WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast track lunar

  1. Fast Track lunar NTR systems assessment for NASA's first lunar outpost and its evolvability to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

    1995-10-01

    Integrated systems and missions studies are presented for an evolutionary lunar-to-Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. A 'standardized' set of engine and stage components are identified and used in a 'building block' fashion to configure a variety of piloted and cargo, lunar and Mars vehicles. The reference NTR characteristics include a thrust of 50 thousand pounds force (klbf), specific impulse (I(sub sp)) of 900 seconds, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of 4. 3. For the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission, and expendable NTR stage powered by two such engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tonnes (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical system. The stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a diameter, length, and capacity of 10 m, 14.5 m and 66 t, respectively. By extending the stage length and LH2 capacity to approximately 20 m and 96 t, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle could deliver to an elliptical Mars parking orbit a 63 t Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) with a 45 t surface payload. Three 50 klbf engines and the two standardized LH2 tanks developed for the lunar and Mars cargo vehicles are used to configure the vehicles supporting piloted Mars missions as early as 2010. The 'modular' NTR vehicle approach forms the basis for an efficient STS able to handle the needs of a wide spectrum of lunar and Mars missions.

  2. Fast track NTR systems assessment for NASA's first lunar outpost scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Alexander, Stephen W.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated systems and mission study results are presented which quantify the rationale and benefits for developing and using nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology for returning humans to the moon in the early 2000's. At present, the Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for its 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The use of an NTR-based lunar transfer stage, capable of evolving to Mars mission applications, could result in an accelerated schedule, reduced cost approach to moon/Mars exploration. Lunar mission applications would also provide valuable operational experience and serve as a 'proving ground' for NTR engine and stage technologies. In terms of performance benefits, studies indicate that an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 199 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.8 m length, and 68 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a 'graphite' fuel form consisting of coated UC2 particles in a graphite substrate, and has a specific impulse capability of approximately 870 s, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.8. The NTR stage and its piloted FLO lander has a total length of approximately 38 m and can be launched by a single Saturn V-derived heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) in the 200 to 250 t-class range. The paper summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost scenario, describes characteristics for representative engine/stage configurations, and examines the impact on engine selection and vehicle design resulting from a consideration of alternative NTR fuel forms and lunar mission profiles.

  3. Lunar Network Tracking Architecture for Lunar Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Shane B.; Geller, David

    2010-01-01

    A trade study was conducted with the objective of comparing and contrasting the radiometric navigation performance provided by various architectures of lunar-based navigations assets. Architectures considered consist of a compliment of two beacons located on the lunar surface, and two orbiting beacons that provide range and range-rate measurements to the user. Configurations of these assets include both coplanar and linked constellations of frozen elliptic orbiters and halo orbiters. Each arc...

  4. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  5. Foinaven fast track flowlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.H.; Mair, J.

    1996-12-31

    The decision by British Petroleum to develop offshore fields west of the Shetlands in water depths exceeding 500 meters within three and a half years of discovery posed a unique submarine pipeline installation challenge. This paper summarizes the salient features of a fast track program to install a diverless subsea pipeline system using rigid reeled pipe technology in an offshore frontier area.

  6. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  7. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  8. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Fast-track surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay (LOS), morbidity, and convalescence in primary hip and knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether patients undergoing revision TKA for non-septic indications might also benefit from fast-track surgery...

  9. Fast track clinical pathway implications in esophagogastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Jiang; Lin Cheng; Jian-Jun Wang; Jin-Song Li; Jun Nie

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of fast track clinical pathway for esophageal tumor resections.METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients with esophageal carcinoma who underwent esophagogastrectomy from January 2006 to October 2007 in our department were studied. Fast track clinical pathway included analgesia control, fluid infusion volume control, early ambulation and enteral nutrition.Nasogastric tube was removed 3 d after operation and chest tube was removed 4 d after operation as a routine, and full liquid diet 5 d after operation.RESULTS: Among 114 patients (84 men and 30 women), 26 patients underwent fast track surgery,including 17 patients over 65 years old and 9 under 65 ( P = 0.014); 18 patients who had preoperative complications could not bear fast track surgery ( P <0.001). No significant differences in tolerance of fast track surgery were attributed to differences in gender,differentiated degree or stage of tumor, pathological type of tumor, or operative incision. The median length of hospital stay was 7 d (5-28 d), 4% patients werereadmitted to hospital within 30 d of discharge. Three patients died and postoperative mortality was 2.6%.All 3 patients had no determinacy to fast track surgery approach.CONCLUSION: The major I ty of pat ients with esophageal carcinoma can tolerate fast track surgery.Patients younger than 65 or who have no preoperative diseases have the best results. Median length of hospital stay has been reduced to 7 d.

  10. Still on the Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    North China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region’s development is progressing comparatively fast,though there is still a long way to go until it catches up with advances being made in other parts of China, officials said.

  11. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  12. Motion Tracking with Fast Adaptive Background Subtraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao; De-Gui; Yu; Sheng-sheng; 等

    2003-01-01

    To extract and track moving objects is usually one of the most important tasks of intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents a fast and adaptive background subtraction algorithm and the motion tracking process using this algorithm. The algorithm uses only luminance components of sampled image sequence pixels and models every pixel in a statistical model.The algorithm is characterized by its ability of real time detecting sudden lighting changes, and extracting and tracking motion objects faster. It is shown that our algorithm can be realized with lower time and space complexity and adjustable object detection error rate with comparison to other background subtraction algorithms. Making use of the algorithm, an indoor monitoring system is also worked out and the motion tracking process is presented in this paper.Experimental results testify the algorithms' good performances when used in an indoor monitoring system.

  13. Social Security Administration Percentage of Fast-Track Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset provides the percentage of fast-track receipts by state during the reporting fiscal year. Fast-tracked cases consist of those cases identified as Quick...

  14. Fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Richard; Abernathy, Stephen; Davis, Matthew; Isbell, Travis; Regner, Justin; Smith, Randall

    2017-04-01

    Perforated appendicitis is associated with an increased morbidity and length of stay. "Fast track" protocols have demonstrated success in shortening hospitalization without increasing morbidity for a variety of surgical processes. This study evaluates a fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis. In 2013, a treatment pathway for perforated appendicitis was adopted by the Acute Care Surgery Service for patients having surgical management of perforated appendicitis. Interval appendectomy was excluded. Patients were treated initially with intravenous antibiotics and transitioned to oral antibiotics and dismissed when medically stable and tolerating oral intake. A retrospective review of patients managed on the fast track pathway was undertaken to analyze length of stay, morbidity, and readmissions. Thirty-four males and twenty-one females with an average age of 46.8 years underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis between January 2013 and December 2014. Pre-existing comorbidities included hypertension 42%, diabetes mellitus 11%, COPD 5% and heart disease 2%. No patient had conversion to open appendectomy. Average length of stay was 2.67 days and ranged from 1 to 12 days (median 2 days). Postoperative morbidity was 20% and included abscess (6 patients), prolonged ileus (3 patients), pneumonia (1 patient), and congestive heart failure (1 patient). Five patients were readmitted for abscess (3 patients), congestive heart failure (1 patient), and pneumonia (1 patient). A fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis produced shorter length of stay and acceptable postoperative morbidity and readmission. This offers the potential for significant cost savings over current national practice patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay...... postoperative recovery program may decrease the risk and duration of PD after colonic surgery....

  16. Security market reaction to FDA fast track designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher W; Zhang, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical firms can apply for the Food and Drug Administration to 'fast track' research and de velopment on new drugs, accelerating clinical trials and expediting regulatory review required prior to marketing to consumers. We investigate security market reaction to more than 100 fast track designations from 1998 to 2004. Fast track designation appears to enhance investor recognition of firm value. Specifically, fast track designation coincides with abnormal trading volume and excess daily stock returns for sponsoring firms. Institutional ownership and analyst attention also increase. Market response is more pronounced for firms that are smaller, do not yet market products, and have low institutional ownership.

  17. Fast-track knee arthroplasty – status and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed for different surgical procedures leading to higher patient satisfaction and lower morbidity. This concept has been extended to knee arthroplasty in recent years. The purpose of this narrative review was to discuss the different aspects of fast-track knee a...

  18. Fast Track Teaching: Beginning the Experiment in Accelerated Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development of the Fast Track teaching programme and personalised nature of the training and support that has been delivered. Fast Track teacher promotion rates are compared to national statistics demonstrating significant progression for certain groups, particularly women. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  19. Fast Track: A Language Arts Program for Middle School Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jean

    2008-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a pseudonym for an accelerated, advanced language arts program for verbally gifted and high potential students in grades 6-8. The critical thinking model used for "Fast Track" was gleaned from Coalition of Essential Schools founder Ted Sizer's Habits of Mind: significance, evidence, connections, perspective, and supposition, as…

  20. Standardising fast-track surgical nursing care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, Dorthe; Rud, Kirsten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    guidelines based on the principles of fast-track surgery-i.e. patient information, surgical stress reduction, effective analgesia, early mobilisation and rapid return to normal eating. Fast-track surgery was introduced systematically in Denmark by the establishment of the Unit of Perioperative Nursing (UPN...

  1. Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dong-jie; ZHANG Chang-hua; HE Yu-long; ZHANG Sheng; HE Wei-ling; CHEN Hua-yun; CAI Shi-rong; CHEN Chuang-qi; SONG Xin-ming; CUI Ji; MA Jin-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Few clinical studies or randomized clinical trial results have reported the impact of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity.This study aimed to investigate the effects of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity in patients undergoing elective open colorectal resection.Methods Controlled,randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 with one-month post-discharge follow-up.Seventy patients with colorectal carcinoma requiring colorectal resection were randomized into two groups:a fast track group (35 cases) and a conventional care group (35 cases).All included patients received elective open colorectal resection with combined tracheal intubation and general anesthesia.Clinical parameters (complication rates,return of gastrointestinal function and postoperative length of stay),stress index and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in both groups perioperatively.Reaults Sixty-two patients finally completed the study,32 cases in the fast-track group and 30 cases in the conventional care group.Our findings revealed a significantly faster recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity on postoperative day 7 in the fast-track group than that in the conventional care group.We also found a significantly shorter length of postoperative stay and a significantly faster return of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation.Conclusion Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity in elective surgery for colorectal carcinoma with a shorter length of postoperative hospital stay.

  2. Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-ling; Chen, Hua-yun; Cai, Shi-rong; Chen, Chuang-qi; Song, Xin-ming; Cui, Ji; Ma, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2012-09-01

    Few clinical studies or randomized clinical trial results have reported the impact of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity in patients undergoing elective open colorectal resection. Controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 with one-month post-discharge follow-up. Seventy patients with colorectal carcinoma requiring colorectal resection were randomized into two groups: a fast track group (35 cases) and a conventional care group (35 cases). All included patients received elective open colorectal resection with combined tracheal intubation and general anesthesia. Clinical parameters (complication rates, return of gastrointestinal function and postoperative length of stay), stress index and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in both groups perioperatively. Sixty-two patients finally completed the study, 32 cases in the fast-track group and 30 cases in the conventional care group. Our findings revealed a significantly faster recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity on postoperative day 7 in the fast-track group than that in the conventional care group. We also found a significantly shorter length of postoperative stay and a significantly faster return of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation. Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity in elective surgery for colorectal carcinoma with a shorter length of postoperative hospital stay.

  3. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  4. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  5. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  6. Fast tracking in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia : an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Carol

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A care plan in which cardiac surgical patients progress quickly through the perioperative course to hospital discharge is often referred to as a Fast Track. Such care plans have been used extensively in adult cardiac patients but are also applicable to paediatric patients. Although no randomised controlled trials are available to document a reduction in hospital costs and avoidance of iatrogenic complications with paediatric fast tracks, many healthcare administrators encourage their use. Fast Track clinical guidelines usually include same day surgery, use of short- acting anaesthetic drugs, early extubation, effective pain management, and reduced intensive care unit stays. These protocols are certainly appropriate for simple procedures such as repair of atrial or ventricular septal defects or ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. However, many paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologists consider that all paediatric patients without significant pulmonary or residual cardiac pathology can be managed using expedited postoperative protocols. Essential components in a "fast track" protocol include use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, modified ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass, transoesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac repair, and postoperative pain control. Using such techniques, 80-90% of paediatric patients can be extubated in the operating room or within 2-4 hours postoperatively. Despite the opinions of recognised experts, an appropriately sized and powered multicentre, controlled, randomised, prospective study is still needed to conclusively document the efficiency and effectiveness of the Fast Track in paediatric cardiac patients.

  7. Fast infrared dim and small target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhou, Huixin; Rong, Shenghui; Wang, Bingjian; Yin, Shiming; Zeng, Qingjie

    2015-10-01

    The target tracking by the spatio-temporal learning is a kind of online tracking algorithm based on Bayesian framework. But it has the excursion problem when applied in the infrared dim target. Based on the principle of the spatio-temporal learning algorithm, the excursion problem was analyzed and a new robust algorithm for infrared dim target tracking is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Guide Image Filter was adopted to process the input image to preserve edges and eliminate the noise of the image. Secondly, the ideal spatial context model was calculated with the input image that contains little noise, which can be got by subtracting the filtering result from the original image. Simultaneously, a new weight in the context prior model was proposed to indicate that the prior is also related to the local gray level difference. The performance of the presented algorithm was tested with two infrared air image sequences, and the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  8. Fast and Simple Motion Tracking Unit with Motion Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeon-cheol YANG; Yoon-sup KIM; Seong-soo LEE; Sang-keun OH; Sung-hwa KIM; Doo-won CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance system using active tracking camera has no distance limitation of surveillance range compared to supersonic or sound sensors. However, complex motion tracking algorithm requires huge amount of computation, and it often requires expensive DSPs or embedded processors. This paper proposes a novel motion tracking unit based on different image for fast and simple motion tracking. It uses configuration factor to avoid noise and inaccuracy. It reduces the required computation significantly, so as to be implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGAs) instead of expensive Digital Signal Processing(DSPs). It also performs calculation for motion estimation in video compression, so it can be easily combined with surveillance system with video recording functionality based on video compression. The proposed motion tracking system implemented on Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGA can process 48 frames per second, and operating frequency of motion tracking unit is 100 MHz.

  9. Simulating the star tracks in the field of view of the Lunar polar telescope of the ILOM project in dependence on the Lunar dynamical figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, N.; Gusev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of techniques to get the information of the internal structure of celestial body. The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) has given unprecedented data on the lunar rotation, and gives some proposals of the state of the core. In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM) is an experiment to measure the lunar physical librations in situ on the Moon with a small telescope which tracks stars. Simulating the trajectory of stars due to the lunar rotation observed by the ILOM-telescope in the polar region was already made by using numerical theory DE405 (Noda et al., 2008). We have executed calculations of libration tracks of stars on the basis of analytical libration theory (Petrova, 1996; Chapront et al, 1999). It allowed us to do simulating for various models of Lunar gravity field (Lunar dynamical figure). We used dynamical figures constructed on the basis of data received in the current mission Kaguya (SELENE), and then we compared the results with calculations with other dynamic models constructed on the data obtained by the Clementine (GLGM-2) and the Lunar Prospector (LP150Q). The differences between the models GLGM-2, LP150Q and the Kaguya model are larger than 10 milliseconds of arc. This means that proposed accuracy of ILOM observations - 1 millisecond of arc will be enough to improve many parameters of the Lunar interior. In particular, residual estimations will allow to detect small amplitudes of free libration caused by a liquid Lunar core and to estimate its characteristic, first of all - core's ellipticity. All calculation and comparisons, graphic presentation were executed in the VBA environment for MS Excel. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS N 07-02-91212, (2007 - 2009).

  10. Nursing in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the increased activity in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from 2002 to 2012 in a single orthopaedic department, the organisation of fast-track and its consequences for nursing care. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive design. Data collection; from...... the hospital administrative database, local descriptions of fast-track, personal contact and discussion with staff. RESULTS: The number of operations increased threefold from 351 operations in 2002 to 1024 operations in 2012. In 2012, THA/TKA patients had a postoperative mean LOS of 2.6/2.8 days. Nurses had......, be considered a worthwhile investment to employ expert/highly qualified professional nurses in fast-track THA and TKA units....

  11. Fast-track surgery for breast cancer is possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte G; Kroman, Niels; Williams, Helene

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is common among Danish women with more than 4,100 new cases annually. In 2008 the concept of fast-track surgery was introduced at the Department of Breast Surgery at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. The aim of this study is to describe the new clinical pathway for breast...... to provide immediate advice and support. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that a short stay can be successfully carried out for breast cancer patients. Implementing the fast-track programme involved the introduction of a clear clinical pathway for the patients and more effective daily routines. Patients felt...... cancer patients after implementation of a fast-track surgery programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical pathway of all involved disciplines was developed including anaesthetic, analgesics, nausea and vomiting, drain and wound management, discharge assessment and psychosocial support. RESULTS...

  12. Short Hospital Stay after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery without Fast Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    in our department resulted in shorter hospital stay without using fast track principles for peri- and postoperative care in patients not receiving a stoma during the operation. Consequently, we aimed to reduce hospitalisation without increasing cost in nursing staff per hospital bed. Length of stay......Purpose. Short hospital stay and equal or reduced complication rates have been demonstrated after fast track open colonic surgery. However, fast track principles of perioperative care can be difficult to implement and often require increased nursing staff because of more concentrated nursing tasks...... during the shorter hospital stay. Specific data on nursing requirements after laparoscopic surgery are lacking. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of operative technique (open versus laparoscopic operation), but without changing nurse staffing or principles for peri- or postoperative...

  13. Fast-track surgery for breast cancer is possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte G; Kroman, Niels; Williams, Helene;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is common among Danish women with more than 4,100 new cases annually. In 2008 the concept of fast-track surgery was introduced at the Department of Breast Surgery at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. The aim of this study is to describe the new clinical pathway for breast...... to provide immediate advice and support. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that a short stay can be successfully carried out for breast cancer patients. Implementing the fast-track programme involved the introduction of a clear clinical pathway for the patients and more effective daily routines. Patients felt...... cancer patients after implementation of a fast-track surgery programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical pathway of all involved disciplines was developed including anaesthetic, analgesics, nausea and vomiting, drain and wound management, discharge assessment and psychosocial support. RESULTS...

  14. Low manipulation prevalence following fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which may...... have influenced the prevalence of joint stiffness and subsequent manipulation. We investigated the prevalence of manipulation following fast-track TKA and identified patients at risk of needing manipulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 3,145 consecutive unselected elective primary unilateral TKA patients...... operated in 6 departments with well-defined fast-track settings were included in the study. Demographic data, prevalence, type and timing of manipulation, and preoperative and postoperative ROM were recorded prospectively, ensuring complete 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: 70 manipulations were performed within...

  15. Fast Markerless Tracking for Augmented Reality in Planar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Afif, Fadhil Noer; Almazyad, Abdulaziz S.; AbuJabal, Hamza Ali S.; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim

    2015-12-01

    Markerless tracking for augmented reality should not only be accurate but also fast enough to provide a seamless synchronization between real and virtual beings. Current reported methods showed that a vision-based tracking is accurate but requires high computational power. This paper proposes a real-time hybrid-based method for tracking unknown environments in markerless augmented reality. The proposed method provides collaboration of vision-based approach with accelerometers and gyroscopes sensors as camera pose predictor. To align the augmentation relative to camera motion, the tracking method is done by substituting feature-based camera estimation with combination of inertial sensors with complementary filter to provide more dynamic response. The proposed method managed to track unknown environment with faster processing time compared to available feature-based approaches. Moreover, the proposed method can sustain its estimation in a situation where feature-based tracking loses its track. The collaboration of sensor tracking managed to perform the task for about 22.97 FPS, up to five times faster than feature-based tracking method used as comparison. Therefore, the proposed method can be used to track unknown environments without depending on amount of features on scene, while requiring lower computational cost.

  16. Fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To provide a short overview of fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and to identify areas requiring further research. Design A literature search was made using key words including: fast-track, enhanced recovery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, robot......-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS), robotic, thoracotomy, single-incision, uniportal, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), chest tube, air-leak, digital drainage, pain management, analgesia, perioperative management, anaesthesia and non-intubated. References from articles were screened for further...

  17. Fast track concept in the European fusion programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, Harald [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Recently an expert meeting regarding a possible acceleration of the fusion programme with a view to energy production ('fast track') was held on the initiative of the EU Research Council. In the course of the discussions about the fast track programme, it has turned out that successful extraction of reactor grade heat and tritium from the blanket modules is essential in the ITER operation. In parallel with ITER, material development using a high intensity neutron source is essential to establish a database for licensing. The operation of a reactor combining DEMO and PROTO generations into a single step could be around 2030. (author)

  18. Delirium after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, L S; Hansen, T B

    2012-01-01

    ). Twenty-two patients received general anaesthesia, and the rest had spinal anaesthesia. No patients developed PD (95% confidence interval 0.0-1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: /st>A fast-track set-up with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia was associated with lack of PD after elective THA and TKA in elderly patients....

  19. Fast Track: Elementary School. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a comprehensive intervention designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. The program's components include the "Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies" curriculum, parent groups, parent-child sharing time, child social skills training, home visiting, child…

  20. Fast-Track Cleanup at Closing DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fast-Track Cleanup program strives to make parcels available for reuse as quickly as possible by the transfer of uncontaminated or remediated parcels, the lease of contaminated parcels where cleanup is underway, or the 'early transfer' of contaminated property undergoing cleanup.

  1. Readmissions after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of fast-track surgery with optimization of both logistical and clinical features, the postoperative convalescence has been reduced as functional milestones have been achieved earlier and consequently length of stay (LOS) in hospital has been reduced. However, it has been...

  2. Low manipulation prevalence following fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill;

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which may...

  3. Patient-reported outcome after fast-track knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben B; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe patient-related functional outcomes after fast-track total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Furthermore, we wanted to assess physical areas where an additional need for rehabilitation could be identified, and finally, we...

  4. 4D fast tracking for experiments at high luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, N.; Cardini, A.; Calabrese, R.; Fiorini, M.; Luppi, E.; Marconi, U.; Petruzzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of the high luminosity LHC is a big challenge that requires new instrumentation and innovative solutions. We present here a conceptual design and simulation studies of a fast timing pixel detector with embedded real-time tracking capabilities. The system is conceived to operate at 40 MHz event rate and to reconstruct tracks in real-time, using precise space and time 4D information of the hit, for fast trigger decisions. This work is part of an R&D project aimed at building an innovative tracking detector with superior time (10 ps) and position (10 μm) resolutions to be used in very harsh radiation environments, for the ultimate flavour physics experiment at the high luminosity phase of the LHC.

  5. Standardising fast-track surgical nursing care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, Dorthe; Rud, Kirsten; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    guidelines based on the principles of fast-track surgery-i.e. patient information, surgical stress reduction, effective analgesia, early mobilisation and rapid return to normal eating. Fast-track surgery was introduced systematically in Denmark by the establishment of the Unit of Perioperative Nursing (UPN......-track regimes in all surgical departments in Denmark. We recommend the workshop-practice method for implementation of new procedures in other areas of patient care.......Considerable variations in procedures, hospital stay and rates of recovery have been recorded within specific surgical procedures at Danish hospitals. The aim of this paper is to report on a national initiative in Denmark to improve the quality of surgical care by implementation of clinical...

  6. Fast emulation of track reconstruction in the CMS simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Simulated samples of various physics processes are a key ingredient within analyses to unlock the physics behind LHC collision data. Samples with more and more statistics are required to keep up with the increasing amounts of recorded data. During sample generation, significant computing time is spent on the reconstruction of charged particle tracks from energy deposits which additionally scales with the pileup conditions. In CMS, the FastSimulation package is developed for providing a fast alternative to the standard simulation and reconstruction workflow. It employs various techniques to emulate track reconstruction effects in particle collision events. Several analysis groups in CMS are utilizing the package, in particular those requiring many samples to scan the parameter space of physics models (e.g. SUSY) or for the purpose of estimating systematic uncertainties. The strategies for and recent developments in this emulation are presented, including a novel, flexible implementation of tracking emulation w...

  7. Adaptive modified hough transform track initiator for HFSWR tracking of fast and small targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Rujiang; Yuan Yeshu; Quan Taifan

    2005-01-01

    High frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR)is well proved to have over the horizon (OTH) detection capability to weak aerial targets, such as concealed airplanes or cruise missiles. The most important problem of detection of fast and small targets using HFSWR is earlier warning, i.e. enlargement of detection range oftargets. Therefore, the detection threshold should be decreased as low as possible, but numerous false alarms are brought about at the same time.On this condition, conventional track initiation techniques, which normally require the probability of false alarm to be at the level of 10-6, will initiate enormous false tracks and lead to abnormaloperation of tracking system. An adaptive modified hough transform (AMHT) track initiator is proposed accordingly and the relation of detection range to the performance of track initiator is analyzed in this paper. Simulations are performed to confirm the capability of track initiation to fast and small targets in dense clutter by AMHT track initiator. The tolerable probability of false alarm of detector can reach the level of 10-3. And it performs better than track initiator based on modified hough transform (MHT).

  8. A NOVEL FAST MOVING OBJECT CONTOUR TRACKING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Guocheng; Yang Hao; Wu Zhenyang

    2009-01-01

    If a somewhat fast moving object exists in a complicated tracking environment, snake's nodes may fall into the inaccurate local minima. We propose a mean shift snake algorithm to solve this problem. However, if the object goes beyond the limits of mean shift snake module operation in successive sequences, mean shift snake's nodes may also fall into the local minima in their moving to the new object position. This paper presents a motion compensation strategy by using particle filter; therefore a new Particle Filter Mean Shift Snake (PFMSS) algorithm is proposed which combines particle filter with mean shift snake to fulfill the estimation of the fast moving object contour. Firstly, the fast moving object is tracked by particle filter to create a coarse position which is used to initialize the mean shift algorithm. Secondly, the whole relevant motion information is used to compensate the snake's node positions. Finally, snake algorithm is used to extract the exact object contour and the useful information of the object is fed back. Some real world sequences are tested and the results show that the novel tracking method have a good performance with high accuracy in solving the fast moving problems in cluttered background.

  9. Fast neural-net based fake track rejection

    CERN Document Server

    De Cian, Michel; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    A neural-network based algorithm to identify fake tracks in the LHCb pattern recognition is presented. This algorithm, called ghost probability, is fast enough to fit into the CPU time budget of the software trigger farm. It allows reducing the fake rate and consequently the combinatorics of the decay reconstructions, as well as the number of tracks that need to be processed by the particle identification algorithms. As a result, it strongly contributes to the achievement of having the same reconstruction online and offline in the LHCb experiment.

  10. A Fast Approach for Track Initiation and Termination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUHongyan; HANChongzhao; HANHong

    2004-01-01

    Track initiation and termination is an important function in Multi-target tracking (MTT), it is a decision part for establishing the records of the new targets and terminating the unwanted records of the inexistent targets when they leave the surveillance region. But in the heavy cluttered environment, there exists so called “incomplete data problem”, due to the unknown state of the target and the sequence of measurements which originate from the target. Because the EM algorithm is an efficient means to solve the “incomplete data problem”,a fast track initiation and termination approach applicable to engineering is presented, which combines the Sequential probabilistic ratio test (SPRT) with recursive Expectation maximization (EM). Here, track initiation and termination is modeled as a hypothesis testing problem. And aiming at the computational difficulty of the likelihood function due to the unknown target state and the sequence of measurements which originate from the target, the recursive EM-based formula of likelihood function is introduced. It gives an efficient solution to track initiation and termination by processing the measurement data sequentially, and its recursive form can meet the real-time demand. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method performs well for track initiation and termination, especially in heavily cluttered environment.

  11. FAST TRACK SURGERY IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY - A REVIEW.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The number of orthopedic surgeons who are convinced in the need for significant changes in planned total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing slowly and steadily. A new approach to pain control has been developed over the past 10-15 years, and the introduction of techniques to reduce perioperative stress, and the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques can help limit postoperative complications and shorten recovery time. This type of optimization is regarded as Fast-track Care program,...

  12. Readmissions after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of fast-track surgery with optimization of both logistical and clinical features, the postoperative convalescence has been reduced as functional milestones have been achieved earlier and consequently length of stay (LOS) in hospital has been reduced. However, it has been s...... speculated that a decrease in LOS may be associated with an increase in readmissions in general, including risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or manipulation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  13. Fast Tracking for the ATLAS LVL2 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, J T M; Emeliyanov, D; Konstantinidis, N P; Parodi, F; Schiavi, C; Sutton, M; Computing In High Energy Physics

    2005-01-01

    We present a set of algorithms for fast track reconstruction at the second level (LVL2) trigger of ATLAS, using three-dimensional space points (= hits) from the silicon trackers. The strategy is to determine the position z_0 of the interesting pp interaction along the beam axis prior to any track reconstruction and then retain only groups of hits which point back to that z_0 and perform combinatorial tracking only inside those groups. We give results and discuss the advantages of this approach, which is generic enough to be applicable to other multi-collision experiments. We also make a qualitative comparison with a complementary approach which is based on Look-Up Tables (LUT) and is also used in ATLAS.

  14. Successful integration of fast track projects into turnarounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. Patrick; Loureiro, Ramon C. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fast track projects can provide quick wins and competitive advantage. However, in most cases the implementation of these projects requires a shutdown for installing the necessary tie-ins or integration into an upcoming turnaround (TA). Depending on the nature of the project and complexity of the TA, the integration can be seamless or result in cost or duration overruns and safety incidents. The risk of such overruns and safety incidents increases with the amount of project work to be integrated into the operations, maintenance and inspection schedules to be executed during the TA. The risk further increases with TA size and other factors. If not planned and scheduled properly and in a timely fashion, capital projects, in particular fast track projects trying to take advantage of an upcoming TA, can severely impact both TA performance, and the safety and reliability of the facility until the next opportunity for eliminating the defects introduced during the TA. Successful TAs are those delivered in a safe, on time, on budget manner, and with the quality standards needed for a leak-free start-up and a safe and reliable operation over the next run cycle. This paper discusses the key elements that are required to minimize the TA risks derived from the inclusion of fast track projects and how to establish the cut off criteria to either cancel or defer the project, or delay the TA in order to balance TA scope freeze and the case for compelling economics.(author)

  15. The ATLAS Fast Tracker Processing Units - track finding and fitting

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00384270; The ATLAS collaboration; Alison, John; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andreani, Alessandro; Annovi, Alberto; Beccherle, Roberto; Beretta, Matteo; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Bogdan, Mircea Arghir; Bryant, Patrick; Calabro, Domenico; Citraro, Saverio; Crescioli, Francesco; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, Simone; Gentsos, Christos; Giannetti, Paola; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gramling, Johanna; Greco, Virginia; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Iovene, Alessandro; Kalaitzidis, Panagiotis; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kordas, Kostantinos; Kubota, Takashi; Lanza, Agostino; Liberali, Valentino; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magnin, Betty; Sakellariou, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Saxon, James; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Stabile, Alberto; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Volpi, Guido; Zou, Rui; Shochet, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker is a hardware upgrade to the ATLAS trigger and data-acquisition system, with the goal of providing global track reconstruction by the start of the High Level Trigger starts. The Fast Tracker can process incoming data from the whole inner detector at full first level trigger rate, up to 100 kHz, using custom electronic boards. At the core of the system is a Processing Unit installed in a VMEbus crate, formed by two sets of boards: the Associative Memory Board and a powerful rear transition module called the Auxiliary card, while the second set is the Second Stage board. The associative memories perform the pattern matching looking for correlations within the incoming data, compatible with track candidates at coarse resolution. The pattern matching task is performed using custom application specific integrated circuits, called associative memory chips. The auxiliary card prepares the input and reject bad track candidates obtained from from the Associative Memory Board using the full precision a...

  16. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  17. FAST TRACK SURGERY IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kosev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of orthopedic surgeons who are convinced in the need for significant changes in planned total knee arthroplasty (TKA is increasing slowly and steadily. A new approach to pain control has been developed over the past 10-15 years, and the introduction of techniques to reduce perioperative stress, and the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques can help limit postoperative complications and shorten recovery time. This type of optimization is regarded as Fast-track Care program, where improved healing process is particularly useful to comorbid patients.

  18. Early recovery after fast-track Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stig; Dalsgaard, Jesper; Bjerggaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    trauma. We investigated changes in leg-extension power (LEP) in the first month after MIS Oxford UKA and its relation to pain, knee motion, functional performance, and knee function. Patients and methods In 35 consecutive Oxford UKA patients, LEP was measured 1 week before and 1 month after surgery...... supervision in the first month after discharge. Interpretation Fast-track MIS Oxford UKA with discharge on the day after surgery is safe and leads to early recovery of knee motion and strength even when no physiotherapy is used....

  19. The new variable resolution Associative Memory for Fast Track finding

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Volpi, G; Stabile, A; Liberali, V; Beretta, M; Sacco, I

    2012-01-01

    We describe a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture, optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. We have developed this device using 65 nm technology combining a full custom CAM cell with standard-cell control logic. The customized design maximizes the pattern density, minimizes the power consumption and implements the functionalities needed for the planned Fast Tracker, an ATLAS trigger upgrade project at LHC. We introduce a new variable resolution pattern matching technique using “don’t care” bits to set the pattern-matching window for each pattern and each layer can be independently.

  20. Delirium in the fast-track surgery setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars S; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative delirium (PD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are two separate syndromes of cognitive decline after major surgery, especially in the elderly. Pathogenesis is multifactorial with some common risk factors, and to reduce the risk, a multimodal approach is necessary....../knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The fast-track set-up seems to be associated with a lower frequency of PD and early POCD after THA/TKA. Thus, in a series of 225 patients ≥60 years, no cases of PD were seen and the incidence of POCD was reduced by more than 50% at 1 week postoperatively compared to previous studies...

  1. Cognitive dysfunction after fast-track hip and knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Kehlet, Henrik; Bæk Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    to 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. LOS, pain, opioid use, inflammatory response, and sleep quality were recorded. The practice effect of repeated cognitive testing was gauged using data from a healthy community-dwelling control group (n = 161). RESULTS: Median LOS was 2 days (interquartile range...... this (23.6% of patients with early POCD had late onset vs 6.7% in non-POCD group; risk difference 16.9 (95% CI, -2.1% to 41.1%; P = 0.089). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of POCD early after total hip and knee replacement seems to be lower after a fast-track approach than rates previously reported...

  2. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, V.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bellora, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Cirio, R.; Durando, S.; Ferrero, M.; Galloway, Z.; Gruey, B.; Freeman, P.; Mashayekhi, M.; Mandurrino, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M. M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, N.; Staiano, A.; Wilder, M.; Woods, N.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2017-02-01

    We review the progress toward the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~ 10 larger than standard silicon detectors.

  3. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  4. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using the synthetic tracking technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G.; Sandhu, Jagmit [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K., E-mail: chengxing.zhai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA) using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. With an apparent magnitude of 23 (H = 29, assuming detection at 20 lunar distances), the asteroid was moving at 6.°32 day{sup –1} and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 15 using 30 s of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation 77 minutes later at the same S/N. Because of its high proper motion, the NEA moved 7 arcsec over the 30 s of observation. Synthetic tracking avoided image degradation due to trailing loss that affects conventional techniques relying on 30 s exposures; the trailing loss would have degraded the surface brightness of the NEA image on the CCD down to an approximate magnitude of 25 making the object undetectable. This detection was a result of our 12 hr blind search conducted on the Palomar 200 inch telescope over two nights, scanning twice over six (5.°3 × 0.°046) fields. Detecting only one asteroid is consistent with Harris's estimates for the distribution of the asteroid population, which was used to predict a detection of 1.2 NEAs in the H-magnitude range 28-31 for the two nights. The experimental design, data analysis methods, and algorithms are presented. We also demonstrate milliarcsecond-level astrometry using observations of two known bright asteroids on the same system with synthetic tracking. We conclude by discussing strategies for scheduling observations to detect and characterize small and fast-moving NEAs using the new technique.

