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Sample records for fast reconnection mechanism

  1. Conditions for substorm onset by the fast reconnection mechanism

    M. Ugai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast reconnection mechanism, involving slow shocks and Alfvénic fast plasma jets, is most responsible for the explosive conversion of magnetic energy associated with geomagnetic substorms and solar flares. In this paper, the spontaneous fast reconnection model is applied to well-known phenomena of substorms. When the east-west width of the tail current sheet becomes 3–4 times larger than its north-south thickness, the fast reconnection mechanism can fully be established, which may lead to substorm onset. The resulting Alfvénic jet can exactly explain, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the in-situ satellite observations of the traveling compression regions (TCRs associated with large-scale plasmoids propagating down the tail. Also, the earthward fast reconnection jet causes drastic magnetic field dipolarization, so that the sheet current ahead of the magnetic loop of closed field lines suddenly turns its direction toward the loop footpoint and a large-scale current wedge is formed according to the growth of field-aligned currents. It is demonstrated that an MHD generator arises ahead of the magnetic loop and drives the current wedge to distinctly enhance the current density in a pair of thin layers of the loop footpoint, giving rise to drastic heating in the form of two ribbons.

  2. Why fast magnetic reconnection is so prevalent

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2018-02-01

    Evolving magnetic fields are shown to generically reach a state of fast magnetic reconnection in which magnetic field line connections change and magnetic energy is released at an Alfvénic rate. This occurs even in plasmas with zero resistivity; only the finiteness of the mass of the lightest charged particle, an electron, is required. The speed and prevalence of Alfvénic or fast magnetic reconnection imply that its cause must be contained within the ideal evolution equation for magnetic fields, , where is the velocity of the magnetic field lines. For a generic , neighbouring magnetic field lines develop a separation that increases exponentially, as \\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E(\\ell ,t)}$ with the distance along a line. This exponentially enhances the sensitivity of the evolution to non-ideal effects. An analogous effect, the importance of stirring to produce a large-scale flow and enhance mixing, has been recognized by cooks through many millennia, but the importance of the large-scale flow to reconnection is customarily ignored. In part this is due to the sixty-year focus of recognition theory on two-coordinate models, which eliminate the exponential enhancement that is generic with three coordinates. A simple three-coordinate model is developed, which could be used to address many unanswered questions.

  3. Achieving fast reconnection in resistive MHD models via turbulent means

    G. Lapenta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical fluids are generally turbulent and this preexisting turbulence must be taken into account for models of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical, solar or heliospheric environments. In addition, reconnection itself induces turbulence which provides an important feedback on the reconnection process. In this paper we discuss both the theoretical model and numerical evidence that magnetic reconnection becomes fast in the approximation of resistive MHD. We consider the relation between the Lazarian and Vishniac turbulent reconnection theory and Lapenta's numerical experiments testifying of the spontaneous onset of turbulent reconnection in systems which are initially laminar.

  4. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  5. Onset of Fast Magnetic Reconnection via Subcritical Bifurcation

    ZHIBIN eGUO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a phase transition model for the onset of fast magnetic reconnection. By investigating the joint dynamics of streaming instability(i.e., current driven ion acoustic in this paper and current gradient driven whistler wave {color{blue} {prior to the onset of fast reconnection}}, we show that the nonlinear evolution of current sheet(CS can be described by a Landau-Ginzburg equation. The phase transition from slow reconnection to fast reconnection occurs at a critical thickness, $Delta_csimeq frac{2}{sqrt{pi}}left|frac{v_{the}}{v_c}right|d_e$, where $v_{the}$ is electron thermal velocity and $v_c$ is the velocity threshold of the streaming instability. For current driven ion acoustic, $Delta_c$ is $leq10d_e$. If the thickness of the CS is narrower than $Delta_c$, the CS subcritically bifurcates into a rough state, which facilitates breakage of the CS, and consequently initiates fast reconnection.

  6. A new fast reconnection model in a collisionless regime

    Tsiklauri, David

    2008-01-01

    Based on the first principles [i.e., (i) by balancing the magnetic field advection with the term containing electron pressure tensor nongyrotropic components in the generalized Ohm's law; (ii) using the conservation of mass; and (iii) assuming that the weak magnetic field region width, where electron meandering motion supports electron pressure tensor off-diagonal (nongyrotropic) components, is of the order of electron Larmor radius] a simple model of magnetic reconnection in a collisionless regime is formulated. The model is general, resembling its collisional Sweet-Parker analog in that it is not specific to any initial configuration, e.g., Harris-type tearing unstable current sheet, X-point collapse or otherwise. In addition to its importance from the fundamental point of view, the collisionless reconnection model offers a much faster reconnection rate [M c ' less =(c/ω pe ) 2 /(r L,e L)] than Sweet-Parker's classical one (M sp =S -1/2 ). The width of the diffusion region (current sheet) in the collisionless regime is found to be δ c ' less =(c/ω pe ) 2 /r L,e , which is independent of the global reconnection scale L and is only prescribed by microphysics (electron inertial length, c/ω pe , and electron Larmor radius, r L,e ). Amongst other issues, the fastness of the reconnection rate alleviates, e.g., the problem of interpretation of solar flares by means of reconnection, as for the typical solar coronal parameters the obtained collisionless reconnection time can be a few minutes, as opposed to Sweet-Parker's equivalent value of less than a day. The new theoretical reconnection rate is compared to the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment device experimental data by Yamada et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 052119 (2006)] and Ji et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, 13106 (2008)], and a good agreement is obtained.

