the unique quantum Universe is competitive with both the Everett MWI as well as with the Bohmian pilot-wave interpretation, not yet being inconsistent with the "state collapse" interpretation of quantum mechanics. The "ghostly worlds" interpretation here we introduce may prove irre...
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
After giving a bird's view of some existing quantum programming languages,this paper reports the recent results made by the quantum computation group of the State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology and the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Nanjing University,i.e.,the quantum programming languages NDQJava,NDQFP and their processing systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinn-Justin, J
2003-08-01
In the quantum field theory the problem of infinite values has been solved empirically through a method called renormalization, this method is satisfying only in the framework of renormalization group. It is in the domain of statistical physics and continuous phase transitions that these issues are the easiest to discuss. Within the framework of a course in theoretical physics the author introduces the notions of continuous limits and universality in stochastic systems operating with a high number of freedom degrees. It is shown that quasi-Gaussian and mean field approximation are unable to describe phase transitions in a satisfying manner. A new concept is required: it is the notion of renormalization group whose fixed points allow us to understand universality beyond mean field. The renormalization group implies the idea that long distance correlations near the transition temperature might be described by a statistical field theory that is a quantum field in imaginary time. Various forms of renormalization group equations are presented and solved in particular boundary limits, namely for fields with high numbers of components near the dimensions 4 and 2. The particular case of exact renormalization group is also introduced. (A.C.)
Jacquet, Philippe; Joly, Véronique
1998-01-01
Twisting the non-locality concept in quantum mechanics we introduce the hypothetical concept of retro-information. We analyse the effect of paradoxal coupling on source of retro-information in order to quantify the new means of computing that could be derived from such an hypothetical concept.
Ahn, Doyeol
2011-01-01
A clear introduction to quantum mechanics concepts Quantum mechanics has become an essential tool for modern engineering, particularly due to the recent developments in quantum computing as well as the rapid progress in optoelectronic devices. Engineering Quantum Mechanics explains the fundamentals of this exciting field, providing broad coverage of both traditional areas such as semiconductor and laser physics as well as relatively new yet fast-growing areas such as quantum computation and quantum information technology. The book begins with basic quantum mechanics, reviewing measurements and probability, Dirac formulation, the uncertainty principle, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum eigenstates, and perturbation theory. Then, quantum statistical mechanics is explored, from second quantization and density operators to coherent and squeezed states, coherent interactions between atoms and fields, and the Jaynes-Cummings model. From there, the book moves into elementary and modern applications, discussing s...
A quantum network for implementation of the optimal quantum cloning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dai Jie-Lin; Zhang Wen-Hai
2009-01-01
This paper presents a quantum network to implement the optimal 1→2 quantum cloning in 2 dimensions, including the optimal asymmetric universal, the optimal symmetric phase-covariant, and the asymmetric real state cloning. By only choosing different angles of the single-qubit rotations, the quantum network can implement three optimal quantum cloning.
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-01-01
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel", quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of 100 million rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-meter optical fiber. The spinwave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon, and subjected to Bell-state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spinwave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the succe...
2007-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physic...
基于环行多宇宙量子编码算法的图像融合处理%Image Fusion Processing Based on Multi-universe Quantum Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵明省; 魏雪峰
2013-01-01
针对图像融合中量子算法存在的缺点,提出多宇宙并行算法.首先通过量子比特编码来确定宇宙中的个体；然后把量子群分成若干个独立的宇宙,宇宙内部为环行拓朴结构,通过自适应比例产生不同压力来对量子宇宙之间进行信息交换；最后对图像融合处理包括高、低频部分以及评价指标的建立.实验结果表明该算法融合结果清晰、处理速度快.%According to quantum algorithm of image fusion to the disadvantages of parallel algorithm,multi-universe is proposed.Firstly,by quantum bit code to determine the individual in the universe.Then,the quantum group of divided into many independent of the universe,the universe for parallel internal topology structure,using quantum revolving door update,through individual quantum universe adaptive scale to produce different pressure for the exchange of information between quantum universe.The image fusion processing including high and low frequency part and the establishment of the evaluation indexes.The experimental results show that the algorithm the fusion results clearly,processing speed faster.
Parallel information transfer in a multinode quantum information processor.