  5. Sleep disturbances after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Jennum, P; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    , and on the fourth postoperative night at home. Sleep staging was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine manual. Opioid use, pain, and inflammatory response (C-reactive protein) were also evaluated. RESULTS: /st>The mean LOS was 1.5 (1-2) days. The mean REM sleep time decreased from a mean...... on the fourth postoperative night. There was no association between opioid use, pain scores, and inflammatory response with a disturbed sleep pattern. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Despite ultra-short LOS and provision of spinal anaesthesia with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, REM sleep was almost eliminated......BACKGROUND: /st>Major surgery is followed by pronounced sleep disturbances after traditional perioperative care potentially leading to prolonged recovery. The aim was to evaluate the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration and sleep architecture before and after fast-track hip and knee replacement...

  6. LiTrack A Fast longitudinal phase space tracking code with graphical user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Emma, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Many linear accelerators, such as linac-based light sources and linear colliders, apply longitudinal phase space manipulations in their design, including electron bunch compression and wakefield-induced energy spread control. Several computer codes handle such issues, but most require detailed information on the transverse focusing lattice. In fact, in most linear accelerators, the transverse distributions do not significantly affect the longitudinal, and can be ignored initially. This allows the use of a fast 2D code to study longitudinal aspects without time-consuming considerations of the transverse focusing. LiTrack is based on a 15-year old code (same name) originally written by one of us (KB), which is now a MATLAB-based code with additional features, such as a graphical user interface and output plotting. The single-bunch tracking includes RF acceleration, bunch compression to 3rd order, geometric and resistive wakefields, aperture limits, synchrotron radiation, and flexible output plotting. The code w...

  7. Implementation of the scientific evidence into daily practice - example from fast-track colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J.; Harling, H.; Wille-Jorgensen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To report the implementation and results of fast-track surgery for colonic cancer in the daily routine. Method A total of 131 consecutive patients scheduled for elective colonic cancer resections entered a fast-track perioperative course after thorough information. The regimen contained...

  8. The role of pain for early rehabilitation in fast track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  9. Hip dislocations after 2,734 elective unilateral fast-track total hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Solgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    characteristics from six Danish arthroplasty departments with similar fast-track approaches were cross-referenced with the Danish National Patient Registry for complete 90-day follow-up on readmissions, including emergency-room contacts. Complete patient files and postoperative radiographs were reviewed in case.......31-3.40)] but not hospital stay of fast-track total hip...

  10. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  11. Evidence Basis for Regional Anesthesia in Multidisciplinary Fast-Track Surgical Care Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Francesco; Kehlet, Henrik; Baldini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    of fast-track methodologies, were identified. The impact of epidural and paravertebral blockade, spinal analgesia, peripheral nerve blocks, and new regional anesthesia techniques on main procedure-specific postoperative outcomes is discussed. Finally, in the last section, implementations required......Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type...... of surgeries. The aim of this article was to identify and discuss potential advantages offerred by regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques to fast-track programs. In the first section, the impact of regional anesthesia on the main elements of fast-track surgery is addressed. In the second section...

  12. GLGM-3: A Degree-ISO Lunar Gravity Model from the Historical Tracking Data of NASA Moon Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 x 10(exp -4)/sq l) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of approx.0.2 and approx. 1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectiVely). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

  13. GLGM-3: A Degree-ISO Lunar Gravity Model from the Historical Tracking Data of NASA Moon Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Han, Shin-Chan; Smith, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation for the radio science experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, we analyzed the available radio tracking data of previous NASA lunar orbiters. Our goal was to use these historical observations in combination with the new low-altitude data to be obtained by LRO. We performed Precision Orbit Determination on trajectory arcs from Lunar Orbiter 1 in 1966 to Lunar Prospector in 1998, using the GEODYN II program developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We then created a set of normal equations and solved for the coefficients of a spherical harmonics expansion of the lunar gravity potential up to degree and order 150. The GLGM-3 solution obtained with a global Kaula constraint (2.5 x 10(exp -4)/sq l) shows good agreement with model LP150Q from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially over the nearside. The levels of data fit with both gravity models are very similar (Doppler RMS of approx.0.2 and approx. 1-2 mm/s in the nominal and extended phases, respectiVely). Orbit overlaps and uncertainties estimated from the covariance matrix also agree well. GLGM-3 shows better correlation with lunar topography and admittance over the nearside at high degrees of expansion (l > 100), particularly near the poles. We also present three companion solutions, obtained with the same data set but using alternate inversion strategies that modify the power law constraint and expectation of the individual spherical harmonics coefficients. We give a detailed discussion of the performance of this family of gravity field solutions in terms of observation fit, orbit quality, and geophysical consistency.

  14. Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective: A qualitative content analysis of the provision of individualised nursing care in orthopaedic fast-track programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    The lack of individualised care in orthopaedic regimes is often explained by the extended use of patient pathways and clinical guidelines. The aim of this study was to illuminate orthopaedic nurses' perceptions and experiences of providing individual nursing care for older patients in standardised fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with orthopaedic nurses in orthopaedic wards at three Danish hospitals between April and June of 2015. Data were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme of the overall interpretation was Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective, accompanied by three sub-themes: Identifying and legitimising relevant individual care in the fast-track programme, Struggling to fit all patients in the fast-track programme and Justifying individualised care-related actions in the fast-track programme. The study concluded that, even though the nurses struggled to comply with the programme, they still found themselves compromising their nursing care and ethics to follow the standardised regime. There is a need to establish more specific inclusion criteria to maintain the effective elements in the programme and to facilitate nurses' opportunities to offer individual care, thereby ensuring that fragile patients have access to other possibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "Fast-track" and "Minimally Invasive" Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Xin Liu; Hua-Feng Pan; Zhi-Wei Jiang; Shu Zhang; Zhi-Ming Wang; Ping Chen; Yan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate.Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries.However,little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone.Methods:We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014.A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups:open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group,n =167);OG with FT programs (OG + FT group,n =277);laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group,n =248);and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group,n =292).Patients' data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome.The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay.Results:The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean:12.3 days,median:11 days,interquartile range [IQR]:6-16 days),while OG + FT,LG + FT,and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean:7.4,6.4,and 6.6 days,median:6,6,and 6 days,IQR:3-9,4-8,and 3-9 days,respectively,all P < 0.001).The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9,3.1 ± 0.8,3.0± 0.9,and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner.After 30 postoperative days' follow-up,the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group,10.1% in OG + FT group,8.1% in LG + FT group,and 10.3% in RG + FT group.The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05).Conclusions:ERAS protocols alone could significantly bring fast recovery after surgery

  16. Evidence Basis for Regional Anesthesia in Multidisciplinary Fast-Track Surgical Care Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Francesco; Kehlet, Henrik; Baldini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type of surge......Fast-track programs have been developed with the aim to reduce perioperative surgical stress and facilitate patient's recovery after surgery. Potentially, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques may offer physiological advantages to support fast-track methodologies in different type...... of surgeries. The aim of this article was to identify and discuss potential advantages offerred by regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques to fast-track programs. In the first section, the impact of regional anesthesia on the main elements of fast-track surgery is addressed. In the second section......, procedure-specific fast-track programs for colorectal, hernia, esophageal, cardiac, vascular, and orthopedic surgeries are presented. For each, regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques more frequently used are discussed. Furthermore, clinical studies, which included regional techniques as elements...

  17. Fast-track rehabilitation program vs conventional care after colorectal resection: A randomized clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang; Zhi-Wei Jiang; Jing Xu; Jian-Feng Gong; Yang Bao; Li-Fei Xie; Jie-Shou Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the fast-track rehabilitation program and conventional care for patients after resection of colorectal cancer.METHODS: One hundred and six consecutive patients who underwent fast-track rehabilitation program were encouraged to have early oral feeding and movement for early discharge, while 104 consecutive patients underwent conventional care after resection of colorectal cancer. Their gastrointestinal functions, postoperative complications and hospital stay time were recorded.RESULTS: The restoration time of gastrointestinal functions in the patients was significantly faster after fasttrack rehabilitation program than after conventional care (2.1 d vs 3.2 d, P < 0.01). The percentage of patients who developed complications was significantly lower 30 d after fast-track rehabilitation program than after conventional care (13.2% vs 26.9%, P < 0.05). Also,the percentage of patients who had general complications was significantly lower 30 d after fast-track rehabilitation program than after conventional care (6.6% vs 15.4%, P < 0.05). The postoperative hospital stay time of the patients was shorter after fast-track rehabilitation program than after conventional care (5 d vs 7 d, P <0.01). No significant difference was observed in the readmission rate 30 d after fast-track rehabilitation program and conventional care (3.8% vs 8.7%).CONCLUSION: The fast-track rehabilitation program can significantly decrease the complications and shorten the time of postoperative hospital stay of patients after resection colorectal cancer.

  18. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  19. Fast track for elderly patients: is it feasible for colorectal surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagna, Rita; Aprea, Giovanni; De Rosa, Davide; Gentile, Maurizio; Cestaro, Giovanni; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Bianco, Tommaso; Massa, Guido; Amato, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore; Amato, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Fast-track program has been applied in several surgical fields. However, currently many surgical patients are elderly over 70 years of age, and discussion about the application of such protocols for elderly patients is inadequate. The present study was designed to consider the safety and feasibility of application of a fast-track program after colorectal surgery in elderly patients. A total of 76 elderly patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection were randomly assigned to receive either the fast-track care program (n = 40) or the conventional perioperative care protocol (control group, n = 36). The fast track protocol included no preoperative mechanical bowel irrigation, immediate oral alimentation and earlier postoperative ambulation exercise. The length of postoperative hospital stay, the length of time to regain bowel function and the rate of postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The length of time to regain bowel function, including the passage of flatus [32 (24-40) h vs 42 (32-52) h], and to start a liquid diet (13 [10-16] h v/s 43 [36-50] h) were significantly shorter in patients receiving the fast track care protocol compared with those receiving the conventional care protocol. A shorter duration of postoperative hospital stay was recorded in patients receiving the fast-track program than in those receiving conventional care [6 (5-7) days v/s 9.5 (7-12) days]. A reduced percentage of patients who developed general complications was also observed in the fast-track group (5.0% v/s 18%). Fast-track after laparoscopic colorectal surgery can be safely applied in carefully selected elderly patients older than age 70 years. The fast-track recovery program resulted in a more rapid postoperative recovery, earlier discharge from hospital and fewer general complications compared with a conventional postoperative protocol. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Fast-track surgery-an update on physiological care principles to enhance recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The concept of fast-track surgery (enhanced recovery programs) has been evolved and been documented to be successful by decreasing length of stay, morbidity and convalescence across procedures. FUTURE STRATEGIES: However, there are several possibilities for further improvement of mo...... of the components of fast-track surgery, where surgical stress, fluid and pain management are key factors. There is an urgent need for better design of studies, especially in minimal invasive surgery to achieve maximal outcome effects when integrated into the fast-track methodology....

  1. Fast polarization-state tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfu; Cao, Guoliang; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Yao, Yong; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-07-27

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fast polarization tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter. It has the advantages of fast convergence and is inherently insensitive to phase noise and frequency offset effects. The scheme is experimentally compared to conventional polarization tracking methods on the polarization rotation angular frequency. The results show that better tracking capability with more than one order of magnitude improvement is obtained in the cases of polarization multiplexed QPSK and 16QAM signals. The influences of the filter tuning parameters on tracking performance are also investigated in detail.

  2. 42 CFR 422.626 - Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fast-track appeals of service terminations to... Grievances, Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.626 Fast-track appeals of service terminations to independent review entities (IREs). (a) Enrollee's right to a fast-track appeal of an MA...

  3. The risk of manipulation under anesthesia due to unsatisfactory knee flexion after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Thomsen, Morten G; Kallemose, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fast-track TKA has significantly shortened the time available for physiotherapists to optimize knee ROM before discharge. Safety aspects concerning knee stiffness and the need for manipulation in a fast-track setting need to be illuminated. The study aims were to analyze if fast-track...

  4. Postoperative Sleep Disturbances after Zolpidem Treatment in Fast-Track Hip and Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    architecture in an elderly population undergoing fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) with length of stay spinal anesthesia and multimodal opioid-sparing postoperative analgesia were included...

  5. L0 Confirmation with fast, Tsa based tracking in the T-stations

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Terrier, H

    2007-01-01

    A fast tracking algorithm to confirm the high $p_T$ L0 trigger objects with tracks from the T-stations is presented. The L0 trigger candidate is used to define a search window to a potential track. Using this, a seeded track search is performed. The track finding algorithm is based on the \\textit{TsaSeeding} algorithm~\\cite{bib:Tsa}. The efficiency to confirm a true L0 trigger signal is around 96\\%, the momentum can be measured up to $\\Delta p/p$=3\\%.

  6. Early Progressive Strength Training to Enhance Recovery After Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with or without progressive strength training (PST) commenced early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on functional performance. METHODS: In total, 82 patients with a unilateral primary TKA were randomized to 2...... was not superior to 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation without PST in improving functional performance, measured as the maximal walking distance in 6 minutes, at the primary end point 8 weeks after fast-track TKA....

  7. A novel fast target tracking method for UAV aerial image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are able to achieve autonomous flight without drivers, and UAV has been a key tool to extract space data. Therefore, how to detect the trajectories of targets from UAV aerial image sequences is of great importance. Because local features are suitable to detect target tracking, we exploit scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT features to describe the interesting keypoints of targets. The main innovation of this paper is to utilize Multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT algorithm to track an object (target in a series of image sequences. Particularly, we develop a MHT framework based on a multidimensional assignment formulation and a sliding time window policy. To obtain target tracking from UAV aerial image sequences, three steps should be done, that is, 1 Breaking each track set into tracklet at a specific time, 2 Estimating the association cost of each track set, 3 Merging trajectory fragments to a longer one iteratively. Finally, we collect several UAV aerial image sequences with different target density to construct a dataset, and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. A novel fast target tracking method for UAV aerial image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfang, Liu; Hao, Zheng; Jingli, Gao

    2017-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are able to achieve autonomous flight without drivers, and UAV has been a key tool to extract space data. Therefore, how to detect the trajectories of targets from UAV aerial image sequences is of great importance. Because local features are suitable to detect target tracking, we exploit scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT) features to describe the interesting keypoints of targets. The main innovation of this paper is to utilize Multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm to track an object (target) in a series of image sequences. Particularly, we develop a MHT framework based on a multidimensional assignment formulation and a sliding time window policy. To obtain target tracking from UAV aerial image sequences, three steps should be done, that is, 1) Breaking each track set into tracklet at a specific time, 2) Estimating the association cost of each track set, 3) Merging trajectory fragments to a longer one iteratively. Finally, we collect several UAV aerial image sequences with different target density to construct a dataset, and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Fast 4$\\pi$ track reconstruction in nuclear emulsion detectors based on GPU technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, A

    2013-01-01

    Fast 4$\\pi$ solid angle particle track recognition has been a challenge in particle physics for a long time, especially in using nuclear emulsion detectors. The recent advances in computing technology opened the way for its realization. A fast 4$\\pi$ solid angle particle track reconstruction based on GPU technology combined with a multithread programming is reported here with a detailed comparison between GPU-based and CPU-based programming. A 60 times faster processing of 3D emulsion detector data, corresponding to processing of 15 cm$^2$ emulsion surface scanned per hour, has been achieved by GPUs with an excellent tracking performance.

  10. Improvement in fast particle track reconstruction with robust statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, SA (Australia); Abbasi, R. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A. [Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211Genève (Switzerland); Ahlers, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Altmann, D. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Baker, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barwick, S.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    The IceCube project has transformed 1 km{sup 3} of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction is inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This paper describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detector's early reconstruction with data filters and robust statistical techniques. These can be implemented at the level of on-line reconstruction and, therefore, improve all subsequent reconstructions. Using the metric of median angular resolution, a standard metric for track reconstruction, we improve the accuracy in the initial reconstruction direction by 13%. We also present improvements in measuring the number of muons in coincident events: we can accurately determine the number of muons 98% of the time.

  11. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  12. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  13. Study of hardware implementations of fast tracking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dong, J.; Huang, G.; Léonard, A.; Robert, F.; Wang, D.; Yang, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time track reconstruction at high event rates is a major challenge for future experiments in high energy physics. To perform pattern-recognition and track fitting, artificial retina or Hough transformation methods have been introduced in the field which have to be implemented in FPGA firmware. In this note we report on a case study of a possible FPGA hardware implementation approach of the retina algorithm based on a Floating-Point core. Detailed measurements with this algorithm are investigated. Retina performance and capabilities of the FPGA are discussed along with perspectives for further optimization and applications.

  14. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira; Gromov, Kirill; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Husted, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    Fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) has been shown to reduce the perioperative convalescence resulting in less postoperative morbidity, earlier fulfillment of functional milestones, and shorter hospital stay. As organizational optimization is also part of the fast-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD 2511 and USD 2551, respectively. Fast-track THA and TKA results in similar cost despite differences in the organizational set-up. Compared to cost associated with longer more conventional published pathways, fast-track is cheaper, which on top of the favorable published clinical outcome adds to cost efficiency and the potential for economic savings. Detailed baseline TDABC calculations are provided for comparison and further optimization of cost-benefit effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in Fast Particle Track Reconstruction with Robust Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This manuscript describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detectors early reconstruction with dat...

  16. Fast Visual Object Tracking Using Modified kalman and Particle Filtering Algorithms in the Presence of Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present day real time applications of visual object tracking in surveillance, it has become extremely complex, time consuming and tricky to do the tracking when there are occlusions are present for small duration or for longer time and also when it is done in outdoor environments. In these conditions, the target to be tracked can be lost for few seconds and that should be tracked as soon as possible. As from the literature it is observed that particle filter can be able to track the target robustly in different kinds of background conditions, and it’s robust to partial occlusion. However, this tracking cannot recover from large proportion of occlusion and complete occlusion, to avoid this condition, we proposed two new algorithms (modified kalman and modified particle filter for fast tracking of objects in the presence of occlusions. We considered the complete occlusion of tracking object and the main objective is how fast the system is able to track the object after the occlusion is crossed. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed algorithms have shown good improvement in results compared to the traditional methods.

  17. An Improved Fast Compressive Tracking Algorithm Based on Online Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jintao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast compressive tracking (FCT algorithm is a simple and efficient algorithm, which is proposed in recent years. But, it is difficult to deal with the factors such as occlusion, appearance changes, pose variation, etc in processing. The reasons are that, Firstly, even if the naive Bayes classifier is fast in training, it is not robust concerning the noise. Secondly, the parameters are required to vary with the unique environment for accurate tracking. In this paper, we propose an improved fast compressive tracking algorithm based on online random forest (FCT-ORF for robust visual tracking. Firstly, we combine ideas with the adaptive compressive sensing theory regarding the weighted random projection to exploit both local and discriminative information of the object. The second reason is the online random forest classifier for online tracking which is demonstrated with more robust to the noise adaptively and high computational efficiency. The experimental results show that the algorithm we have proposed has a better performance in the field of occlusion, appearance changes, and pose variation than the fast compressive tracking algorithm’s contribution.

  18. Fast Frequency Offset Acquisition and Accurate Tracking in OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-shan; ZHAO Ming; LIU Yuan-an

    2004-01-01

    A new carrier frequency offset estimation scheme for Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. The carrier frequency offset estimation includes acquisition and tracking. The acquisition range of the proposed algorithm is as large as one half of the overall signal bandwidth. Comparison of the proposed scheme with Schmidl's algorithm by computer simulation illustrates the superior performance of the proposed scheme with regard to estimation accuracy in both AWGN channel and multipath channels.

  19. Comparison of remifentanil and low-dose fentanyl for fast-track cardiac anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanykin, Boris; Siddiqi, Rizwan; Jensen, Per F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different anesthetic techniques have been used for fast tracking in cardiac anesthesia. Remifentanil, with its unique pharmacokinetic profile, could be an ideal drug for fast tracking. Possible limitations of remifentanil are rapid onset of postoperative pain after discontinuation...... of the drug infusion, which may increase the risk of an ischemic event. We conducted this randomized study to compare the efficacy of remifentanil versus low doses of fentanyl in fast-track cardiac anesthesia. It has been hypothesized that remifentanil would provide a safe anesthesia with no impact...... anesthesia. The study was designed as a prospective randomized study. The primary outcomes were changes in the cardiac index and creatine kinase MB fraction (CKMB), extubation times, mobilization times, and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital. Frequency of myocardial infarction...

  20. Postoperative morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Analysis was carried out of the nature and chronological order of early complications after fast-track laparoscopic rectal surgery with a view to optimize the short-time outcome of rectal cancer surgery. Method: 102 consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic rectal...... cancer surgery were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the nature and chronological order of postoperative morbidity and reason for prolonged stay (>5 days). Results: Twenty-five patients (25 per cent) had......: Postoperative morbidity remains a significant problem even in the fast-track era, even in experienced surgical hands. Our results suggest that besides improvement of surgical technique further improvement of outcome lies in early recognition and proper treatment of complications and the perioperative...

  1. Evidence-based surgical care and the evolution of fast-track surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H.; Wilmore, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    , randomized studies, and meta-analyses, the concept of the "fast-track methodology" has uniformly provided a major enhancement in recovery leading to decreased hospital stay and with an apparent reduction in medical morbidity but unaltered "surgery-specific" morbidity in a variety of procedures. However......BACKGROUND: Optimization of postoperative outcome requires the application of evidence-based principles of care carefully integrated into a multimodal rehabilitation program. OBJECTIVE: To assess, synthesize, and discuss implementation of "fast-track" recovery programs. DATA SOURCES: Medline MBASE...... (January 1966-May 2007) and the Cochrane library (January 1966-May 2007) were searched using the following keywords: fast-track, enhanced recovery, accelerated rehabilitation, and multimodal and perioperative care. In addition, the synthesis on the many specific interventions and organizational...

  2. Fast pattern recognition with the ATLAS L1 track trigger for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A fast hardware based track trigger for high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL- LHC) is being developed in ATLAS. The goal is to achieve trigger levels in high pileup collisions that are similar or even better than those achieved at low pile-up running of LHC by adding tracking information to the ATLAS hardware trigger which is currently based on information from calorimeters and muon trigger chambers only. Two methods for fast pattern recognition are investigated. The first is based on matching tracker hits to pattern banks of simulated high momentum tracks which are stored in a custom made Associative Memory (AM) ASIC. The second is based on the Hough transform where detector hits are transformed into 2D Hough space with one variable related to track pt and one to track direction. Hits found by pattern recognition will be sent to a track fitting step which calculates the track parameters . The speed and precision of the track fitting depends on the quality of the hits selected by the patte...

  3. Design of a Hardware Track Finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00010976; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L.S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N.V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J.W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H.L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C.L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P.T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J.C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100$\\mu$s, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  4. Design of a hardware track finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, V.; Adelman, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N. V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J. W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H. L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P. T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-02-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV . Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  5. New method for fast detection of railway track smoothness by fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Liang, Lei; Hu, Wenbin

    2000-05-01

    In this article, the conducting schemes for fiber optic gyro (FOG) used int he fast detecting of the smoothness of rail track has been proposed from the practical use point of view. The relevant approximate method of calculating has been given. The experiments in lab have been carried out, and the factors to influence the detecting precision of the smoothness of rail track such as the precision of FOG have been analyzed.

  6. Post-discharge symptoms following fast-track colonic cancer surgery: a phenomenological hermeneutic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Dreyer, Pia; Egerod, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain knowledge of patients' experiences of postoperative symptoms during the initial two weeks following fast-track colonic cancer surgery. METHOD: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with seven colonic cancer patients two weeks post hospital discharge. Analysis was performed using...... to report their unfamiliar symptoms during hospital nurse follow-up telephone call. While waiting for the final histology patients suffered loss of sleep and chaotic thinking, and experienced ambiguity of hoping for the best and expecting the worst. CONCLUSION: Although fast-track surgery programmes lead...

  7. Effect of an Emergency Department Fast Track on Press-Ganey Patient Satisfaction Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, Calvin E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mandated patient surveys have become an integral part of Medicare remuneration, putting hundreds of millions of dollars in funding at risk. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS recently announced a patient experience survey for the emergency department (ED. Development of an ED Fast Track, where lower acuity patients are rapidly seen, has been shown to improve many of the metrics that CMS examines. This is the first study examining if ED Fast Track implementation affects Press-Ganey scores of patient satisfaction. Methods: We analyzed returned Press-Ganey questionnaires from all ESI 4 and 5 patients seen 11AM - 11PM, August-December 2011 (pre-fast track, and during the identical hours of fast track, August-December 2012. Raw ordinal scores were converted to continuous scores for paired student t-test analysis. We calculated an odds ratio with 100% satisfaction considered a positive response. Results: An academic ED with 52,000 annual visits had 140 pre-fast track and 85 fast track respondents. Implementation of a fast track significantly increased patient satisfaction with the following: wait times (68% satisfaction to 88%, OR 4.13, 95% CI [2.32-7.33], doctor courtesy (90% to 95%, OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.04-3.73], nurse courtesy (87% to 95%, OR 2.75, 95% CI [1.46-5.15], pain control (79% to 87%, OR 2.13, 95% CI [1.16-3.92], likelihood to recommend (81% to 90%, OR 2.62, 95% CI [1.42-4.83], staff caring (82% to 91%, OR 2.82, 95% CI [1.54-5.19], and staying informed about delays (66% to 83%, OR 3.00, 95% CI [1.65-5.44]. Conclusion: Implementation of an ED Fast Track more than doubled the odds of significant improvements in Press-Ganey patient satisfaction metrics and may play an important role in improving ED performance on CMS benchmarks. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:34–38.

  8. Convalescence after colonic resection with fast-track versus conventional care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, D; Sonne, E; Basse, L;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-modal rehabilitation programmes may improve early postoperative body composition, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and reduce hospital stay. So far, no data are available on convalescence after discharge. AIM: The objectives were to compare convalescence data (fatigue, sleep...... results in earlier resumption of normal activities with reduced fatigue and need for sleep postoperatively compared to conventional care, and without increased need for nursing care or visits to general practitioners. However, readmissions may occur more frequently....... vs. 8 days in the fast-track vs. conventional care group, respectively (p sleep were increased in the conventional care group when compared with the fast-track group (p

  9. A new fast algorithm for multitarget tracking in dense clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua QIN; Fei HU; Chaoyin QIN

    2005-01-01

    A fast joint probabilistic data association (FJPDA) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Cluster probability matrix is approximately calculated by a new method, whose elements βli(K) can be taken as evaluation functions. According to values of βti(K), N events with larger joint probabilities can be searched out as the events with guiding joint probabilities, thus, the number of searching nodes will be greatly reduced. As a result, this method effectively reduces the calculation load and makes it possible to be realized on real-time. Theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation results show that this method is efficient.

  10. Tracking changing environments: innovators are fast, but not flexible learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Griffin

    Full Text Available Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in 'cognitive style', differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks.

  11. Tracking changing environments: innovators are fast, but not flexible learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David; Lermite, Françoise; Patience, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in 'cognitive style', differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks.

  12. The ATLAS Fast Tracker and Tracking at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Nikolina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC’s increase in centre of mass energy and luminosity in 2015 makes controlling trigger rates with high efficiency challenging. The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger. The FTK reconstructs tracks by matching incoming detector hits with pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory on custom ASICs. Inner detector hits are fit to these track patterns using modern FPGAs. These procedings describe the electronics system used for the FTK’s massive parallelization. An overview of the installation, commissioning and running of the system is given. The ATLAS upgrades planned to enable tracking at the High Luminosity LHC are also discussed.

  13. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root......-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose...... validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder...

  14. Fast Tracking for the Second Level Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment Using Silicon Detectors Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavi, C; Parodi, F; Kostantinidis, N; Sutton, M; Baines, J T M; Emeliyanov, D; Drevermann, H; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    Online track reconstruction is an important ingredient for event selection at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the first stage where this goal will be achievable is the software-based Second Level Trigger (LVL2). In this contribution we present an algorithm for fast pattern recognition and reconstruction of charged tracks and of the primary vertex in the framework of the High Level Trigger (HLT) of ATLAS. The pattern recognition makes extensive use of Monte Carlo Look Up Tables to quickly identify, in the innermost layers of the ATLAS silicon detectors, triplets of space points reconstructed from hits produced by the same track. The reconstruction strategy is compared, in the ATLAS LVL2 framework, with an alternative tracking algorithm, showing the complementarity of the two approaches. The algorithm’s performance is presented for different event topologies and luminosities, showing good tracking capabilities and uniform results with mean execution times which are compatible ...

  15. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  16. SMEs in Energy: Are they the parallel fast track for electrification of Africa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed

    2010-09-15

    The African continent is suffering from a chronic energy shortage that hiders its development. The conventional wisdom is to put the Mega projects under focus. However, a parallel fast track for the energy as an SME business may bring faster results to the continent. To that end, this paper presents proposed steps to promote the concept within the continent.

  17. Private health insurance in Sweden: Fast-track lanes and the alleged attempts to stop them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, John

    2017-04-01

    According to the Health and Medical Services Act (1982:763), those who have the greatest need for healthcare shall be given priority. This is being challenged by the rapid emergence of private health insurance which increases the share of private funding and creates fast-track lanes where some people get faster access to healthcare than others. The Stop Law, implemented by a Social Democratic government in 2006, was generally regarded as a way to put an end to the fast-track lanes in Swedish healthcare. Based on a thorough examination of the law and its legislative history - official reports, propositions, comments on official reports - this article argues that the Stop Law was so full of exceptions and loopholes that it did not threaten the existence of fast-track lanes. The same goes for a similar Social Democratic proposal from 2016, which is also examined in the article. Further, the article analyses centre-right wing positions on fast-track lanes in Swedish healthcare. In summary, it is argued that politicians of all stripes have allowed the development to proceed in spite of unanimous support for the idea that Swedish healthcare shall be provided to all on equal terms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morbidity and mortality after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty in a fast-track setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl;

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The safety aspects of bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (BSTKA) are still debated. In this retrospective single-center study, we investigated early morbidity and mortality following BSTKA in a modern fast-track setting. We also identified risk factors for re...

  19. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length o...

  20. Fast Track Initiative: Building a Global Compact for Education. Education Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Network Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education. "Fast Track Initiative" ("FTI") was launched in 2002 as a partnership between donor and developing countries to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. "FTI" is built on…

  1. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…

  2. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    postoperatively. Seven complications . (0.08 %) were urological, mainly haematuria after bladder catheterisation, whereas 5 (0.06 were urosepsis/pyelonephritis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of serious RU complications after fast-track THA and TKA was 0.61 %. AKI occurred in 0.49% and was most often due...

  3. The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Allbrooke, Benedict; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics.

  4. Fast pattern recognition with the ATLAS L1Track trigger for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A fast hardware based track trigger is being developed in ATLAS for the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. The goal is to achieve trigger levels in the high pile-up conditions of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider that are similar or better than those achieved at low pile-up conditions by adding tracking information to the ATLAS hardware trigger. A method for fast pattern recognition using the Hough transform is investigated. In this method, detector hits are mapped onto a 2D parameter space with one parameter related to the transverse momentum and one to the initial track direction. The performance of the Hough transform is studied at different pile-up values. It is also compared, using full event simulation of events with average pile-up of 200, with a method based on matching detector hits to pattern banks of simulated tracks stored in a custom made Associative Memory ASICs. The pattern recognition is followed by a track fitting step which calculates the track parameters. The spee...

  5. Hardware-based Tracking at Trigger Level for ATLAS: The Fast TracKer (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gramling, Johanna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level 1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from the 80 million channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware- based track reconstruction, using associative memory (AM) that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. Narrow roads permit a fast track fitting but need many patterns stored in the AM to ensure...

  6. Hardware-based tracking at trigger level for ATLAS: The Fast Tracker (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gramling, Johanna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level 1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from the 80 million channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware-based track reconstruction, using associative memory (AM) that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. Narrow roads permit a fast track fitting but need many patterns stored in the AM to ensure ...

  7. Fast Track Extubation In Adult Patients On Pump Open Heart Surgery At A Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Sharif, Hasanat; Hamid, Mohammad; Samad, Khalid; Khan, Fazal Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Fast-track cardiac surgery programs have been established as the standard of cardiac surgical care. Studies have shown that early extubation in elective cardiac surgery patients, including coronary and non-coronary open-heart surgery patients does not increase perioperative morbidity and mortality. The objective of this observational study was to determine the success and failure profile of fast track extubation (FTE) practice in adult open-heart surgical patients. The study was conducted at cardiac operating room and Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of a tertiary care hospital for a period of nine months, i.e., from Oct 2014 to June-2015. All on pump elective adult cardiac surgery patients including isolated CABG, isolated Valve replacements, combined procedures and aortic root replacements were enrolled in the study. Standardized anesthetic technique was adopted. Surgical and bypass techniques were tailored according to the procedure. Success of Fast track extubation was defined as extubation within 6 hours of arrival in CICU. A total of 290 patients were recruited. The average age of the patients was 56.3±10.5 years. There were 77.6% male and 22.4% female patients. Overall success rate was 51.9% and failure rate was 48.1%. The peri-operative renal insufficiency, cross clamp time and CICU stay (hours) were significantly lower in success group. Re-intubation rate was 0.74%. The perioperative parameters were significantly better in success group and the safety was also demonstrated in the patients who were fast tracked successfully. To implement the practice in its full capacity and benefit, a fast track protocol needs to be devised to standardize the current practices and to disseminate the strategy among junior anaesthesiologists, perfusionists and nursing staff.

  8. The yield of colorectal cancer among fast track patients with normocytic and microcytic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, I G; Fitzrol, D; Parker, R A; Kuzhively, J; Luscombe, N; Wells, A D; Menon, M; Bajwa, F M; Watson, M A

    2014-05-01

    We receive fast track referrals on the basis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) for patients with normocytic anaemia or for patients with no iron studies. This study examined the yield of colorectal cancer (CRC) among fast track patients to ascertain whether awaiting confirmation of IDA is necessary prior to performing bowel investigations. A review was undertaken of 321 and 930 consecutive fast track referrals from Centre A and Centre B respectively. Contingency tables were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate significant predictors of CRC. Overall, 229 patients were included from Centre A and 689 from Centre B. The odds ratio for microcytic anaemia versus normocytic anaemia in the outcome of CRC was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-3.9) for Centre A and 1.6 (95% CI: 0.8-3.3) for Centre B. In a logistic regression analysis (Centre B only), no significant difference in CRC rates was seen between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (adjusted odds ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-3.9). There was no statistically significant difference in the yield of CRC between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (p=0.515, Fisher's exact test) in patients with anaemia only and no colorectal symptoms. Finally, CRC cases were seen in both microcytic and normocytic groups with or without low ferritin. There is no significant difference in the yield of CRC between fast track patients with microcytic and normocytic anaemia. This study provides insufficient evidence to support awaiting confirmation of IDA in fast track patients with normocytic anaemia prior to requesting bowel investigations.

  9. L1Track: a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide an higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and hight accuracy tracking information on time for the decision taking process. The expected trigger rates at HL-LHC and the available latency are the key ingredients that will drive the new design. The Level 1 track trigger (L1Track) design requires substantial modification of the ATLAS silicon detector readout philosophy: a precursor of the potential merging of detector and trigger architectures in the future silicon detectors at particle colliders. We will discuss potential approaches that are being actively considered to fulfil the demanding HL-LHC constrain...

  10. Unbounded Binary Search for a Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a technique for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a concentrating photovoltaic system using cell level power optimization. Perturb and observe (P&O) has been a standard for an MPPT, but it introduces a tradeoff between the tacking speed and the accuracy of the maximum power delivered. The P&O algorithm is not suitable for a rapid environmental condition change by partial shading and self-shading due to its tracking time being linear to the length of the voltage range. Some of researches have been worked on fast tracking but they come with internal ad hoc parameters. In this paper, by using the proposed unbounded binary search algorithm for the MPPT, tracking time becomes a logarithmic function of the voltage search range without ad hoc parameters.