  7. Formation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona

    Hsieh, M. H.; Tsai, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Reconnections of magnetic fields over the solar surface are expected to generate abundant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities and shocks, including slow shocks and rotational discontinuities. However, the generation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection process is relatively not well studied. In this paper, magnetic reconnection in a current sheet is studied based on two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnections in the current sheet lead to the formation of plasma jets and plasma bulges. It is further found that the plasma bulges, the leading part of plasma jets, in turn lead to the generation of fast shocks on flanks of the bulges. The simulation results show that during the magnetic reconnection process, the plasma forms a series of structures: plasma jets, plasma bulges, and fast shocks. As time increases, the bulges spread out along the current sheet (±z direction) and the fast shocks move just ahead of the bulges. The effects of initial parameters ρ s /ρ m , β ∞ , and t rec on the fast shock generation are also examined, where ρ s /ρ m is the ratio of plasma densities on two sides of the initial current sheet, β ∞ =P ∞ /(B ∞ 2 /2μ 0 ), P ∞ is the plasma pressure and B ∞ is the magnetic field magnitude far from the current sheet, and t rec is the reconnection duration. In the asymmetric case with ρ s /ρ m =2, β ∞ =0.01 and t rec =1000, the maximum Alfven Mach number of fast shocks (M A1max ) is M A1max congruent with 1.1, where M A1 =V n1 /V A1 , and V n1 and V A1 are, respectively, the normal upstream fluid velocity and the upstream Alfven speed in the fast shocks frame. As the density ratio ρ s /ρ m (=1-8) and plasma beta β ∞ (=0.0001-1) increase, M A1max varies slightly. For the case with a large plasma beta β ∞ (=5), the fast shock is very weak. As the reconnection duration t rec increases, the bulges lead to generation of fast shocks with a higher M A1max . The present results can be

  8. ON THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN ACCRETING BLACK HOLE SOURCES

    Singh, C. B.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Kadowaki, L. H. S.

    2015-01-01

    We attempt to explain the observed radio and gamma-ray emission produced in the surroundings of black holes by employing a magnetically dominated accretion flow model and fast magnetic reconnection triggered by turbulence. In earlier work, a standard disk model was used and we refine the model by focusing on the sub-Eddington regime to address the fundamental plane of black hole activity. The results do not change substantially with regard to previous work, ensuring that the details of accretion physics are not relevant in the magnetic reconnection process occurring in the corona. Rather, our work puts fast magnetic reconnection events as a powerful mechanism operating in the core region near the jet base of black hole sources on more solid ground. For microquasars and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, the observed correlation between radio emission and the mass of the sources can be explained by this process. The corresponding gamma-ray emission also seems to be produced in the same core region. On the other hand, emission from blazars and gamma-ray bursts cannot be correlated to core emission based on fast reconnection

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic study of three-dimensional instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection

    Shimizu, T.; Kondoh, K.; Ugai, M.; Shibata, K.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is studied with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, where the two-dimensional model of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is destabilized in three dimension. Generally, in two-dimensional magnetic reconnection models, every plasma condition is assumed to be uniform in the sheet current direction. In such two-dimensional MHD simulations, the current sheet destabilized by the initial resistive disturbance can be developed to fast magnetic reconnection by a current driven anomalous resistivity. In this paper, the initial resistive disturbance includes a small amount of fluctuations in the sheet current direction, i.e., along the magnetic neutral line. The other conditions are the same as that of previous two-dimensional MHD studies for fast magnetic reconnection. Accordingly, we may expect that approximately two-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection occurs in the MHD simulation. In fact, the fast magnetic reconnection activated on the first stage of the simulation is two dimensional. However, on the subsequent stages, it spontaneously becomes three dimensional and is strongly localized in the sheet current direction. The resulting three-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection intermittently ejects three-dimensional magnetic loops. Such intermittent ejections of the three-dimensional loops are similar to the intermittent downflows observed in the solar flares. The ejection of the three-dimensional loops seems to be random but, numerically and theoretically, it is shown that the aspect ratio of the ejected loops is limited under a criterion.

  10. Fast magnetic reconnection supported by sporadic small-scale Petschek-type shocks

    Shibayama, Takuya; Nakabou, Takashi; Kusano, Kanya; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Vekstein, Grigory

    2015-01-01

    Standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts reconnection rate that is far too slow to account for a wide variety of reconnection events observed in space and laboratory plasmas. Therefore, it was commonly accepted that some non-MHD (kinetic) effects play a crucial role in fast reconnection. A recently renewed interest in simple MHD models is associated with the so-called plasmoid instability of reconnecting current sheets. Although it is now evident that this effect can significantly enhance the rate of reconnection, many details of the underlying multiple-plasmoid process still remain controversial. Here, we report results of a high-resolution computer simulation which demonstrate that fast albeit intermittent magnetic reconnection is sustained by numerous small-scale Petschek-type shocks spontaneously formed in the current sheet due to its plasmoid instability

  11. Fast magnetic reconnection supported by sporadic small-scale Petschek-type shocks

    Shibayama, Takuya, E-mail: shibayama@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Nakabou, Takashi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Kanya [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Miyoshi, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Vekstein, Grigory [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts reconnection rate that is far too slow to account for a wide variety of reconnection events observed in space and laboratory plasmas. Therefore, it was commonly accepted that some non-MHD (kinetic) effects play a crucial role in fast reconnection. A recently renewed interest in simple MHD models is associated with the so-called plasmoid instability of reconnecting current sheets. Although it is now evident that this effect can significantly enhance the rate of reconnection, many details of the underlying multiple-plasmoid process still remain controversial. Here, we report results of a high-resolution computer simulation which demonstrate that fast albeit intermittent magnetic reconnection is sustained by numerous small-scale Petschek-type shocks spontaneously formed in the current sheet due to its plasmoid instability.

  12. Fast reconnection of magnetic fields in a plasma

    Hu, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Reconnection process of magnetic fields in a plasma is analytically studied by perturbing the boundary conditions on a slab of incompressible plasma with a resonant surface inside. It is found, for small resistivity, that the reconnection takes place on Alfven time scale and continues into a slow time scale t 1 = eta/sup 1/3/t. Both time scales are faster than the usual tearing time scale. Furthermore, the plasma evolves globally from its initial equilibrium on the slow time scale and settles down to a different final equilibrium

  13. Fast Magnetic Reconnection in the Plasmoid-Dominated Regime

    Uzdensky, D. A.; Loureiro, N. F.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of resistive magnetic reconnection via a stochastic plasmoid chain is proposed. The global reconnection rate is shown to be independent of the Lundquist number. The distribution of fluxes in the plasmoids is shown to be an inverse-square law. It is argued that there is a finite probability of emergence of abnormally large plasmoids, which can disrupt the chain (and may be responsible for observable large abrupt events in solar flares and sawtooth crashes). A criterion for the transition from the resistive magnetohydrodynamic to the collisionless regime is provided.