Borneman, T W; Granade, C E; Cory, D G
2012-04-06
We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-03-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61327901, 61490711, 61225025, 11474268, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. WK2470000018
GROMACS: fast, flexible, and free.
Van Der Spoel, David; Lindahl, Erik; Hess, Berk; Groenhof, Gerrit; Mark, Alan E; Berendsen, Herman J C
2005-12-01
This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is http://www.gromacs.org.
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)
2010-01-11
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Quantum-Holographic Informational Consciousness
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Francisco Di Biase
2009-01-01
The author propose a quantum-informational holographic model of brain-consciousness-universe interactions based in the holonomic neural networks of Karl Pribram, in the holographic quantum theory...
Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2013-01-01
The Selberg trace formula is specified for cosmological billiards in $4=3+1$ spacetime dimensions. The spectral formula is rewritten as an exact sum over the initial conditions for the Einstein field equations for which periodic orbits are implied. For this, a suitable density of measure invariant under the billiard maps has been defined, within the statistics implied by the BKL paradigm. The trace formula has also been specified for the stochastic limit of the dynamics, where the sum over initial conditions has been demonstrated to be equivalent to a sum over suitable symmetry operations on the generators of the groups that define the billiard dynamics, and acquires different features for the different statistical maps. Evidence for scars at the quantum regime is provided. The validity of the Selberg trace formula at the classical level and in the quantum regime enforces the validity of the semiclassical descriptions of these systems, thus offering further elements for the comparison of quantum-gravity effec...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gauthier, J.-P.; Almosni, S.; Léger, Y.; Perrin, M.; Even, J.; Cornet, C., E-mail: charles.cornet@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O. [UMR FOTON, CNRS, INSA-Rennes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Robert, C. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Balocchi, A.; Carrère, H.; Marie, X. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France)
2014-12-15
We report on the structural and optical properties of (In,Ga)AsN self-assembled quantum dots grown on GaP (001) substrate. A comparison with nitrogen free (In,Ga)As system is presented, showing a clear modification of growth mechanisms and a significant shift of the photoluminescence spectrum. Low temperature carrier recombination dynamics is studied by time-resolved photoluminescence, highlighting a drastic reduction of the characteristic decay-time when nitrogen is incorporated in the quantum dots. Room temperature photoluminescence is observed at 840 nm. These results reveal the potential of (In,Ga)AsN as an efficient active medium monolithically integrated on Si for laser applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Hod
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.
Zagoskin, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Written by Dr Alexandre Zagoskin, who is a Reader at Loughborough University, Quantum Mechanics: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear jargon-free English, and then providing added-value features like summaries of key ideas, and even lists of questions you might be asked in your exam. The book uses a structure that is designed to make quantum physics as accessible as possible - by starting with its similarities to Newtonian physics, ra
An Introduction to Topological Quantum Codes
Bombin, H.
2013-01-01
This is the chapter \\emph{Topological Codes} of the book \\emph{Quantum Error Correction}, edited by Daniel A. Lidar and Todd A. Brun, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013. http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/physics/quantum-physics-quantum-information-and-quantum-computation/quantum-error-correction
Rotta, Davide; De Michielis, Marco; Ferraro, Elena; Fanciulli, Marco; Prati, Enrico
2016-06-01
Scalability from single-qubit operations to multi-qubit circuits for quantum information processing requires architecture-specific implementations. Semiconductor hybrid qubit architecture is a suitable candidate to realize large-scale quantum information processing, as it combines a universal set of logic gates with fast and all-electrical manipulation of qubits. We propose an implementation of hybrid qubits, based on Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dots, compatible with the CMOS industrial technological standards. We discuss the realization of multi-qubit circuits capable of fault-tolerant computation and quantum error correction, by evaluating the time and space resources needed for their implementation. As a result, the maximum density of quantum information is extracted from a circuit including eight logical qubits encoded by the [[7, 1, 3
Quantum biology and quantum pharmacology: proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewdin, P.O.; Oehrn, N.Y.; Sabin, J.R.; Zerner, M.C.
1986-01-01
The 25th Sanibel Symposia, which included the 12th meeting of the Symposium on Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology, was held at the University of Florida Whitney Laboratory at Marineland on the Atlantic Coast of Florida, March 14-23, 1985. The three days (March 14-16) devoted to Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology saw the presentation of more than 50 papers by the 90 participants representing about 20 different nations. These ''Proceedings'' comprise the contributions in both the invited talks and the poster sessions.
Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion
Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2008-12-01
Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.
Quantum neuromorphic hardware for quantum artificial intelligence
Prati, Enrico
2017-08-01
The development of machine learning methods based on deep learning boosted the field of artificial intelligence towards unprecedented achievements and application in several fields. Such prominent results were made in parallel with the first successful demonstrations of fault tolerant hardware for quantum information processing. To which extent deep learning can take advantage of the existence of a hardware based on qubits behaving as a universal quantum computer is an open question under investigation. Here I review the convergence between the two fields towards implementation of advanced quantum algorithms, including quantum deep learning.
Mesoscopic Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics with Quantum Dots
Childress, L I; Lukin, M D
2003-01-01
We describe an electrodynamic mechanism for coherent, quantum mechanical coupling between spacially separated quantum dots on a microchip. The technique is based on capacitive interactions between the electron charge and a superconducting transmission line resonator, and is closely related to atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics. We investigate several potential applications of this technique which have varying degrees of complexity. In particular, we demonstrate that this mechanism allows design and investigation of an on-chip double-dot microscopic maser. Moreover, the interaction may be extended to couple spatially separated electron spin states while only virtually populating fast-decaying superpositions of charge states. This represents an effective, controllable long-range interaction, which may facilitate implementation of quantum information processing with electron spin qubits and potentially allow coupling to other quantum systems such as atomic or superconducting qubits.
Monendra Grover
2011-01-01
The human consciousness has been proposed to have several levels of consciousness, some of which are higher than others. I propose that the universe also has several levels of consciousness. To quantify the states of consciousness I propose the term consciousness vector. I further propose a extended deep ecology hypothesis which states that all human activity, including in the fields of medicine, agriculture and technology should be targeted so as to achieve the highest levels of consciousnes...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈微微; 华明正; 史洪玮
2013-01-01
量子遗传进化算法是量子计算和遗传算法相结合的产物，量子比特是两个量子态的叠加态，在此，详细介绍了量子遗传进化算法。尝试使用量子遗传进化算法来解决高校排课问题，并进行了实验。实验结果表明，该算法获得了比较好的结果。%University timetabling problem is a concern of many people. The essence of course arrangement is to allocate cur-riculum,teachers and students to the appropriate classrooms in the appropriate period. The course arrangement involves many factors,and is a multi-objective scheduling problem,which is called as timetable in operational research. Quantum genetic evo-lutionary algorithm is the combination of quantum computation and genetic algorithm. Quantum bit is a superposition of two quan-tum states. The quantum genetic evolutionary algorithm was used to solve the university course timetabling problem. A good re-sult was achieved in a relevant experiment.
Mandl, F.
1992-07-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Quantum Mechanics aims to teach those parts of the subject which every physicist should know. The object is to display the inherent structure of quantum mechanics, concentrating on general principles and on methods of wide applicability without taking them to their full generality. This book will equip students to follow quantum-mechanical arguments in books and scientific papers, and to cope with simple cases. To bring the subject to life, the theory is applied to the all-important field of atomic physics. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed. However, it would help most readers to have met some elementary wave mechanics before. Primarily written for students, it should also be of interest to experimental research workers who require a good grasp of quantum mechanics without the full formalism needed by the professional theorist. Quantum Mechanics features: A flow diagram allowing topics to be studied in different orders or omitted altogether. Optional "starred" and highlighted sections containing more advanced and specialized material for the more ambitious reader. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding. Hints and solutions to the problems are given at the end of the book.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Khanonkin
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The charge carrier dynamics of improved InP-based InAs/AlGaInAs quantum dot (QD semiconductor optical amplifiers are examined employing the multi-wavelength ultrafast pump-probe measurement technique. The transient transmission response of the continuous wave probe shows interesting dynamical processes during the initial 2-3 ps after the pump pulse, when carriers originating from two photon absorption contribute the least to the recovery. The effects of optical excitations and electrical bias levels on the recovery dynamics of the gain in energetically different QDs are quantified and discussed. The experimental observations are validated qualitatively using a comprehensive finite-difference time-domain model by recording the time evolution of the charge carriers in the QDs ensemble following the pulse.