  11. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder...... system. A three-axis motion stage reproduced eight representative tumour trajectories; four lung and four prostate. Low and high modulation 6 MV single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans were delivered for each trajectory with and without MLC tracking, as well as without motion...... for reference. Temporally resolved doses were measured during all treatments using a biplanar dosimeter. Offline, the dose delivered to each of 1069 diodes in the dosimeter was reconstructed with 500 ms temporal resolution by a motion-including pencil beam convolution algorithm developed in-house. The accuracy...

  12. Internal model control of a fast steering mirror for electro-optical fine tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop advanced control methods to improve the bandwidth and tracking precision of the electro-optical fine tracking system using a fast steering mirror (FSM). FSM is the most important part in this control system. The model of FSM is established at the beginning of this paper. Compared with the electro-optical fine tracking system with ground based platform, the electro-optical fine tracking system with movement based platform must be a wide bandwidth and a robustness system. An advanced control method based on internal model control law is developed for electro-optical fine tracking system. The IMC is an advanced algorithm. Theoretically, it can eliminate disturbance completely and make sure output equals to input even there is model error. Moreover, it separates process to the system dynamic characteristic and the object perturbation. Compared with the PID controller, the controller is simpler and the parameter regulation is more convenient and the system is more robust. In addition, we design an improved structure based on classic IMC. The tracking error of the two-port control system is much better than which of the classic IMC. The simulation results indicate that the electro-optical control system based on the internal model control algorithm is very effective. It shows a better performance at the tracing precision and the disturbance suppresses. Thus a new method is provided for the high-performance electro-optical fine tracking system.

  13. Current Status of Fast-Track Recovery Pathways in Pancreatic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Ypsilantis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic surgery is often associated with significant morbidity, thus requiring high level of peri-operative care and long hospital stay. Multi-modal “enhanced recovery” or “fast-track” pathways have recently been introduced, aiming to expedite patient recovery. Objective To evaluate the evidence underpinning the use of fast-track pathways in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing pancreatic cancer surgery. Results The available evidence is limited, consisting of three retrospective studies that report median length of hospital stay between 7 and 13 days. No significant difference has been noted in re-admission or 30-day mortality rates between fast-track patients and historical controls, but there is a trend for higher overall complication rate for the fast-track groups. Conclusion Implementation of an enhanced recovery pathway is feasible and can achieve shorter hospital stay and reduced costs, with no increase in re-admission or peri-operative mortality rates. There is, however, conflicting evidence on the physiological mechanisms that contribute to accelerated patient recovery. Certain safety issues associated with post-operative morbidity warrant rigorous evaluation in further prospective studies.

  14. L1Track: a Fast Level 1 Track Trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increased by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC design. Due to this the pile-up collisions will increase by a similar factor. The earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide an higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment. The Level 1 trigger architecture needs therefore to be improved. A new Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which, in addition of the “regions of interest” identified by the calorimetry and the muon chambers, also includes the possibility of extracting tracking information and use it for the decision taking process. The expected trigger rates at HL-LHC and the available latency are the key ingredients that will drive the new design. A low-latency and accurate tracking trigger system is being developed in the context of this additional trigger refinement. The design results in a substantial modification of the A...

  15. Fast pixel-wise adaptive visual tracking of non-rigid objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffner, Stefan; Garcia, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new algorithm for realtime single-object tracking in videos in unconstrained environments. The algorithm comprises two different components that are trained "in one shot" at the first video frame: a detector that makes use of the generalised Hough transform with colour and gradient descriptors, and a probabilistic segmentation method based on global models for foreground and background colour distributions. Both components work at pixel level and are used for tracking in a combined way adapting each other in a cotraining manner. Moreover, we propose an adaptive shape model as well as a new probabilistic method for updating the scale of the tracker. Through effective model adaptation and segmentation, the algorithm is able to track objects that undergo rigid and non-rigid deformations and considerable shape and appearance variations. The proposed tracking method has been thoroughly evaluated on challenging benchmarks, and outperforms state-ofthe- art tracking methods designed for the same task. Finally, a very efficient implementation of the proposed models allows for extremely fast tracking.

  16. Fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty: clinical and organizational aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty aims at giving the patients the best available treatment at all times, being a dynamic entity. Fast-track combines evidence-based, clinical features with organizational optimization including a revision of traditions resulting in a streamlined pathway from......; patient-characteristics to predict outcome; and traditions which may be barriers in optimizing outcomes. Patients should be informed and motivated to be active participants and their expectations should be modulated in order to improve satisfaction. Also, organizational aspects need to be analyzed...... and optimized. New logistical approaches should be implemented; the ward ideally (re)structured to only admit arthroplasties; the staff educated to have a uniform approach; extensive preoperative information given including discharge criteria and intended length of stay. This thesis includes 9 papers...

  17. High patient satisfaction in 445 patients who underwent fast-track hip or knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - Patient satisfaction is important in fast-track total hip and knee replacement (THR, TKR). We assessed: (1) how satisfied patients were with the treatment; (2) factors related to overall satisfaction; and (3) whether there was a difference between THR and TKR regarding...... length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction. Patients and methods - In this follow-up study, a consecutive series of 445 patients undergoing THR and TKR completed a questionnaire 2 weeks after discharge. LOS and short-term patient satisfaction with the fast-track management were measured. Patient...... satisfaction was measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS; 0-10). Results - For THR, the median satisfaction score was 9-10 and for TKR it was 8.5-10 in all parameters. Older THR patients had higher overall satisfaction. No association was found between overall satisfaction following THR or TKR and sex...

  18. The role of pain for early rehabilitation in fast track surgery.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis;

      Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity on the first day after surgery and on the planned day of discharge in a well-defined fast-track programme after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using the local injections...... the clinical pathway for fast track programs, including transfer and ambulation from day one, with further physiotherapy daily. Patients were discharged, according to the following discharge criteria: Independence in transfer and ambulation, able to walk with crutches, independence in toileting and dressing......, which was assessed together with pain intensity, measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), active range of knee extension-flexion, functional mobility using "Timed Up & Go" (TUG), walking distance and length of stay (LOS). Results: On POD 1, 84% of the patients were able to transfer and 89% to ambulate...

  19. Pathogenesis of morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Analysis of the nature and time course of early complications after laparoscopic colonic surgery is required to allow rational strategies for their prevention and management. METHOD: One hundred and four consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery...... were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the time course of morbidity and reasons for prolonged stay (> 3 days). RESULTS: Seventeen (16.3%) patients had one or more complications. Surgical complications...... occurred in 14 patients, of which four were preceded by medical complications. Three patients had only medical complications. Median length of stay was 3 days (range 1-44). CONCLUSION: Further improvement of outcomes after fast-track laparoscopic colonic surgery might be obtained by improved surgical...

  20. After colonic surgery: The lived experience of participating in a fast-track programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Harder, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative recovery can be accelerated and hospitalization reduced through fast-track programmes. However, documented knowledge is limited and primarily focusing on a medical perspective whereas the patients' perspective lacks documentation. This study describes the lived experience of partici......Postoperative recovery can be accelerated and hospitalization reduced through fast-track programmes. However, documented knowledge is limited and primarily focusing on a medical perspective whereas the patients' perspective lacks documentation. This study describes the lived experience......; but this role of being a good and cooperative patient had a built-in asymmetric power relationship favouring the professionals' expectations. The complexities of this power relationship were related to both patient factors and contextual factors, e.g. the daily regimen and hospital norms. Although patient...

  1. Most patients regain prefracture basic mobility after hip fracture surgery in a fast-track programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of patients with hip fracture has improved over the past decade. Still, some patients do not regain independent mobility within their primary hospital stay even if they follow a multimodal fast-track surgical programme. The aim of the present article was to examine the validity of the p...... of the preliminary prefracture New Mobility Score (NMS), age and fracture type as independent predictors of in-hospital outcome after hip fracture surgery.......Treatment of patients with hip fracture has improved over the past decade. Still, some patients do not regain independent mobility within their primary hospital stay even if they follow a multimodal fast-track surgical programme. The aim of the present article was to examine the validity...

  2. Most patients regain prefracture basic mobility after hip fracture surgery in a fast-track programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of patients with hip fracture has improved over the past decade. Still, some patients do not regain independent mobility within their primary hospital stay even if they follow a multimodal fast-track surgical programme. The aim of the present article was to examine the validity...... of the preliminary prefracture New Mobility Score (NMS), age and fracture type as independent predictors of in-hospital outcome after hip fracture surgery....

  3. Fast left ventricle tracking in CMR images using localized anatomical affine optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João. L.; Morais, Pedro; Fonseca, Jaime C.; D'hooge, Jan; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In daily cardiology practice, assessment of left ventricular (LV) global function using non-invasive imaging remains central for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Despite the different methodologies currently accessible for LV segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, a fast and complete LV delineation is still limitedly available for routine use. In this study, a localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow method is proposed for fast and automatic LV tracking throughout the full cardiac cycle in short-axis CMR images. Starting from an automatically delineated LV in the end-diastolic frame, the endocardial and epicardial boundaries are propagated by estimating the motion between adjacent cardiac phases using optical flow. In order to reduce the computational burden, the motion is only estimated in an anatomical region of interest around the tracked boundaries and subsequently integrated into a local affine motion model. Such localized estimation enables to capture complex motion patterns, while still being spatially consistent. The method was validated on 45 CMR datasets taken from the 2009 MICCAI LV segmentation challenge. The proposed approach proved to be robust and efficient, with an average distance error of 2.1 mm and a correlation with reference ejection fraction of 0.98 (1.9 +/- 4.5%). Moreover, it showed to be fast, taking 5 seconds for the tracking of a full 4D dataset (30 ms per image). Overall, a novel fast, robust and accurate LV tracking methodology was proposed, enabling accurate assessment of relevant global function cardiac indices, such as volumes and ejection fraction

  4. FAST: A fully asynchronous and status-tracking pattern for geoprocessing services orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayi; You, Lan; Gui, Zhipeng; Gao, Shuang; Li, Zhenqiang; Yu, Jingmin

    2014-09-01

    Geoprocessing service orchestration (GSO) provides a unified and flexible way to implement cross-application, long-lived, and multi-step geoprocessing service workflows by coordinating geoprocessing services collaboratively. Usually, geoprocessing services and geoprocessing service workflows are data and/or computing intensive. The intensity feature may make the execution process of a workflow time-consuming. Since it initials an execution request without blocking other interactions on the client side, an asynchronous mechanism is especially appropriate for GSO workflows. Many critical problems remain to be solved in existing asynchronous patterns for GSO including difficulties in improving performance, status tracking, and clarifying the workflow structure. These problems are a challenge when orchestrating performance efficiency, making statuses instantly available, and constructing clearly structured GSO workflows. A Fully Asynchronous and Status-Tracking (FAST) pattern that adopts asynchronous interactions throughout the whole communication tier of a workflow is proposed for GSO. The proposed FAST pattern includes a mechanism that actively pushes the latest status to clients instantly and economically. An independent proxy was designed to isolate the status tracking logic from the geoprocessing business logic, which assists the formation of a clear GSO workflow structure. A workflow was implemented in the FAST pattern to simulate the flooding process in the Poyang Lake region. Experimental results show that the proposed FAST pattern can efficiently tackle data/computing intensive geoprocessing tasks. The performance of all collaborative partners was improved due to the asynchronous mechanism throughout communication tier. A status-tracking mechanism helps users retrieve the latest running status of a GSO workflow in an efficient and instant way. The clear structure of the GSO workflow lowers the barriers for geospatial domain experts and model designers to

  5. Subacute pain and function after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B;

    2009-01-01

    In a well-defined fast-track setup for total hip and knee arthroplasty, with a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of intra-operative local anaesthetic infiltration and oral celecoxib, gabapentin and paracetamol for 6 days postoperatively, we conducted a prospective, consecutive, observationa...... walking 1 month after surgery with a concomitant increase in the use of strong opioids. These results emphasise the need for improvement in analgesia after discharge following total knee arthroplasty, to facilitate rehabilitation....

  6. A Fast RLE-based Reconstruction Technique for Real-time Robot Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wenyong; SHI Hui

    2006-01-01

    Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMRs) are more and more widely used in advanced manufacturing. For real time tracking of WMRs, a novel way for real-time color image reconstruction based on Run Length Encoding (RLE) is present. Indexed from a fast look up table (FLUT), color image can be encoded into multiple line structures with different specified colors. Through object-oriented method, the RLE elements reconstruct the image features. Successful application of this technique for mobile robots identification is reported.

  7. Studies on fast timing and high precision tracking performance of Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Han, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC), produced in large scales, are widely used as trigger detectors with O(ns) time resolution in high energy and high intensity experiments. To confront the future high experimental frontiers, such as the super-LHC, RPCs equipped with fine-pitch readout strips were tested with 180GeV/c muon at CERN SPS H8 beam line, to assess the viability of using RPCs for both fast timing and high precision tracking trigger.

  8. 投稿须知%Construction Technology for Fast-Track Concrete Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, one of new contents: construction technology for fast-track concrete pavement is introduced in 《Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Cement Concrete Pavements》 (JTG F30) which is revised in 2010 in order to not only provide high-quality and long-lasting life, but also reduce the time of engineering in the new construction, reconstruction and resurfacing maintain of cement concrete pavements, to quickly and early open public traffic, and to reduce traffic interruptions.

  9. Setting up a fast-track insulin start clinic for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Mary; Byard, Caroline; Gregory, Robert; Khulpateea, Anita; Burden, Andrew

    When people with established type 2 diabetes first need insulin therapy there is often a delay in accessing services. Since the report of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study was published it has been recognised that people with type 2 diabetes have a progressive disease and a need for increasing treatment. The authors set up a fast-track service to enable GPs and practice nurses to refer to a nurse-led service at the diabetes centre.

  10. Maintaining Unity - Relatives in older patient's fast-track treatment programmes. A Grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. FINDINGS: Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved...... to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. CONCLUSION: The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes....

  11. Liberal or restrictive fluid administration in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Foss, N B; Andersen, J

    2007-01-01

    surgery were randomized to 'restrictive' (Group 1) or 'liberal' (Group 2) perioperative fluid administration. Fluid algorithms were based on fixed rates of crystalloid infusions and a standardized volume of colloid. Pulmonary function (spirometry) was the primary outcome measure, with secondary outcomes...... of exercise capacity (submaximal exercise test), orthostatic tolerance, cardiovascular hormonal responses, postoperative ileus (transit of radio-opaque markers), postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia, and overall recovery within a well-defined multimodal, fast-track recovery programme. Hospital stay...

  12. First prototype of a silicon tracker using an artificial retina for fast track finding

    CERN Document Server

    Neri, N.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Geraci, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Marino, P.; Morello, M.J.; Piucci, A.; Punzi, G.; Spinella, F.; Stracka, S.; Walsh, J.; Ristori, L.; Tonelli, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the R\\&D for a first prototype of a silicon tracker based on an alternative approach for fast track finding. The working principle is inspired from neurobiology, in particular by the processing of visual images by the brain as it happens in nature. It is based on extensive parallelisation of data distribution and pattern recognition. In this work we present the design of a practical device that consists of a telescope based on single-sided silicon detectors; we describe the data acquisition system and the implementation of the track finding algorithms using available digital logic of commercial FPGA devices. Tracking performance and trigger capabilities of the device are discussed along with perspectives for future applications.

  13. Theoretical study and calculation of the response of a fast neutron dosemeter based on track detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decossas, J.L.; Vareille, J.C.; Moliton, J.P.; Teyssier, J.L. (Limoges Univ., 87 (France). Lab. d' Electronique des Polymeres sous Faisceaux Ioniques)

    1983-01-01

    A fast neutron dosemeter is generally composed of a radiator in which n-p elastic scattering occurs and a detector which registers protons. A theoretical study, and the calculation (FORTRAN program) of the response of such a dosemeter is presented involving two steps: 1) The proton flux emerging from a thick radiator on which monoenergetic neutrons are normally incident is studied. This is characterised by its energy spectrum depending on the neutron energy and on the radiator thickness. 2) Proton detection being achieved with a solid state nuclear track detector whose performance is known, the number of registered tracks are calculated. The dosemeter sensitivity (tracks cm/sup -2/. Sv/sup -1/) is deduced. Then, the calculations show that it is possible to optimise the radiator thickness to obtain the smallest variation in sensitivity with neutron energy. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones found in the literature.

  14. Outcomes in smokers and alcohol users after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    and knee arthroplasty. RESULTS: In 3041 consecutive patients, 458 reported smoking and 216 drinking > 2 drinks a day, of which 66 did both. Smokers/alcohol users were younger than non-users (mean age: 64.3 vs. 68.0 years, P  4 days and smoking (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P) (1.34 [0.92-1.95], 0......BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use impair post-operative outcomes. However, no studies include fast-track surgery, which is a multimodal-enhanced recovery programme demonstrated to improve outcome. We hypothesised that outcome is similar in smokers and alcohol users as in non-users after fast......-track hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Prospective questionnaires on co-morbidity and smoking/alcohol use were cross-referenced with the Danish National Health Registry to investigate relationship between smoking/alcohol use and length of stay of > 4 days and readmissions ≤ 90 days after fast-track hip...

  15. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  16. Hardware-based Tracking at Trigger Level for ATLAS the Fast TracKer (FTK) Project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00245767

    2015-01-01

    Physics collisions at 13 TeV are expected at the LHC with an average of 40-50 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing under nominal conditions. Tracking at trigger level is an essential tool to control the rate in high-pileup conditions while maintaining a good efficiency for relevant physics processes. The Fast TracKer is an integral part of the trigger upgrade for the ATLAS detector. For every event passing the Level-1 trigger (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz) the FTK receives data from all the channels of the silicon detectors, providing tracking information to the High Level Trigger in order to ensure a selection robust against pile-up. The FTK performs a hardware-based track reconstruction, using associative memory that is based on the use of a custom chip, designed to perform pattern matching at very high speed. It finds track candidates at low resolution (roads) that seed a full-resolution track fitting done by FPGAs. An overview of the FTK system with focus on the pattern matching procedure will be p...

  17. Fast Track Open Partial Nephrectomy: Reduced Postoperative Length of Stay with a Goal-Directed Pathway Does Not Compromise Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Chughtai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of reducing postoperative hospital stay following open partial nephrectomy through the implementation of a goal directed clinical management pathway. Materials and Methods. A fast track clinical pathway for open partial nephrectomy was introduced in July 2006 at our institution. The pathway has daily goals and targets discharge for all patients on the 3rd postoperative day (POD. Defined goals are (1 ambulation and liquid diet on the evening of the operative day; (2 out of bed (OOB at least 4 times on POD 1; (3 removal of Foley catheter on the morning of POD 2; (4 removal of Jackson Pratt drain on the afternoon of POD 2; (4 discharge to home on POD 3. Patients and family are instructed in the fast track protocol preoperatively. Demographic data, tumor size, length of stay, and complications were captured in a prospective database, and compared to a control group managed consecutively immediately preceding the institution of the fast track clinical pathway. Results. Data on 33 consecutive patients managed on the fast track clinical pathway was compared to that of 25 control patients. Twenty two (61% out of 36 fast track patients and 4 (16% out of 25 control patients achieved discharge on POD 3. Overall, fast track patients had a shorter hospital stay than controls (median, 3 versus 4 days; P = .012. Age (median, 55 versus 57 years, tumor size (median, 2.5 versus 2.5 cm, readmission within 30 days (5.5% versus 5.1%, and complications (10.2% versus 13.8% were similar in the fast track patients and control, respectively. Conclusions. In the present series, a fast track clinical pathway after open partial nephrectomy reduced the postoperative length of hospital stay and did not appear to increase the postoperative complication rate.

  18. Fast template matching based on grey prediction for real-time object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mingming; Hou, Yuanlong; Liu, Rongzhong; Hou, Runmin

    2017-02-01

    Template matching is a basic algorithm for image processing, and real-time is a crucial requirement of object tracking. For real-time tracking, a fast template matching algorithm based on grey prediction is presented, where computation cost can be reduced dramatically by minimizing search range. First, location of the tracked object in the current image is estimated by Grey Model (GM). GM(1,1), which is the basic model of grey prediction, can use some known information to foretell the location. Second, the precise position of the object in the frame is computed by template matching. Herein, Sequential Similarity Detection Algorithm (SSDA) with a self-adaptive threshold is employed to obtain the matching position in the neighborhood of the predicted location. The role of threshold in SSDA is important, as a proper threshold can make template matching fast and accurate. Moreover, a practical weighted strategy is utilized to handle scale and rotation changes of the object, as well as illumination changes. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the conventional full-search method, especially in terms of executive time.

  19. Fast tracking of a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kaili; Turk, Basil; Dolores, Louis; Nguyen, Tuan N; Celler, Branko; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of a multi-loop PID controller in an automated treadmill exercise machine. The approach is to design a computer-controlled treadmill control system for the regulation of heart rate (HR) during treadmill exercise. A single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) controller was implemented to fast track a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise. Two separate single-input and single-output (SISO) PID control systems are initially implemented to modify either the treadmill speed or its angle of inclination in order to achieve a desired HR. The purpose of this paper is to apply a SIMO control system by implementing a control algorithm which includes the two PID controllers working simultaneously to track the desired HR profile. The performance of the SIMO and SISO control systems are compared through the closed loop responses recorded during experimentation. This would also help future development of safe treadmill exercise system.

  20. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  1. Morbidity and mortality after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty in a fast-track setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders; Stahl Otte, Kristian; Ørsnes, Thue; Husted, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The safety aspects of bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (BSTKA) are still debated. In this retrospective single-center study, we investigated early morbidity and mortality following BSTKA in a modern fast-track setting. We also identified risk factors for re-admission within 90 days and for a length of stay (LOS) of more than 5 days. Patients and methods 284 patients were selected to receive BSTKA at our institution from 2008 through 2014 in a well-described, standardized fast-track setup (Husted 2012a, b). All re-admissions within 90 days were identified and mortality rates and time until death were recorded. Transfusion rates and numbers of transfusions were also recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for re-admission within 90 days, and also for a LOS of more than 5 days. Results 90-day mortality was 0%. 10% of the patients were re-admitted within 90 days. Median time to re-admission was 18 (3–75) days. 153 patients (54%) received postoperative blood transfusions. An ASA score of 3 was identified as an independent risk factor for re-admission within 90 days (OR = 5, 95% CI: 1.3–19) and for LOS of > 5 days (OR = 6, 95% CI: 1.6–21). Higher BMI was a weak risk factor for re-admission within 90 days. Interpretation BSTKA in selected patients without cardiopulmonary disease in a fast-track setting appears to be safe with respect to early postoperative morbidity and mortality. Surgeons should be aware that patients with an ASA score of 3 have an increased risk of re-admission and a prolonged length of stay, while patients with higher BMI have an increased risk of re-admission following BSTKA. PMID:26823094

  2. Fast-track vs. delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system after early medical abortion - a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Riina; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2017-08-05

    To compare levonorgestrel (LNG) 52-mg intrauterine system (IUS) expulsion rates with fast-track (≤3 days) or delayed (2-4 weeks) insertion following mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. In this pilot trial, we randomized 108 women at ≤63 days' gestation to fast-track (n=55) or delayed (n=53) insertion. Follow-up visits occurred at 2-4 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. We assessed total and partial expulsion at 3 months and 1 year, adverse effects and bleeding profiles. We had follow-up data at 3 months and 1 year for 41 (74.5%) and 37 (69.8%) women in the fast-track group and 31 (56.4%) and 28 (52.8%) women in the delayed group. By 3 months, expulsion occurred in six (12.5%) women after fast-track and one (2.3%) woman after delayed insertion [risk ratio (RR) 5.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-43.90]; most (n=5) of these were partial expulsions in the fast-track group. By 1 year, expulsion had occurred in seven (14.6%) and five (11.5%) women in the fast-track and delayed groups, respectively (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.44-3.75). We found no differences in rates of vacuum aspiration, residual tissue, infection and bleeding or bleeding patterns within 3 months of insertion. Fast-track insertion of the LNG 52-mg IUS after medical abortion is feasible but may result in higher expulsion rates compared to delayed insertion. Due to lack of statistical power and high lost-to-follow-up rates, we were unable to fully address this question. Fast-tract initiation of LNG 52-mg IUS contraception after medical abortion is feasible. It results in higher expulsion rates than delayed insertion but may improve postabortal intrauterine contraception uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Associative Memory design for the FastTrack processor (FTK) at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Piendibene, M; Sacco, I; Sartori, L; Tripiccione, R

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new generation of VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Associative Memory architecture, optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. We describe the architecture, the technology studies and the prototype design of a new R&D Associative Memory project: it maximizes the pattern density on ASICs, minimizes the power consumption and improves the functionality for the Fast Tracker (FTK) proposed to upgrade the ATLAS trigger at LHC. Finally we will focus on possible future applications inside and outside High Physics Energy (HEP).

  4. Design of a Hardware Track Finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accept rate, 100 kHz, to provide high quality tracks as input to the Level-2 trigger. The event reconstruction is performed in hardware, thanks to the massive parallelism of associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. We present the advantages for the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment and the recent results on the design, technological advancements and testing of some of the core components used in the processor.

  5. Associative Memory Design for the FastTrack Processor (FTK) at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Volpi, G; Beccherle, R; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Amerio, S; Hoff, J; Liu, T; Sacco, I; Liberali, V; Stabile, A; Schoening, A; Soltveit, H; Tripiccione, R

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new generation of VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Associative Memory architecture, optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. We describe the architecture, the technology studies and the prototype design of a new Associative Memory project: it maximizes the pattern density on ASICs, minimizes the power consumption and improves the functionality for the fast tracker processor proposed to upgrade the ATLAS trigger at LHC. Finally we will focus on possible future applications inside and outside high physics energy.

  6. Impact of a Fast-track Esophagectomy Protocol on Esophageal Cancer Patient Outcomes and Hospital Charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shewale, Jitesh B; Correa, Arlene M; Baker, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a fast-track esophagectomy protocol (FTEP) on esophageal cancer patients' safety, length of hospital stay (LOS), and hospital charges. BACKGROUND: FTEP involved transferring patients to the telemetry unit instead of the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) after.......655; 95% confidence interval = 0.456, 0.942; P = 0.022). In addition, the median hospital charges associated with primary admission and readmission within 90 days for group B ($65,649) were lower than that for group A ($79,117; P

  7. Improving the ATLAS physics potential with the Fast Track Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Viviana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accept rate, 100 kHz, to provide high quality tracks as input to the High-Level Trigger. The event reconstruction is performed in hardware, thanks to the massive parallelism of associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. We present the advantages for the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment and the recent results on the design, technological advancements and testing of some of the core components used in the processor.

  8. A steady tracking technology adopted to fast FH/BPSK signal under satellite channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, SuLi; Lou, Zhigang; Wang, XiDuo; Xia, ShuangZhi

    2015-07-01

    In order to survive under the conditions with great jamming and interference, fast frequency hopped signal are employed in satellite communication system. This paper discusses the nonlinear phases induced by the equipment and atmosphere, and their influence on the FFH/BPSK tracking loop. Two methods are developed including compensating phase which is based on channel estimation and compensating Doppler frequency based on velocity normalization. Simulation results for a real circuit with proper parameters shows that the degradation due to the demodulation of frequency-hopped is only a fraction of one dB in an AWGN environment under satellite channel.

  9. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  10. A Fast Algorithm for Muon Track Reconstruction and its Application to the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, J A; Albert, A; Andre, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Auer, R; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bazzotti, M; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Brown, A M; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Carloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Cottini, N; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fehr, F; Flaminio, V; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galata, S; Gay, P; Giacomelli, G; Gomez-Gonzalez, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Larosa, G; Lefevre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Lucarelli, F; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martinez-Mora, J A; Mazure, A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Naumann, C; Neff, M; Palioselitis, D; Pavalas, G E; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Picot-Clemente, N; Picq, C; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spiess, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tasca, L; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zuniga, J

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm is presented, that provides a fast and robust reconstruction of neutrino induced upward-going muons and a discrimination of these events from downward-going atmospheric muon background in data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The algorithm consists of a hit merging and hit selection procedure followed by fitting steps for a track hypothesis and a point-like light source. It is particularly well-suited for real time applications such as online monitoring and fast triggering of optical follow-up observations for multi-messenger studies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and various distributions are compared with that obtained in ANTARES data.

  11. A fast algorithm for muon track reconstruction and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spiess, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-04-01

    An algorithm is presented, that provides a fast and robust reconstruction of neutrino induced upward-going muons and a discrimination of these events from downward-going atmospheric muon background in data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The algorithm consists of a hit merging and hit selection procedure followed by fitting steps for a track hypothesis and a point-like light source. It is particularly well-suited for real time applications such as online monitoring and fast triggering of optical follow-up observations for multi-messenger studies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and various distributions are compared with that obtained in ANTARES data.

  12. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply for Ultra-Fast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Petersen, Lars Press;

    2015-01-01

    that an overall circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance of 10 pF in a 300 W prototype can be achieved. The circuit input-to-output capacitance per watt is therefore 30 times lower than that of existing approaches. A mathematical model of the inter-winding capacitance of the proposed transformer, circuit......This paper presents the design of a medium-powerrating isolated power supply for ultra-fast tracking converters and MOS-gate driver circuits in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the design is its very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, which maximizes its...... noise immunity from noise due to fast changes in voltage. The converter is a voltage-controlled current source, utilizing a transformer with extremely low inter-winding parasitic capacitance, which is achieved by separating the windings by a significant distance. Experimental measurements show...

  13. A fast single-pixel laser imager for VR/AR headset tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Yang, James; Hu, Frank

    2017-02-01

    In this work we demonstrate a highly flexible laser imaging system for 3D sensing applications such as in tracking of VR/AR headsets, hands and gestures. The system uses a MEMS mirror scan module to transmit low power laser pulses over programmable areas within a field of view and uses a single photodiode to measure the reflected light. User can arbitrarily select the number of pixels to scan over an area and can thus obtain images of target objects at arbitrarily fast rates. The work builds on the previously presented "MEMSEye" laser tracking technology which uses a fast steering MEMS scan module with a modulated laser, and a tuned photosensor to acquire and track a retroreflector-marked object. To track VR/AR headsets, hands and similar objects with multiple markers or no markers at all, a single-point tracking methodology is not sufficient. Cameras could be more appropriate in such multi-point imaging cases but suffer from low frame rates, dependence on ambient lighting, and relatively low resolution when without zooming and panning capability. A hybrid method can address the problem by providing a system with its own light source (laser beam), and with full programmability of the pixel locations and scans such that frame rates of >100 Hz are possible over specific areas of interest. With a modest 1 Mpixel rate of measurement, scanning a sub-region of the field of view with 64 x 64 pixels results in 200Hz update. Multiple such modules can be used to scan and image or track objects with multiple markers and fully obtain their position and attitude in a room with sub-5ms updates. Furthermore the room itself could be imaged and measured with wall markers or in conjunction with a camera for a total 3D scanning solution. Proof of concept demonstrator is presented here with pixel rates of only 30k-50k per second due to limitations of the present prototype electronics, resulting in refresh rates that are significantly lower than possible with the MEMS mirror scan

  14. Effectiveness of fast-track rehabilitation vs conventional care in laparoscopic colorectal resection for elderly patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Suo, J; Jiang, J; Wang, C; Zhao, Y-Q; Cao, X

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-track rehabilitation in elderly patients over 65 years of age, following laparoscopic surgery to remove colorectal cancer. A total of 78 elderly patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection were randomly assigned to receive either the fast-track care programme (n = 40) or the conventional perioperative care protocol (control group, n = 38). Medical personnel conducting the study were blinded to patients' clinical outcomes prior to statistical analysis. The fast-track protocol included no preoperative mechanical bowel irrigation, immediate oral alimentation and earlier postoperative ambulation exercise. The length of postoperative hospital stay, the length of time to regain bowel function and the rate of postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The length of time to regain bowel function, including the passage of flatus[31 (26-40) h vs 38 (32-51) h, P = 0.001], to the first bowel movement [55 (48-63) h vs 64 (48-71) h, P = 0.009] and to start a liquid diet (12 [11-16] h vs 47 [35-50] h, P = 0.000) were significantly shorter in patients receiving the fast-track care protocol compared with those receiving the conventional care protocol. A shorter duration of postoperative hospital stay was recorded in patients receiving the fast-track program than in those receiving conventional care (P = 0.0001). A reduced percentage of patients who developed general complications was also observed in the fast-track group (5.0%vs 21.1%, P = 0.045). This randomized controlled trial has shown that in the elderly undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, the fast-track recovery programme resulted in a more rapid postoperative recovery, earlier discharge from hospital and fewer general complications compared with a conventional postoperative protocol. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and

  15. Role of patient characteristics for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, H; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2013-01-01

    with early mobilization and an LOS aim of 2-4 days remains unanswered.MethodA prospective study on patient characteristics and comorbidity in consecutive unselected patients undergoing fast-track THA and TKA was cross-referenced with the Danish National Health Registry and medical charts allowing complete 90......BACKGROUND: /st>Patient age and comorbidity have been found to increase the length of hospital stay (LOS), readmissions, and mortality after surgery, including in elective primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Whether the same applies in fast-track THA and TKA...... days follow-up. RESULTS: /st>A total of 3112 THA/TKAs were performed in 3020 patients. The mean age was 67 (range 18-97) years. The median LOS was 3 (inter-quartile range: 1) and the mean 3.0 days (range 1-34), with 91% having LOS ≤4 days. Age 76-80 [odds ratio (OR): 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI...

  16. A Fast Track approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Population growth, socio-economic development and climate changes are placing increasing pressure on water resources. Crop water footprint is a key indicator in the quantification of such pressure. It is determined by crop evapotranspiration and crop yield, which can be highly variable in space and time. While the spatial variability of crop water footprint has been the objective of several investigations, the temporal variability remains poorly studied. In particular, some studies approached this issue by associating the time variability of crop water footprint only to yield changes, while considering evapotranspiration patterns as marginal. Validation of this Fast Track approach has yet to be provided. In this Letter we demonstrate its feasibility through a comprehensive validation, an assessment of its uncertainty, and an example of application. Our results show that the water footprint changes are mainly driven by yield trends, while evapotranspiration plays a minor role. The error due to considering constant evapotranspiration is three times smaller than the uncertainty of the model used to compute the crop water footprint. These results confirm the suitability of the Fast Track approach and enable a simple, yet appropriate, evaluation of time-varying crop water footprint.

  17. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Hansen, Lone Bak; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma i...... melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.......Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma....... A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma.  Conclusion. In total, 353 (63...

  18. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  19. Fast-track program in laparoscopic liver surgery: Theory or fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Suárez-Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Eladel-Delfresno, Moises; Fernández-Aguilar, José Luis; Pérez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2012-11-27

    To analyze our results after the introduction of a fast-track (FT) program after laparoscopic liver surgery in our Hepatobiliarypancreatic Unit. All patients (43) undergoing laparoscopic liver surgery between March 2004 and March 2010 were included and divided into two consecutive groups: Control group (CG) from March 2004 until December 2006 with traditional perioperative cares (17 patients) and fast-track group (FTG) from January 2007 until March 2010 with FT program cares (26 patients). Primary endpoint was the influence of the program on the postoperative stay, the amount of re-admissions, morbidity and mortality. Secondarily we considered duration of surgery, use of drains, conversion to open surgery, intensive cares needs and transfusion. Both groups were homogeneous in age and sex. No differences in technique, time of surgery or conversion to open surgery were found, but more malignant diseases were operated in the FTG, and then transfusions were higher in FTG. Readmissions and morbidity were similar in both groups, without mortality. Postoperative stay was similar, with a median of 3 for CG vs 2.5 for FTG. However, the 80.8% of patients from FTG left the hospital within the first 3 d after surgery (58.8% for CG). The introduction of a FT program after laparoscopic liver surgery improves the recovery of patients without increasing complications or re-admissions, which leads to a reduction of the stay and costs.