  14. Electromagnetic Fluctuations during Fast Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    Hantao Ji; Stephen Terry; Masaaki Yamada; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn; Yang Ren

    2003-01-01

    Clear evidence for a positive correlation is established between the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range and enhancement of reconnection rates in a well-controlled laboratory plasma. The fluctuations belong to the right-hand polarized whistler wave branch, propagating obliquely to the reconnecting magnetic field, with a phase velocity comparable to the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions. The short coherence length and large variation along the propagation direction indicate their strongly nonlinear nature in three dimensions

  15. Experimental verification of the role of electron pressure in fast magnetic reconnection with a guide field

    Fox, W.; Sciortino, F.; Stechow, A. von; Jara-Almonte, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report detailed laboratory observations of the structure of a reconnection current sheet in a two-fluid plasma regime with a guide magnetic field. We observe and quantitatively analyze the quadrupolar electron pressure variation in the ion-diffusion region, as originally predicted by extended magnetohydrodynamics simulations. The projection of the electron pressure gradient parallel to the magnetic field contributes significantly to balancing the parallel electric field, and the resulting cross-field electron jets in the reconnection layer are diamagnetic in origin. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how parallel and perpendicular force balance are coupled in guide field reconnection and confirm basic theoretical models of the importance of electron pressure gradients for obtaining fast magnetic reconnection.

  16. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    Colgate, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS STUDY OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FOR INTERMITTENT SNAKE-LIKE DOWNFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    Shimizu, T.; Kondo, K.; Ugai, M.; Shibata, K.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is studied with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, where the two-dimensional model of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is destabilized in three dimensions. In two-dimensional models, every plasma condition is assumed to be uniform in the sheet current direction. In that case, it is well known that the two-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection can be caused by current-driven anomalous resistivity, when an initial resistive disturbance is locally put in a one-dimensional current sheet. In this paper, it is studied whether the two-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection can be destabilized or not when the initial resistive disturbance is three dimensional, i.e., that which has weak fluctuations in the sheet current direction. According to our study, the two-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection is developed to the three-dimensional intermittent fast magnetic reconnection which is strongly localized in the sheet current direction. The resulting fast magnetic reconnection repeats to randomly eject three-dimensional magnetic loops which are very similar to the intermittent downflows observed in solar flares. In fact, in some observations of solar flares, the current sheet seems to be approximately one dimensional, but the fast magnetic reconnection is strongly localized in the sheet current direction, i.e., fully three dimensional. In addition, the observed plasma downflows as snake-like curves. It is shown that those observed features are consistent with our numerical MHD study.

  18. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF MICROQUASARS AND LOW LUMINOSITY AGNs

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Singh, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 10 10 orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected

  19. HEATING MECHANISMS IN THE LOW SOLAR ATMOSPHERE THROUGH MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN CURRENT SHEETS

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Roussev, Ilia I. [Division of Geosciences, National Science Foundation Arlington, Virginia (United States); Schmieder, Brigitte, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, Meudon (France)

    2016-12-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere; the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature (≳8 × 10{sup 4} K) and low temperature (∼10{sup 4} K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere (100–600 km above the solar surface). The plasma β controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high β magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low β magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over 8 × 10{sup 4} K. Gravity in the low chromosphere can strongly hinder the plasmoid instability and the formation of slow-mode shocks in a vertical current sheet. Only small secondary islands are formed; these islands, however, are not as well developed as those in the horizontal current sheets. This work can be applied to understand the heating mechanism in the low solar atmosphere and could possibly be extended to explain the formation of common low temperature Ellerman bombs (∼10{sup 4} K) and the high temperature Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) bombs (≳8 × 10{sup 4}) in the future.

  20. Global Hybrid Simulation of Alfvenic Waves Associated with Magnetotail Reconnection and Fast Flows

    Cheng, L.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Perez, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Alfvenic fluctuations have been observed near the magnetotail plasma sheet boundary layer associated with fast flows. In this presentation, we use the Auburn 3-D Global Hybrid code (ANGIE3D) to investigate the generation and propagation of Alfvenic waves in the magnetotail. Shear Alfven waves and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) are found to be generated in magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet as well as in the dipole-like field region of the magnetosphere, carrying Poynting flux along magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere, and the wave structure is strongly altered by the flow braking in the tail. The 3-D structure of the wave electromagnetic field and the associated parallel currents in reconnection and the dipole-like field region is presented. The Alfvenic waves exhibit a turbulence spectrum. The roles of these Alfvenic waves in ion heating is discussed.

  1. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE RELEASE AND CONVERSION VIA RECONNECTION OF ENERGY STORED BY A CURRENT SHEET

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using a simple two-dimensional, zero-{beta} model, we explore the manner by which reconnection at a current sheet releases and dissipates free magnetic energy. We find that only a small fraction (3%-11% depending on current-sheet size) of the energy is stored close enough to the current sheet to be dissipated abruptly by the reconnection process. The remaining energy, stored in the larger-scale field, is converted to kinetic energy in a fast magnetosonic disturbance propagating away from the reconnection site, carrying the initial current and generating reconnection-associated flows (inflow and outflow). Some of this reflects from the lower boundary (the photosphere) and refracts back to the X-point reconnection site. Most of this inward wave energy is reflected back again and continues to bounce between X-point and photosphere until it is gradually dissipated, over many transits. This phase of the energy dissipation process is thus global and lasts far longer than the initial purely local phase. In the process, a significant fraction of the energy (25%-60%) remains as undissipated fast magnetosonic waves propagating away from the reconnection site, primarily upward. This flare-generated wave is initiated by unbalanced Lorentz forces in the reconnection-disrupted current sheet, rather than by dissipation-generated pressure, as some previous models have assumed. Depending on the orientation of the initial current sheet, the wave front is either a rarefaction, with backward-directed flow, or a compression, with forward-directed flow.