Kono, Y; Sakakibara, T; Aoyama, C P; Hotta, C; Turnbull, M M; Landee, C P; Takano, Y
2015-01-23
High-precision dc magnetization measurements have been made on Cu(C4H4N2) (NO3)2 in magnetic fields up to 14.7 T, slightly above the saturation field Hs=13.97 T, in the temperature range from 0.08 to 15 K. The magnetization curve and differential susceptibility at the lowest temperature show excellent agreement with exact theoretical results for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one dimension. A broad peak is observed in magnetization measured as a function of temperature, signaling a crossover to a low-temperature Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid regime. With an increasing field, the peak moves gradually to lower temperatures, compressing the regime, and, at Hs, the magnetization exhibits a strong upturn. This quantum critical behavior of the magnetization and that of the specific heat withstand quantitative tests against theory, demonstrating that the material is a practically perfect one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Complete Characterization of a Quantum Process: The Two-Bit Quantum Gate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poyatos, J.; Cirac, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretisch Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020, Innsbruck (Austria)
1997-01-01
We show how to fully characterize a quantum process in an open quantum system. We particularize the procedure to the case of a universal two-qubit gate in a quantum computer. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation of a quantum gate in the ion trap quantum computer. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Complete Characterization of a Quantum Process the Two-Bit Quantum Gate
Poyatos, J F; Zoller, P
1997-01-01
We show how to fully characterize a quantum process in an open quantum system. We particularize the procedure to the case of a universal two-qubit gate in a quantum computer. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation of a quantum gate in the ion trap quantum computer.
通用量子门神经网络在齿轮故障诊断中的应用%Application of Universal Quantum Gate Neural Network in Gear Fault Diagnosis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李胜; 张培林; 李兵; 王国德
2015-01-01
In order to improve the ability of gear fault diagnosis,considering the current research of neural network mechanism,a quantum neuron model was proposed based on universal quantum gate and an universal quantum gate neural network(UQGN)was established.Firstly,the input was quan-tum training samples after transformed.Then,quantum rotation gate and an universal quantum gate were used for rotation selection overturn and aggregation,and the network parameters were updated. Finally,the trained results were as output.The generalization performance of UQGN was proved in mathematics.The proposed method was applied to pattern recognition of gear fault conditions.The ex-perimental results indicate that,compared with common neural network and common quantum neural network,UQGN has better effects on generalization performance,robustness accuracy and execution time.%为进一步提高齿轮故障诊断能力,结合目前神经网络机理的研究进展,建立了一种基于通用量子门的量子神经元模型,提出了通用量子门神经网络(universal quantum gate neural network, UQGN)算法。首先,该算法将转换后的量子态训练样本作为输入。然后,利用量子旋转门和通用量子门完成旋转、选择、翻转和聚合等一系列操作,并完成网络参数的更新。最后,将训练后的结果输出。在数学上,证明了UQGN算法的泛化能力。利用该算法对齿轮的正常、齿面磨损、齿根裂纹和断齿4种情况进行了模式识别。实验结果表明,与普通神经网络和普通量子神经网络相比,UQGN 算法在泛化性能、鲁棒性、准确率和执行时间等方面具有较好的效果。
Zanardi, Paolo
2001-01-01
The physical resources available to access and manipulate the degrees of freedom of a quantum system define the set $\\cal A$ of operationally relevant observables. The algebraic structure of $\\cal A$ selects a preferred tensor product structure i.e., a partition into subsystems. The notion of compoundness for quantum system is accordingly relativized. Universal control over virtual subsystems can be achieved by using quantum noncommutative holonomies
Zanardi, P
2001-08-13
The physical resources available to access and manipulate the degrees of freedom of a quantum system define the set A of operationally relevant observables. The algebraic structure of A selects a preferred tensor product structure, i.e., a partition into subsystems. The notion of compoundness for quantum systems is accordingly relativized. Universal control over virtual subsystems can be achieved by using quantum noncommutative holonomies
Microwave Quantum Illumination
2016-07-29
Df Introduction .– Entanglement is the foundation of many quantum information protocols [1–3], but it is easily de- stroyed by environmental noise that...1Institute for Quantum Information , RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany 2Quantum Information Processing Group, Raytheon BBN Technologies...entanglement, theory showed that the QI system will significantly outperform a clas- sical (coherent-state) system of the same transmitted energy [5–7
Parallelizing quantum circuit synthesis
Di Matteo, Olivia; Mosca, Michele
2016-01-01
Quantum circuit synthesis is the process in which an arbitrary unitary operation is decomposed into a sequence of gates from a universal set, typically one which a quantum computer can implement both efficiently and fault-tolerantly. As physical implementations of quantum computers improve, the need is growing for tools which can effectively synthesize components of the circuits and algorithms they will run. Existing algorithms for exact, multi-qubit circuit synthesis scale exponentially in t...