  20. A Fast Feature Points-Based Object Tracking Method for Robot Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fast feature points‐based object tracking method for robot grasp. In the detection phase, we detect the object with SIFT feature points extraction and matching. Then we compute the object’s image position with homography constraints and set up an interest window to accommodate the object. In the tracking phase, we only focus on the interest window, detecting feature points from the window and updating the window’s position and size. Our method is of special practical meaning in the case of service robot grasp. Because when the robot grasps the object, the object’s image size is usually small relative to the whole image, it is unnecessary to detect the whole image. On the other hand, the object is partially occluded by the robot gripper. SIFT is good at dealing with occlusion, but it is time consuming. Hence, by combining SIFT and an interest window, our method gains the ability to deal with occlusion and can satisfy the real‐time requirements at the same time. Experiments show that our method exceeds several leading feature points‐based object tracking methods in real‐time performance.

  1. Fast track surgery, a strategy to improve operational efficiency in a high-complexity hospital in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Juan David Angel; Montaño, Liliana Marcela Betancur; Jaramillo, André Felipe Espinosa; Delgado, Carlos Enrique Yepes

    2015-01-01

    Fast Track surgery is designed to optimize time in low-complexity procedures, thus improving efficiency in care provision, and preserving patient safety. Before and after intervention study in a surgical setting, with failure mode and effects analysis, identification and prioritization of improvement opportunities, process measurement before the intervention, improvement implementation, practical application, process measurement after the intervention, and surgical time comparisons. With the Fast Track program, 19% of the operating room capacity available was freed per day; before surgical FastTrack implementation, 50% of the procedures started 23 minutes behind schedule. After the Fast Track program was implemented, procedures start 5 minutes ahead of schedule. Anesthesia induction time was reduced by 50%, and skin-to-skin surgical time dropped by 28%. The number of surgical procedures performed in the day increased by 33-50%. There were noincidents or adverse events. Fast Track surgery is a useful strategy for improving operating room efficiency and reducing surgical time. Procedures start on time, with increased timely care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and lower service costs.

  2. Postoperative morbidity and mortality in type-2 diabetics after fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Madsbad, Sten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for postoperative morbidity, which includes total hip and knee arthroplasty. However, no previous studies have been done in a fast-track setting with optimized perioperative care, including spinal anesthesia, multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, early...... mobilization, and discharge to home, which improved postoperative outcome. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study using prospective data in primary total hip and total knee arthroplasty with a standardized fast-track approach. Eight hundred ninety type 2 diabetics were successfully propensity......-∞) and 115 (35-∞), respectively. Insulin-treated type 2 diabetes was associated with increased risk of specific "diabetes-related" morbidity (1.95 [1.13-3.35]; P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes per se has limited influence on postoperative morbidity in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty....

  3. On fading probability density functions of fast-tracked and untracked free-space optical communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Liao, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems suffer from average power loss and instantaneous power fading due to the atmospheric turbulence. The channel fading probability density function (pdf) is of critical importance for FSO communication system design and evaluation. The performance and reliability of FSO communication systems can be greatly enhanced if fast-tacking devices are employed at the transmitter in order to compensate laser beam wander at the receiver aperture. The fast-tracking method is especially effective when communication distance is long. This paper studies the fading probability density functions of both fast-tracked and untracked FSO communication channels. Large-scale wave-optics simulations are conducted for both tracked and untracked lasers. In the simulations, the Kolmogorov spectrum is adopted, and it is assumed that the outer scale is infinitely large and the inner scale is negligibly small. The fading pdfs of both fast-tracked and untracked FSO channels are obtained from the simulations. Results show that the fast-tracked channel fading can be accurately modeled as gamma-distributed if receiver aperture size is smaller than the coherence radius. An analytical method is given for calculating the untracked fading pdfs of both point-like and finite-size receiver apertures from the fast-tracked fading pdf. For point-like apertures, the analytical method gives pdfs close to the well-known gamma-gamma pdfs if off-axis effects are omitted in the formulation. When off-axis effects are taken into consideration, the untracked pdfs obtained using the analytical method fit the simulation pdfs better than gamma-gamma distributions for point-like apertures, and closely fit the simulation pdfs for finite-size apertures where gamma-gamma pdfs deviate from those of the simulations significantly.

  4. The design of a fast Level 1 Track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Allbrooke, Benedict; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy.

  5. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-10-20

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a 'terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit 'sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions.

  6. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, A. W.; McLaughlin, B. D.; Plofchan, P.; Lynnes, C.

    2016-12-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. Scientific organizations with large, existing software efforts often face the dilemma of investing in major re-architecting efforts or instead utilizing the cloud suboptimally (sometimes detrimentally). NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has both sophisticated existing software infrastructure, as well as new initiatives, designed from their inception as cloud applications. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for fast-tracking applications to the cloud - whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  7. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals...... in the postoperative period after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty. Determination of autonomic function was gained from polysomnographic evaluation of 10 patients >60 years undergoing either hip or knee arthroplasty (mean age 69.9 years) evaluating HRR during the different sleep phases. Sleep monitoring took place...... in the patients' home preoperatively, during hospitalization on the first postoperative night, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. HRR was reduced (P sleep on the first postoperative night, and was still reduced on the fourth postoperative night compared...

  8. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill;

    2016-01-01

    patients only) was associated with a LOS of >4 days (p = 0.001), but not with re-admission. No such relationship existed for TKA. Interpretation - A fast-track setting resulted in similar length of hospital stay and re-admission rates regardless of BMI, except for very obese and morbidly obese THA patients.......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  9. Postoperative anemia and early functional outcomes after fast-track hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Kurbegovic, Sorel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is prevalent in fast-track hip arthroplasty (THA) where patients are mobilized and discharged early, but whether anemia impairs functional recovery after discharge has not been adequately evaluated previously. This study aimed to evaluate whether postoperative...... anemia influenced recovery of mobility and quality of life (Qol) during the first 2 weeks after discharge from THA. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 122 THA patients more than 65 years of age. Mobility and Qol were assessed pre- and postoperatively by the 6-minute...... walk test (6MWT; primary outcome), the timed up-and-go test, and the FACT-anemia subscale. Twenty-four-hour mobility at home was assessed by activity monitoring on Days 1 to 6 after discharge. Hemoglobin (Hb) at discharge (HbD) and the Hb decrease from preoperatively (ΔHb) were compared to mobility...

  10. [Management and orientation of severely infected patients : relevance of a « Sepsis Fast-Track »].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillerat, André; Vivekanantham, Hari; Burger, Raphaël; Hausser, Joëlle; Fumeaux, Thierry

    2017-09-06

    Sepsis is a syndrome defined by a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection. The early recognition of this syndrome in the emergency department (ED) can lead to a better prognosis, when associated with a standardized management focusing on identification of the infectious source, its treatment, and appropriate organ support. Therefore, the implementation of a « Sepsis Fast Track », by analogy with similar protocols regarding stroke or ST-elevated myocardial infarct, deserves interest. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences that support an implementation of such an initiative, and to identify the key elements that permit its integration in the ED setting of a secondary-care hospital.

  11. Locational Sensitivity Investigation on PV Hosting Capacity and Fast Track PV Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Ainsworth, Nathan; Gotseff, Peter; Baker, Kyri

    2016-05-05

    A 15% PV penetration threshold is commonly used by utilities to define photovoltaic (PV) screening methods where PV penetration is defined as the ratio of total solar PV capacity on a line section to peak load. However, this method doesn't take into account PV locational impact or feeder characteristics that could strongly change the feeder's capability to host PVs. This paper investigates the impact of PV location and phase connection type on PV hosting capacity, and then proposes a fast-track PV screening approach that leverages various PV hosting capacity metric responding to different PV locations and types. The proposed study could help utilities to evaluate PV interconnection requests and also help increase the PV hosting capacity of distribution feeders without adverse impacts on system voltages.

  12. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  13. Perioperative role development: evaluating a fast-track approach to advanced scrub and/or dual role practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpany, Michaela D; McAleavy, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the service evaluation of a newly developed fast-track advanced scrub practitioner (ASP)/dual role training programme. The evaluation examines whether the introduction of new policies and training based on risk assessment have strengthened quality assurance measures and controls which aim to ensure that staff work safely within their scope of practice. A further aim is to establish if the fast-track route is adequately meeting the training and development needs of staff within the organisation and supporting service requirements.

  14. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty; a detailed observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jorgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length...... postoperatively. Seven complications . (0.08 %) were urological, mainly haematuria after bladder catheterisation, whereas 5 (0.06 were urosepsis/pyelonephritis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of serious RU complications after fast-track THA and TKA was 0.61 %. AKI occurred in 0.49% and was most often due...

  15. Post anesthesia recovery rate evaluated by using White fast tracking scoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevera Hadžimešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postponed recuperation from anesthesia can lead to different complications such as apnoea, aspiration of gastric content whit consequent development of aspiration pneumonia, laryngospasm, bradycardia, and hypoxia. Aim of this research was to determine infl uence of propofol, sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia on post anesthesia recovery rate.Methods: This was a prospective study; it included 90 patients hospitalized in period form October 2011 to may 2012 year, all patients included in the study underwent lumbar microdiscectomy surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group 1: propofol maintained anesthesia, group 2: sevoflurane and group 3: isofl urane maintained anesthesia. Assessments of recovery rate were done 1, 5 and 10 minutes post extubation using White fast tracking scoring system.Results: Significant difference was observed only 1 minute after extubation (p=0,025 finding recovery rate to be superior in propofol group. Propofol group compared to inhaled anesthesia with sevoflurane group, shows significantly faster recovery from anesthesia only one minute after extubation (p=0,046. In comparison of propofol group and isofl urane anesthesia group, statistical significance was noticed one minute following extubation (p=0,008. Comparison of propofol group and inhaled anesthesia groups recovery rates were not significantly different at all times measured. When we were comparing sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia, recovery rates shoved no signifi cant statistical difference.Conclusions: Recovery rate evaluated by using White fast tracking scoring system was superior and with fewer complications in propofol maintained in comparison to sevoflurane and isoflurane maintained anesthesia only one minute post extubation, while after fifth and tenth minute difference was lost.

  16. Fast Tracker : A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after the 2013-­‐2014 shutdown period is expected to improve the yet impressive performance obtained up to this year: collisions’ energy will increase to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosity will reach and then overcome 10^34 cm‐2s‐1, with a bunch crossing period of 25 ns. The LHC experiments will need to adapt to the more crowded events, maintaining the physics output and the quality of the final results. The pileup higher than the LHC run 1, with peaks expected to reach 50 or more, will make more difficult to have efficient online selection of rare events based mostly on calorimeters and muon detectors as it is done now. A more extensive use of the information collected by the tracking detector will allow building more robust selections, limiting the degradation effects due to the high pileup. We report on the development of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor for the ATLAS experiment, devoted to reconstruct tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV in the whole detect...

  17. Fast Tracker (FTK): A Hardware Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, Takashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the 2010-2012 run of Large Hadron Collider experiment, the ATLAS trigger system was successfully operated and it contributed to several important results such as observation of Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV. From 2015, collision energy will increase to 13-14 TeV and its instantaneous luminosity will reach $1$-$2\\times10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with a 25 ns bunch crossing period. Due to the energy increase, the cross sections for SM processes are expected to get much larger. Additionally, the number of overlapping proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing, which is refereed to as pile-up, is expected to increase significantly up to about 80. Therefore it will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping good efficiency for interesting physics events. This document summarizes the development of Fast Tracker and its tracking performance for the ATLAS experiment. The Fast Tracker is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level 1 accepted rate of 100 kHz and provide...

  18. Fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced naval attack missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastbacka, Al

    2001-10-01

    A FPR System under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA is funded under a SBIR, Phase II contract as an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for Navy fast-reaction, subsonic and supersonic, stand-off weapons. The FPR will autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex surface ship and land based targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real time. The novel FPR system is proven technology that uses an electronic implementation analogous to an optical correlator system, where the Fourier transform of the incoming image is compared against known target images stored as matched filter templates. FPR demonstrations show that unambiguous target identification is achievable in a ninety-five percent fog obscuration for over ninety-percent of target images tested. The FPR technology employs an acoustic dispersive delay line (DDL) to achieve ultra-fast image correlations in 90 microseconds or 11,000 correlations per second. The massively scalable FPR design is capable of achieving processing speeds of an order of magnitude faster using available ASIC technology. Key benefits of the FPR are dramatically reduced power, size, weight, and cost with increased durability, robustness, and performance - which makes the FPR ideal for onboard missile applications.

  19. Postoperative Urinary Catheterization Thresholds of 500 versus 800 ml after Fast-track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Hornum, Ulla; Troldborg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No evidence-based threshold exists for postoperative urinary bladder catheterization. The authors hypothesized that a catheterization threshold of 800 ml was superior to 500 ml in reducing postoperative urinary catheterization and urological complications after fast-track total hip ar...

  20. Fast-track, ambulatory ultrasound-guided Tru-Cut liver biopsy is feasible and cost-efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Lorentzen, Torben; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    safely discharged from our institution. No fatality or long-term complications were found during this study. CONCLUSION: The fast-track approach reported herein is a feasible option when adequate patient information is given. Besides the obvious, positive effect on patient logistics and departmental...

  1. Introducing the fast track surgery principles can reduce length of stay after autologous breast reconstruction using free flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian; Khorasani, Hoda; Eriksen, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The concept of fast-track surgery (FTS) is a peri- and postoperative care concept developed to reduce length of hospital stay (LOS) and morbidity after surgery. FTS programmes have been reported from other surgical specialities, but there are few reports of FTS in plastic surgery...

  2. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty; a detailed observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jorgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    postoperatively. Seven complications . (0.08 %) were urological, mainly haematuria after bladder catheterisation, whereas 5 (0.06 were urosepsis/pyelonephritis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of serious RU complications after fast-track THA and TKA was 0.61 %. AKI occurred in 0.49% and was most often due...

  3. Fast and Practical Head Tracking in Brain Imaging with Time-of-Flight Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential use of Time-of-Flight cameras (TOF) for motion correction in medical brain scans. TOF cameras have previously been used for tracking purposes, but recent progress in TOF technology has made it relevant for high speed optical tracking in high resolution medica...... of expensive triangulation and surface reconstruction. Tracking experiments with a motion controlled head phantom were performed with a translational tracking error below 2mm and a rotational tracking error below 0.5°....

  4. Fertility and the fast-track: Continued childbearing among professionals in Sweden, 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stanfors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent decades women have made considerable advances in education and the labor market, even in fast-track professions such as law, medicine, and academia. While women have entered high-status professions, the career paths of some jobs have changed little and are still inflexible, which implies that professional gains may be offset by familial losses. Objective: We investigate continued childbearing, focusing on the relationship between occupation and second and third births, among highly educated men and women in three high-status professions. Methods: We analyze the determinants of having a second or a third birth using longitudinal data from population registers in Sweden, 1991-2009. We use descriptive statistics and logistic models. Results: Net of demographic and socioeconomic controls, medical doctors are more likely to continue childbearing than lawyers and academics, irrespective of parity and gender. The patterns that emerge are independent of income. Public sector work is conducive to continued childbearing, especially for women. Conclusions: Although there are more opportunities to combine career and family in Sweden than in many other countries, this does not hold equally for all. The results indicate that working conditions and career structures contribute to making it easier for some groups than others to combine a professional career and children. Patterns that emerge reflect that women and men are not equally sensitive to career structures that imply a tradeoff between career and children at an early stage of the career. This puts policies promoting work and family for all into perspective.

  5. Six steps to fast-track insurance approval for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Eldo E

    2006-05-01

    Most of the health-insurers approve bariatric surgery for patients according to the NIH standards, while others only approve the surgery if the patient has a BMI >50. Therefore, it is important for the physician to know and carefully follow the various criteria of different insurance companies. We suggest 6 steps to fast-track insurance approval: 1) a multidisciplinary team; 2) 6-month diet; 3) comprehensive medical evaluation; 4) flexibility and consistency; 5) analysis of each patient indication; 6) quality of cost-effectiveness and long-term monitoring and benefits. In the event that an insurance company rejects the request for surgery, a blueprint of an appeal letter is very important. The appeal letter should stress the indications and benefits of surgery for your patients. Insurance company criteria may differ from the NIH guidelines. Irrespective of this, the steps outlined will help speed the insurance approval process and reduce paperwork and confusion. Most often, rejections stem from letters that were not written clearly or that lacked one or more of the elements delineated above. If the surgeon follows the 6 steps described, he/she should meet less disappointment, as in our experience that went from 50% to 90% success because of better communication with insurance and more appropriate paperwork.

  6. Pivotal role of ATP in macrophages fast tracking wound repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Sarojini, Harshini; Chien, Sufan

    2015-09-01

    Chronic wounds occurring during aging or diabetes pose a significant burden to patients. The classical four-phase wound healing process has a 3-6 day lag before granulation starts to appear and it requires an intermediate step of activation of resident fibroblasts during the remodeling phase for production of collagen. This brief communication discusses published articles that demonstrate how the entire wound healing process can be fast tracked by intracellular ATP delivery, which triggers a novel pathway where alternatively activated macrophages play absolutely critical and central roles. This novel pathway involves an increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6) and a chemokine (MCP-1) release. This is followed by activation of purinergic receptor (a family of plasma membrane receptors found in almost all mammalian cells), production of platelets and platelet microparticles, and activation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes. The end result is a massive influx and in situ proliferation of macrophages, increases in vascular endothelial growth factors that promote neovascularization, and most prominently, the direct production of collagen.

  7. Experience with "Fast track" postoperative care after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nuria; Valero, Ricard; Hurtado, Paola; Gracia, Isabel; Fernández, Carla; Rumià, Jordi; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Carrero, Enrique J; Tercero, Francisco Javier; de Riva, Nicolás; Fàbregas, Neus

    A 24-h-stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is a common postoperative procedure after deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). We evaluated the impact of a fast-track (FT) postoperative care protocol. An analysis was performed on all patients who underwent DBS in 2 periods: 2006, overnight monitored care (OMC group), and 2007-2013, FT care (FT group). The study included 19 patients in OMC and 95 patients in FT. Intraoperative complications occurred in 26.3% patients in OMC vs. 35.8% in FT. Post-operatively, one patient in OMC developed hemiparesis, and agitation in 2 patients. In FT, two patients with intraoperative hemiparesis were transferred to the ICU. While on the ward, 3 patients from the FT developed hemiparesis, two of them 48h after the procedure. Thirty eight percent of FT had an MRI scan, while the remaining 62% and all patients of OMC had a CT-scan performed on their transfer to the ward. One patient in OMC had a subthalamic hematoma. Two patients in FT had a pallidal hematoma, and 3 a bleeding along the electrode. A FT discharge protocol is a safe postoperative care after DBS. There are a small percentage of complications after DBS, which mainly occur within the first 6h. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity, Sleep and Cognition After Fast-Track Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Optimized perioperative care after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) has decreased length of stay (LOS) but data on activity, sleep and cognition after discharge are limited. We included 20 patients ≥60years undergoing THA/TKA, monitoring them for 3days preoperatively and 9days postoperat......Optimized perioperative care after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) has decreased length of stay (LOS) but data on activity, sleep and cognition after discharge are limited. We included 20 patients ≥60years undergoing THA/TKA, monitoring them for 3days preoperatively and 9days...... postoperatively with actigraphs for sleep and activity assessment. Pain scores were recorded daily. Cognition was evaluated by 2 cognitive tests. Results showed a mean age was 70.5years and mean LOS was 2.6days. Actigraphs showed increased daytime sleep and decreased motor activity postoperatively. Early...... postoperatively cognitive decline and increased pain returned to preoperative levels by postoperative day (POD) 5-9. Despite the small sample size the study illustrated that post-discharge activity is decreased and daytime sleep is increased after fast-track THA/TKA, while cognition and pain return...

  9. A novel 4D fast track finding system using precise space and time information of the hit

    CERN Document Server

    Neri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel fast track finding system capable of reconstructing four dimensional particle trajectories in real time using precise space and time information of the hits. Recent developments in silicon pixel detectors achieved 150 ps time resolution and intense R&D is in progress to improve the timing performance, aiming at 10 ps. The use of the precise space and time information allows the suppression of background hits not compatible with the time of passage of the particle and the determination of its time evolution. The fast track finding device that we are proposing is based on a massively parallel algorithm implemented in commercial field-programmable gate array using a pipelined architecture. We describe the algorithm and its implementation for a tracking system prototype based on 8 planes of silicon sensors used as a case study. According to simulations the suppression of noise hits is effective in reducing fake track combinations and improving real-time track reconstruction in presence of b...

  10. Effects of a nutritional intervention in a fast-track program for a colorectal cancer surgery: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Wanden-Berghe

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Preoperative nutritional status (NS has consequences on postoperative (POSTOP recovery. Our aim was to systematically review the nutritional interventions (NI in fast-track protocols for colorectal cancer surgery and assess morbidity-mortality and patient's recovery. Method: Systematic review of scientific literature after consulting bibliographic databases: Medline, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Institute for Scientific Information, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. MeSH Descriptors: "colorectal surgery", "fast-track", "perioperative care", "nutrition therapy" and "enhanced recovery programme". Filters: "humans", adult (19+ years and "clinical trial". Variables POSTOP outcomes: bowel recovery (BR, hospital stay (HS, complications and death. Results: Selected studies, 27, had good or excellent methodological quality. From 25 to 597 patients were included. Aged between 16-94 years, men were predominant in 66.6%. NS was evaluated in 13 studies; 7 by body mass index while one by subjective global assessment. One presented POSTOP data. Fast-track groups had solids, liquids or supplements (SS in prior 2-8 hours. SS were high in carbohydrates, immune-nutrients and non-residue. Free liquids, solids and SS intake was allowed in POSTOP. Half traditional groups fasted between 3-12 hours and resumed POSTOP food intake progressively. Conclusions: Fast-track groups had early BR (p < 0.01. Traditional groups had more infections episodes, deaths and a longer HS. Great variability between NI but had a common item; early intake. Although was seen patient's recovery. Future studies with detailed NI characteristics are need. Nutritional status must be assessed for a higher acknowledgement of NI impact.

  11. Fast-track, ambulatory ultrasound-guided Tru-Cut liver biopsy is feasible and cost-efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Lorentzen, Torben; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most institutions perform percutaneous liver biopsy with a post-biopsy patient observation period lasting up to eight hours, which is resource-demanding. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of liver biopsy performed in a fast-track set-up with an only one-hour post-biopsy...... observation time. METHODS: Patients referred to our institution underwent fast-track ultrasound-guided 18-gauge Tru-Cut liver biopsy procedures. Each single biopsy procedure was followed by a post-procedure observational period of one hour and an additional focused assessment with sonography for trauma before...... patient discharge. All patients underwent a clinical follow-up programme at revisit in order to register any delayed onset of major complications. RESULTS: Out of 200 completed biopsy procedures, two major complications were registered post biopsy and they were treated appropriately. All patients were...

  12. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after surgery...

  13. Readmission rates after a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Hjort-Jakobsen, Dorthe; Christiansen, P. S.;

    2007-01-01

    with a planned hospital stay of 2 versus 3 days. METHODS: The study included 541 consecutive colonic resections from one surgical department with a structured care programme, including well defined discharge criteria, between April 1997 and December 2005. The planned hospital stay was increased from 2 to 3 days......BACKGROUND: Initial programmes of fast-track open colonic surgery with a planned 2-day postoperative hospital stay have had a high readmission rate (about 20 per cent). The aim of this large, consecutive series was to compare readmission rates after a fast-track open colonic surgery programme...... from August 2004. All patients were examined 8 and 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Readmission rates fell from 20.1 per cent in 408 patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay (period 1) to 11.3 per cent in 133 patients with a planned 3-day hospital stay (period 2) (P

  14. Role of preoperative anemia for risk of transfusion and postoperative morbidity in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Jørgensen, Christoffer; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anemia has been associated with increased risk of allogeneic blood transfusion and postoperative morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of preoperative anemia and its association with postoperative outcomes has not previously been reported in relation to fast......-track elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of preoperative anemia in elective fast-track THA and TKA and its association with risk of perioperative transfusion, prolonged length of hospital stay (LOS), and postoperative readmission. STUDY...... national databases and patient charts. Adjusted risk estimates for transfusion, prolonged LOS, and all-cause readmission according to preoperative anemia status were obtained by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 5.165 THA or TKA procedures were included with a mean patient age of 67...

  15. Traditional healers and the "Fast-Track" HIV response: is success possible without them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne; Green, Edward; Hallin, Mary

    2016-07-01

    The rapid scale-up of effective HIV prevention strategies is a central theme of the post-2015 health and development agenda. All major global HIV and AIDS funders have aligned their policies and plans to achieve sharp reductions in new HIV infections and reach epidemic control by 2030. In these "fast-track" plans, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage and the attainment of viral suppression are pivotal, and there is firm recognition of the need for countries to mobilise more domestic resources and build stronger community clinic systems. There is little in these bold plans, however, to suggest that the now 30-year-old call by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other organisations to establish systematic collaborations with the traditional health sector will finally be heeded. In the context of sub-Saharan Africa's HIV epidemic, a significant body of literature demonstrates the critical role that traditional healers can play in improving the success of health programmes, including those for HIV prevention. This paper provides a brief history of collaboration with traditional healers for HIV followed by a description of several successful collaborations and discussion of key elements for success. We argue that the traditional health sector is a major resource that has yet to be sufficiently mobilised against HIV. As we shift from a short-term HIV response to a longer-term and more sustainable response, there is an urgent need to accelerate efforts to leverage and partner with the hundreds of thousands of traditional health practitioners who are already providing health services in communities. Failure to better attune our work to the medical pluralism of communities affected by HIV will continue to hinder HIV programming success and help assure that ambitious post-2015 HIV prevention and control goals are not realised.

  16. Acute chest pain fast track at the emergency department: who was misdiagnosed for acute coronary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachanukool, Thidathit; Aramvanitch, Kasamon; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sitthichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly treated disease in the emergency department (ED). Acute chest pain is a common presenting symptom of ACS. Acute chest pain fast track (ACPFT) is a triage to cover patients presenting with chest pain with the aims of early detection and treatment for ACS. This study aimed to assess the quality of the ACPFT with the aim of improving the quality of care for ACS patients. Methods This study was conducted at the ED in Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The inclusion criterion was patients presenting with acute chest pain at the ED. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all eligible patients. The primary outcomes of this study were to determine time from door to electrocardiogram and time from door to treatment (coronary angiogram with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolytic therapy in the case of ST elevation myocardial infarction). The outcome was compared between those who were in and not in the ACPFT. Results During the study period, there were 616 eligible patients who were divided into ACPFT (n=352 patients; 57.1%) and non-ACPFT (n=264 patients; 42.9%) groups. In the ACPFT group (n=352), 315 patients (89.5%) received an electrocardiogram within 10 minutes. The final diagnosis of ACS was made in 80 patients (22.7%) in the ACPFT group and 13 patients (4.9%) in the non-ACPFT group (P-value <0.01). After adjustment using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only epigastric pain was independently associated with being in the ACPFT group (adjusted odds ratio of 0.11; 95% confidence interval of 0.02, 0.56). Conclusion The ACPFT at the ED facilitated the prompt work-ups and intervention for ACS. PMID:27980438

  17. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIALS OF FAST TRACK IN MITIGATING PROJECT ABANDONMENT: CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hassin B.Baharuddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry plays a very role in the fixed capital formation of any economy. Thus, the activities of construction in any economy, mirrors its general performance; a healthy economy usually experiences an upward swing in construction activities and a depressed economy indicates the reverse. But, project abandonment has been posing a threat to so many countries in their march towards the achievement of the above economic independence and greater civilization, and Nigeria is no exception. We have road and other construction projects that have taken ages in building, whose completion date is only in the imagination of the gods. Governments succeed governments and waste many months reviewing contracts and on-going projects, and re-awarding contracts. The ritual has come to stay and public funds are sunk into projects whose viability, usefulness, and urgency remain doubtful; then they are abandonment. However, majority of project abandonment could be traced to longer project duration. This is because the longer the duration of a project the more additional costs to the project through variations, inflations, and other expenses associated with time (time related to expenses. Time consumed by project directly influence the cost incurred on a project. When these traditional costs are too much, they lead to the client’s budget for the project to be exceeded. And when clients can no longer entertain those additional costs, it becomes a subject of disputes, and eventually the project is abandoned. As such, there is the need for the construction industry participants to embrace an efficient and effective means of minimizing projects’ duration in order to minimize the occurrences of project abandonment; and Fast Track procurement method is one good project management tool that have been in used to meet these challenges of time and cost.

  18. Initial Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: I. The High-Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's s...

  19. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE U.S.-MEXICO FREE TRADE AGREEMENT: ANALYSIS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL FAST TRACK VOTE

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the strategic forces shaping U.S.-Mexico trade relationships and the possibilities of extending the trade agreement to the rest of the Americas. The paper concludes that constituency interests, party loyalty, the proportion of a state's population of Hispanic origin, and the influence of textile-related employment in the state were significant explanatory factors in the Congressional Fast Track vote that occurred in May of 1991.

  20. Getting on the fast track, or how to get an MLIS through distance education, with a specialization in medical librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlefsen, Ellen G

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an innovation in MLIS education for medical librarianship, with an introduction to the FastTrack, the distance education program at the University of Pittsburgh's library and information science school, together with an overview of a model program linking the biomedical library at Vanderbilt University with the School of Information Sciences in Pittsburgh. Admissions requirements and specific curriculum for the distance education master's degree are detailed in an FAQ format.

  1. Influencing Factor of Postoperation Fast-track Recovery and in Hospital Cost after Lobctomy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua SU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is unknown that the postoperation fast-track recovery and in hospital cost of the lobectomy in lung cancer, we explored the influencing factor of postoperative fast-track recovery and in hospital cost after undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients (n=176 who underwent lobectomy for lung cancer between January 2010 and November 2011 by a thoracic surgeon. Results The hospital costs of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS lobectomy (47,308.21 ¥ is significantly higher than open lobectomy (45,664.31 ¥(P=0.007. The hospital costs of body mass index (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (51,186.99 ¥ is significantly higher than BMI < 24 kg/m2 (41,701.64 ¥(P=0.032. The hospital stay of VATS lobectomy (5.70 d is significantly less than open lobectomy (7.10 d(P<0.001. Conclusion These findings indicate that preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation and VATS lobectomy is contributed to fast-track recovery for patients who undergo lobectomy, but increase the hospital costs.

  2. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement....

  3. Spouses’ involvement in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement using case management intervention. A study protocol of the SICAM-trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2015-01-01

    Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part......-test measures (protocol approved in November 2012). Methods A total of 120 patients aged 65 years or older going through a fast-track programme for a total hip replacement and their spouses will be recruited from one Danish orthopaedic ward. We will initially include the control group for data collection...

  4. Fast Track Pattern Recognition in High Energy Physics Experiments with the Automata Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Michael H L S; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-01-01

    We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of track pattern recognition in High Energy Physics experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which a track trigger based on the Micron AP is used to demonstrate a proof-of-principle. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate that the Micron AP is ideally suited to track finding applications.

  5. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  6. Acute chest pain fast track at the emergency department: who was misdiagnosed for acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachanukool T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thidathit Prachanukool,1 Kasamon Aramvanitch,1 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth,2–4 Yuwares Sitthichanbuncha1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 3Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, 4Internal medicine research group, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kean University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a commonly treated disease in the emergency department (ED. Acute chest pain is a common presenting symptom of ACS. Acute chest pain fast track (ACPFT is a triage to cover patients presenting with chest pain with the aims of early detection and treatment for ACS. This study aimed to assess the quality of the ACPFT with the aim of improving the quality of care for ACS patients. Methods: This study was conducted at the ED in Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The inclusion criterion was patients presenting with acute chest pain at the ED. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all eligible patients. The primary outcomes of this study were to determine time from door to electrocardiogram and time from door to treatment (coronary angiogram with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolytic therapy in the case of ST elevation myocardial infarction. The outcome was compared between those who were in and not in the ACPFT. Results: During the study period, there were 616 eligible patients who were divided into ACPFT (n=352 patients; 57.1% and non-ACPFT (n=264 patients; 42.9% groups. In the ACPFT group (n=352, 315 patients (89.5% received an electrocardiogram within 10 minutes. The final diagnosis of ACS was made in 80 patients (22.7% in the ACPFT group and 13 patients (4.9% in the non-ACPFT group (P-value <0.01. After adjustment using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only epigastric pain was independently associated with being in the ACPFT group (adjusted

  7. Contrast agent bolus tracking with a fixed threshold or a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Rief, Matthias; Zimmermann, Elke; Greupner, Johannes; Richter, Felicitas; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Comparison of bolus tracking with a fixed threshold versus a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography. We retrospectively analysed 320-row coronary CT angiography of 50 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Twenty-five examinations were initiated by a bolus tracking method (group 1), 25 examinations with a manual fast surestart (group 2). Mean attenuation values in the ascending aorta were 519 ± 111 Hounsfield units (HU) in group 1 and 476 ± 65 HU in group 2 (p = 0.10). Assessable vessel lengths were 171 ± 44 mm vs 172 ± 29 mm for the right coronary artery (p = 0.91), 11 ± 4 mm vs 12 ± 4 mm for the left main (p = 0.9), 163 ± 28 mm vs 151 ± 26 mm for the left anterior descending coronary artery (p = 0.11) and 125 ± 41 mm vs 110 ± 37 mm for the left circumflex coronary artery (p = 0.18). Image quality for all coronary arteries was not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.41). The attenuation ratio between the left and right ventricle was 2.8 ± 0.7 vs 3.6 ± 1.0 (p = 0.003). Significantly less contrast agent was used in group 2 (64 ± 6 ml vs 80 ± 0 ml; p < 0.001). Bolus tracking with a fixed threshold and with a manual fast start are both suitable methods; the fast start allowed a reduction of contrast agent volumes. (orig.)

  8. First results of the silicon telescope using an 'artificial retina' for fast track finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A.; Grizzuti, M.; Lusardi, N. [INFN Milano and Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M. [INFN Milano, Milano (Italy); Bedeschi, F.; Ninci, D.; Piucci, A.; Spinella, F.; Walsh, J. [INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cenci, R.; Marino, P.; Morello, M. J.; Stracka, S. [INFN Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Punzi, G. [INFN Pisa and Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tonelli, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ristori, L. [INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results of the prototype of a silicon tracker with trigger capabilities based on a novel approach for fast track finding. The working principle of the 'artificial retina' is inspired by the processing of visual images by the brain and it is based on extensive parallelization of data distribution and pattern recognition. The algorithm has been implemented in commercial FPGAs in three main logic modules: a switch for the routing of the detector hits, a pool of engines for the digital processing of the hits, and a block for the calculation of the track parameters. The architecture is fully pipelined and allows the reconstruction of real-time tracks with a latency less then 100 clock cycles, corresponding to 0.25 microsecond at 400 MHz clock. The silicon telescope consists of 8 layers of single-sided silicon strip detectors with 512 strips each. The detector size is about 10 cm x 10 cm and the strip pitch is 183 μm. The detectors are read out by the Beetle chip, a custom ASICs developed for LHCb, which provides the measurement of the hit position and pulse height of 128 channels. The 'artificial retina' algorithm has been implemented on custom data acquisition boards based on FPGAs Xilinx Kintex 7 lx160. The parameters of the tracks detected are finally transferred to host PC via USB 3.0. The boards manage the read-out ASICs and the sampling of the analog channels. The read-out is performed at 40 MHz on 4 channels for each ASIC that corresponds to a decoding of the telescope information at 1.1 MHz. We report on the first results of the fast tracking device and compare with simulations. (authors)

  9. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.......By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits....