  2. FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE MEDIATED BY THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY

    Ni, Lei; Kliem, Bernhard; Lin, Jun; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized solar chromosphere is studied in 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including radiative cooling and ambipolar diffusion. A Harris current sheet with and without a guide field is considered. Characteristic values of the parameters in the middle chromosphere imply a high magnetic Reynolds number of ∼10 6 -10 7 in the present simulations. Fast magnetic reconnection then develops as a consequence of the plasmoid instability without the need to invoke anomalous resistivity enhancements. Multiple levels of the instability are followed as it cascades to smaller scales, which approach the ion inertial length. The reconnection rate, normalized to the asymptotic values of magnetic field and Alfvén velocity in the inflow region, reaches values in the range ∼0.01-0.03 throughout the cascading plasmoid formation and for zero as well as for strong guide field. The outflow velocity reaches ≈40 km s –1 . Slow-mode shocks extend from the X-points, heating the plasmoids up to ∼8 × 10 4 K. In the case of zero guide field, the inclusion of both ambipolar diffusion and radiative cooling causes a rapid thinning of the current sheet (down to ∼30 m) and early formation of secondary islands. Both of these processes have very little effect on the plasmoid instability for a strong guide field. The reconnection rates, temperature enhancements, and upward outflow velocities from the vertical current sheet correspond well to their characteristic values in chromospheric jets

  3. FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE MEDIATED BY THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY

    Ni, Lei; Kliem, Bernhard; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wu, Ning, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [School of Tourism and Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650031 (China)

    2015-01-20

    Magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized solar chromosphere is studied in 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including radiative cooling and ambipolar diffusion. A Harris current sheet with and without a guide field is considered. Characteristic values of the parameters in the middle chromosphere imply a high magnetic Reynolds number of ∼10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} in the present simulations. Fast magnetic reconnection then develops as a consequence of the plasmoid instability without the need to invoke anomalous resistivity enhancements. Multiple levels of the instability are followed as it cascades to smaller scales, which approach the ion inertial length. The reconnection rate, normalized to the asymptotic values of magnetic field and Alfvén velocity in the inflow region, reaches values in the range ∼0.01-0.03 throughout the cascading plasmoid formation and for zero as well as for strong guide field. The outflow velocity reaches ≈40 km s{sup –1}. Slow-mode shocks extend from the X-points, heating the plasmoids up to ∼8 × 10{sup 4} K. In the case of zero guide field, the inclusion of both ambipolar diffusion and radiative cooling causes a rapid thinning of the current sheet (down to ∼30 m) and early formation of secondary islands. Both of these processes have very little effect on the plasmoid instability for a strong guide field. The reconnection rates, temperature enhancements, and upward outflow velocities from the vertical current sheet correspond well to their characteristic values in chromospheric jets.

  4. 3-D magnetic reconnection in colliding laser-produced plasmas

    Matteucci, Jackson; Fox, Will; Moissard, Clement; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated magnetic reconnection between colliding plasma plumes, where the reconnecting magnetic fields were self-generated in the expanding laser-produced plasmas by the Biermann battery effect. Using fully kinetic 3-D particle in cell simulations, we conduct the first end-to-end simulations of these experiments, including self-consistent magnetic field generation via the Biermann effect through driven magnetic field reconnection. The simulations show rich, temporally and spatially dependent magnetic field reconnection. First, we find fast, vertically-localized ``Biermann-mediated reconnection,'' an inherently 3-D reconnection mechanism where the sign of the Biermann term reverses in the reconnection layer, destroying incoming flux and reconnecting flux downstream. Reconnection then transitions to fast, collisionless reconnection sustained by the non-gyrotropic pressure tensor. To separate out the role 3-D mechanisms, 2-D simulations are initialized based on reconnection-plane cuts of the 3-D simulations. These simulations demonstrate: (1) suppression of Biermann-mediated reconnection in 2-D; (2) similar efficacy of pressure tensor mechanisms in 2-D and 3-D; and (3) plasmoids develop in the reconnection layer in 2-D, where-as they are suppressed in 3-D. Supported by NDSEG Fellowship. This research used resources of the OLCF at ORNL, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  5. Plasmoids everywhere: ideal tearing, the transition to fast reconnection, and solar activity.

    Velli, M. C. M.; Pucci, F.; Tenerani, A.; Shi, C.; Del Sarto, D.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    We discuss the role of generalized ``ideal" tearing (IT) as a possible trigger mechanism for magnetic reconnection to understand energetic phenomena in the solar atmosphere. We begin with a pedagogical introduction to the IT concept, how it stems from the classical analysis of the tearing instability, what is meant by plasmoids, and the connections of IT to the plasmoid instability and Sweet Parker current sheets. We then proceed to analyze how the IT concept extends to equilibria with flows, small scale kinetic effects, different current structures and different magnetic field topology configurations. Finally we discuss the relationship of reconnection triggering to nonlinear cascades and turbulent evolution, and how different situations may arise depending on scale, boundary conditions, and time-history, from coronal heating via nanoflares, to solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Issues of local topology, dimensionality, anisotropy will also be discussed.

  6. Tracing Fast Electron Beams Emanating from the Magnetic Reconnection Site in a Solar Jet

    Chen, B.; Yu, S.; Battaglia, M.; Krucker, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fast electron beams propagating in the solar corona can emit radio waves commonly known as type III radio bursts. At decimetric wavelengths, these bursts are emitted from the low corona where flare energy release is thought to take place. As such, decimetric type III radio bursts can serve as an excellent tool to directly trace fast electron beams in the vicinity of the flare energy release site. Here we report observations of decimetric type III bursts during a jet event using the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in 1-2 GHz. Taking advantage of VLA's highly sensitive spectral imaging capability with an ultra-high cadence of 50 ms, we derive detailed trajectories of fast electron beams (with a bulk speed of at least 0.3-0.5c, or several tens of keV) and place them in the context of extreme ultraviolet and X-ray images obtained by SDO/AIA and RHESSI. Our results show that the electron beams originated in a region just below the jet and above the lower-lying small-scale flare loops, presumably where the magnetic energy release took place. We show that the electron beams appear in groups, each with a duration of only a few seconds. Each group, consisting of beams propagating along magnetic field lines at different angles, is seen to emanate from a single site trailing the jet, interpreted as the magnetic reconnection null point. Our results suggest, at least for the present case, that the fast electron beams were energized directly at the magnetic reconnection site which was highly inhomogeneous and fragmentary possibly down to kilometer scales.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASYMMETRIC RECONNECTION AND APPLICATION TO A PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF PENUMBRAL MICROJETS

    Nakamura, Naoki; Shibata, Kazunari; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) component reconnection, where reconnecting field lines are not perfectly anti-parallel, is studied with a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. In particular, we consider the asymmetry of the field strength of the reconnecting field lines. As the asymmetry increases, the generated reconnection jet tends to be parallel to stronger field lines. This is because weaker field lines have higher gas pressure in the initial equilibrium, and hence the gas pressure gradient along the reconnected field lines is generated, which accelerates the field-aligned plasma flow. This mechanism may explain penumbral microjets and other types of jets that are parallel to magnetic field lines.