Revealing novel quantum phases in quantum antiferromagnets on random lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum magnets represent an ideal playground for the controlled realization of novel quantum phases and of quantum phase transitions. The Hamiltonian of the system can be indeed manipulated by applying a magnetic field or pressure on the sample. When doping the system with non-magnetic impurities, novel inhomogeneous phases emerge from the interplay between geometric randomness and quantum fluctuations. In this paper we review our recent work on quantum phase transitions and novel quantum phases realized in disordered quantum magnets. The system inhomogeneity is found to strongly affect phase transitions by changing their universality class, giving the transition a novel, quantum percolative nature. Such transitions connect conventionally ordered phases to unconventional, quantum disordered ones - quantum Griffiths phases, magnetic Bose glass phases - exhibiting gapless spectra associated with low-energy localized excitations.
Berthiaume, A; Laplante, S; Berthiaume, Andre; Dam, Wim van; Laplante, Sophie
2000-01-01
In this paper we give a definition for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. In the classical setting, the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of the shortest program that can produce this string as its output. It is a measure of the amount of innate randomness (or information) contained in the string. We define the quantum Kolmogorov complexity of a qubit string as the length of the shortest quantum input to a universal quantum Turing machine that produces the initial qubit string with high fidelity. The definition of Vitanyi (Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Annual Conference on Computational Complexity, 2000) measures the amount of classical information, whereas we consider the amount of quantum information in a qubit string. We argue that our definition is natural and is an accurate representation of the amount of quantum information contained in a quantum state.
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Villari, Leone Di Mauro; Biancalana, Fabio; Conti, Claudio
2016-01-01
We have very little experience of the quantum dynamics of the ubiquitous nonlinear waves. Observed phenomena in high energy physics are perturbations to linear waves, and classical nonlinear waves, like solitons, are barely affected by quantum effects. We know that solitons, immutable in classical physics, exhibit collapse and revivals according to quantum mechanics. However this effect is very weak and has never been observed experimentally. By predicting black hole evaporation Hawking first introduced a distinctly quantum effect in nonlinear gravitational physics.Here we show the existence of a general and universal quantum process whereby a soliton emits quantum radiation with a specific frequency content, and a temperature given by the number of quanta, the soliton Schwarzschild radius, and the amount of nonlinearity, in a precise and surprisingly simple way. This result may ultimately lead to the first experimental evidence of genuine quantum black hole evaporation. In addition, our results show that bla...
Quantum cosmological metroland model
Anderson, E.; Franzen, A.T.
2010-01-01
Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale
Hybrid quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)
2014-12-04
I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.
Quantum quench and scaling of entanglement entropy
Caputa, Paweł; Das, Sumit R.; Nozaki, Masahiro; Tomiya, Akio
2017-09-01
Global quantum quench with a finite quench rate which crosses critical points is known to lead to universal scaling of correlation functions as functions of the quench rate. In this work, we explore scaling properties of the entanglement entropy of a subsystem in a harmonic chain during a mass quench which asymptotes to finite constant values at early and late times and for which the dynamics is exactly solvable. When the initial state is the ground state, we find that for large enough subsystem sizes the entanglement entropy becomes independent of size. This is consistent with Kibble-Zurek scaling for slow quenches, and with recently discussed ;fast quench scaling; for quenches fast compared to physical scales, but slow compared to UV cutoff scales.
Noncommutative Quantum Cosmology
García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C
2001-01-01
We propose a model for noncommutative quantum cosmology by means of a deformation of minisuperspace. For the Kantowski-Sachs metric we are able to find the exact solution to the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We construct wave packets and show that noncommutativity could remarkably modify the quantum behavior of the universe. We discuss the relation with space-time noncommutativity and exhibit a program to search for the influence of noncommutativity at early times in the universe.