  10. Classification of lunar terranes using neutron and thorium gamma-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Barraclough, B.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maurice, S. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (France); Binder, A.B. [Lunar Research Inst., Gilroy, CA (United States); Lucey, P.G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics and Planetology

    1999-04-01

    A major scientific goal of the Lunar Prospector (LP) gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers is to classify all lunar terranes according to composition. A preliminary analysis of early data indicates this goal will be met for the major rock-forming elements on a spatial scale of about 200 km. The low-altitude phase of LP now in progress should allow reduction of this scale by about a factor of 10 for those elements that have sufficiently high measurable fluxes relative to their backgrounds. Most promising are the flux intensities of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons (which each average about 300 counts per 50 km of ground track) and 2.6 MeV gamma rays from thorium (which averages about 50 counts per 50 km of ground track). The authors therefore explore the information content of these measurables to classify the various lunar terrane types.

  11. Effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Tao Cai; Zhong-Jun Zhang; Wen-Bo Diao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of fast-track cardiac anesthesia on myocardial oxidative damage, inflammation and nerve related peptides of patients undergoing cardiac operation.Methods:Sixty patients with rheumatic heart disease undergoing heart valve surgery were randomly divided into the fast track group (n=30) and conventional group (n=30). Then myocardial injury indicators, mitochondrial oxidative stress indicators, inflammation indicators and nerve-related peptides of both groups were analyzed.Results: cTnI contents at T2-T4 points in time of both groups showed an increasing trend and the increasing trend of fast track group was weaker than that of conventional group; SOD contents as well as mitochondrial tristate respiratory function, respiratory control ratios and phosphorus oxygen ratios in myocardial tissue of fast track group were higher than those of conventional group, and MDA contents was lower than those of conventional group; plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NSE, S100β and Aβcontents of fast track group were lower than those of conventional group.Conclusions:Fast-track cardiac anesthesia can protect myocardial cells, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, relieve inflammation and improve nerve function; it is an ideal anesthesia method for cardiac operation.

  12. Orchestrating care through the fast-track perspective: Orthopaedic nurses’ perceptions and experiences of providing individualised nursing care in older patients’ standardised fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The lack of individualised care in orthopaedic regimes is often explained by the extended use of patient pathways and clinical guidelines. The aim of this study was to illuminate orthopaedic nurses' perceptions and experiences of providing individual nursing care for older patients in standardised...... fast-track programmes after total hip or knee replacement. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with orthopaedic nurses in orthopaedic wards at three Danish hospitals between April and June of 2015. Data were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis according to Graneheim...

  13. Decision-Directed Frequency Tracking Algorithm for OFDM System in Fast Fading Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bo; LI Jun; LIN Jia-ru; WU Wei-ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzed the structure of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) system and presented a new Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) tracking algorithm, which depends on comparability between the decision data and the original data to correct carrier frequency offset. Therefore it is robust during the normal communization process since the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the decision data is low. We can utilize pilot data in time domain for channel estimation to track CFO without reducing system efficient and to enhance the tracking scope largely. Simulation results denote the presented algorithm can track the frequency offset and control it under ±1% using only 1 frame if the original frequency offset is within ±8%.

  14. In vivo cell tracking of mouse embryonic myoblasts and fast fibers during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Lucia; Villar, Pedro; Martínez, Lidia; Badia-Careaga, Claudio; Arredondo, Juan J; Cervera, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Fast and slow TnI are co-expressed in E11.5 embryos, and fast TnI is present from the very beginning of myogenesis. A novel green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mouse lines (FastTnI/GFP lines) that carry the primary and secondary enhancer elements of the mouse fast troponin I (fast TnI), in which reporter expression correlates precisely with distribution of the endogenous fTnI protein was generated. Using the FastTnI/GFP mouse model, we characterized the early myogenic events in mice, analyzing the migration of GFP+ myoblasts, and the formation of primary and secondary myotubes in transgenic embryos. Interestingly, we found that the two contractile fast and slow isoforms of TnI are expressed during the migration of myoblasts from the somites to the limbs and body wall, suggesting that both participate in these events. Since no sarcomeres are present in myoblasts, we speculate that the function of fast TnI in early myogenesis is, like Myosin and Tropomyosin, to participate in cell movement during the initial myogenic stages. genesis © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fall-related admissions after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty - cause of concern or consequence of success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen CC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoffer C Jørgensen,1,2 Henrik Kehlet1,2 On behalf of the Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track Hip and Knee Replacement Collaborative Group 1Section of Surgical Pathophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2The Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track Hip and Knee Replacement, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Total hip (THA and knee arthroplasty (TKA are common procedures in elderly persons, who are at potential increased risk of postoperative fall due to loss of muscle strength and impaired balance. Fast-track surgery with early mobilization and opioid-sparing analgesia have improved outcomes after these procedures, but early mobilization and short hospitalization length of stay (LOS could potentially increase the risk of falls after discharge. We investigated injuries, circumstances, and the timing of fall-related hospital admissions 90 days after fast-track THA and TKA. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive multicenter study on fall-related hospital admissions, in 5145 elective fast-track THA and TKA patients, with complete 90-day follow up through the Danish National Patient registry and medical charts. Results: Of 83 (1.6% fall-related hospital admissions, 43 (51.8% were treated in the Emergency Room and 40 (48.2% were admitted to a regular ward. The median LOS after surgery was 3 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 2-3 in fallers versus (vs 2 days (IQR: 2-3 (P=0.022 in patients without falls. Injuries were classified as "none" or minor in 39.8%, moderate in 9.6%, and major in 50.6%. Most falls (54.8% occurred within 1 month of discharge. Falls due to physical activity (12.0% and extrinsic factors (14.5% occurred later than did surgery-related falls (73.5%, contributing to 40% of all falls >30 days after discharge. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.08 (P=0.001, living alone (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.20-3.62 (P=0.009, and psychiatric disease (OR

  16. Particle tracking at 4K: The Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, J; Ahlén, O; Amsler, C; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Belov, A.S; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R.S; Burghart, G; Cabaret, L; Canali, C; Carante, M; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Dassa, L; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ereditato, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S.N; Haider, S; Hogan, S.D; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L.V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kawada, J; Kellerbauer, A; Kimura, M; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Magnani, A; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V.A; Merkt, F; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Oberthaler, M.K; Pacifico, N; Petrácek, V; Pistillo, C; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Scampoli, P; Spacek, M; Subieta Vasquez, M.A; Testera, G; Trezzi, D; Vaccarone, R; Zavatarelli, S

    2013-01-01

    The AEgIS experiment is an international collaboration with the main goal of performing the fi rst direct measurement of the Earth ' s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. Critical to the success of AEgIS is the production of cold antihydrogen ( H) atoms. The FACT detector is used to measure the production and temperature of the H atoms and for establishing the formation of a H beam. The operating requirements for this detector are very challenging: it must be able to identify each of the thousand or so annihilations in the 1 ms period of pulsed H production, operate at 4 K inside a 1 T solenoidal fi eld and not produce more than 10 W of heat. The FACT detector consists of two concentric cylindrical layers of 400 scintillator fi bres with a 1 mm diameter and a 0.6 mm pitch. The scintillating fi bres are coupled to clear fi bres which transport the scintillation light to 800 silicon photomultipliers. Each silicon photomultiplier signal is connected to a linear ampli fi er and a fast discriminator, the out...

  17. A Comparative Study of Analog Voltage-mode Control Methods for Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental comparison of the standard PWM/PID voltage-mode control method for single-phase buck converters with two highperformance self-oscillating (a.k.a. sliding mode) control methods. The application considered is ultra-fast tracking power supplies...... (UFTPSs) for RF power amplifiers, where the switching converter needs to track a varying reference voltage precisely and quickly while maintaining low output impedance. The small-signal analyses performed on the different controllers show that the hysteretic-type controller can achieve the highest loop......-oscillating control is shown to reduce the worst-case UFTPS output impedance by a factor of 10....

  18. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical...... the introduction, and the third interval represents the current situation. The median time from referral to first consultation was reduced from eight calendar days in group 1 to only one day in groups 2 and 3 (p ...

  19. Fast-track access to urologic care for patients with macroscopic haematuria is efficient and cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedberg, Fredrik; Gerdtham, Ulf; Gralén, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The delay between onset of macroscopic haematuria and diagnosis of bladder cancer is often long. METHODS: We evaluated timely diagnosis and health-care costs for patients with macroscopic haematuria given fast-track access to diagnostics. During a 15-month period, a telephone hotline......: In all 275 patients who called 'the Red Phone' hotline were investigated, and 47 of them (17%) were diagnosed with cancer and 36 of those had bladder cancer. Median time from patient-reported haematuria to diagnosis was 29 (interquartile range (IQR) 14-104) days and 50 (IQR 27-165) days...

  20. Fall-related admissions after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty - cause of concern or consequence of success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    Total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common procedures in elderly persons, who are at potential increased risk of postoperative fall due to loss of muscle strength and impaired balance. Fast-track surgery with early mobilization and opioid-sparing analgesia have improved outcomes after...... these procedures, but early mobilization and short hospitalization length of stay (LOS) could potentially increase the risk of falls after discharge. We investigated injuries, circumstances, and the timing of fall-related hospital admissions 90 days after fasttrack THA and TKA....

  1. Fast TPC Online Tracking on GPUs and Asynchronous Data Processing in the ALICE HLT to facilitate Online Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Breitner, Timo; Kretz, Matthias; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Heavy Ion Experiment) is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is today the most powerful particle accelerator worldwide. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online compute farm of about 200 nodes, which reconstructs events measured by the ALICE detector in real-time. The HLT uses a custom online data-transport framework to distribute data and workload among the compute nodes. ALICE employs several calibration-sensitive subdetectors, e.g. the TPC (Time Projection Chamber). For a precise reconstruction, the HLT has to perform the calibration online. Online- calibration can make certain Offline calibration steps obsolete and can thus speed up Offline analysis. Looking forward to ALICE Run III starting in 2020, online calibration becomes a necessity. The main detector used for track reconstruction is the TPC. Reconstructing the trajectories in the TPC is the most compute-intense step during event reconstruction. Therefore, a fast tracking implementation is of great importance. Reconstructed TPC tracks build the basis for the calibration making a fast online-tracking mandatory. We present several components developed for the ALICE High Level Trigger to perform fast event reconstruction and to provide features required for online calibration. As first topic, we present our TPC tracker, which employs GPUs to speed up the processing, and which bases on a Cellular Automaton and on the Kalman filter. Our TPC tracking algorithm has been successfully used in 2011 and 2012 in the lead-lead and the proton-lead runs. We have improved it to leverage features of newer GPUs and we have ported it to support OpenCL, CUDA, and CPUs with a single common source code. This makes us vendor independent. As second topic, we present framework extensions required for online calibration. The extensions, however, are generic and can be used for other purposes as well. We have extended the framework to support asynchronous compute

  2. Particle tracking at 4 K: The Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, J., E-mail: james.storey@cern.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ahlén, O. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bräunig, P. [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Brusa, R.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, ENS Cachan, Bâtiment 505, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Carante, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Caravita, R. [University of Milano, Department of Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    The AEgIS experiment is an international collaboration with the main goal of performing the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. Critical to the success of AEgIS is the production of cold antihydrogen (H{sup ¯}) atoms. The FACT detector is used to measure the production and temperature of the H{sup ¯} atoms and for establishing the formation of a H{sup ¯} beam. The operating requirements for this detector are very challenging: it must be able to identify each of the thousand or so annihilations in the 1 ms period of pulsed H{sup ¯} production, operate at 4 K inside a 1 T solenoidal field and not produce more than 10 W of heat. The FACT detector consists of two concentric cylindrical layers of 400 scintillator fibres with a 1 mm diameter and a 0.6 mm pitch. The scintillating fibres are coupled to clear fibres which transport the scintillation light to 800 silicon photomultipliers. Each silicon photomultiplier signal is connected to a linear amplifier and a fast discriminator, the outputs of which are sampled continuously by Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). In the course of the developments for the FACT detector we have established the performance of scintillating fibres at 4 K by means of a cosmic-ray tracker operating in a liquid helium cryostat. The FACT detector was installed in the AEgIS apparatus in December 2012 and will be used to study the H{sup ¯} formation when the low energy antiproton physics programs resume at CERN in the Summer of 2014. This paper presents the design requirements and construction methods of the FACT detector and provides the first results of the detector commissioning.

  3. Avoiding ICU Admission by Using a Fast-Track Protocol Is Safe in Selected Adult-to-Adult Live Donor Liver Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Echeverri, MD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. We evaluated patient characteristics of live donor liver transplant (LDLT recipients undergoing a fast-track protocol without intensive care unit (ICU admission versus LDLT patients receiving posttransplant ICU care. Methods. Of the 153 LDLT recipients, 46 patients were included in our fast-track protocol without ICU admission. Both, fast-tracked patients and ICU-admitted patients were compared regarding donor and patient characteristics, perioperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes and complications. In a subgroup analysis, we compared fast-tracked patients with patients who were admitted in the ICU for less than 24 hours. Results. Fast-tracked versus ICU patients had a lower model for end-stage liver disease score (13 ± 4 vs 18 ± 7; P < 0.0001, lower preoperative bilirubin levels (51 ± 50 μmol/L vs 119.4 ± 137.3 μmol/L; P < 0.001, required fewer units of packed red blood cells (1.7 ± 1.78 vs 4.4 ± 4; P < 0.0001, and less fresh-frozen plasma (2.7 ± 2 vs 5.8 ± 5; P < 0.0001 during transplantation. Regarding postoperative outcomes, fast-tracked patients presented fewer bacterial infections within 30 days (6.5% [3] vs 29% [28]; P = 0.002, no episodes of pneumonia (0% vs 11.3% [11]; P = 0.02, and less biliary complications within the first year (6% [3] vs 26% [25]; P = 0.001. Also, fast-tracked patients had a shorter posttransplant hospital stay (10.8 ± 5 vs 21.3 ± 29; P = 0.002. In the subgroup analysis, fast-tracked vs ICU patients admitted for less than 24 hours had lower requirements of packed red blood cells (1.7 ± 1.78 vs 3.9 ± 4; P = 0.001 and fresh-frozen plasma (2.7 ± 2 vs 5.8 ± 4.5; P = 0.0001. Conclusions. Fast-track of selected patients after LDLT is safe and feasible. An objective score to perioperatively select LDLT recipients amenable to fast track is yet to be determined.

  4. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the High Luminosity Upgrade of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To increase the number of proton-proton collisions the Large Hadron Collider at CERN aims to increase its instantaneuos luminosity to around five times the nominal value for run four, set to begin in 2026. This will force the experiments, including ATLAS, to adapt to the increased event rate which will require substantial hardware upgrades. The current trigger system will not be able to cope with these rates without raised thresholds wich would mean loosing many of the events. To increase the rejection rate without loosing signal efficiency tracking information could be utilized in the first level hardware trigger. This document presents results from simulating a track trigger seeded by regions of interest. It is shown that with this approach we can reach a five times rejection of background events while keeping the single lepton efficiency above 95%. To reduce the amount of track fits needed per event the L1Track trigger is not only seeded by regions of interest corresponding to 10% of the tracking volume, b...

  5. Learning local appearances with sparse representation for robust and fast visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Tianxiang; Li, You-Fu; Zhou, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel appearance model using sparse representation and online dictionary learning techniques for visual tracking. In our approach, the visual appearance is represented by sparse representation, and the online dictionary learning strategy is used to adapt the appearance variations during tracking. We unify the sparse representation and online dictionary learning by defining a sparsity consistency constraint that facilitates the generative and discriminative capabilities of the appearance model. An elastic-net constraint is enforced during the dictionary learning stage to capture the characteristics of the local appearances that are insensitive to partial occlusions. Hence, the target appearance is effectively recovered from the corruptions using the sparse coefficients with respect to the learned sparse bases containing local appearances. In the proposed method, the dictionary is undercomplete and can thus be efficiently implemented for tracking. Moreover, we employ a median absolute deviation based robust similarity metric to eliminate the outliers and evaluate the likelihood between the observations and the model. Finally, we integrate the proposed appearance model with the particle filter framework to form a robust visual tracking algorithm. Experiments on benchmark video sequences show that the proposed appearance model outperforms the other state-of-the-art approaches in tracking performance.

  6. Nanostructured Material for Accurate and Fast Tracking of Cryogenic Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of cryogenic propellants in next-generation launch vehicles and rockets relies to a great extent on the availability of rugged, high accuracy (0.2%), fast...

  7. Fast track in total hip and knee arthroplasty--experiences from Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether unselected patients operated on with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could accomplish a self-developed accelerated track, ANORAK-HH, with a planned length of stay (LOS) of maximum 5 days and patient satisfaction at all parts of the track...... and a planned LOS of maximum 5 days. 22 patient characteristics and 11 satisfaction parameters were registered as well as readmissions within 3 months. 95% of patients had a LOS of maximum 5 days with a mean of 3.9 days. Median and mean values of satisfaction for the entire track were 10 and 9.4 out of 10......, respectively. Participation in patient clinic did not influence LOS or satisfaction. Operations at the beginning of the week and lack of blood transfusion were associated with shorter LOS. Finally, ANORAK-HH could be effectively accomplished in unselected THA and TKA patients without having an adverse effect...

  8. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods: A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension and GII (with pulmonary hypertension. Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP 40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results: The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100% were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397. It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total, without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488. Conclusion: In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery.

  9. Lunar project ILOM: application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for the simulation of star observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETROVA Nataliya; GUSEV Alexander; PING JinSong; IVANOVA Tamara; HANADA Hideo; KAWANO Nobuyuki; SU XiaoLi

    2012-01-01

    This study briefly describes the targets and problems of the future Japanese project In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM),which is planned for the year 2017.One of the important parts of the project is to place a small optical telescope on the Lunar surface with the purpose to detect the Lunar physical libration with unprecedented accuracy 0.001 arcsec.At the present stage of research the computer simulation of future observations is going on,aiming to determine the moments of transition of a star through the first meridian and the polar distance of the star.Rotation of the Moon is being calculated under the analytical theory developed in the frame of a theme of the grant.A list of stars brighter than 12 m,whose coordinates are close to the Lunar precession pole motion,was constructed on the basis of several star catalogues.On average,for each moment of observation in the field of view of the telescope (1°) there are approximately 20-25 stars,Analyses of simulated stellar tracks observable from the Lunar surface (in a polar zone) reveal the significant difference from daily parallels of stars in comparison with the Earth.During one Lunar "day" equal 237 terrestrial days,a star moves on a spiral.However,depending on a longitude of a star,these spirals can be untwisted or twisted.In the latter case a star can describe a loop in the sky of the Moon during the period of supervision.Such an unusual astrometric phenomenon combined with the slow rotation of the Moon is compared with the Earth and the fast precession motion of the Lunar pole (in comparison with the precession motion of a terrestrial pole).

  10. Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Extended State Observer and Tracking Differentiator for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM control scheme with the extended state observer (ESO and the tracking differentiator (TD is proposed for second-order uncertain SISO nonlinear systems. The system’s disturbances and states can be estimated by introducing the ESO, then the disturbances are compensated effectively, and the ideal transient process of the system can be arranged based on TD to provide the target tracking signal and its high-order derivatives. The proposed controller obtains finite-time convergence property and keeps good robustness of sliding mode control (SMC for disturbances. Moreover, compared with conventional SMC, the proposed control law is continuous and no chattering phenomenon exists. The property of system stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov stability theory. The simulation results show that the proposed method can be employed to shorten the system reaching time, improve the system tracking precision, and suppress the system chattering and the input noise. The proposed control method is finally applied for the rotating control problem of theodolite servo system.

  11. AUTOMATIC FAST VIDEO OBJECT DETECTION AND TRACKING ON VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arunachalam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the advance techniques for object detection and tracking in video. Most visual surveillance systems start with motion detection. Motion detection methods attempt to locate connected regions of pixels that represent the moving objects within the scene; different approaches include frame-to-frame difference, background subtraction and motion analysis. The motion detection can be achieved by Principle Component Analysis (PCA and then separate an objects from background using background subtraction. The detected object can be segmented. Segmentation consists of two schemes: one for spatial segmentation and the other for temporal segmentation. Tracking approach can be done in each frame of detected Object. Pixel label problem can be alleviated by the MAP (Maximum a Posteriori technique.

  12. Upgrades for the Precision Proton Spectrometer at the LHC: Fast Timing and Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gallinaro, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) is an approved project to add tracking and timing information at approximately $\\pm$210~m from the interaction point around the CMS detector. It is designed to operate at high luminosity with up to 50 interactions per 25~ns bunch crossing to perform measurements of e.g. the quartic gauge couplings and search for rare exclusive processes. During 2016, CT-PPS took data in normal high-luminosity proton-proton LHC collisions. In the coming years, high radiation doses and large multiple-vertex interactions will represent difficult challenges that resemble those of the high-luminosity LHC program. A coordinated effort of detector upgrades with the goal of reaching the physics goals while mitigating the degradation effects is under way. Upgrades to the tracking and timing detectors are discussed.

  13. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  14. Delirium after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty - a cohort study of 6331 elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P B; Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a well-known complication among elderly surgical patients and associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of stay (LOS). In elective orthopedic surgery, including hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), most studies report incidences between 5...... without PD (P delirium symptoms contributing to LOS > 4 days in fast...

  15. Fast Track Teacher Education: A Review of the Research Literature on "Teach For All" Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Andrew; Price, Anne; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This review of the research literature was commissioned by the New Zealand Post-Primary Teachers Association (PPTA) Te Wehengarua as a means of informing the decision-making of the Association and its members about the Teach For All (TFA) scheme seeking to prepare teachers for New Zealand's schools. The systematic review is about fast track…

  16. Fast and Robust pointing and tracking using a second-generation star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Pickles, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Second generation star trackers work by taking wide-angle optical pictures of star fields, correlating the image against a star catalogue in ROM, centroiding many stars to derive an accurate position and orientation. This paper describes a miniature instrument(10cm cube), fast and lightweight (85...

  17. Fast and Accurate Collocation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Measurements with Cross-Track Infrared Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS are currently onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP satellite and will continue to be carried on the same platform as future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites for the next decade, it is desirable to develop a fast and accurate collocation scheme to collocate VIIRS products and measurements with CrIS for applications that rely on combining measurements from two sensors such as inter-calibration, geolocation assessment, and cloud detection. In this study, an accurate and fast collocation method to collocate VIIRS measurements within CrIS instantaneous field of view (IFOV directly based on line-of-sight (LOS pointing vectors is developed and discussed in detail. We demonstrate that this method is not only accurate and precise from a mathematical perspective, but also easy to implement computationally. More importantly, with optimization, this method is very fast and efficient and thus can meet operational requirements. Finally, this collocation method can be extended to a wide variety of sensors on different satellite platforms.

  18. 基于Gabor变换的快速跟踪算法%Fast tracking algorithm based on Gabor transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天阳; 吴小俊

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance the speed and accuracy of object tracking, a fast tracking algorithm based on Gabor trans-formation is proposed. According to the good simulation capability of Gabor transformation to human visual receptive field, the proposed algorithm extracts features via multi-scale and multi-orientation Gabor filters, and then realizes track-ing by utilizing image matching between target model and candidates. At the feature extracting stage, a multi-channel model is used to fuse Gabor features. And at the output stage, convolution property in spatial-frequency domain is exploited to realize fast posterior distribution computation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm has good prop-erties in accuracy and speed, and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.%为了增强目标跟踪的速度和精度,提出了一种基于Gabor变换的快速跟踪算法。根据Gabor变换对人类视觉感受野良好的模拟能力,用多尺度多方向的Gabor滤波器对目标图像进行特征抽取,以此建立目标的表观模型,而后利用图像匹配的方法得到相邻帧目标位置的后验概率分布从而实现跟踪。其中在特征抽取级利用线性多通道模型将不同尺度和方向的Gabor特征融合起来,在输出级利用时频的卷积特性以FFT实现相邻帧目标位置后验概率的快速计算,充分考虑了跟踪的速度和精度。实验结果表明,该算法选用的Gabor特征对目标有准确的描述能力,以此建立的表观模型鲁棒性强;同时跟踪过程简单快速,在精度和速度上与其他前沿的跟踪算法相较有优越性。

  19. Predictors of length of stay and patient satisfaction after hip and knee replacement surgery: fast-track experience in 712 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    after total hip and knee replacement surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between September 2003 and December 2005, 712 consecutive, unselected patients (440 women) with a mean age of 69 (31-91) years were admitted for hip and knee replacement surgery at our specialized fast-track joint replacement unit......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very few studies have focused on patient characteristics that influence length of stay (LOS) in fast-track total hip (THR) and knee arthroplasty (TKR). The aim of this prospective study was to identify patient characteristics associated with LOS and patient satisfaction...... characteristics that influence postoperative outcome, LOS, and patient satisfaction in our series of consecutive fast-track joint replacement patients, enabling further attention to be paid to certain aspects of surgery and rehabilitation....

  20. Fast track in total hip and knee arthroplasty--experiences from Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    . 307 patients who sustained 329 hip and knee arthroplasties were included in the study with the main material constituted from 243 primary unilateral THA and TKA arthroplasties. ANORAK-HH includes pre-operative patient clinic, patient motivation, dedicated staff, unchanged criteria for discharge...... and a planned LOS of maximum 5 days. 22 patient characteristics and 11 satisfaction parameters were registered as well as readmissions within 3 months. 95% of patients had a LOS of maximum 5 days with a mean of 3.9 days. Median and mean values of satisfaction for the entire track were 10 and 9.4 out of 10...

  1. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Dan; Sawant, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  2. A prospective study to assess the implementation of a fast-track system to meet the two-week target for colorectal cancer in Somerset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R. J.; Ewings, P.; Welbourn, R.; Collins, C.; Kennedy, R.; Royle, C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study assesses the introduction of a fast-track referral system for patients with suspected colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The referral system was initiated in Yeovil District Hospital and Taunton and Somerset Hospital using six screening criteria to select high-risk patients. Data on all high-risk patients from 1 November 1999 to 30 April 2000 was recorded prospectively. Patients with proven colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1 November 1998 and 30 April 1999 have been identified for comparison. RESULTS: There were 158 new cases of colorectal cancer in total (111 elective, 47 emergency). 59 cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed from 433 fast-track referrals (53% of total elective cases). Median time from referral to diagnosis in the fast-track group was 11 days vs. 32.5 days for nonfast-track elective patients (P < 0.001). Median time from referral to diagnosis for all elective cases was 17 days vs. 38.5 days for patients presenting one year earlier (P < 0.001). 75% of fast-track patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within two weeks, compared with 17% of nonfast-track elective patients (P < 0.001). The proportion of emergency admissions was reduced from 40% to 30% (P=0.07) following the introduction of this system. CONCLUSION: Data from the first six months reveal that over half of the elective cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed within the fast-track system. The median time from referral to diagnosis in these patients was within two weeks and there has been a significant reduction in the time to diagnosis associated with the introduction of this service.

  3. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively.

  4. Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using synthetic tracking technique

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Chengxing; Nemati, Bijan; Werne, Thomas A; Zhou, Hanying; Turyshev, Slava G; Sandhu, Jagmit; Hallinan, Gregg W; Harding, Leon K

    2014-01-01

    We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA), which was done using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. This asteroid, with apparent magnitude of 23, was moving at 5.97 degrees per day and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15 using 30 sec of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation one hour later at the same SNR. The asteroid moved 7 arcseconds in sky over the 30 sec of integration time because of its high proper motion. The synthetic tracking using 16.7 Hz frames avoided the trailing loss suffered by conventional techniques relying on 30-sec exposure, which would degrade the surface brightness of image on CCD to an approximate magnitude of 25. This detection was a result of our 12-hour blind search conducted on the Palomar 200-inch telescope over two nights on September 11 and 12, 2013 scanning twice over six 5.0 deg x 0.043 deg fields. The fact that we detected only one NEA, ...

  5. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8-10 bit resolution, 50-100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  6. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  7. Progressive strength training (10 RM) commenced immediately after fast-track total knee arthroplasty: is it feasible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of progressive strength training commenced immediately after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: A pilot study was conducted at an outpatient training facility. Fourteen patients with unilateral TKA were included from a fast-track orthopedic arthroplasty unit....... They received rehabilitation including progressive strength training of the operated leg (leg press and knee-extension), using relative loads of 10 repetition maximum with three training sessions per week for 2 weeks. Rehabilitation was commenced 1 or 2 days after TKA. At each training session, knee pain, knee...... joint effusion and training load were recorded. Isometric knee-extension strength and maximal walking speed were measured before the first and last session. Results: The training load increased progressively (p strength training exercises...

  8. Program development: role of the clinical nurse specialist in implementing a fast-track postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses are involved in many aspects of program development as part of their roles. This can involve such things as developing programs for staff and family education, organizing system-wide quality assurance programs, or implementing new care programs. One unique aspect of the advanced practice nurse's role is the ability to serve as a change agent and implement new models of care. Although all advanced practice nurses can be involved in program development, the role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist lends itself to devoting dedicated services for implementing programmatic change in the clinical setting. This article describes the role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in implementing an evidence-based, fast-track postanesthesia care unit.

  9. Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supply with 4th order Output Filter and Fixed-Frequency Hysteretic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated DC/DC power converter with very low output ripple voltage and very fast output voltage step response. The converter is intended for use as an envelope tracking power supply for an RFPA (Radio Frequency Power Amplifier) in a Tetra2...... base station. A simple and effective fixed-frequency hysteretic control scheme for the converter (buck with 4th order output filter) is developed and analyzed. The proposed approach is verified experimentally by a 500W output prototype, capable of delivering any voltage in the range of 10-30V within 10......μs with 10mVpp of output ripple and efficiencies in the 88- 95% range....

  10. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  11. The impact of a fast track area on quality and effectiveness outcomes: a Middle Eastern emergency department perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devkaran, Subashnie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a ubiquitous problem with serious public health implications. The fast track area is a novel method which aims to reduce waiting time, patient dissatisfaction and morbidity. |The study objective was to determine the impact of a fast track area (FTA) on both effectiveness measures (i.e. waiting times [WT] and length of stay [LOS]) and quality measures (i.e. LWBS rates and mortality rates) in non-urgent patients. The secondary objective was to assess if a FTA negatively impacted on urgent patients entering the ED. METHODS: The study took place in a 500 bed, urban, tertiary care hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This was a quasi-experimental, which examined the impact of a FTA on a pre-intervention control group (January 2005) (n = 4,779) versus a post-intervention study group (January 2006) (n = 5,706). RESULTS: Mean WTs of Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) 4 patients decreased by 22 min (95% CI 21 min to 24 min, P < 0.001). Similarly, mean WTs of CTAS 5 patients decreased by 28 min (95% CI 19 min to 37 min, P < 0.001) post FTA. The mean WTs of urgent patients (CTAS 2\\/3) were also significantly reduced after the FTA was opened (P < 0.001). The LWBS rate was reduced from 4.7% to 0.7% (95% CI 3.37 to 4.64; P < 0.001). Opening a FTA had no significant impact on mortality rates (P = 0.88). CONCLUSION: The FTA improved ED effectiveness (WTs and LOS) and quality measures (LWBS rates) whereas mortality rate remained unchanged.

  12. Fast-track surgery protocol in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guozheng Liu,1 Fengguo Jian,2 Xiuqin Wang,2 Lin Chen1 1Department of General Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Department of General Surgery, Changyi People’s Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Aim: To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC patients.Methods: Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21, FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21, conventional perioperative care (CC + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21, and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21. Observation indicators include intrasurgery indicators, postoperative recovery indicators, nutritional status indicators, and systemic stress response indicators.Results: Preoperative and intraoperative baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between patients in each group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences between each group in nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, urinary retention, incision infection, pulmonary infection, and urinary tract infection after operation (P>0.05. Time of first flatus and postoperative hospital stay time of FTS Group A were the shortest, and total medical cost of this group was the lowest. For all groups, serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin significantly decreased, while CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly increased postoperative day 1. From postoperative day 4–7, all indicators of the four groups gradually recovered, but compared with other three groups, those of Group A recovered fastest.Conclusion: FTS combined with laparoscopic surgery can promote faster postoperative recovery, improve early postoperative nutritional status, and more

  13. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out comparing two detector geometries and using...

  14.  MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN FAST TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne;

    scored mean nine out of possible ten points regarding their satisfaction with the entire stay including LOS. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate, that LOS can be shortened without reducing the quality of the hospital stay. Further studies conducted as randomized controlled trials, including follow-up......  PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to study the length of the hospital stay (LOS) in relation to a new multimodal pain strategy for patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty. Usual discharge criteria were used: independence in ambulation and transfers, independence in toileting...... underwent the "Timed Up & Go" test, a test for functional mobility. Patients were discharged according to criteria mentioned above and were asked to evaluate the quality of the hospital stay. EVALUATION: LOS was decreased for the THA patients from an already accelerated track of 3.8 days to 3.1 days...

  15. Highly Parallelized Pattern Matching Hardware for Fast Tracking at Hadron Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citraro, S.; Annovi, A.; Biesuz, N.; Giannetti, P.; Luciano, P.; Nasimi, H.; Piendibene, M.; Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Volpi, G.

    2016-04-01

    A high-performance “pattern matching” implementation based on the Associative Memory (AM) system is presented. It is designed to solve the real-time hit-to-track association problem for particles produced in high-energy physics experiments at hadron colliders. The processing time of pattern recognition in CPU-based algorithms increases rapidly with the detector occupancy due to the limited computing power and input-output capacity of hardware available on the market. The AM system presented here solves the problem by being able to process even the most complex hadron collider events produced at a rate of 100 kHz with an average latency smaller than 10 μs. The board built for this goal is able to execute 12 petabyte comparisons per second, with peak power consumption below 250 W, uniformly distributed on the large area of the board.

  16. A fast-initializing digital equalizer with on-line tracking for data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, R. C.; Barksdale, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A theory is developed for a digital equalizer for use in reducing intersymbol interference (ISI) on high speed data communications channels. The equalizer is initialized with a single isolated transmitter pulse, provided the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not unusually low, then switches to a decision directed, on-line mode of operation that allows tracking of channel variations. Conditions for optimal tap-gain settings are obtained first for a transversal equalizer structure by using a mean squared error (MSE) criterion, a first order gradient algorithm to determine the adjustable equalizer tap-gains, and a sequence of isolated initializing pulses. Since the rate of tap-gain convergence depends on the eigenvalues of a channel output correlation matrix, convergence can be improved by making a linear transformation on to obtain a new correlation matrix.

  17. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  18. Absolute fission yields in the fast neutron induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 U by track etch combined with gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, A; Kalsi, P C; Dange, S P

    2003-01-01

    The absolute fission yields of twenty seven fission products were determined in the fast neutron induced fission of sup 2 '3 sup 3 U, employing track etch in combination with gamma-ray spectrometry. The total number of fissions was measured by registering the fission tracks on a small strip of lexan, a solid state track detector. The fission products were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured yield values were compared to the ENDF/B-VI compilation and show a good agreement. (author)

  19. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  20. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  1. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B Bosse

    Full Text Available Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution.

  2. Associative Memory design for the Fast TracK processor (FTK) at Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Piendibene, M; Sacco, I; Sartori, L; Tripiccione, R

    2010-01-01

    We describe a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture, optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. A large CAM bank stores all trajectories of interest and extracts the ones compatible with a given event. This task is naturally parallelized by a CAM architecture able to output identified trajectories, recognized among a huge amount of possible combinations, in just a few 100 MHz clock cycles. We have developed this device (called the AMchip03 processor), using 180 nm technology, for the Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) upgrade at CDF using a standard-cell VLSI design methodology. We propose now a new design (90 nm technology) where we introduce a full custom standard cell. This is a customized design that allows to maximize the pattern density and to minimize the power consumption. We discuss also possible future extensions based on 3-D technology. This processor has a flexible and easily configurable structure that makes it suitabl...