  8. Magnetic Reconnection

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  9. Magnetic Reconnection

    Yamada, Masaaki; Kulsrud, Russell; Ji, Hantao

    2009-01-01

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two-fluid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also briefly discussed.

  10. Intermittent magnetic reconnection in TS-3 merging experiment

    Ono, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Ii, T.; Tanabe, H.; Ito, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ito, T.; Kamino, Y.; Yamada, T.; Inomoto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ejection of current sheet with plasma mass causes impulsive and intermittent magnetic reconnection in the TS-3 spherical tokamak (ST) merging experiment. Under high guide toroidal field, the sheet resistivity is almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than the ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet resistivity result in flux and plasma pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the pileup exceeds a critical limit, the sheet is ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed is slow during the flux/plasma pileup and is fast during the ejection, suggesting that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increases the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable the merging tokamaks to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even when their current-sheet resistivity is low under high guide field.

  11. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-28

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  12. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  13. On the radiation mechanism of repeating fast radio bursts

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2018-06-01

    Recent observations show that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are energetic but probably non-catastrophic events occurring at cosmological distances. The properties of their progenitors are largely unknown in spite of many attempts to determine them using the event rate, duration, and energetics. Understanding the radiation mechanism for FRBs should provide the missing insights regarding their progenitors, which is investigated in this paper. The high brightness temperatures (≳1035 K) of FRBs mean that the emission process must be coherent. Two general classes of coherent radiation mechanisms are considered - maser and the antenna mechanism. We use the observed properties of the repeater FRB 121102 to constrain the plasma conditions needed for these two mechanisms. We have looked into a wide variety of maser mechanisms operating in either vacuum or plasma and find that none of them can explain the high luminosity of FRBs without invoking unrealistic or fine-tuned plasma conditions. The most favourable mechanism is antenna curvature emission by coherent charge bunches where the burst is powered by magnetic reconnection near the surface of a magnetar (B ≳ 1014 G). We show that the plasma in the twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar may be clumpy due to two-stream instability. When magnetic reconnection occurs, the pre-existing density clumps may provide charge bunches for the antenna mechanism to operate. This model should be applicable to all FRBs that have multiple outbursts like FRB 121102.

  14. Measurements of plasma profiles using a fast swept Langmuir probe in the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment

    Shesterikov, I.; Von Stechow, A.; Grulke, O.; Stenzel, R.; Klinger, T.

    2017-07-01

    A fast-swept Langmuir probe capable to be biased at a high voltages has been constructed and successfully operated at the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment. The presented circuit has two main features beneficial for fast transient parameter changes in laboratory experiments as, e.g., plasma guns or magnetic reconnection: the implementation simplicity and the high voltage sweep range. This work presents its design and performance for time-dependent measurements of VINETA-II plasmas. The probe is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a fixed frequency. Current - voltage characteristics are measured along the falling and rising slopes of the probe bias. The sweep frequency is fsweep= 150 kHz. The spatiotemporal evolution of radial plasma profiles is obtained by evaluation of the probe characteristics. The plasma density measurements agree with those derived from a microwave interferometer, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. As a model plasma system, a plasma gun discharge with typical pulse times of 60 μ s is chosen.

  15. About 'reconnection' in a collisionless plasma

    Pellat, R.

    1979-01-01

    Two kinds of mechanisms have been advertised for magnetic field line reconnection in plasmas: a slow diffusive process, proposed by Parker and Sweet (1958), related to the Tearing mode and field line stochasticity; an Alfenic flow, with a fast merging rate, the so-called Petschek theory. The present author considers both mechanisms successively and emphasizes the yet unsolved theoretical difficulties. (Auth.)

  16. Transient and intermittent magnetic reconnections in TS-3/UTST merging startup experiments

    Ono, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Imanaka, H.; Hayamizu, T.; Inomoto, M.; Sato, M.; Kawamori, E.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The high-power reconnection heating has been developed in the TS-3 merging experiments, leading us to a new pulsed high-beta spherical tokamak (ST) formation. Two ST plasmas were produced inductively by two or four PF coils without using any central solenoid (CS) coil and were merged together for MW-GW reconnection heating. The magnetic reconnection transformed the magnetic energy of reconnecting magnetic field through the outflow kinetic energy finally to the ion thermal energy, increasing the plasma beta of ST up to 0.5. A new finding is that ejection of current sheet (or plasmoid) causes high-speed merging/ reconnection as well as high-power heating. In the high-q ST merging, the sheet resistivity was almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet dissipation resulted in flux pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the flux pileup exceeded a critical limit, the sheet was ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed was slow during the flux pileup and was fast during the ejection, indicating that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increased the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable us to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even if the merging high-q tokamaks have low current-sheet resistivity. (author)

  17. Self-Organization by Stochastic Reconnection: The Mechanism Underlying CMEs/Flares

    Antiochos, S. K.; Knizhnik, K. J.; DeVore, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The largest explosions in the solar system are the giant CMEs/flares that produce the most dangerous space weather at Earth, yet may also have been essential for the origin of life. The root cause of CMEs/flares is that the lowest-lying magnetic field lines in the Sun's corona undergo the continual buildup of stress and free energy that can be released only through explosive ejection. We perform the first MHD simulations of a coronal-photospheric magnetic system that is driven by random photospheric convective flows and has a realistic geometry for the coronal field. Furthermore, our simulations accurately preserve the key constraint of magnetic helicity. We find that even though small-scale stress is injected randomly throughout the corona, the net result of "stochastic" coronal reconnection is a coherent stretching of the lowest-lying field lines. This highly counter-intuitive demonstration of self-organization - magnetic stress builds up locally rather than spreading out to a minimum energy state - is the fundamental mechanism responsible for the Sun's magnetic explosions and is likely to be a mechanism that is ubiquitous throughout space and laboratory plasmas. This work was supported in part by the NASA LWS and SR Programs.