Chiocchetta, Alessio; Tavora, Marco; Gambassi, Andrea; Mitra, Aditi
2016-10-01
We investigate the effects of fluctuations on the dynamics of an isolated quantum system represented by a (ϕ2)2 field theory with O (N ) symmetry after a quench in d >2 spatial dimensions. A perturbative renormalization-group approach involving a dimensional expansion in ɛ =4 -d is employed in order to study the evolution within a prethermal regime controlled by elastic dephasing. In particular, we focus on a quench from a disordered initial state to the critical point, which introduces an effective temporal boundary in the evolution. At this boundary, the relevant fields acquire an anomalous scaling dimension, while the evolution of both the order parameter and its correlation and response functions display universal aging. Since the relevant excitations propagate ballistically, a light cone in real space emerges. At longer times, the onset of inelastic scattering appears as secularly growing self-generated dissipation in the effective Keldysh field theory, with the strength of the dissipative vertices providing an estimate for the time needed to leave the prethermal regime.
Albareda, Guillermo; Abedi, Ali; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rubio, Angel
2016-12-01
It was recently shown [G. Albareda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 083003 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.083003 that within the conditional decomposition approach to the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, the electron-nuclear wave function can be exactly decomposed into an ensemble of nuclear wave packets effectively governed by nuclear conditional time-dependent potential-energy surfaces (C-TDPESs). Employing a one-dimensional model system, we show that for strong nonadiabatic couplings the nuclear C-TDPESs exhibit steps that bridge piecewise adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential-energy surfaces. The nature of these steps is identified as an effect of electron-nuclear correlation. Furthermore, a direct comparison with similar discontinuities recently reported in the context of the exact factorization framework allows us to draw conclusions about the universality of these discontinuities, viz., they are inherent to all nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics approaches based on (exact) time-dependent potential-energy surfaces.
Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet
Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go
2017-09-01
The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.
Quantum Communication Technology
Gisin, Nicolas
2010-01-01
Quantum communication is built on a set of disruptive concepts and technologies. It is driven by fascinating physics and by promising applications. It requires a new mix of competencies, from telecom engineering to theoretical physics, from theoretical computer science to mechanical and electronic engineering. First applications have already found their way to niche markets and university labs are working on futuristic quantum networks, but most of the surprises are still ahead of us. Quantum communication, and more generally quantum information science and technologies, are here to stay and will have a profound impact on the XXI century.
BRICS and Quantum Information Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
1998-01-01
BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....
Hypercomputation based on quantum computing
Sicard, A; Ospina, J; Sicard, Andr\\'es; V\\'elez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2004-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm for a (classically) incomputable decision problem: the Hilbert's tenth problem; namely, we present a hypercomputation model based on quantum computation. The model is inspired by the one proposed by Tien D. Kieu. Our model exploits the quantum adiabatic process and the characteristics of the representation of the dynamical algebra su(1,1) associated to the infinite square well. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model proposed is a universal quantum computation model.
Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning
Buraczewski, Adam
2011-01-01
We present a numerical model of macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning. It requires fast computation of the Gaussian hypergeometric function for moderate values of its parameters and argument as well as evaluation of infinite sums involving this function. We developed a method of dynamical estimation of cutoff for these sums. We worked out algorithms performing efficient summation of values of orders ranging from $10^{-100}$ to $10^{100}$ which neither lose precision nor accumulate errors, but provide the summation with acceleration. Our model is well adapted to experimental conditions. It optimizes computation by parallelization and choice of the most efficient algorithm. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Including decoherence and realistic detection greatly improved the reliability and usability of our model for scientific research.
Thermo-mechanical challenges for quantum devices
Gielen, A.W.J.; McKenzie, F.V.
2014-01-01
In the last few years Technical University of Delft, under leadership of Prof.dr.ir. Leo Kouwenhoven, has developed several successful concepts for quantum devices that are suitable for quantum computing and quantum communication. From a quantum research point of view we are still in a very fundamen
Parallel Information Transfer in a Multi-Node Quantum Information Processor
Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G
2011-01-01
We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.