  3. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the high luminosity upgrade of ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high/luminosity upgrade of the LHC will increase the rate of the proton-proton collisions by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the initial LHC-design. The ATLAS experiment will upgrade consequently, increasing its robustness and selectivity in the expected high radiation environment. In particular, the earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will require higher rejection power, still maintaining efficient selection on many various physics signatures. The key ingredient is the possibility of extracting tracking information from the brand new full-silicon detector and use it for the process. While fascinating, this solution poses a big challenge in the choice of the architecture, due to the reduced latency available at this trigger level (few tens of micro-seconds) and the high expected working rates (order of MHz). In this paper, we review the design possibilities of such a system in a potential new trigger and readout architecture, and present the performance resulting from a d...

  4. Fast internal marker tracking algorithm for onboard MV and kV imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, W; Wiersma, R D; Xing, L

    2008-05-01

    Intrafraction organ motion can limit the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) due to target position uncertainty. To ensure high accuracy in beam targeting, real-time knowledge of the target location is highly desired throughout the beam delivery process. This knowledge can be gained through imaging of internally implanted radio-opaque markers with fluoroscopic or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). In the case of MV based images, marker detection can be problematic due to the significantly lower contrast between different materials in comparison to their kV-based counterparts. This work presents a fully automated algorithm capable of detecting implanted metallic markers in both kV and MV images with high consistency. Using prior CT information, the algorithm predefines the volumetric search space without manual region-of-interest (ROI) selection by the user. Depending on the template selected, both spherical and cylindrical markers can be detected. Multiple markers can be simultaneously tracked without indexing confusion. Phantom studies show detection success rates of 100% for both kV and MV image data. In addition, application of the algorithm to real patient image data results in successful detection of all implanted markers for MV images. Near real-time operational speeds of approximately 10 frames/sec for the detection of five markers in a 1024 x 768 image are accomplished using an ordinary PC workstation.

  5. Fast spacecraft adaptive attitude tracking control through immersion and invariance design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haowei; Yue, Xiaokui; Li, Peng; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-certainty-equivalence adaptive control method for the attitude tracking control problem of spacecraft with inertia uncertainties. The proposed immersion and invariance (I&I) based adaptation law provides a more direct and flexible approach to circumvent the limitations of the basic I&I method without employing any filter signal. By virtue of the adaptation high-gain equivalence property derived from the proposed adaptive method, the closed-loop adaptive system with a low adaptation gain could recover the high adaptation gain performance of the filter-based I&I method, and the resulting control torque demands during the initial transient has been significantly reduced. A special feature of this method is that the convergence of the parameter estimation error has been observably improved by utilizing an adaptation gain matrix instead of a single adaptation gain value. Numerical simulations are presented to highlight the various benefits of the proposed method compared with the certainty-equivalence-based control method and filter-based I&I control schemes.

  6. Thromboembolic and major bleeding events in relation to perioperative bridging of vitamin K antagonists in 649 fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    - This was an observational cohort treatment study in consecutive primary unilateral total hip and knee arthroplasty patients between January 2010 and November 2013 in 8 Danish fast-track departments. Data were collected prospectively on preoperative comorbidity and anticoagulants in patients with preoperative vitamin K...

  7. Why "The Best Way of Learning to Coach the Game Is Playing the Game": Conceptualising "Fast-Tracked" High-Performance Coaching Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, Alexander David; Evans, Adam; Piggott, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning of the 2013/2014 season in England and Wales, 90 head coaches of the 92 men's national professional football league clubs and 20 of the 22 men's professional rugby union clubs had tenure as a professional elite player in their respective sports. Moreover, Rynne [(2014). "'Fast track' and 'traditional path' coaches:…

  8. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  9. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  10. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aglieri Rinella, G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina Gil, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Martin, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Perktold, L.; Petagna, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼1GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X{sub 0}. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2×10{sup 14} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (<0.15%X{sub 0}) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200μm thick silicon sensors.

  11. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  12. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc, E-mail: Luc.Beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de radio-oncologie et Axe Oncologie du Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Binnekamp, Dirk [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 4-6, Best 5680 DA (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  13. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility for a fast-track path to DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A.M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Abdou, M.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chan, V.S.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Morley, N.B. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Navratil, G.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Sawan, M.E. [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Taylor, T.S.; Wong, C.P.C.; Wu, W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Ying, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A FNSF is needed to reduce the knowledge gaps to a fusion DEMO and accelerate progress toward fusion energy. • FNSF will test and qualify first-wall/blanket components and materials in a DEMO-relevant fusion environment. • The Advanced Tokamak approach enables reduced size and risks, and is on a direct path to an attractive target power plant. • Near term research focus on specific tasks can enable starting FNSF construction within the next ten years. - Abstract: An accelerated fusion energy development program, a “fast-track” approach, requires proceeding with a nuclear and materials testing program in parallel with research on burning plasmas, ITER. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) would address many of the key issues that need to be addressed prior to DEMO, including breeding tritium and completing the fuel cycle, qualifying nuclear materials for high fluence, developing suitable materials for the plasma-boundary interface, and demonstrating power extraction. The Advanced Tokamak (AT) is a strong candidate for an FNSF as a consequence of its mature physics base, capability to address the key issues, and the direct relevance to an attractive target power plant. The standard aspect ratio provides space for a solenoid, assuring robust plasma current initiation, and for an inboard blanket, assuring robust tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 for FNSF tritium self-sufficiency and building of inventory needed to start up DEMO. An example design point gives a moderate sized Cu-coil device with R/a = 2.7 m/0.77 m, κ = 2.3, B{sub T} = 5.4 T, I{sub P} = 6.6 MA, β{sub N} = 2.75, P{sub fus} = 127 MW. The modest bootstrap fraction of ƒ{sub BS} = 0.55 provides an opportunity to develop steady state with sufficient current drive for adequate control. Proceeding with a FNSF in parallel with ITER provides a strong basis to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q ∼ 10 in ITER.

  14. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes.

  16. Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hua

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and χ2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P>0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

  17. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  18. Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Heki, Kosuke; Hanada, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the global gravity field recovery capability of the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) which will be launched in 2005. New characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry include four-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of main orbiter and differential VLBI tracking of two small free-flier satellites. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will improve lunar gravity field in wide range of wavelength as well as far-side selenoid.

  19. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  20. 合并呼吸功能不全病人围手术期快速康复治疗%Fast track surgery in patients with respiratory insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德祥; 任黎; 许剑民

    2011-01-01

    手术病人的快速康复治疗(fast track surgery)创新性地整合了围手术期一系列干预措施,这些干预措施在合并呼吸功能不全的手术病人中被证明具有良好效果,从而达到减少机体创伤应激反应,加快正常功能恢复和减少术后并发症的目的.%Fast track surgery in patients with respiratory insufficiency has been introduced as an integrated protocol to combine unimodal evidence-based perioperative intervention into a multi-modal effort to shorten stress and enhance recovery.

  1. Nurse practitioners’ attitudes to nutritional challenges dealing with the patients’ nutritional needs and ability to care for themselves in a fast track program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graarup, Jytte; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition plays an important role to the success of fast track programs, but under nutrition are still reported. Nutritional care seems to be a low priority among nurses even though it is well-known that insufficient nutrition has severe consequences for the patients. The aim...... is to report to what extent a training program has made Nutritional Nurse Practitioners aware of the nutritional care for short-term hospitalized patients, and how they deal with patients’ nutritional needs and ability to provide self-care in the context of a fast track program. Methods: Deductive content...... analysis was used to analyse data from four focus group interviews. Sixteen Nutritional Nurse Practitioners from either medical or surgery wards participated. The Nutritional Nurse Practitioners were interviewed twice. The interviews were recorded and verbally transcribed. Results: In the Nutritional Nurse...

  2. Fast Tracks to Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. H.

    It is often assumed that the evolution of intelligence is inevitable, given the self-organizing seen in dissapative systems and the gradual shaping-up of Darwinism. While compound-interest reasoning suggests that small advantages will eventually triumph, eventually may be a very long time: there are few examples of rapid brain growth, suggesting that "smarter-is-better" is not a potent force for evolution.

  3. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  4. Implementing a Comprehensive Program for the Prevention of Conduct Problems in Rural Communities: The Fast Track Experience1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure, delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway in four demographically diverse areas of the United States, testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes some lessons learned about the implementation of this program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and regional communities that constitute their service area. Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values, limited recreational, educational and mental health services, and politically conservative climates are all more likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both pose particular challenges to the implementation of prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation are described in detail: (a) community entry and program initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural prevention program. PMID:9338956

  5. Comparison between two different selective spinal anesthesia techniques in ambulatory knee arthroscopy as fast-track anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Hassan, Hossam Ibrahim Eldesuky

    2015-01-01

    Background: There were several studies using either low dose Bupivacaine as unilateral selective spinal anesthesia (SSA) or low dose lidocaine SSA for ambulatory knee arthroscopy. There were many concerns about high failure rate, complications, and different times to home readiness discharges. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to: (1) Compare the clinical efficacy and side effects of two different techniques of SSA in subarachnoid block for ambulatory knee arthroscopy (2) evaluate the possibility of a shorter stay in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or eligibility for fast tracking anesthesia (bypassing PACU) after SSA and numbers of patient bypassed PACU (3) compare the time to ambulate and time to home readiness. Patients and Methods: Prospective, randomized and open study was conducted, including 50 outpatients undergoing knee arthroscopy. Patients allocated into two groups: Bupivacaine group (group B); was injected with 3 mg bupivacaine and 10 ug fentanyl intrathecally in lateral decubitus position and remained for 20 min then supine position. Lidocaine group (group L) was injected with 20 mg lidocaine, plus 25 ug fentanyl intrathecally and immediately keeps in the supine position after injection. The quality and durations of motor and sensory block were compared between groups. Sensory block assessed by pin brick method and motor block assessed by Bromage scale. Time spent in PACU, the time to ambulate, and times to home-readiness were compared. Number of patients bypassed PACU was recorded. Side effects as pain, nausea, vomiting, postdural puncture headache, transient neurological symptoms, retention of urine and pruritus were evaluated and compared after SSA. Results: Bupivacaine group provided unilateral spinal anesthesia with significantly longer duration of both motor and sensory blocks than bilateral spinal of lidocaine group P 0.05. Group L patients did not stay in PACU, and all patients bypassed it P anesthesia than bupivacaine spinal with shorter time

  6. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  7. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  8. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  9. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Landsmeer, S.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Antwerpen, G. van; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time

  10. The impact of the Medicines Control Council backlog and fast-track review system on access to innovative and new generic and biosimilar medicines of public health importance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Henry Martin John; Pollock, Allyson M; Sanders, David

    2016-03-17

    The fast-track registration policy of the South African National Department of Health allows for rapid registration of new medicines of public health importance and of all medicines on the Essential Medicines List, most of which are generics. No limit is placed on the number of generic brands of a medicine that can be submitted for fast-track registration. This, together with resource constraints at the regulator, may delay access to important new medicines, new fixed-dose combinations of critical medicines or affordable versions of biological medicines (biosimilars). One reason for not limiting the number of fast-track generic applications was to promote price competition among generic brands. We found this not to be valid, since market share correlated poorly with price. Generic brands with high market share were, mostly, those that were registered first. We propose that the number of generic brands accepted for fast-tracking be limited to not more than seven per medicine.

  11. Benefits of ultra-fast-track anesthesia in left ventricular assist device implantation: a retrospective, propensity score matched cohort study of a four-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayat, Rashad; Menon, Ares K; Goetzenich, Andreas; Schaelte, Gereon; Autschbach, Ruediger; Stoppe, Christian; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Tewarie, Lachmandath; Moza, Ajay

    2017-02-08

    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has gained significant importance for treatment of end-stage heart failure. Fast-track procedures are well established in cardiac surgery, whereas knowledge of their benefits after LVAD implantation is sparse. We hypothesized that ultra-fast-track anesthesia (UFTA) with in-theater extubation or at a maximum of 4 h. after surgery is feasible in Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) level 3 and 4 patients and might prevent postoperative complications. From March, 2010 to March, 2012, 53 LVADs (50 Heart Mate II and 3 Heart Ware) were implanted in patients in our department. UFTA was successfully performed (LVAD ultra ) in 13 patients. After propensity score matching, we compared the LVAD ultra group with a matched group (LVAD match ) receiving conventional anesthesia management. Patients in the LVAD ultra group had significantly lower incidences of pneumonia (p = 0.031), delirium (p = 0.031) and right ventricular failure (RVF) (p = 0.031). They showed a significantly higher cardiac index in the first 12 h. (p = 0.017); a significantly lower central venous pressure during the first 24 h. postoperatively (p = 0.005) and a significantly shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p = 0.016). Kaplan-Meier analysis after four years of follow-up showed no significant difference in survival. In this pilot study, we demonstrated the feasibility of ultra-fast-track anesthesia in LVAD implantation in selected patients with INTERMACS level 3-4. Patients had a lower incidence of postoperative complications, better hemodynamic performance, shorter length of ICU stay and lower incidence of RVF after UFTA. Prospective randomized investigations should examine the preservation of right ventricular function in larger numbers and identify appropriate selection criteria.

  12. The feasibility of a single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention for breathlessness in advanced disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Sara

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breathlessness Intervention Service is a novel service for patients with intractable breathlessness regardless of aetiology. It is being evaluated using the Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. This paper describes the feasibility results of Phase II: a single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Methods A single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease referred to the service. Patients were randomised to either receive the intervention immediately for an eight-week period, or receive the intervention after an eight-week period on a waiting list during which time they received standard care. Outcomes examined included: response rates to the trial; response rates to the individual questionnaires and items; comments relating to the trial functioning made during interviews with patients, carers, referrers and service providers; and, researcher fieldwork notes. Results 16 of the 20 eligible patients agreed to participate in a recruitment visit (16/20; 14 respondents went on to complete a recruitment visit/baseline interview. The majority of those who completed a recruitment visit/baseline interview completed the RCT protocol (13/14; 12 of their carers were recruited and completed the protocol. An unblinding rate of 6/25 respondents (patients and carers was identified. Missing data were minimal and only one patient was lost to follow up. The fast-track trial methodology proved feasible and acceptable. Two of the baseline/outcome measures proved unsuitable: the WHO performance scale and the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW. Conclusion This study adds to the evidence that fast-track randomised controlled trials are feasible and acceptable in evaluations of palliative care interventions for patients with non-malignant conditions

  13. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually-far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before

  14. The performance of the γ-ray tracking array GRETINA for γ-ray spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, D.; Bazin, D.; Bender, P. C.; Campbell, C. M.; Recchia, F.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Belarge, J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Elman, B.; Fallon, P.; Forney, A.; Gade, A.; Harker, J.; Kobayashi, N.; Langer, C.; Lauritsen, T.; Lee, I. Y.; Lemasson, A.; Longfellow, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Miki, K.; Momiyama, S.; Noji, S.; Radford, D. C.; Scott, M.; Sethi, J.; Stroberg, S. R.; Sullivan, C.; Titus, R.; Wiens, A.; Williams, S.; Wimmer, K.; Zhu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The γ-ray tracking array GRETINA was coupled to the S800 magnetic spectrometer for spectroscopy with fast beams of rare isotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory on the campus of Michigan State University. We describe the technical details of this powerful setup and report on GRETINA's performance achieved with source and in-beam measurements. The γ-ray multiplicity encountered in experiments with fast beams is usually low, allowing for a simplified and efficient treatment of the data in the γ-ray analysis in terms of Doppler reconstruction and spectral quality. The results reported in this work were obtained from GRETINA consisting of 8 detector modules hosting four high-purity germanium crystals each. Currently, GRETINA consists of 10 detector modules.

  15. Functional Risk Modeling for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fraser; Mathias, Donovan; Go, Susie; Nejad, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to risk modeling that we call functional modeling , which we have developed to estimate the capabilities of a lunar base. The functional model tracks the availability of functions provided by systems, in addition to the operational state of those systems constituent strings. By tracking functions, we are able to identify cases where identical functions are provided by elements (rovers, habitats, etc.) that are connected together on the lunar surface. We credit functional diversity in those cases, and in doing so compute more realistic estimates of operational mode availabilities. The functional modeling approach yields more realistic estimates of the availability of the various operational modes provided to astronauts by the ensemble of surface elements included in a lunar base architecture. By tracking functional availability the effects of diverse backup, which often exists when two or more independent elements are connected together, is properly accounted for.

  16. Fast, label-free tracking of single viruses and weakly scattering nanoparticles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Faez, Sanli; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-01-01

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber containing a sub-wavelength, nano-fluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylinderical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled d...

  17. The effects of surface roughness on lunar Askaryan pulses

    CERN Document Server

    James, C W

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lunar surface roughness, on both small and large scales, on Askaryan radio pulses generated by particle cascades beneath the lunar surface has never been fully estimated. Surface roughness affects the chances of a pulse escaping the lunar surface, its coherency, and the characteristic detection geometry. It will affect the expected signal shape, the relative utility of different frequency bands, the telescope pointing positions on the lunar disk, and most fundamentally, the chances of detecting the known UHE cosmic ray and any prospective UHE neutrino flux. Near-future radio-telescopes such as FAST and the SKA promise to be able to detect the flux of cosmic rays, and it is critical that surface roughness be treated appropriately in simulations. of the lunar Askaryan technique. In this contribution, a facet model for lunar surface roughness is combined with a method to propagate coherent radio pulses through boundaries to estimate the full effects of lunar surface roughness on neutrino-detection...

  18. A prospective cohort study to investigate cost-minimisation, of Traditional open, open fAst track recovery and laParoscopic fASt track multimodal management, for surgical patients with colon carcinomas (TAPAS study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, J.C.; Spanjersberg, W.R.; Oostvogel, H.J.M.; Buskens, E.; Maring, J.; Kruijt, F.; Rosman, C.; Duivendijk, P. van; Dejong, C.H.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present developments in colon surgery are characterized by two innovations: the introduction of the laparoscopic operation technique and fast recovery programs such as the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) recovery program. The Tapas-study was conceived to determine which of the

  19. Adaptive welding of fillet welds using a fast seam-tracking sensor in combination with a standard industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischetsrieder, Alexandra

    1996-08-01

    In laser welding, problems often arise from the accuracy required by the laser process, particularly where joints have narrow tolerance limits, e.g. with a fillet weld at an overlap joint. In a number of applications seam-tracking sensors can improve this situation. They are able to detect and follow the joint geometry autonomously. In addition to the tolerances, a varying gap between the parts to weld can cause welding flaws. To solve the problems caused by the height of the gap a functionality for adaptive welding can be integrated into the tracking sensor, rendering possible a determined influence on process parameters. Functional dependencies between the height of the gap and the welding parameters are presented in this paper. To further enhance the accuracy of path tracking the dynamic behavior of the system is investigated. With the integration of these dependencies into the tracking sensor, an algorithm for adaptive welding has been obtained, which takes another step towards the raise of profitability of laser installations by a simplified weld seam preparation and an enhanced stability of the welding process.

  20. A Comparative Study of Analog Voltage-mode Control Methods for Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    (UFTPSs) for RF power amplifiers, where the switching converter needs to track a varying reference voltage precisely and quickly while maintaining low output impedance. The small-signal analyses performed on the different controllers show that the hysteretic-type controller can achieve the highest loop...

  1. Tracking the speech signal--time-locked MEG signals during perception of ultra-fast and moderately fast speech in blind and in sighted listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Ackermann, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Blind people can learn to understand speech at ultra-high syllable rates (ca. 20 syllables/s), a capability associated with hemodynamic activation of the central-visual system. To further elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this skill, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements during listening to sentence utterances were cross-correlated with time courses derived from the speech signal (envelope, syllable onsets and pitch periodicity) to capture phase-locked MEG components (14 blind, 12 sighted subjects; speech rate=8 or 16 syllables/s, pre-defined source regions: auditory and visual cortex, inferior frontal gyrus). Blind individuals showed stronger phase locking in auditory cortex than sighted controls, and right-hemisphere visual cortex activity correlated with syllable onsets in case of ultra-fast speech. Furthermore, inferior-frontal MEG components time-locked to pitch periodicity displayed opposite lateralization effects in sighted (towards right hemisphere) and blind subjects (left). Thus, ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind individuals appears associated with changes in early signal-related processing mechanisms both within and outside the central-auditory terrain.

  2. Eruptions on the fast track: application of Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithms to visual and thermal high-speed videos of Strombolian explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Monica, Moroni; Jacopo, Taddeucci; Luca, Shindler; Piergiorgio, Scarlato

    2013-04-01

    Strombolian eruptions are characterized by mild, frequent explosions that eject gas and ash- to bomb-sized pyroclasts into the atmosphere. Studying these explosions is crucial, both for direct hazard assessment and for understanding eruption dynamics. Conventional thermal and optical imaging already allows characterizing several eruptive processes, but the quantification of key parameters linked to magma properties and conduit processes requires acquiring images at higher frequency. For example, high speed imaging already demonstrated how the size and the pressure of the gas bubble are linked to the decay of the ejection velocity of the particles, and the origin of the bombs, either fresh or recycled material, could be linked to their thermal evolution. However, the manual processing of the images is time consuming. Consequently, it does not allows neither the routine monitoring nor averaged statistics, since only a few relevant particles - usually the fastest - of a few explosions can be taken into account. In order to understand the dynamics of strombolian eruption, and particularly their cyclic behavior, the quantification of the total mass, heat and energy discharge are a crucial point. In this study, we use a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithm jointly to traditional images processing to automatically extract the above parameters from visible and thermal high-speed videos of individual Strombolian explosions. PTV is an analysis technique where each single particle is detected and tracked during a series of images. Velocity, acceleration, and temperature can then be deduced and time averaged to get an extensive overview of each explosion. The suitability of PTV and its potential limitations in term of detection and representativity is investigated in various explosions of Stromboli (Italy), Yasur (Vanuatu) and Fuego (Guatemala) volcanoes. On most event, multiple sub-explosion are visible. In each sub-explosion, trends are noticeable : (1) the ejection

  3. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  4. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-m fast speed walking and 30-s chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC...

  5. Fast, Label-Free Tracking of Single Viruses and Weakly Scattering Nanoparticles in a Nanofluidic Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faez, Sanli; Lahini, Yoav; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-12-22

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber having a subwavelength, nanofluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylindrical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled dielectric particles as small as 20 nm as well as individual cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) virions-26 nm in size and 4.6 megadaltons in mass-at rates of over 3 kHz for durations of tens of seconds. Our setup is easily incorporated into common optical microscopes and extends their detection range to nanometer-scale particles and macromolecules. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for widespread applications in medical diagnostics and micro total analysis systems.

  6. Fast and high-energy neutron detection with nuclear track detectors: Results of the European joint experiments 1992/93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraube, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Alberts, W.G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Weeks, A.R. [comps.] [Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    Under the auspices of EURADOS, the European radiation dosimetry group, seventeen recognised laboratories engaged in the field of individual neutron dosimetry with passive track detectors participated in an international comparative experiment. A number of twenty-seven detector systems, predominantly etched track detectors with the material PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate), were employed by the participating laboratories. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were provided for irradiations free-in-air and on front of a PMMA phantom by the GSF (Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany) and by the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). High energy irradiations were conducted by the PSI (Paul-Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland). The results of the on-phantom irradiations were used to derive energy and angular responses of the track detectors, those of the free-in-air irradiations to obtain data for the linearity characteristics of the response with dose. The report contains a short description and the original data of the participating laboratories, displays the irradiation and reference conditions, and provides an over-all evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative evaluation of the background characteristics and of the non-linearity observed with most of the systems employed which limits their useful dose-range of application. (orig.)

  7. Ropeway material handling systems for lunar mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttelmaier, H. P.; Carrick, Jonathan R.

    The feasibility of ropeways for short- as well as long-distance material hauling on the lunar surface is discussed. Existing experience in ropeways and relevant knowledge on lunar environmental contraints are summarized. It is suggested that ease of erection, adaptivity to varying transportation lengths and irregular terrain, as well as weight considerations will result in lunar ropeway applications. Ropeways are argued to be the most viable material-handling system for a lunar activity site on the basis of available technology. A low-capacity, reversible ropeway system which separates track and haul rope is the most feasible system. It is possible to apply sensing systems and automation to a high degree.

  8. Lunar cartography with the Apollo 17 ALSE radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, M.; Roth, L.; Thompson, T. W.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar position differences between thirteen craters in Mare Serenitatis were computed from VHF radar-imagery obtained by the Lunar Sounder instrument flown on the Apollo 17 command module. The radar-derived position differences agree with those obtained by conventional photogrammetric reductions of Apollo metric photography. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the Apollo Lunar Sounder data to determine the positions of lunar features along the Apollo 17 orbital tracks. This will be particularly useful for western limb and farside areas, where no Apollo metric camera pictures are available.

  9. Improvement of Communication Condition from Lunar Rover to Deep Space Tracking Station in Antarctic Great-Wall Station%南极长城站建立深空跟踪站对月球车地-月通信条件的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝卫峰; 李斐; 叶茂; 张杰

    2012-01-01

    假定在地球南极中国长城科学考察站建立跟踪站,模拟计算月球南极月球车和该跟踪站之间通信的可达性,并和国内跟踪站与南极月球车之间的通信条件进行比较。计算结果表明:①在长城站所建立的跟踪站与月球南极的月球车通信受地形的影响比与我国境内的跟踪站的影响要小;②中国南极长城站和我国境内的跟踪站经度相差180°,综合长城站和我国境内的跟踪站,可以减少由于地球自转而造成的测站背离月球的影响,使观测时段更长。南极长城站建立深空探测跟踪站的通信可达性模拟计算可为我国深空探测网建站的规划及可行性研究提供参考。%If a deep space tracking station is founded in Earth's Antarctic area,communication conditions will be greatly improved attributing to its broader vision.This paper assumes the deep space station is established in Chinese Antarctica Great-Wall station,and simulates the communication accessibility between the lunar rover and the Great-Wall tracking station.Through the comparison with the domestic tracking station's communication condition,the results show that:① The influence of communication condition by topography between the lunar rover in lunar south pole and Great-Wall tracking station is less than that between the lunar rover in lunar south pole and the domestic tracking stations.② The longitude is about 180° from the Chinese Antarctic Great-Wall station to the domestic tracking station.Integrated with all of the tracking stations,including Chinese Antarctic Great-Wall station and domestic tracking stations,the impact of the stations away from the Moon due to the Earth's rotation can be reduced and the tracking time can be lengthened.The simulation and analysis of communication accessibility for choosing Antarctic Great-Wall station as deep space tracking station,can provide a suggestion for the feasibility of construction of the next deep space

  10. A fast-track anaemia clinic in the Emergency Department: feasibility and efficacy of intravenous iron administration for treating sub-acute iron deficiency anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Fabra-Cadenas, Sara; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martínez-Virto, Ana; García-Erce, José A.; Muñoz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant anaemia, requiring red blood cell transfusions, is frequently observed in Emergency Departments (ED). To optimise blood product use, we developed a clinical protocol for the management of iron-deficiency anaemia in a fast-track anaemia clinic within the ED. Materials and methods From November 2010 to January 2014, patients presenting with sub-acute, moderate-to-severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) and confirmed or suspected iron deficiency were referred to the fast-track anaemia clinic. Those with absolute or functional iron deficiency were given intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose 500–1,000 mg/week and were reassessed 4 weeks after receiving the total iron dose. The primary study outcome was the haematological response (Hb≥12 g/dL and/or Hb increment ≥2 g/dL). Changes in blood and iron parameters, transfusion rates and IV iron-related adverse drug effects were secondary outcomes. Results Two hundred and two anaemic patients with iron deficiency (150 women/52 men; mean age, 64 years) were managed in the fast-track anaemia clinic, and received a median IV iron dose of 1,500 mg (1,000–2,000 mg). Gastro-intestinal (44%) or gynaecological (26%) bleeding was the most frequent cause of the anaemia. At follow-up (183 patients), the mean Hb increment was 3.9±2.2 g/dL; 84% of patients were classified as responders and blood and iron parameters normalised in 90%. During follow-up, 35 (17%) patients needed transfusions (2 [range: 1–3] units per patient) because they had low Hb levels, symptoms of anaemia and/or were at risk. Eight mild and one moderate, self-limited adverse drug effects were witnessed. Discussion Our data support the feasibility of a clinical protocol for management of sub-acute anaemia with IV iron in the ED. IV iron was efficacious, safe and well tolerated. Early management of anaemia will improve the use of blood products in the ED. PMID:26674819

  11. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  12. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. In view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.

  13. New Fast Fall Detection Method Based on Spatio-Temporal Context Tracking of Head by Using Depth Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to deal with the problem of projection occurring in fall detection with two-dimensional (2D grey or color images, this paper proposed a robust fall detection method based on spatio-temporal context tracking over three-dimensional (3D depth images that are captured by the Kinect sensor. In the pre-processing procedure, the parameters of the Single-Gauss-Model (SGM are estimated and the coefficients of the floor plane equation are extracted from the background images. Once human subject appears in the scene, the silhouette is extracted by SGM and the foreground coefficient of ellipses is used to determine the head position. The dense spatio-temporal context (STC algorithm is then applied to track the head position and the distance from the head to floor plane is calculated in every following frame of the depth image. When the distance is lower than an adaptive threshold, the centroid height of the human will be used as the second judgment criteria to decide whether a fall incident happened. Lastly, four groups of experiments with different falling directions are performed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect fall incidents that occurred in different orientations, and they only need a low computation complexity.

  14. Predictors of length of stay and patient satisfaction after hip and knee replacement surgery: fast-track experience in 712 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very few studies have focused on patient characteristics that influence length of stay (LOS) in fast-track total hip (THR) and knee arthroplasty (TKR). The aim of this prospective study was to identify patient characteristics associated with LOS and patient satisfaction....... Epidemiological, physical, and perioperative parameters were registered and correlated to LOS and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: 92% of the patients were discharged directly to their homes within 5 days, and 41% were discharged within 3 days. Age, sex, marital status, co-morbidity, preoperative use of walking...... aids, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin levels, the need for blood transfusion, ASA score, and time between surgery and mobilization, were all found to influence postoperative outcome in general, and LOS and patient satisfaction in particular. INTERPRETATION: We identified several patient...

  15. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.

  16. Fast tracking of wind speed with a differential absorption LiDAR system: first results of an experimental campaign at Stromboli volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parracino, Stefano; Santoro, Simone; Maio, Giovanni; Nuvoli, Marcello; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered a precursor gas of volcanic eruptions by volcanologists. Monitoring the anomalous release of this parameter, we can retrieve useful information for the mitigation of volcanic hazards, such as for air traffic security. From a dataset collected during the Stromboli volcano field campaign, an assessment of the wind speed, in both horizontal and vertical paths, performing a fast tracking of this parameter was retrieved. This was determined with a newly designed shot-per-shot differential absorption LiDAR system operated in the near-infrared spectral region due to the simultaneous reconstruction of CO2 concentrations and wind speeds, using the same sample of LiDAR returns. A correlation method was used for the wind speed retrieval in which the transport of the spatial inhomogeneities of the aerosol backscattering coefficient, along the optical path of the system, was analyzed.

  17. Research on Fast 3D Hand Motion Tracking System%快速的三维人手运动跟踪方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕治国; 李焱; 徐昕

    2012-01-01

    三维人手运动跟踪是人机交互领域的一个重要研究方向.提出了一种新的基于模型的三维人手运动跟踪方法,该方法将层次优化嵌入到基于粒子滤波器的跟踪框架中,通过在隐状态空间中对粒子采样来提高粒子滤波器采样效率.首先,提出了采用低维隐状态来描述人手的配置状态,并根据人手的生理运动约束建立人手动态模型;其次,为提高粒子在隐状态空间的采样效率,提出了采用层次遗传优化来快速地在局部寻找好的粒子,并以此作为重要度采样函数修正粒子滤波的采样算法.实验结果表明,该方法可以在人手自遮挡存在时的复杂背景下快速地对人手运动进行跟踪.%3D hand tracking is one of the major research topics in the field of human-computer interaction. We present a novel model-based hand tracking method in this paper, which embeds hierarchical optimization method into the particle-filter-based tracking frames to improve the efficiency of particles sampling from the hidden state space. Firstly, the low dimension hidden state space is introduced to approximately describe the hand configuration state in the original high dimension configuration space, and the dynamic hand model in the hidden state space is presented according to the physiological constraints of hand motion. Secondly, to obtain more efficient particles during tracking, hierarchical genetic optimization method is regarded as the importance sampling function to modify the sampling algorithm of particle-filter. Experiments demonstrate that our approach can have fast tracking performance even under the clutter background when hand part self-occlusion exists.

  18. Simultaneous three-dimensional tracking of individual signals from multi-trap optical tweezers using fast and accurate photodiode detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dino; Nader, S; Reihani, S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2014-09-22

    Multiple-beam optical traps facilitate advanced trapping geometries and exciting discoveries. However, the increased manipulation capabilities come at the price of more challenging position and force detection. Due to unrivaled bandwidth and resolution, photodiode based detection is preferred over camera based detection in most single/dual-beam optical traps assays. However, it has not been trivial to implement photodiode based detection for multiple-beam optical traps. Here, we present a simple and efficient method based on spatial filtering for parallel photodiode detection of multiple traps. The technique enables fast and accurate 3D force and distance detection of multiple objects simultaneously manipulated by multiple-beam optical tweezers.

  19. Solar flares, the lunar surface, and gas rich meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. J.; Cowsik, R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.; Rajan, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations on the Fe-group nuclei track density vs depth in lunar rocks and Surveyor 3 TV camera filter glass were critically examined considering more factors than previously. The analysis gives a firmer basis to the observation of the preferential leakage of low energy Fe nuclei from the accelerating region of the sun. The track density gradients in lunar rock 12022 and filter glass are used to determine the lunar erosion rate of 3 angstroms/yr. Track gradients are less steep than predicted from energy spectrum observed in the Surveyor glass, perhaps due to sputtering. High densities of etchable tracks were found at all depths down to 60 cm in fines from Apollo cores and also in thin sections of the Pesjanoe, Pantar, and Fayetteville gas-rich meteorites. It is felt unlikely that suprathermal heavy ions were responsible for the high track densities.

  20. FastTrack to supercritical fluid chromatographic purification: Implementation of a walk-up analytical supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening system in the medicinal chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Christine; Farrell, William

    2010-09-24

    Medicinal chemists often depend on analytical instrumentation for reaction monitoring and product confirmation at all stages of pharmaceutical discovery and development. To obtain pure compounds for biological assays, the removal of side products and final compounds through purification is often necessary. Prior to purification, chemists often utilize open-access analytical LC/MS instruments because mass confirmation is fast and reliable, and the chromatographic separation of most sample constituents is sufficient. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is often used as an orthogonal technique to HPLC or when isolation of the free base of a compound is desired. In laboratories where SFC is the predominant technique for analysis and purification of compounds, a reasonable approach for quickly determining suitable purification conditions is to screen the sample against different columns. This can be a bottleneck to the purification process. To commission SFC for open-access use, a walk-up analytical SFC/MS screening system was implemented in the medicinal chemistry laboratory. Each sample is automatically screened through six column/method conditions, and on-demand data processing occurs for the chromatographers after each screening method is complete. This paper highlights the "FastTrack" approach to expediting samples through purification.

  1. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  2. Online Adaptive Fast Multipose Face Tracking Based on Visual Cue Selection%基于在线特征选择的实时多姿态人脸跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 李子青; 潘泉; 李静; 赵春晖; 程咏梅

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is able to reliably track multiple faces under varying poses (tilted and rotated) in real time. The system consists of two interactive modules. The first module performs the detection of the face that is subject to rotation.The second module carries out online learnirg-based face tracking. A mechanism that switches between the two modules is embedded into the system to automatically decide the best strategy for reliable tracking. The mechanism enables a smooth transit between the detection and tracking modules when one of them gives either nil or unreliable results. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the system can reliably carry out real time tracking of multiple faces in a complex background under different conditions such as out-of-plane rotation, tilting, fast nonlinear motion, partial occlusion, large scale changes, and camera motion. Moreover, it runs at a high speed of 10~12 frames per second (fps) for an image of 320 × 240.