  18. Generation mechanism of the whistler-mode waves in the plasma sheet prior to magnetic reconnection

    Wei, X. H.; Cao, J. B.; Zhou, G. C.; Fu, H. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Reme, H.; Dandouras, I.; Cornilleau, N.; Fazakerley, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), s. 205-210 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : whistler-mode waves * electron temperature anisotropy * Reconnection * the plasma sheet Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117713001221

  19. A Model of Solar Flares Based on Arcade Field Reconnection and Merging of Magnetic Islands

    Choe, G.S.; Cheng, C.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are intense, abrupt releases of energy in the solar corona. In the impulsive phase of a flare, the intensity of hard X-ray emission reaches a sharp peak indicating the highest reconnection rate. It is often observed that an X-ray emitting plasma ejecta (plasmoid) is launched before the impulsive phase and accelerated throughout the phase. Thus, the plasmoid ejection may not be an effect of fast magnetic reconnection as conventionally assumed, but a cause of fast reconnection. Based on resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations, a solar flare model is presented, which can explain these observational characteristics of flares. In the model, merging of a newly generated magnetic island and a pre-existing island results in stretching and thinning of a current sheet, in which fast magnetic reconnection is induced. Recurrence of homologous flares naturally arises in this model. Mechanisms of magnetic island formation are also discussed

  20. Reconnection in space plasma

    Terasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in space physics is to understand the physical mechanism which governs energy conversion process from magnetic to particle energies, a typical one being the reconnection mechanism. As a possible candidate process of the magnetic reconnection in space, tearing mode instability has been considered. In this paper are discussed selected topics related to the understanding of the tearing mode instability; the effect of the boundary condition, the resonant particle and current filamentation effects, vorticity excitation, and the Hall current effect. 31 refs, 12 figs

  1. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Geiger, B.; M. García-Muñoz,; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than

  2. Whistler dominated quasi-collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.

    1995-05-01

    A theory of fast quasi-collisionless reconnection is presented. For spatial scales smaller than the ion inertia length the electrons decouple from the ions and the dynamics is described by electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). A qualitative analysis of the reconnection region is obtained, which is corroborated by numerical simulations. The main results are that in contrast to resistive reconnection no macroscopic current sheet is generated, and the reconnection rate is independent of the smallness parameters of the system, i.e. the electron inertia length and the dissipation coefficients. At larger scales the coupling to the ions is important, which, however, does not change the small-scale dynamics. The reconnection rate is only limited by ion inertia being independent of the electron inertia scale and the dissipation coefficients. Reconnection is much faster than in the absence of the whistler mode. (orig.)

  3. The role of fluid compression in energy conversion and particle energization during magnetic reconnection

    Li, X.; Guo, F.; Li, G.; Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    Theories of particle transport and acceleration have shown that fluid compression is the leading mechanism for particle acceleration and plasma energization. However, the role of compression in particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection is unclear. We use two approaches to study this issue. First, using fully kinetic simulations, we quantitatively calculate the effect of compression in energy conversion and particle energization during magnetic reconnection for a range of plasma beta and guide field. We show that compression has an important contribution for the energy conversion between the bulk kinetic energy and the internal energy when the guide field is smaller than the reconnecting component. Based on this result, we then study the large-scale reconnection acceleration by solving the Parker's transport equation in a background reconnecting flow provided by MHD simulations. Due to the compression effect, the simulations suggest fast particle acceleration to high energies in the reconnection layer. This study clarifies the nature of particle acceleration in reconnection layer, and may be important to understand particle acceleration and plasma energization during solar flares.

  4. Relation of astrophysical turbulence and magnetic reconnection

    Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Eyink, Gregory L. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vishniac, E. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Astrophysical fluids are generically turbulent and this must be taken into account for most transport processes. We discuss how the preexisting turbulence modifies magnetic reconnection and how magnetic reconnection affects the MHD turbulent cascade. We show the intrinsic interdependence and interrelation of magnetic turbulence and magnetic reconnection, in particular, that strong magnetic turbulence in 3D requires reconnection and 3D magnetic turbulence entails fast reconnection. We follow the approach in Eyink et al.[Astrophys. J. 743, 51 (2011)] to show that the expressions of fast magnetic reconnection in A. Lazarian and E. T. Vishniac [Astrophys. J. 517, 700 (1999)] can be recovered if Richardson diffusion of turbulent flows is used instead of ordinary Ohmic diffusion. This does not revive, however, the concept of magnetic turbulent diffusion which assumes that magnetic fields can be mixed up in a passive way down to a very small dissipation scales. On the contrary, we are dealing the reconnection of dynamically important magnetic field bundles which strongly resist bending and have well defined mean direction weakly perturbed by turbulence. We argue that in the presence of turbulence the very concept of flux-freezing requires modification. The diffusion that arises from magnetic turbulence can be called reconnection diffusion as it based on reconnection of magnetic field lines. The reconnection diffusion has important implications for the continuous transport processes in magnetized plasmas and for star formation. In addition, fast magnetic reconnection in turbulent media induces the First order Fermi acceleration of energetic particles, can explain solar flares and gamma ray bursts. However, the most dramatic consequence of these developments is the fact that the standard flux freezing concept must be radically modified in the presence of turbulence.

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor Type Instabilities in the Reconnection Exhaust Jet as a Mechanism for Supra-arcade Downflows in the Sun

    Guo, L.-J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Innes, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (hereafter referred to as SADs) are low-emission, elongated, finger-like features observed in active region coronae above post-eruption flare arcades. Observations exhibit downward moving SADs intertwined with bright upward growing spikes. Whereas SADs are dark voids, spikes are brighter, denser structures. Although SADs have been observed for more than a decade, the mechanism of the formation of SADs remains an open issue. Using three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate that Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities develop in the downstream region of a reconnecting current sheet. The instabilities result in the formation of low-density coherent structures that resemble SADs, and high-density structures that appear to be spike-like. Comparison between the simulation results and observations suggests that Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities in the exhaust of reconnecting current sheets provide a plausible mechanism for observed SADs.

  6. Secondary Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities in the Reconnection Exhaust Jet: A Mechanism for Supra-Arcade Downflows in the Solar Corona

    Guo, L.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y. M.; Innes, D.

    2014-12-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (hereafter referred to as SADs) are low-emission, elongated, finger-like features usually observed in active-region coronae above post-eruption flare arcades. Observations exhibit downward moving SADs intertwined with bright, upward moving spikes. Whereas SADs are dark voids, spikes are brighter, denser structures. Although SADs have been observed for decades, the mechanism for formation of SADs remains an open issue. Using high-Lundquist-number three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations, we demonstrate that secondary Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities develop in the downstream region of a reconnecting current sheet. The instability results in the formation of low-density coherent structures that resemble SADs, intertwined with high-density structures that appear to be spike-like. Using SDO/AIA images, we highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with siumlations suggest that secondary Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities in the exhaust of reconnecting current sheets provide a plausible mechanism for observed SADs and spikes. Although the plasma conditions are vastly different, analogous phenomena also occur in the Earth's magnetotail during reconnection.

  7. Electron Heating and Acceleration in a Reconnecting Magnetotail

    El-Alaoui, M.; Zhou, M.; Lapenta, G.; Berchem, J.; Richard, R. L.; Schriver, D.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Electron heating and acceleration in the magnetotail have been investigated intensively. A major site for this process is the reconnection region. However, where and how the electrons are accelerated in a realistic three-dimensional X-line geometry is not fully understood. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional implicit particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) simulation and large-scale kinetic (LSK) simulation to address these problems. We modeled a magnetotail reconnection event observed by THEMIS in an iPIC3D simulation with initial and boundary conditions given by a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Earth's magnetosphere. The iPIC3D simulation system includes the region of fast outflow emanating from the reconnection site that drives dipolarization fronts. We found that current sheet electrons exhibit elongated (cigar-shaped) velocity distributions with a higher parallel temperature. Using LSK we then followed millions of test electrons using the electromagnetic fields from iPIC3D. We found that magnetotail reconnection can generate power law spectra around the near-Earth X-line. A significant number of electrons with energies higher than 50 keV are produced. We identified several acceleration mechanisms at different locations that were responsible for energizing these electrons: non-adiabatic cross-tail drift, betatron and Fermi acceleration. Relative contributions to the energy gain of these high energy electrons from the different mechanisms will be discussed.

  8. Magnetic reconnection and precursor effect in coaxial discharge

    Masoud, M.M.; Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A precursor pulse was observed ahead of the plasma sheath produced by a coaxial electrode discharge system. The velocity of the precursor pulse was 4x10 7 cmS -1 and the velocity of the plasma sheath was 6x10 6 cmS -1 . The precursor pulse was unaffected when an axial magnetic field of 6 K.G. was applied to the propagation chamber, while the plasma sheath velocity increased and downstream structure were changed. The precursor pulse was split, sometimes, into two or more peaks, had the same shape and structure of the original one. The rest gas was heated up to 20 e.V. when the precursor pulse was destructed. The precursor pulse propagation mechanism and parameters showed that it had a solitary wave structure and behaviour. A reversed magnetic field was detected, when the plasma sheath had diamagnetic properties, where magnetic reconnection took place. Magnetic reconnection was responsible for energy transfiguration and wave generation. This was due to acceleration mechanism of charged particles occurred by the induced electric field at the moment of magnetic reconnection. The detected induced electric field had a high field intensity and fast rise time pulse. Several instabilities were referred to magnetic reconnection and the precursor pulse observed was a result of such instabilities

  9. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Longo, Valter D.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps...

  10. Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Longo, Valter D; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-02-04

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but, only recently, studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism, and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity, in part, by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease, and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Longo, Valter D.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but only recently studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. In rodents intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. PMID:24440038

  12. Energy Conversion Mechanism for Electron Perpendicular Energy in High Guide-Field Reconnection

    Guo, Xuehan; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Frank; Ono, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The energy conversion mechanism for electron perpendicular energy, both the thermal and the kinetic energy, is investigated by means of two-dimensional, full-particle simulations in an open system. It is shown that electron perpendicular heating is mainly due to the breaking of magnetic moment conservation in separatrix region because the charge separation generates intense variation of electric field within the electron Larmor radius. Meanwhile, electron perpendicular acceleration takes place manly due to the polarization drift term as well as the curvature drift term of E . u⊥ in the downstream near the X-point. The enhanced electric field due to the charge separation there results in a significant effect of the polarization drift term on the dissipation of magnetic energy within the ion inertia length in the downstream. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  13. Relativistic reconnection in near critical Schwinger field

    Schoeffler, Kevin; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis; Uzdensky, Dmitri

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic pair plasma with QED radiation and pair-creation effects in the presence of strong magnetic fields is investigated using 2D particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations are performed with the QED module of the OSIRIS framework that includes photon emission by electrons and positrons and single photon decay into pairs (non-linear Breit-Wheeler). We investigate the effectiveness of reconnection as a pair- and gamma-ray production mechanism across a broad range of reconnecting magnetic fields, including those approaching the critical quantum (Schwinger) field, and we also explore how the radiative cooling and pair-production processes affect reconnection. We find that in the extreme field regime, the magnetic energy is mostly converted into radiation rather than into particle kinetic energy. This study is a first concrete step towards better understanding of magnetic reconnection as a possible mechanism powering gamma-ray flares in magnetar magnetospheres.

  14. Toward laboratory torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    Chesny, David L.; Orange, N. Brice; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Valletta, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental energy conversion mechanism in nature. Major attempts to study this process in controlled settings on Earth have largely been limited to reproducing approximately two-dimensional (2-D) reconnection dynamics. Other experiments describing reconnection near three-dimensional null points are non-driven, and do not induce any of the 3-D modes of spine fan, torsional fan or torsional spine reconnection. In order to study these important 3-D modes observed in astrophysical plasmas (e.g. the solar atmosphere), laboratory set-ups must be designed to induce driven reconnection about an isolated magnetic null point. As such, we consider the limited range of fundamental resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and kinetic parameters of dynamic laboratory plasmas that are necessary to induce the torsional spine reconnection (TSR) mode characterized by a driven rotational slippage of field lines - a feature that has yet to be achieved in operational laboratory magnetic reconnection experiments. Leveraging existing reconnection models, we show that within a 3$ apparatus, TSR can be achieved in dense plasma regimes ( 24~\\text{m}-3$ ) in magnetic fields of -1~\\text{T}$ . We find that MHD and kinetic parameters predict reconnection in thin current sheets on time scales of . While these plasma regimes may not explicitly replicate the plasma parameters of observed astrophysical phenomena, studying the dynamics of the TSR mode within achievable set-ups signifies an important step in understanding the fundamentals of driven 3-D magnetic reconnection and the self-organization of current sheets. Explicit control of this reconnection mode may have implications for understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical environments, and may even have practical applications to fields such as spacecraft propulsion.