  3. Fast characterisation of cell-derived extracellular vesicles by nanoparticles tracking analysis, cryo-electron microscopy, and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Tatischeff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The joint use of 3 complementary techniques, namely, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy (RTM, is proposed for a rapid characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs of various origins. NTA is valuable for studying the size distribution and concentration, Cryo-EM is outstanding for the morphological characterisation, including observation of vesicle heterogeneity, while RTM provides the global chemical composition without using any exogenous label. The capabilities of this approach are evaluated on the example of cell-derived vesicles of Dictyostelium discoideum, a convenient general model for eukaryotic EVs. At least 2 separate species differing in chemical composition (relative amounts of DNA, lipids and proteins, presence of carotenoids were found for each of the 2 physiological states of this non-pathogenic microorganism, that is, cell growth and starvation-induced aggregation. These findings demonstrate the specific potency of RTM. In addition, the first Raman spectra of human urinary exosomes are reported, presumably constituting the primary step towards Raman characterisation of EVs for the purpose of human diseases diagnoses.

  4. The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00249819; Appelshauser, H.; Bablok, S.; Bialas, N.; Bolgen, R.; Bonnes, U.; Bramm, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Christiansen, P.; Dobrin, A.; Engster, C.; Fehlker, D.; Foka, Y.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C.; Gros, P.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Helstrup, H.; Hoch, M.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Junique, A.; Kalweit, A.; Keidel, R.; Kniege, S.; Kowalski, M.; Larsen, D.T.; Lesenechal, Y.; Lenoir, P.; Lindegaard, N.; Lippmann, C.; Mager, M.; Mast, M.; Matyja, A.; Munkejord, M.; Musa, L.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolic, V.; Oeschler, H.; Olsen, E.K.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Pikna, M.; Rehman, A.; Renault, G.; Renfordt, R.; Rossegger, S.; Rohrich, D.; Roed, K.; Richter, M.; Rueshmann, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sann, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siska, M.; Sitar, B.; Soegaard, C.; Soltveit, H.K.; Soyk, D.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Stenlund, E.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Ullaland, K.; Vranic, D.; Veenhof, R.; Westergaard, J.; Wiechula, J.; Windelband, B.

    2010-01-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m^3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb--Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate result...

  5. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  6. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  7. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  8. Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  9. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  10. Lunar electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, D.; Madden, T.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that the lunar magnetometer experiment has made important contributions to studies of the lunar interior. Numerical inversions of the lunar electromagnetic response have been carried out, taking into account a void region behind the moon. The amplitude of the transfer function of an eight-layer model is considered along with a model of the temperature distribution inside the moon and the amplitude of the transfer function of a semiconductor lunar model.

  11. Lunar exploration phase III: Launch window and trajectory design for a lunar lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyang; Yang, Hongwei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-09-01

    The lunar exploration phase III mission is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation's lunar exploration program that will perform a soft-landing and sample return from the Moon to test the key technologies that are required for human lunar missions. This paper focuses primarily on the trajectory design and orbital launch window generation for a lunar probe that are consistent with the constraints imposed by third phase of lunar exploration. Two categories of trajectories are explored: Earth-to-Moon and Moon-to-Earth. With the patched conic technique, the analytical and modified analytical models of the transfer trajectories are developed. The requirement of high-latitude landing for the return phase trajectory is considered in the modified model. By varying the initial input conditions and with a fast convergence iteration scheme, different characteristics of the transfer trajectory are generated. The orbital launch windows are established to study the mission sensitivities to time and fuel consumption and to provide a launch timetable that is compatible with this mission's requirements. The lunar surface stay time is analyzed for different conditions. The high-fidelity gravitational model is introduced to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence behavior of the analytical solution. The design method can also be used as a basis for the future human lunar missions.

  12. A fast method of maximum power point tracking for PV%一种快速的光伏最大功率点跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志强; 王建赜; 纪延超; 谭光慧; 张举良

    2012-01-01

    in different regions, so as to reach its maximum power current rapidly, which achieves maximum power point tracking purposes. The simulation results carried out by Matlab/Simulink show that this method is different from the previous disturbance observer control strategy, which not only can ensure the fast maximum power point tracking of PV module, but also will not lead to the frequent fluctuations at the vicinity of the maximum power point. Finally, it is verified by tests.

  13. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  14. The fast track to canonical Wnt signaling in MC3T3-E1 cells protected by substance P against serum deprivation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianguo; Nie, Jiping; Fu, Su; Liu, Song; Wu, Jianqun; Cui, Liang; Zhang, Yongtao; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway is vital to bone physiology by increasing bone mass through elevated osteoblast survival. Although investigated extensively in stem cells, its role in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells has not been completely determined. To explore how this pathway is regulated by different conditions, we assessed the anti-apoptotic effects of substance P on the canonical Wnt pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells by treating cells with serum deprivation or serum starving with "substance P," a neuropeptide demonstrated to promote bone growth and stimulate Wnt signaling. The results showed that serum deprivation both induced apoptosis and activated Wnt signal transduction while substance P further stimulated the Wnt pathway via the NK-1 receptor but protected the cells from apoptotic death. Fast-tracking of Wnt signaling by substance P was also noted. These results indicate that nutritional deprivation and substance P synergistically activated the canonical Wnt pathway, a finding that helps to reveal the role of Wnt signaling in bone physiology affected by nutritional deprivation and neuropeptide substance P.

  15. Tourniquet versus no tourniquet on knee-extension strength early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty; a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsten, Andreas; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    tourniquet during surgery was more effective than using a thigh tourniquet in preserving knee-extension strength 48h after fast-track TKA. METHODS: A total of 64 patients undergoing TKA were randomized (1:1) to the use of tourniquet (T-group) or no tourniquet (NT-group). In the T-group the tourniquet cuff...... pressure was based on the patient's systolic pressure and a margin of 100mmHg. It was inflated immediately before surgery and deflated as soon as surgery ended. The primary outcome was the change in knee-extension strength from pre-surgery to 48h after surgery (primary end point). Secondary outcomes were...... pain, nausea, length of hospital stay (LOS) and periarticular swelling. RESULTS: Knee-extension strength 48h after surgery was substantially reduced by about 90% in both groups, with no statistically significant difference between groups (mean difference 1.5N/kg, 95% CI 1.3-1.6). Among the secondary...

  16. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency in smallholder maize production in Zimbabwe: The post-fast-track land reform outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the technical efficiency of maize production in Zimbabwe’s smallholder farming communities following the fast-track land reform of the year 2000 with a view of highlighting key entry points for policy. Using a randomly selected sample of 522 smallholder maize producers, a stochastic frontier production model was applied, using a linearised Cobb–Douglas production function to determine the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, technical efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. The study finds that maize output responds positively to increases in inorganic fertilisers, seed quantity, the use of labour and the area planted. The technical efficiency analysis suggests that about 90% of farmers in the sample are between 60 and 75% efficient, with an average efficiency in the sample of 65%. The significant determinants of technical efficiency were the gender of the household head, household size, frequency of extension visits, farm size and the farming region. The results imply that the average efficiency of maize production could be improved by 35% through better use of existing resources and technology. The results highlight the need for government and private sector assistance in improving efficiency by promoting access to productive resources and ensuring better and more reliable agricultural extension services.

  17. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  18. Lunar based massdriver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  19. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  20. LUNAR AND PLANETARY RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPECTRA, LUNAR ENVIRONMENTS, MERCURY ( PLANET ), PLANETS , SURFACE PROPERTIES, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH....MARS( PLANET ), *VENUS( PLANET ), *MOON, *ASTRONOMY, OPTICAL SCANNING, SPECTROSCOPY, OPTICAL ANALYSIS, INFRARED SPECTRA, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, VISIBLE

  1. Fast Track to Study Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the summer heat subsides, students are about to go back to school. Yang Guang, a tall and slender 16-year-old boy with a sunny smile, made an increasingly common decision. Rather than going to a first-rate public high school that prepares students for Chinese universities,Yang enrolled in a private international highschool in Beijing, which is dedicated to pre-paring students to go to overseas universi-ties.

  2. Fast Track to Study Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Young Chinese students get ready for their overseas education at international high schools As the summer heat subsides,students are about to go back to school.Yang Guang,a tall and slender 16-yearold boy with a sunny smile,made an increasingly common decision. Rather than going to a first-rate public high school that prepares students for Chinese universities, Yang enrolled in a private international high school in Beijing,which is dedicated to preparing students to go to overseas universities.

  3. Study on trauma remedy with fast track surgery%快速康复外科新理念下的创伤救治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程黎阳; 谢正勇

    2012-01-01

    研究已经证实:快速康复外科(FTS)能显著改善外科病人的预后,缩短住院时间,加速术后康复进程,减少并发症的发生率.但FTS目前主要还在择期胃肠手术中实施,在急诊创伤救治中的应用和研究近于空白.本文结合文献和作者研究,从应用机制、意义及方案等方面评述了FTS应用于创伤治疗的适用性、可行性、有效性和必要性,而这既是创伤救治的临床需求,也是FTS今后的研究方向,并有望由此拓展创伤的救治理论,树立创伤救治的新模式和新标准.%Fast track surgery( FTS ) has been proved to improve the prognosis of surgical patients, accelerate postoperative rehabilitation process, shorten the hospital stay, and reduce the complication incidence rate. FTS is mainly used in normal gastrointestinal surgery, however, none has been performed for emergency trauma at present. Combining the literature and our research,the mechanism,significance and project for the application of FTS in trauma remedy are introduced, and its adaptivity, feasibility, validity, and essentiality are discussed in this article. The application of FTS in trauma remedy,which is the clinical demand and direction of FTS study,should be hoped to expand the theory and to become the new mode and standard of trauma remedy.

  4. Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeberg BT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Berit T Valeberg,1 Lise H Høvik,2 Kari H Gjeilo3–6 1Faculty of Nursing, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, 2Clinic of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 4Department of Cardiology, 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 6Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background and purpose: This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ, and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods: The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery. The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results: A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001. The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03. Interpretation: This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. Keywords

  5. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  6. The Value of Fast-track Surgery without Nasogastric Decompression Tube in Choledochojejtmostomy%快速康复外科在胆肠吻合术后免胃肠减压中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕洋; 夏宗保; 任辉明; 蔡崇元

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the security and feasibility without routine nasogastric decompression in patients of choledochojejtmostomy fast-track surgery.Methods:In our hospitall from January 2010 to January 2007,seventy-five patients who received choledochojejtmostomy and were inserted nasogastric decompression tube were divided into conventional care group,and meanwhile other 40 ones without routine nasgastrie decompression tube as fast-track group. We compared their time to flatus,and the ratio of postoperative eomphcation including throat ache,nausea,atelectasis wound infection,pneumonia and anastomotic leak.The time to first passage of flatus and incidences of postoperative complications such as pharyngalgia,nausea,anastomotic fistulae,pulmonary infection,and surgical wound infection were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results:The time to first passage of flatus was significantly shorter in the as fast-track group than that of conventional care group (P0.05).The incidences of pharyngalgia,nausea and vomiting in the fast-track group were significantly lower than that of conventional care group (P0.05); 快速康复组肛门恢复排气时间显著提前(P<0.05),但传统治疗组病人诉咽喉疼痛、恶心呕吐明显较快速康复组增多(P<0.01).结论:快速康复外科不常规放置胃肠减压管用于胆肠吻合术后临床管理,可加速病人的康复.

  7. Orbit determination for Chang'E-2 lunar probe and evaluation of lunar gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, PeiJia; Hu, XiaoGong; Huang, Yong; Wang, GuangLi; Jiang, DongRong; Zhang, XiuZhong; Cao, JianFeng; Xin, Nan

    2012-03-01

    The Unified S-Band (USB) ranging/Doppler system and the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) system as the ground tracking system jointly supported the lunar orbit capture of both Chang'E-2 (CE-2) and Chang'E-1 (CE-1) missions. The tracking system is also responsible for providing precise orbits for scientific data processing. New VLBI equipment and data processing strategies have been proposed based on CE-1 experiences and implemented for CE-2. In this work the role VLBI tracking data played was reassessed through precision orbit determination (POD) experiments for CE-2. Significant improvement in terms of both VLBI delay and delay rate data accuracy was achieved with the noise level of X-band band-width synthesis delay data reaching 0.2-0.3 ns. Short-arc orbit determination experiments showed that the combination of only 15 min's range and VLBI data was able to improve the accuracy of 3 h's orbit using range data only by a 1-1.5 order of magnitude, confirming a similar conclusion for CE-1. Moreover, because of the accuracy improvement, VLBI data was able to contribute to CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. Orbital accuracy was assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis (2 h arc overlapping for 18 h POD arc). Compared with about 100 m position error of CE-1's 200 km×200 km lunar orbit, for CE-2's 100 km×100 km lunar orbit, the position errors were better than 31 and 6 m in the radial direction, and for CE-2's 15 km×100 km orbit, the position errors were better than 45 and 12 m in the radial direction. In addition, in trying to analyze the Delta Differential One-Way Ranging (ΔDOR) experiments data we concluded that the accuracy of ΔDOR delay was dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns and systematic errors better calibrated, and the Short-arc POD tests with ΔDOR data showed excellent results. Although unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the

  8. The lunar cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Expanded experiment-carrying capability, to be used between the Apollo 11 capability and the lunar roving vehicle capability, was defined for the lunar surface crewmen. Methods used on earth to satisfy similar requirements were studied. A two-wheeled cart was built and tested to expected mission requirements and environments. The vehicle was used successfully on Apollo 14.

  9. A lunar venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  10. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  11. Development, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new out-patient Breathlessness Support Service: study protocol of a phase III fast-track randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bausewein Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom affecting many patients with advanced disease both from malignant and non-malignant origin. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures is necessary to treat this symptom successfully. Breathlessness services in various compositions aim to provide comprehensive care for patients and their carers by a multiprofessional team but their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness have not yet been proven. The Breathlessness Support Service (BSS is a newly created multiprofessional and interdisciplinary outpatient service at a large university hospital in South East London. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of this multidisciplinary out–patient BSS for the palliation of breathlessness, in advanced malignant and non-malignant disease. Methods The BSS was modelled based on the results of qualitative and quantitative studies, and systematic literature reviews. A randomised controlled fast track trial (RCT comprising two groups: 1 intervention (immediate access to BSS in addition to standard care; 2 control group (standard best practice and access to BSS after a waiting time of six weeks. Patients are included if suffering from breathlessness on exertion or at rest due to advanced disease such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure (CHF, interstitial lung disease (ILD or motor neurone disease (MND that is refractory to maximal optimised medical management. Both quantitative and qualitative outcomes are assessed in face to-face interviews at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is patients' improvement of mastery of breathlessness after six weeks assessed on the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ. Secondary outcomes for patients include breathlessness severity, symptom burden, palliative care needs, service use, and respiratory measures (spirometry

  12. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  13. 急救绿色通道在严重创伤早期救治中的作用%Role of first-aid fast track in treatment of severe trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚元章; 张宇; 孙士锦; 张连阳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects and significance of first-aid fast track in the treatment of severe trauma. Methods A retrospective study was done on 60 trauma patients (fast track group)treated by means of first-aid fast track from January 2006 to November 2007 to observe the effect of first-aid fast track. Another 46 trauma patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005 were used as control group. Results There was no statistical difference in aspects of sex, age, injury mechanism, ISS and blood loss in both groups (P >0.05). Two patients died in the first track group, with mortality rate of 3% ;while five patients died in the control group, with mortality rate of 11% ( P < 0.05 ). Compared with the control group, there was shorter time in emergency room care, special examination and interval from admission to operating room in fast track group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion First-aid fast track can shorten the space and time in treatment of severe trauma, decrease the mortality rate, enhance success rate of treatment and hence guarantee chronergy and integrity of emergency trauma care.%目的 探讨绿色通道急救模式在严重创伤早期救治中的作用和意义. 方法 回顾性分析2006年1月-2007年11月以绿色通道急救模式救治60例创伤患者的效果,并与2004年1月-2005年12月收治的46例非绿色通道组患者的急救效果进行比较. 结果 两组患者性别、年龄、致伤机制、ISS及失血量等指标分布差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);绿色通道组60例患者死亡2例,死亡率为3%,对照组46例患者死亡5例,死亡率为11%(P<0.05).绿色通道组在急诊室处理时间、特殊检查时问、入院至手术室时间较对照组明显缩短(P<0.05). 结论 绿色通道急救模式缩短了严重创伤患者的救治空间和时间,显著降低了死亡率,提高了救治成功率,保证了创伤急救的"时效性和整体性".

  14. The Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  15. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  16. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  17. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  18. Lunar Excavator Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  19. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  20. Lunar cinder cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  1. 快通道麻醉在小儿腹股沟区手术中的临床应用价值探讨%Clinical application value discussion of fast-track anesthesia in pediatric groin area surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of fast-track anesthesia in pediatric surgery in the groin area.Methods This study for my children hospital in February 2012 120 routine surgery groin area in February 2015 - admitted, and randomly divided into control group (60 cases) and observation group (60 cases). The control group received conventional anesthesia, the observation group to take fast-track anesthesia.Results The group of children and mean arterial pressure after 30min 60min after extubation, heart rate, plasma glucagon, cortisol were significantly better than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The fast-track anesthesia in pediatric surgery in the groin area and promoting surgery, with a high clinical value.%目的:探讨快通道麻醉在小儿腹股沟区手术中的临床应用价值。方法本次研究对象为我院2012年2月至2015年2月收治的120例行腹股沟区手术的患儿,并随机分成对照组(60例)和观察组(60例)。对照组采取常规麻醉方法,观察组采取快通道麻醉方法。结果观察组患儿术后30min和拔管后60min的平均动脉压、心率、血浆胰高血糖素、血浆皮质醇均显著优于对照组(P <0.05)。结论快通道麻醉在小儿腹股沟区手术中有利于促进手术疗效,具有很高的临床应用价值。

  2. Lunar preform manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  3. 头部多角度人脸快速跟踪算法DSP实现%Fast face tracking algorithm of head multi-position based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俊金; 王增才; 朱淑亮

    2012-01-01

    针对传统驾驶员疲劳检测人脸跟踪算法复杂,DSP实现时实时性不强,不能有效地实现多角度人脸跟踪的问题,提出了一种快速人脸跟踪算法.该算法通过对YCbCr肤色模型进行图像预处理、肤色检测,提取人脸区域,通过对亮度信号Y进行统计运算,判断人脸边界,再进行相似度判断,从而实现人脸区域的跟踪.实验结果表明,该方法简单、鲁棒性强,能够快速地实现彩色图像人脸多角度跟踪.%In the field of real-time human face tracking for driver fatigue detection, the classic algorithms are so complex that the DSP system can not track the face in multi-angle state quickly and exactly, so a new face tracking algorithm is presented. In YCbCr human face color model, the image is preprocessed first, then the face region is extracted through the face color detec-tion. Through calculating the brightness signal Y, the face edge can be detected. Then a symmetry similarity measure is used to check the factuality of the face tracking. In this way, the face region can be tracked Experimental results indicate that this algo-rithm is so simple and can realize the tracking of face in multi-angle of color image.

  4. MODIS and SeaWIFS on-orbit lunar calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Eplee, R.E.; Xiong, X.; Stone, T.; Meister, G.; McClain, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Moon plays an important role in the radiometric stability monitoring of the NASA Earth Observing System's (EOS) remote sensors. The MODIS and SeaWIFS are two of the key instruments for NASA's EOS missions. The MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM) on-board the Terra spacecraft and the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1) on-board the Aqua spacecraft were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. They view the Moon through the Space View (SV) port approximately once a month to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of their Reflective Solar Bands (RSB). SeaWIFS was launched on-board the OrbView-2 spacecraft on August 1, 1997. The SeaWiFS lunar calibrations are obtained once a month at a nominal phase angle of 7??. The lunar irradiance observed by these instruments depends on the viewing geometry. The USGS photometric model of the Moon (the ROLO model) has been developed to provide the geometric corrections for the lunar observations. For MODIS, the lunar view responses with corrections for the viewing geometry are used to track the gain change for its reflective solar bands (RSB). They trend the system response degradation at the Angle Of Incidence (AOI) of sensor's SV port. With both the lunar observation and the on-board Solar Diffuser (SD) calibration, it is shown that the MODIS system response degradation is wavelength, mirror side, and AOI dependent. Time-dependent Response Versus Scan angle (RVS) Look-Up Tables (LUT) are applied in MODIS RSB calibration and lunar observations play a key role in RVS derivation. The corrections provided by the RVS in the Terra and Aqua MODIS data from the 412 nm band are as large as 16% and 13%, respectively. For SeaWIFS lunar calibrations, the spacecraft is pitched across the Moon so that the instrument views the Moon near nadir through the same optical path as it views the Earth. The SeaWiFS system gain changes for its eight bands are calibrated using the geometrically-corrected lunar observations. The radiometric

  5. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  6. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  7. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  8. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  9. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  10. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  11. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  12. Lunar Resources: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  13. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  14. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  15. 艾滋病合并外科急腹症患者的快速康复护理%Fast track nursing of patients with AIDS complicated with acute abdomen during perioperative period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 肖艳玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病合并外科急腹症患者的快速康复护理方法。方法:回顾性分析2012年7月至2015年7月42例艾滋病合并外科急腹症的患者的临床特点及护理对策。结果:38例患者围手术期经快速康复外科(fast track surgery,FTS)护理治疗(术前患者心理干预;避免胃管、尿管的置入;减少术中引流管留置、术中液体控制、体温控制;术后胃肠功能、肺功能的加速康复、疼痛的管理、切口的管理、管道的早期拔除),未出现院内感染及其他重大并发症,护理治疗效果满意,康复出院。4例因重度的免疫功能缺陷,术后出现难以控制的腹腔感染后继而多器官功能衰竭死亡。结论:快速康复护理治疗可减少艾滋病合并急腹症患者的术后并发症,降低围手术期病死率,促进患者术后早期康复。%Objective: To investigate the perioperative nursing methods on AIDS complicated with acute abdomen diseases. Methods: 42 cases of AIDS complicated with acute abdomen diseases from July 2012 to July 2015 were studied, the clinical features of patients and nursing treatment were analyzed.Results: 38 cases were healed without nosocomial infection and other serious complications by fast track nursing treatment (preoperative psychological intervention; avoid gastric tube, urine tube placement; reduce intraoperative drainage tube indwelling, intraoperative lfuid control, temperature control, accelerate postoperative gastrointestinal function, rehabilitate pulmonary function, pain management, postoperative incision management, early removal of pipeline). Four cases with severe immune function defects suffered uncontrollable abdominal postoperative infection and multiple organ failure which led to death.Conclusion: Fast track nursing can prevent postoperative complications, reduce perioperative mortality and promote the fast-tract recovery on patients with AIDS complicated with acute abdomen

  16. 对数似然图像分割的快速主动轮廓跟踪算法%Fast active contour tracking algorithm based on log-likelihood image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 陈善静; 曾凯; 张红

    2012-01-01

    针对跟踪目标尺度变化问题,提出了基于灰度对数似然图像分割的快速主动轮廓跟踪算法.改进的主动轮廓跟踪算法将根据以目标与背景的颜色差异而建立的对数似然图对图像进行阈值分割和数学形态学处理,再将Kalman滤波器结合到主动轮廓跟踪算法进行目标跟踪.改进的主动轮廓跟踪算法对目标分割准确,轮廓特征显著,跟踪效果稳定,算法能很好地适应跟踪目标尺度变化.通过Kalman滤波器对目标位置点的预测减少了主动轮廓跟踪算法收敛的迭代次数,使算法的运算效率提高了33%左右.%A fast active contour tracking(ACT) algorithm based on log-likelihood image segmentation has been proposed to solve the scale change problem in the process of target tracking. The algorithm adopts the log-likelihood image segmentation method, which segments images according to their log-likelihood images built based on the color difference between target and background, and the mathematical morphology method, and tracks the target with conventional ACT algorithm combined with Kalman filter. It tracks the target precisely with distinct contour features and stable tracking performance, and can well adapt to the target scale change. The Kalman filter adopted reduces the number of iterations for algorithm convergence through its forecast of the target position, and thus the fast ACT algorithm is about 33% more efficient than the conventional one.

  17. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  18. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  19. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  20. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  1. The Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Portfolio. A Report from the Federal Inventory of STEM Education Fast-Track Action Committee, Committee on STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Track Action Committee on Federal Investments in STEM Education (FI-STEM) Co-chairs Michael Feder (OSTP) Joan Ferrini-Mundy (NSF) Susan Heller...Foundation Joan Ferrini-Mundy Analytic Support Science & Technology Policy Institute Executive Office of the President Greg Gershuny (OSTP) Sarah Watson...Feder (OSTP) Department of Commerce Larry Robinson Department of Health and Human Services Dora Hughes National Aeronautics and Space

  2. 快速康复外科理念在初次行人工全膝关节置换术围术期临床应用%Application of fast-track surgery concept around perioperative total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇; 刘欣伟; 张敬东; 孙保飞; 韩文锋; 刘松波; 刘海立

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨快速康复外科理念在初次行人工全膝关节置换术( TKA)围术期的临床应用效果。方法选取自2015年7月1日至2015年12月31日沈阳军区总医院骨科初次行人工TKA的60例患者,随机分为快速康复组和传统康复组,每组各30例患者。记录两组患者住院时间、住院费用、以及围术期并发症情况。采用疼痛视觉模拟评分( VAS)评估两组患者的疼痛程度,关节活动度( ROM)评估临床疗效。结果快速康复组住院时间短于传统康复组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);手术疗效优于传统康复组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组住院费用比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论将快速康复外科理念应用于初次行人工TKA围术期,能够加速患者早期康复,缩短患者平均住院时间,降低围术期不良反应的发生率,提高了临床疗效。%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of the fast-track surgery concept around perioperative total knee ar-throplasty .Methods A retrospective study was performed on 60 cases of patients that received first artificial total knee ar-throplasty in the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command from July 1 to December 31 ,2015 .Patients were randomly divided into the fast-track surgery group and the traditional rehabilitation group ,with 30 cases in each group .The length of stay,hospital costs and perioperative complications were recorded .Using visual analogue scale ( VAS) to assess the level of pain between the two groups and range of motion ( ROM) to assess the clinical efficacy .Results The hospitalized time in fast-track surgery group was significantly shorter than that in the traditional rehabilitation group ( P0.05 ) .Conclusion The appli-cation of fast-track surgery around perioperative total knee arthroplasty can be beneficial to patients with fast early rehabili -tation,reduce hospitalization time and improve

  3. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  4. Fast Track Surgery Operating Room Management Application Value Analysis of New Ideas%手术室管理中快通道外科新理念的应用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析研究手术室管理中应用快通道外科新理念的价值与效果。方法选取2010年3月至2013年3月间在我院实施胃大部切除术的患者80例为研究对象进行回顾性分析,随机分为对照组和研究组,对照组手术室管理常规操作,研究组患者用快通道外科理念指导工作,对比管理效果。结果研究组肠鸣音的恢复、排气、住院时间、住院费用均低于对照组,护理配合度和护理满意度高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);手术安全性无统计学意义(P>0.05);研究组术后并发症发生概率较低。结论在手术室管理中应用快通道外科新理念效果很好,能够提升手术室工作管理效率,提升手术效果,降低并发症发生率,提升患者满意度,可大力应用推广。%Objective Analysis of operating room management application fast track housing values and the effect of new ideas. Method Select a March 2010 March 2013 in our hospital's implementation gastrectomy for the study 80 patients were retrospectively analyzed, were randomly divided into control group and study group and the control group operating theater management practices, research application of fast-track surgery group concept to guide the work, compared to management effectiveness. Result Study group to restore bowel sounds, exhaust, duration of hospitalization, hospital costs were lower than the control group, with the degree of care and nursing satisfaction higher, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05);study group lower risk of postoperative complications. Conclusion In the operating room management application new concept of fast track surgery with good results, can improve operating room management efifciency, improve surgical results and reduce the incidence of complications, improve patient satisfaction, can greatly promote the application.

  5. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  6. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Lunar troilite: Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.

    1970-01-01

    Fine, euhedral crystals of troilite from lunar sample 10050 show a hexagonal habit consistent with the high-temperature NiAs-type structure. Complete three-dimensional counter intensity data have been measured and used to confirm and refine Bertaut's proposed low-temperature crystal structure.

  8. A Chang'e-4 mission concept and vision of future Chinese lunar exploration activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Liu, Jizhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel concept for Chinese Chang'e-4 lunar exploration mission is presented in this paper at first. After the success of Chang'e-3, its backup probe, Chang'e-4 lander/rover combination, would be upgraded and land on the unexplored lunar farside by the aid of a relay satellite near the second Earth-Moon Lagrange point. Mineralogical and geochemical surveys on the farside to study the formation and evolution of lunar crust and observations at low radio frequencies to track the signals of the Universe's Dark Ages are priorities. Follow-up Chinese lunar exploration activities before 2030 are envisioned as building a robotic lunar science station by three to five missions. Finally several methods of international cooperation are proposed.

  9. On Applications of Selenodesy to Lunar Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Erhu; LIU Jingnan

    2006-01-01

    According to the history of lunar detection, the relationship between selenodesy and lunar detection is reviewed , and the focus of the lunar detection and the lunar detection plan of China are summarized. The key techniques of selenodesy are presented, and the applications of selenodesy to the lunar detection are discussed.

  10. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based along track interferometry (ATI) approach to SAR-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.

  11. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    was developed for this task. The dust separation system includes a fluidized bed, an elutriation flask, and a cyclone. The product dust is collected on a membrane filter with 0.45 micrometer pore size. Collection and separation efficiencies, and particle size distribution measurements of the material retained in the various components are tracked as development and tests proceed. Calculations show that respirable-sized particles, if released in a habitat, would remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. Without active dust control, most of this fine dust would end up in the crew’s lungs. Dust exposure standards, similar to those established for quartz on Earth, will determine the design, mass, power, and cost of dust control systems incorporated into lunar habitats and pressurized rovers.

  12. 围手术期快速康复外科应用改良外科胃造瘘术18例%The modified gatsrostomy and peri-operation period of fast tTrack surgery application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 刘大钺

    2013-01-01

    目的:减少手术创伤和并发症,缩短手术时间及禁食时间,促进术后胃肠功能恢复.方法:2011年至2012年,18例患者接受改良外科胃造瘘术治疗,其中颅脑外伤术后、长期昏迷、卒中后吞咽困难患者11例,食管癌患者7例.该院采用综合改良的手术方式,包括:将快速康复外科理念应用于围手术期;胃壁全层结扎于造瘘管止血;荷包隧道式包埋造瘘管.结果:手术时间25 (20~30) min,术中出血10 ~ 15 ml,均一期愈合.无一例患者出现肠梗阻、腹胀及恶心呕吐.术中出血和并发症少,康复快.结论:改良外科胃造瘘术及围手术期快速康复外科应用减少了手术时间、围手术期禁食时间及术后胃肠功能恢复时间,恢复快、操作简单、安全可靠,达到了较好的治疗效果.%Objective:Via this application, we aimed to lessen surgical trauma, reduce complications, shorten the operation time and fasting time and promote the recovery of post-operational gastrointestinal function. Methods:From 2011 to 2012, 18 patients recieved improved surgical gastrostomy therapy, among which 11 cases were with traumatic injury, long-term coma, dysphagia after stroke and 7 cases with digestive system diseases. Practiced modified surgical methods was as follows:To ligate all the stomach wall, integrate Stamm's and Witzal's, and apply modified peri-operation period management with Fast Track Surgery. Results:The average operation time is 25 minutes (20-30 minutes) , intraoperative bleeding is 10 ~ 15 ml. All cases healed with less intraoperative bleeding and quicker recovery time without intestinal obstruction, abdominal distension, nausea or vomiting. Conclusion:The improved surgical gastrostomy and surgical application of perioperative FastTrack Surgery minimized the operation times, perioperative fasting time and postoperative gastrointestinal function recovery time. The operation is simple, safe, reliable, and could achieve a good

  13. The using experience of fast track surgery in laparoscopic commom bile duct exploration%快速康复外科在腹腔镜胆总管探查手术中的应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洁; 王春华; 张伟; 李敏; 李毅

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨快速康复外科(Fast Track Surgery)在腹腔镜胆总管探察手术(LCBDE)的应用效果.方法:遂宁市中心医院肝胆外科2009年6月~2011年2月对97例胆总管结石患者施行腹腔镜胆总管探察术,按治疗小组为单位分为两组:第一组(n=42)采用四孔法腹腔镜手术和传统方式进行围手术期处理,第二组(n=55)采用三孔法腹腔镜手术并运用快速康复外科理念指导围手术期处理.比较两组术后恶心、呕吐发生率,术后12小时疼痛程度,首次进食时间,下床活动时间,排气、排便时间,住院天数以及住院总费用.结果:97例手术均获成功,无严重术后并发症.两组术后恶心、呕吐发生率,术后12小时疼痛程度,首次进食时间,下床活动时间,排气、排便时间,住院天数以及住院总费用比较差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:快速康复外科理念能够减轻腹腔镜胆总管探察术后并发症,促进患者更快康复,降低住院费用,具有安全性和可操作性.%Objective: To evaluate the effects of Fast Track Surgery in laparoscopic commom bile duct exploration. Methods: During the period between June 2009 and February 2011,90 common duct stone patients were performed exploration surgery of LCBDE in the department of hepatobiliary surgery in Suining Central hospital. The patients were classified into two groups. 42 of them were classified to group one, which were subjected to 4 - holes Laparoscopic surgery with traditional ways of perioperative period. while 55 of them were classified to group two,which were subjected to 3 - holes Laparoscopic surgery and were treated under the guidance of Fast Track Surgery in perioperative period. After surgery, The incidence of nausea and vomits, ache level after 12 hours, first foodtake time, out -of - bed activity time, fart and defecate time, hospital day and hospital cost were compared between the two groups. Results: All the 97 surgeries were successful and no

  14. A Fast and Adaptive Object Tracking Method%一种快速的自适应目标跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李善青; 唐亮; 刘科研; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    由于光照变化、视角差异、相机抖动和部分遮挡等因素的影响,鲁棒的目标跟踪仍然是计算机视觉领域极具挑战性的研究课题.受协同训练和粒子滤波算法的启发,提出一种快速的自适应目标跟踪方法.该方法采用HOG( histogram of oriented gradients)和LBP(local binary pattern)描述目标特征并建立分类器,通过协同训练实现分类器的在线更新,有效解决了误差累积问题.为缩小目标搜索的状态空间,利用IC()NDENSATI()N的运动模型和重要采样提高粒子采样的准确性和效率,并引入校正因子抑制虚假目标的干扰,从而提升了跟踪算法的鲁棒性和分类器更新的准确性.在两组标准测试集和两组自建测试集上的对比实验结果验证了所提出跟踪算法的有效性.与基于全局搜索的跟踪方法相比,该算法在不降低跟踪性能的前提下将处理速度提高25倍以上.%Robust object tracking is still a challenging research topic due to dynamical changes of illumination, viewpoints, camera jitter and partial occlusion. To handle such problems, this paper presents an adaptive object tracking method based on co-training and particle filtering algorithms. An online learning scheme with cooperation of two visual classifiers is designed to alleviate the drifting problem. The histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and local binary pattern (LBP) are used to describe the object appearance. Two SVM classifiers are constructed separately based on the above two visual features, and online updated by the co-training framework. This updating strategy considers the same classification problem from two complementary viewpoints which successfully overcome the error accumulation problem. In order to reduce the searching state space, we introduce a dynamical model and importance sampling from the ICONDENSATION framework to improve the precision and efficiency of the sampling procedure. A correction term is introduced to

  15. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  16. Lunar Imaging and Ionospheric Calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov Technique

    CERN Document Server

    McFadden, Rebecca; Mevius, Maaijke

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the ionosphere is an important experimental concern as it reduces the pulse amplitude and subsequent chances of detection. We are continuing to investigate a new method to calibrate the dispersive effect of the ionosphere on lunar Cherenkov pulses via Faraday rotation measurements of the Moon's polarised emission combined with geomagnetic field models. We also extend this work to include radio imaging of the Lunar surface, which provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the lunar surface that may affect experimental strategies for the lunar Cherenkov technique.

  17. Application of fast-track anesthesia in the surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients%快通道麻醉在老年结直肠肿瘤手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世贵; 刘吉生; 陈尔标

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical effects of fast-track anesthesia in the surgery for colorectal can-cer in elderly patients. Methods Ninety-two elderly patients with colorectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into observation group (n=46) and control group (n=46). The observation group was given fast-track anesthesia, and the control group was given general inhalation anesthesia. And then the Steward scores and neuroendocrine changes were compared between the two groups. Results There were more patients with Steward≥4 after operation in the observation group than that in the control group (P0.05). However, the plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations after the incision, in the end of surgery, and 1 h postoperative were significantly lower in the observation group than those in the control group (P0.05),而麻醉开始后观察组患者在切皮后、手术结束时以及术后1 h血浆皮质醇及血糖均显著低于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01);观察组术后出现恶心、呕吐发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论快通道麻醉能够使患者获得较快的术后苏醒,同时降低了麻醉及手术操作对患者神经内分泌系统功能的影响,减少了麻醉损伤,且术后恶心呕吐等不良反应发生率较低,值得推广应用。

  18. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  19. Improvements of VIIRS and MODIS Solar Diffuser and Lunar Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Lei, Ning; Sun, Junqiang; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeff; Angal, Amit Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Both VIIRS and MODIS instruments use solar diffuser (SD) and lunar observations to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB). A solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is used to track the SD on-orbit degradation. On-orbit observations have shown similar wavelength-dependent SD degradation (larger at shorter VIS wavelengths) and SDSM detector response degradation (larger at longer NIR wavelengths) for both VIIRS and MODIS instruments. In general, the MODIS scan mirror has experienced more degradation in the VIS spectral region whereas the VIIRS rotating telescope assembly (RTA) mirrors have seen more degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral region. Because of this wavelength dependent mirror degradation, the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) needs to be modulated. Due to differences between the solar and lunar spectral irradiance, the modulated RSR could have different effects on the SD and lunar calibration. In this paper, we identify various factors that should be considered for the improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar and lunar calibration and examine their potential impact. Specifically, we will characterize and assess the calibration impact due to SD and SDSM attenuation screen transmission (uncertainty), SD BRF uncertainty and onorbit degradation, SDSM detector response degradation, and modulated RSR resulting from the sensor's optics degradation. Also illustrated and discussed in this paper are the calibration strategies implemented in the VIIRS and MODIS SD and lunar calibrations and efforts that could be made for future improvements.

  20. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites and their lunar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.

    1985-01-01

    The minerology and textural properties of three lunar meteorites (Yamato 791197, ALH81005, and Yamato 82192) were analyzed and compared with lunar surface rock samples. The chemical composition and textures of pyroxene and the occurrance of glass matrices were specifically addressed. The study of glass in the lunar meteorites suggests that the glass was not produced by a meteorite impact which excavated the mass into orbit towards the Earth. The glass had been devitrified on the lunar surface before the excavation, and new glass was not produced by the last impact.

  1. Position and orientation measurement during Lunar Rover movement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zaihua; Tang, Laiying; Yi, Wangmin; Wan, Bile; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-01

    During the development of the Lunar Rover, a posture tracking measurement scheme was designed to verify its movement control ability and path planning performance. The principle is based on the indoor GPS measurement system. Four iGPS transmitters were set around the test site. By tracking the positions of four receivers that were installed on the rover, the position and orientation of the rover can be acquired in real time. The rotation matrix and translation vector from the Lunar Rover coordinate system to the test site coordinate system were calculated by using the software. The measurement precision reached 0.25mm in the range of 30m2. The real time position and posture datum of the rover was overlaid onto 3-D terrain map of the test site. The trajectory of the rover was displayed, and the time-displacement curve, time-velocity curve, time-acceleration curve were analyzed. The rover's performances were verified.

  2. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  3. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  4. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  5. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  6. Lunar base initiative 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The return to the Moon is no longer a question of yes or no, but a question of when and how. The first landing of a human being on the lunar surface in 1969 was a purely national effort of the U.S.A. Building a lunar base and operating it in the next century is rather a task for all nations of this planet, even if one nation could do it alone. However, there are several alternatives to carry out such a program and these will and should be debated during the next years on an urgent basis. To do this, one has to take into account not only the historical accomplishments and the present trends of cooperation in space programs, but also recent geopolitical developments as well as the frame of reference established by international law. The case for an International Lunar Base (ILB) has been presented to the International Academy of Astronautics on 11 October 1987 by the IAA Ad Hoc Committee "Return-to-the-Moon". This draft of a position paper was subsequently published in Acta Astronautica Vol. 17, No. 5, (pp. 463-489) with the request of public debate particularly by the members of the Academy. Some 80 Academicians responded to this invitation by the President of the Academy and voiced their opinions on the questions and issues raised by this draft of a position paper. This led to a refinement of the arguments and assumptions made and it is now possible to prepare an improved position paper proposing concrete steps which may lead to an ILB. An issue of this proportion must start with a discussion of goals and objectives to be arranged in some kind of a ranked order. It also has to take note of the limitations existing at any time by the availability of suitable space transportation systems. These will determine the acquisition date and rate of growth of a lunar base. The logistics system will also greatly influence the base characteristics and layout. The availability of heavy lift launch vehicles would simplify the task and allow to concentrate the construction

  7. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  8. Lunar science: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart Ross Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Before spacecraft exploration,facts about the Moon were restricted to information about the lunar orbit,angular momentum and density.Speculations about composition and origin were unconstrained.Naked eye and telescope observations revealed two major terrains,the old heavily cratered highlands and the younger mostly circular,lightly cratered maria.The lunar highlands were thought to be composed of granite or covered with volcanic ash-flows.The maria were thought to be sediments,or were full of dust,and possibly only a few million years old.A few perceptive observers such as Ralph Baldwin (Baldwin 1949)concluded that the maria were filled with volcanic lavas, but the absence of terrestrial-type central volcanoes like Hawaii was a puzzle. The large circular craters were particularly difficult to interpret.Some thought,even after the Apollo flights,that they were some analogue to terrestrial caldera (e.g.,Green 1971),formed by explosive volcanic activity and that the central peaks were volcanoes.The fact that the craters were mostly circular was difficult to accommodate if they were due to meteorite impact,as meteorites would hit the Moon at all angles.The rilles were taken by many as de finitive evidence that there was or had been,running water on the lunar surface.Others such as Carl Sagan thought that organic compounds were likely present (see Taylor 1975,p.111,note 139).

  9. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  10. Lunar radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  11. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the iono

  12. Constraints on Exposure Ages of Lunar and Asteroidal Regolith Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P

    2014-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Exposure to the solar wind results in implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm), while impact processes result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. These processes are collectively referred to as space weathering. A critical element in the study of these processes is to determine the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure. For small particulate samples, one can use the density of solar flare particle tracks to infer the length of time the particle was at the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). We have developed a new technique that enables more accurate determination of solar flare particle track densities in mineral grains ages compared to typical lunar soil grains. We will use these techniques to re-examine the track density-exposure age calibration from lunar samples reported by Blanford et al. (1975).

  13. Lunar radiation environment: a study by using Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Hayatsu, Kanako; Uchihori, Yukio; Hareyama, Makoto; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Fujibayashi, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We have continued to improve the estimation of radiation dose on the Moon based on observation by remote sensing and calculation of the transportation of cosmic-ray particles in the lunar materials in order to provide basic data for a future manned lunar exploration. On the lunar surface, the dose of primary galactic cosmic rays (pGCR) is the most significant and the contributions of neutrons and gamma rays are relatively small and are approximately 10% and 1% of that of pGCR, respectively. However, these percentages are changed by use of thick shieldings and also geographical feature of the lunar surface, such as margin of a huge boulder, bottom of a pit, inside of a possible lava tube. In this case, the dose by pGCRs is moderated and the contributions of neutrons and gamma rays relatively increase. Here, we show the recent estimation of spatial variation of the lunar dose due to gamma ray and neutrons measured by Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer. The energy spectrum of gamma rays from the lunar surface are precisely measured by a germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer onboard the Japanese lunar orbiter (Kaguya/SELENE). The flux of fast neutrons from the lunar surface was also measured by detecting the characteristic gamma rays due to the neutron inelastic reaction with the Ge of the spectrometer, that is 72Ge(n, n'g)72Ge. The estimation of radiation dose on the Moon based on Monte Carlo simulation will also be presented.

  14. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  15. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  16. Fast-Track, One-Step E. coli Detection: A Miniaturized Hydrogel Array Permits Specific Direct PCR and DNA Hybridization while Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Antje; Pollok, Sibyll; Rudloff, Anne; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    A timesaving and convenient method for bacterial detection based on one-step, one-tube deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization on hydrogel array while target gene amplification is described. The hydrogel array is generated by a fast one-pot synthesis, where N,N'-dimethylacrylamide/polyethyleneglycol(PEG1900 )-bisacrylamide mixture polymerizes via radical photoinitiation by visible light within 20 min concomitant with in situ capture probe immobilization. These DNA-functionalized hydrogel droplets arrayed on a planar glass surface are placed in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture during the thermal amplification cycles. The bacterial cells can be implemented in a direct PCR reaction, omitting the need for prior template DNA extraction. The resulting fluorescence signal is immediately detectable after the end of the PCR (1 h) following one short washing step by microscopy. Therefore a valid signal can be reached within 1.5 h including 10 min for pipetting and placement of the tubes and chips. The performance of this novel hydrogel DNA array was successfully proven with varying cell numbers down to a limit of 10(1) Escherichia coli cells.

  17. A fast algorithm for non-Newtonian flow. An enhanced particle-tracking finite element code for solving boundary-valve problems in viscoelastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, David S.

    1989-01-01

    This project concerned the development of a new fast finite element algorithm to solve flow problems of non-Newtonian fluids such as solutions or melts of polymers. Many constitutive theories for such materials involve single integrals over the deformation history of the particle at the stress evaluation point; examples are the Doi-Edwards and Curtiss-Bird molecular theories and the BKZ family derived from continuum arguments. These theories are believed to be among the most accurate in describing non-Newtonian effects important to polymer process design, effects such as stress relaxation, shear thinning, and normal stress effects. This research developed an optimized version of the algorithm which would run a factor of two faster than the pilot algorithm on scalar machines and would be able to take full advantage of vectorization on machines. Significant progress was made in code vectorization; code enhancement and streamlining; adaptive memory quadrature; model problems for the High Weissenberg Number Problem; exactly incompressible projection; development of multimesh extrapolation procedures; and solution of problems of physical interest. A portable version of the code is in the final stages of benchmarking and testing. It interfaces with the widely used FIDAP fluid dynamics package.

  18. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Controlling High-Resolution LROC NAC Polar Mosaics to LOLA Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2016-11-01

    We describe our progress on completing 1 m resolution geodetically controlled LROC NAC illumination mosaics of both lunar poles out to 85 degrees latitude, constrained using matching to LOLA track data.

  20. Effect study of fast track surgery concept on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation%快速康复外科理念对腰椎间盘突出症患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学胜; 韩宝生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate application effect of the fast track surgery concept on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Methods The clinical data of one hundred and eight cases of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who were treated in the department of orthopedics in our hospital from February 2010 to February 2012 were collected, then they were divided into the control group and the observation group, patients in the control group were given the traditional operation method, patients in the observation group were given the fast track surgery concept on the basis of the treatments, in the end, the postoperative pain, postoperative hospitalization time and clinical efficacy were e-valuated. Results Pain visual analogue scale and postoperative hospitalization time in the observation group were lower than that in the control group, and the excellent good proportion of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was also higher in the observation group than that in the control group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions The fast track surgery concept on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation can improve pain degree, shorten the length of time and clinical efficacy is better, it is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨快速康复外科理念在腰椎间盘突出症患者中应用效果.方法 随机选择2010年2月-2012年2月在新疆昌吉州吉木萨尔县人民医院骨科住院治疗的108例腰椎间盘突出症患者为研究对象,应用随机数字表法将本研究入选患者分为对照组和治疗组,对照组患者给予传统的手术方式,而治疗组患者则应用FTS理念指导下行手术,比较对照组和治疗组患者的术后疼痛程度、术后住院时间和临床疗效.结果 治疗组患者术后出院时疼痛视觉模拟评分优于对照组的,术后住院时间明显缩短,临床疗效明显高于对照组的(P<0.05),但是两组患者出院时关节活动度没有差异(P>0.05).结论 快速康

  1. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  2. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  3. WE-A-17A-10: Fast, Automatic and Accurate Catheter Reconstruction in HDR Brachytherapy Using An Electromagnetic 3D Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, E; Racine, E; Beaulieu, L [CHU de Quebec - Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Binnekamp, D [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Best, DA (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), actual catheter reconstruction protocols are slow and errors prompt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for improved catheter reconstruction in HDR-B protocols. Methods: For this proof-of-principle, a total of 10 catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a Philips-design 18G biopsy needle (used as an EM stylet) and the second generation Aurora Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system exploits alternating current technology and generates 3D points at 40 Hz. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical CT system with a resolution of 0.089 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, 5 catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 seconds or less. This would imply that for a typical clinical implant of 17 catheters, the total reconstruction time would be less than 3 minutes. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.92 ± 0.37 mm and 1.74 ± 1.39 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be significantly more accurate (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05). A mean difference of less than 0.5 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusion: The EM reconstruction was found to be faster, more accurate and more robust than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators. We would like to disclose that the equipments, used in this study, is coming from a collaboration with Philips Medical.

  4. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. approximately 140g/cm2 for inelastic scattering and approximately 50 g/cm2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum on order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  5. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  6. 快速康复外科理念在妇科围手术期护理中的应用效果观察%Effect observation of fast track surgery applied in the gynecological perioperative nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安旭菁; 李明洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application effect of fast track surgery in gynecological surgery nursing.Methods:232 cases of patients with gynaecopathia were divided into the traditional nursing group and the rapid rehabilitation group.The postoperative taking food time,postoperative activity time out of bed,hospitalization time and nursing satisfaction of the two groups were compared.Results:The postoperative taking food time,postoperative activity time out of bed,hospitalization time and complications of the rapid rehabilitation group were less than those of the traditional nursing group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The nursing satisfaction of the rapid rehabilitation group was significantly superior to that of the traditional nursing group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Fast track surgery could promote the recovery of patients with gynecological surgery,shorten the hospitalization time and avoid the postoperative complications.%目的:探讨快速康复外科理念在妇科手术护理中的应用效果。方法:将妇科病患者232例分为传统护理组和快速康复组,对比两组的术后进食时间、下床活动时间、住院时间及护理满意率。结果:快速康复组的术后进食时间、下床活动时间、住院时间、并发症发生率均低于传统护理组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。快速康复组护理满意程度显著优于传统护理组(P<0.05)。结论:快速康复理念可促进妇科手术患者的恢复,缩短住院时间,避免术后并发症。

  7. Lunar Influences On Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario

    Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the Moon has also been hypothesised as a cause, but the associated energy is too small. The anomalistic period of the Moon (i.e., 27.5 days) coincides substantially with that of the sunspots found on the 17-18th parallel of the heliocentric latitude. Climatic modulation which lasts for around 27.5 days should be related to solar activity, which supplies energy with an amount of two orders of magnitude greater than the lunar-reflected energy. Another mechanism responsible for climatic variations is the redistribution of heat on the Earth. The Moon with the tides induces movement of the water masses of the oceans and with this there is a transport of heat. Semidiurnal lunar tides have been identified, although with modest impact, in the atmospheric pressure, the wind field and the precipitation. On a monthly time scale, variation of daily precipitation data shows that gravitational tides do indeed affect heavy rainfalls more than mean precipitation values. On the longer time scale, several authors have identified the 18.6-yr nutation cycle, which is clearly visible in several data analyses, but often it cannot be easily distinguished from the 19.9 Saturn-Jupiter cycle and the quasi-regular 22-yr double sunspot cycle which at times may be dominant. In the time scale of centuries, covering a number of periods with minimum solar activity, an analysis of meteorological data has demonstrated that only the Spörer Minimum (A.D. 1416-1534) was characterised by climatic anomalies., whereas the other periods had no singularities, or else the weak climate forcing was covered or masked by other factors, leaving the question

  8. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  9. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  10. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  11. Lunar Module Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  12. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  13. 基于红外发光管的快速视点跟踪装置研究%The Fast Gaze Tracking Device Based on the Infrared Luminous Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张闯; 葛益娴; 常建华; 孙冬娇

    2013-01-01

    A method of fast gaze tracking device based on the infrared luminous tube is presanted. The target of the device is to solve the hardware cost of current gaze tracking technology and improve the speed of response. Through the control of the infrared luminous tube brightness, the images are obtained. And the watershed method is used to segment images. The edge of eyes and the relative position in the face are obtained. At the same time, the algorithm complexity is low, and the real-time is realized effect. The measured pupil edge in the image is synthesized in continuous curve according to the pupil boundary. And the boundary slope is calculated from the pupil center position. The method is simple in calculation, and the position of the pupil center can be judged when the pupil is eyelid cover. The device is rapid response to the occasion needed and the portable device can effectively improve the speed of response, solve the gaze tracking technology of environmental requirements and reduce the complexity of the algorithm.%提出一种基于红外发光管的快速视点跟踪装置,解决目前视点跟踪技术的硬件开销大,提高响应速度慢的问题.通过控制红外发光管的明暗得到图像,并采用分水岭的方法进行灰度分割,得到关于瞳孔的边缘及其在面部的相对位置,算法复杂度低,可以得到很好的实时效果;将得到的被测者瞳孔的图像拟合成连续的曲线,根据瞳孔的边界位置、边界的斜率计算出瞳孔的中心位置.该方法计算简单,并可以判断当瞳孔部分被眼睑遮住时的瞳孔中心位置.该装置在需要快速反应的场合及便携式设备中能有效提高响应速度,解决目前视点跟踪技术的应用环境要求高及算法复杂度高的问题.

  14. Tracking by Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Current track reconstructing methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tacking has been done for that with 100 percent efficiency while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency.

  15. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  16. Lunar Base Sitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  17. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTHT1 and ACTHT2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p levels in the FT group were higher than those in the CON group at all time points ( p ≤ .004); this difference remained significant after adjusting for T1 levels through analysis of covariance for age, gender, and body mass index ( F = .003, F = .149, F = .015, respectively, p > .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  19. Application of fast track surgery in patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer%快速康复外科在直肠癌手术患者的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱飞; 朱建伟; 于嘉伟; 孙乃志; 肖建佳; 陈澍周

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of fast track surgery in the patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery .Methods Sixty patients with rectal cancer were randomized into two groups of A(treated with fast track surgery ,30 cases) and B(treated with conventional surgery ,30 cases) .The measures of fast track surgery included having liquid food and oral laxative ,but without enema one day before operation ,drinking a liquid with energy such as sugar water 250 ml ,not inserting indwelling gastric tube and urine catheter before surgery ,and having liquid food and restrictively infusing fluid of 2000‐2500 ml on the first postoperative day .The white blood cell counting one day after operation ,the first time of flatus passage ,postoperative hospital stay and complications were compared between two groups .Results Compared to group B ,the patients in group A had less white blood cell counting [(10.50 ± 1.56) × 109/L vs .(13.04 ± 2.53 ) × 109/L ]( P<0 .05 ) ,earlier passage of flatus [(2.5 ± 0.6) d vs .(3.8 ± 0.7 ) d ] ( P<0 .05 ) ,shorter hospital stay [(9.1 ± 2.9 ) d vs .(11.6 ± 3.5 ) d ] (P<0 .05) and lower incidence of complication (10.0% vs .30.0% )(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Fast track surgery in rectal cancer surgery can promote the recovery of bowel function ,reduce complications and hospital stay .%目的探讨快速康复外科在直肠癌手术中的应用价值。方法符合入组条件的60例直肠癌患者随机均分为快速康复组(A组)和传统治疗组(B组)。A组快速康复外科措施包括:(1)术前进流质1d,口服泻剂,不灌肠;(2)术前4h一次性口服能量液体,例如糖水250ml;(3)术前不留置胃管和导尿管;(4)术后第1天进流质后,限制性补液,补液量2000‐2500ml。比较术后第1天白细胞计数、术后首次排气时间、术后住院天数和并发症发生率等指标。结果与B组比较,A组术后第1天白细胞计数低[(10.50±1.56)×109/Lvs.(13

  20. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Welch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation, since the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar South Pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This article presents a dilution-of-precision-(DoP- based stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the surface stationary navigation system needs to be operated as a two-way navigation system, or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while integrating the position solution over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  1. On a lunar space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  2. The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter: A Discovery Class Lunar Water Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Sun, X.; Petro, N.; Farrell, W.; Abshire, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Green, R.; Thompson, D. E.; Greenberger, R.; Hurley, D.; McClanahan, T. P.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter is a Discovery Class mission concept aimed at characterizing the nature and mobility of water on the Moon. Its instruments include a laser spectrometer, an infrared hyperspectral imager, and a neutral mass spectrometer.

  3. Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

  4. Lunar landing and launch facilities (Complex 39L): Guidance systems and propellant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    After a general, overall definition of Complex 39L during the previous two years, the 1988-89 projects were chosen to focus on more specific aspects, specifically, guidance systems and propellant systems. Six teams or subtasks were formulated: cascade refrigeration for boil-off recovery of cryogenic storage vessels; lunar ground-based radar system to track space vehicles; microwave altimeter for spacecraft; development of a computational model for the determination of lunar surface and sub-surface temperatures; lunar cryogenic facility for the storage of fuels; and lunar lander fuel inventory tent for the storage of cryogenic vessels. At the present time, a cascade refrigeration system for a cryogenic boil-off recovery system has been designed. This is to serve as a baseline system. The ground-based tracking system uses existing technology to implement a reliable tracking radar for use on the lunar surface. A prototype has been constructed. The microwave altimeter is for use on lunar landers. It makes use of the Doppler effect to measure both altitude and the vertical velocity component of the spacecraft. A prototype has been constructed. A computational model that predicts the spatial and temporal temperature profiles of the lunar subsurface was formulated. Propellant storage vessels have been designed. A support for these vessels which minimizes heat leaks was also designed. Further work on the details of the Fuel Inventory Tent (FIT) was performed. While much design work on the overall Complex 39L remains to be done, significant new work has been performed in the subject areas.

  5. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  6. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  7. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  8. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  9. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  10. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  11. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  12. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  13. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  14. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  15. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  16. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  17. The lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M

    2014-12-05

    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization.

  18. Space Weathering of Olivine in Lunar Soils: A Comparison to Itokawa Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith particles from airless bodies preserve a record of the space weathering processes that occurred during their surface exposure history. These processes have major implications for interpreting remote-sensing data from airless bodies. Solar wind irradiation effects occur in the rims of exposed grains, and impact processes result in the accumulation of vapordeposited elements and other surface-adhering materials. The grains returned from the surface of Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission allow the space weathering "style" of a chondritic, asteroidal "soil" to be compared to the lunar case. Here, we present new studies of space-weathered olivine grains from lunar soils, and compare these results to olivine grains from Itokawa. Samples and Methods: We analyzed microtome thin sections of olivine grains from the 20-45 micron fractions of three lunar soils: 71061, 71501 and 10084 (immature, submature and mature, respectively). Imaging and analytical data were obtained using a JEOL 2500SE 200kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope equipped with a thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Similar analyses were obtained from three Hayabusa olivine grains. Results and Discussion: We observed lunar grains showing a range of solar flare track densities (from olivines all show disordered, highly strained, nanocrystalline rims up to 150-nm thick. The disordered rim thickness is positively correlated with solar flare track density. All of the disordered rims are overlain by a Si-rich amorphous layer, ranging up to 50-nm thick, enriched in elements that are not derived from the host olivine (e.g., Ca, Al, and Ti). The outmost layer represents impact-generated vapor deposits typically observed on other lunar soil grains. The Hayabusa olivine grains show track densities olivines in immature and submature lunar soils and indicate surface exposures of approx. 10(exp 5) years. The outermost few nanometers of the disordered rims on Hayabusa olivines are

  19. Effect of Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas J.; Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to assess the potential toxicity of lunar dust to cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lung cells. Some of this dust is on the scale of 1-2 micrometers and could enter the lungs when astronauts track dust into the habitat and inhale it. This could be a serious problem as NASA plans on going back to the moon for an extended period of time. Literature shows that quartz, which has a known cytoxicity, can cause acute cases of silicosis within 6 months, and in most cases cause silicosis after 3 years. The activation of lunar dust through impacts creates surface based radicals which, upon contact with water create hydroxl radicals and peroxyl radicals which are very reactive and potentially might even be as cytotoxic as quartz. These radicals could then react with lung cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, and TNF-alpha.

  20. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). We will focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation, but not immediately autonomous. It will prepare the next permanent lunar base by assessing its technologies, and give scientific results about the environment. The autonomy will be gained in the evolution of the base, and added equipment. A lunar outpost in a polar region would allow missions longer than 14 days, and a frequent addition of equipments. Moreover, a polar outpost will get both advantages of far-side for simulating direct or indirect communications to Earth and dark-side for observations. The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the outpost into a autonomous base. The South Pole, by its position on the edge of the South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin, will allow different fast new data in analysis mantle samples, easily reachable due to the crater morphology. These samples will constrain the putative Late Heavy Bombarment (LHB). After a robotic sample return mission, a human presence will allow deeper research through well chosen geological samples [6]. In this modular concept, we consider various infrastructure elements: core habitat, EVA, crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. Many of these elements have already been studied in space agencies' architecture proposals, with the tech-nological possibilities of industrial partners (lunar landers, lunar orbiter, rovers …). A deeper reflection will be therefore done about the core habitat and the laboratory equipment, proposing scientific priority experiments. Each element will be added in a range considering their priority to life support in duration [7]. Considering surface operations, protocols will be specified in the use of certain elements. After a reflexion on the different dependancies and

  1. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  2. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  3. Meta analysis on the application of fast track surgery in gastrectomy for gastric cancer%快速康复外科在胃癌手术中应用的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰; 汪灏; 管文贤

    2015-01-01

    目的 系统评价快速康复外科(fast track surgery,FTS)在胃癌切除术中应用的安全性和有效性.方法 计算机检索1994年1月至2014年3月Pubmed、Medline、Cochrane library、Web ofscience数据库关于FTS在胃癌切除术中应用的随机对照实验(RCT)或临床对照实验(CCT),并辅用Google进行手工检索,对符合标准的文献采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果 5组RCT和2组CCT纳入研究,共有636例患者,其中FTS组309例,对照组327例.Meta分析结果显示:FTS组较对照组术后肠道通气时间提前[WMD=-18.74,95% CI(-34.31,-3.17),P<0.05]、住院时间减少[WMD=-2.46,95% CI(-3.75,-1.17),P=0.000 2]、住院费用减少[SMD=-0.67,95% CI(-1.00,-0.34),P<0.000 1],但在手术时间、术中出血量、术中淋巴结清扫数目、导尿管拔除时间及并发症发生率方面相比差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 FTS在胃癌切除术中应用能够促进术后肠道功能恢复、缩短住院时间和减少住院费用,从而加速患者康复出院.%Objective To review the safety and efficacy of fast track surgery in gastrectomy for gastric cancer.Methods The computer retrieved databases, including Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane library and Web of science, to collect randomized controlled trials (RCT) or controlled clinical trials (CCTS) on FTS was used in gastrectomy for gastric cancer between January 1994 and march 2014, and manual retrieval in Google.Using RevMan5.0 software analysis data that extract from collect literature.Results A total of five RCTs and two CCTs, involving 636 patients,were included, there were 309 cases in experimental group (FTS group) and 327 cases in control group.Meta-analysis showed: the FTS group had earlier postoperative flatus [WMD =-18.74, 95% CI (-34.31,-3.17), P < 0.05], shorter postoperative hospital stay [WMD =-2.46, 95% CI (-3.75,-1.17), P=0.000 2], and lower hospital charge [SMD =-0.67, 95% CI (-1.00,-0.34), P < 0.000 1].However

  4. FAST TRACK PAPER: Older crust underlies Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2006-05-01

    The oldest rocks outcropping in northwest Iceland are ~16 Myr old and in east Iceland ~13 Myr. The full plate spreading rate in this region during the Cenozoic has been ~2 cm a-1, and thus these rocks are expected to be separated by ~290 km. They are, however, ~500 km apart. The conclusion is inescapable that an expanse of older crust ~210 km wide underlies Iceland, submerged beneath younger lavas. This conclusion is independent of any considerations regarding spreading ridge migrations, jumps, the simultaneous existence of multiple active ridges, three-dimensionality, or subsidence of the lava pile. Such complexities bear on the distribution and age of the older crust, but not on its existence or its width. If it is entirely oceanic its maximum age is most likely 26-37 Ma. It is at least 150 km in north-south extent, but may taper and extend beneath south Iceland. Part of it might be continental-a southerly extension of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. This older crust contributes significantly to crustal thickness beneath Iceland and the ~40 km local thickness measured seismically is thus probably an overestimate of present-day steady-state crustal production at Iceland.

  5. An evolutionary fast-track to biocalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D J; Thiel, V; Wörheide, G

    2010-06-01

    The ability to construct mineralized shells, spicules, spines and skeletons is thought to be a key factor that fuelled the expansion of multicellular animal life during the early Cambrian. The genes and molecular mechanisms that control the process of biomineralization in disparate phyla are gradually being revealed, and it is broadly recognized that an insoluble matrix of proteins, carbohydrates and other organic molecules are required for the initiation, regulation and inhibition of crystal growth. Here, we show that Astrosclera willeyana, a living representative of the now largely extinct stromatoporid sponges (a polyphyletic grade of poriferan bauplan), has apparently bypassed the requirement to evolve many of these mineral-regulating matrix proteins by using the degraded remains of bacteria to seed CaCO(3) crystal growth. Because stromatoporid sponges formed extensive reefs during the Paelozoic and Mesozoic eras (fulfilling the role that stony corals play in modern coral reefs), and fossil evidence suggests that the same process of bacterial skeleton formation occurred in these stromatoporid ancestors, we infer that some ancient reef ecosystems might have been founded on this microbial-metazoan relationship.

  6. Fast-track revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Kristensen, Billy B;

    2011-01-01

    excluding 1 patient, who was transferred to another hospital for logistical reasons (10 days). None of the patients died within 3 months, and 3 patients were re-admitted (2 for suspicion of DVT, which was not found, and 1 for joint mobilization). Patient satisfaction was high. Interpretation Patients...

  7. Clean Energy Cooperation Steering in Fast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cooperation, it is a win-win choice for China and the US. Cooperation has almost become the hottest buzz word in the energy sector globally. During the US President Obama's visit to China recently, China and the US made agreement on the climate change, energy and environment sectors and put forward specific measures for jointly promoting development in these fields, further heating the cooperation between China and the US in the clean energy sector.

  8. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  9. 加速康复外科可能成为创伤救治的新模式%Fast-track surgery shall be the new mode for the trauma remedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程黎阳

    2012-01-01

    Fast-track surgery (FTS) has been proved to be associated with a faster recovery, lower complication rates and a shorter stay in hospital for colorectal and other surgery which considered as a new principle to thoroughly change present surgical diagnose and treatment mode. But FTS is now mainly used in single, typical and elective surgery without severe malnutrition and organ dysfunction except for emergency, critical trauma and infection. Combining the literature and our re -search, the mechanism, significance and program for the application of FTS in trauma remedy are introduced in this article, as to discuss that FTS should be hoped to expand the theory and to become the new mode and standard of trauma remedy.%加速康复外科(FTS)在结直肠及其他外科手术中的应用,已被证明可显著加速术后康复进程,降低并发症的发生率,缩短术后住院时间,因而被认为是一种可能彻底改变目前外科诊疗模式的最新外科原则.但FTS当前的应用主要集中在择期结直肠手术中,尚未将其推广应用到急诊、严重创伤和感染等急危重症中.本文结合文献和作者研究,从应用机理、意义及方案等方面论述了FTS可望拓展创伤救治理论,树立创伤救治新模式和新标准的可能性.

  10. What is the fast track to future energy systems with lower CO2 emissions? Main findings and recommendations from Workshop on Future Energy Systems, Technical University of Denmark, 19 - 20 November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    As part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies programme, DTU arranges a series of workshops and conferences on climate change technology focusing on assessment of and adaptation to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses (GHG). Each workshop target a specific problem area. This workshop focuses on the challenges for the future energy system from a Danish perspective as well as world wide with regard to both technology needs and policy measures with particular focus on identifying a fast track to energy systems with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. In the coming years, energy systems will be changed to consist of a combination of central units and smaller decentralized units - to a large extent based on renewable energy. At the same time there will be close links between the supply of energy and the individual end user of energy. These links will be based on extensive use of information and communication technology. This will allow end users to respond adequately to price signals and use the electricity for loading electric cars, laundry etc. while the electricity prices are low due to for example surplus of wind generated electricity. The workshop assessed the perspectives for a rapid development of energy systems with more renewable energy in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the workshop gives recommendations for the implementation of such energy systems. The recommendations are targeted at the research community, industry and public authorities. The recommendations include opportunities for synergy between the research community, the government and the energy industry as well as public authorities. This report presents summary and recommendations from the workshop. (au)

  11. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  12. Results of implementation of a fast track pathway for diagnosis of colorectal cancer Resultados de la implementación del circuito de diagnostico rápido de cáncer colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Vallverdú Cartié

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: fast track pathways for diagnosis of cancer intend to decrease delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It is recommended to initiate treatment in a period no longer than 30 days since admission in these circuits. Aims: to know the characteristics and fluency of our Fast Track Diagnostic Pathway (FTDP for Colorectal Cancer (CRC, with special attention to those patients selected for surgical treatment as a first choice. Material and method: all patients who entered the FTDP for CRC during a period of 2 years (2008-2009 were analyzed as well as the rest of patients also diagnosed with CRC but never seen in the FTDP. Results: of the 316 patients referred to the FTDP only 78 (24.7% were diagnosed as having some kind of cancer derived from the digestive system. At the end 61 patients (19.3% were diagnosed with CCR. The time interval from entry into the FTDP to the first hospital visit was 3 days (range 1-8, and the interval until colonoscopy was performed was 11.5 days (range 1-41. 14 (41.1% of those patients chosen for surgery were operated on in a period lesser than 30 days while 28 patients (82.3% underwent surgery before day 45 since admission into the circuit. Conclusions: though the functioning of the FTDP is acceptable, any increase in number of patients can generate delays. For this reason it is advisable to have a team to assure a good functioning of the FTDP. A proper follow-up of the whole process will possibly avoid unnecessary delays and it will improve coordination of the different phases of the fast track pathway and treatment. As the diagnostic outcome is poor it is mandatory to implement alternatives programs like screening of asymptomatic population, allowing an early detection of this condition.Introducción: los circuitos de diagnóstico rápido de cáncer (CDRC pretenden disminuir las demoras en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer colorrectal (CCR. Se recomienda el inicio del primer tratamiento en un plazo

  13. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  14. The estimate on lunar figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  15. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the...

  16. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  17. Lunar Rover Drivetrain Development to TRL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, P.; Edmundson, P.; Ghafoor, N.; Jones, H.; Kleinhenz, J.; Picard, M.

    2015-10-01

    The LRPDP and SPRP rovers are designed to provide high mobility and robustness in a lunar working environment and are compatible with various lunar surface activities. TRL-6 testing is scheduled for late 2015 on the rover drivetrain components.

  18. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  19. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  20. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUNAR team is exploring technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. There is a certain degree of commonality in much of LUNAR's research. Specifically, the technology development for a lunar radio telescope involves elements from LFCA, Heliophysics, Exploration Science, and Planetary Science; similarly the drilling technology developed for LLR applies broadly to both Exploration and Lunar Science.