  15. Three-dimensional Oscillatory Magnetic Reconnection

    Thurgood, Jonathan O.; McLaughlin, James A.; Pontin, David I.

    2017-01-01

    Here we detail the dynamic evolution of localized reconnection regions about 3D magnetic null points using numerical simulation. We demonstrate for the first time that reconnection triggered by the localized collapse of a 3D null point that is due to an external magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave involves a self-generated oscillation, whereby the current sheet and outflow jets undergo a reconnection reversal process during which back-pressure formation at the jet heads acts to prise open the collapsed field before overshooting the equilibrium into an opposite-polarity configuration. The discovery that reconnection at fully 3D nulls can proceed naturally in a time-dependent and periodic fashion suggests that oscillatory reconnection mechanisms may play a role in explaining periodicity in astrophysical phenomena associated with magnetic reconnection, such as the observed quasi-periodicity of solar and stellar flare emission. Furthermore, we find that a consequence of oscillatory reconnection is the generation of a plethora of freely propagating MHD waves that escape the vicinity of the reconnection region.

  16. On the cessation of magnetic reconnection

    M. Hesse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection are used to study the effect on the reconnection rate of ion density enhancements in the inflow region. The goal of the investigation is to study a candidate mechanism for the slow-down of magnetic reconnection. The calculations involve either proton or oxygen additions in the inflow region, initially located at two distances from the current sheet. Protons are found to be much more tightly coupled into the evolution of the reconnecting system and, therefore, they effect an immediate slowdown of the reconnection process, as soon as the flux tubes they reside on become involved. Oxygen, on the other hand, has, within the limits of the calculations, a much less pronounced effect on the reconnection electric field. The difference is attributed to the lack of tight coupling to the magnetic field of the oxygen populations. Last, a study of proton and oxygen acceleration finds that protons respond primarily to the reconnection electric field, whereas the main oxygen electric field is achieved by Hall-type electric fields at the plasma sheet boundary. Key words. Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection; numerical simulation studies; numerical simulation studies

  17. Three-dimensional Oscillatory Magnetic Reconnection

    Thurgood, Jonathan O.; McLaughlin, James A. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 1ST (United Kingdom); Pontin, David I., E-mail: jonathan.thurgood@northumbria.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-20

    Here we detail the dynamic evolution of localized reconnection regions about 3D magnetic null points using numerical simulation. We demonstrate for the first time that reconnection triggered by the localized collapse of a 3D null point that is due to an external magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave involves a self-generated oscillation, whereby the current sheet and outflow jets undergo a reconnection reversal process during which back-pressure formation at the jet heads acts to prise open the collapsed field before overshooting the equilibrium into an opposite-polarity configuration. The discovery that reconnection at fully 3D nulls can proceed naturally in a time-dependent and periodic fashion suggests that oscillatory reconnection mechanisms may play a role in explaining periodicity in astrophysical phenomena associated with magnetic reconnection, such as the observed quasi-periodicity of solar and stellar flare emission. Furthermore, we find that a consequence of oscillatory reconnection is the generation of a plethora of freely propagating MHD waves that escape the vicinity of the reconnection region.

  18. Energy flux due to electromagnetic fluctuations during guide field magnetic reconnection

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Yanai, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    Large electromagnetic fluctuations inside the current sheet and large reconnection electric fields are observed during fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field. The fluctuations transport 2.5% of the dissipated magnetic energy from the reconnection region. Although the energy gains of the ions and electrons are approximately 60% and 12%, respectively, of the dissipated magnetic energy after the fast reconnection, the energy of fluctuations is not comparable to their energy gains. The fluctuations do not directly contribute to the energy conversion but might cause the fast reconnection leading to the rapid release of magnetic energy. (author)

  19. NONTHERMALLY DOMINATED ELECTRON ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN A LOW-β PLASMA

    Li, Xiaocan; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton–electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-β regime but not in the high-β regime, where β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The accelerated electrons contain most of the dissipated magnetic energy in the low-β regime. A guiding-center current description is used to reveal the role of electron drift motions during the bulk nonthermal energization. We find that the main acceleration mechanism is a Fermi-type acceleration accomplished by the particle curvature drift motion along the electric field induced by the reconnection outflows. Although the acceleration mechanism is similar for different plasma β, low-β reconnection drives fast acceleration on Alfvénic timescales and develops power laws out of thermal distribution. The nonthermally dominated acceleration resulting from magnetic reconnection in low-β plasma may have strong implications for the  highly efficient electron acceleration in solar flares and other astrophysical systems

  20. A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation

    McKinney, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r ∼ 10 13 -10 14 cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor (γ ∼ 100-1000), has a luminosity of L j ∼ 10 50 -10 51 erg s -1 , has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves γθ j ∼ 10-20 (for opening half-angle θ j ) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the development of self-consistent radiative compressible relativistic

  1. A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2012-03-14

    Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r {approx} 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14}cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor ({gamma} {approx} 100-1000), has a luminosity of L{sub j} {approx} 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg s{sup -1}, has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves {gamma}{theta}{sub j} {approx} 10-20 (for opening half-angle {theta}{sub j}) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the

  2. Role of compressibility on driven magnetic reconnection

    Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Horiuchi, R.; Tanaka, M.; Sawairi, N.; Kusano, K.

    1991-08-01

    Whether it is induced by an ideal (current driven) instability or by an external force, plasma flow causes a change in the magnetic field configuration and often gives rise to a current intensification locally, thereby a fast driven reconnection being driven there. Many dramatic phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas such as magnetospheric substorms, solar flares, MHD self-organization and tokamak sawtooth crash, may be attributed to this fast driven reconnection. Using a fourth order MHD simulation code it is confirmed that compressibility of the plasma plays a crucial role in leading to a fast (MHD time scale) driven reconnection. This indicates that the incompressible representation is not always applicable to the study of a global dynamical behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. (author)

  3. Splitter target for controlling magnetic reconnection in relativistic laser plasma interactions

    Gu, Y. J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Korn, G.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of a conical target irradiated by a high power laser is proposed to study fast magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasma interactions. Such target, placed in front of the near critical density gas jet, splits the laser pulse, forming two parallel laser pulses in the 2D case and a donut shaped pulse in the 3D case. The magnetic annihilation and reconnection occur in the density downramp region of the subsequent gas jet. The magnetic field energy is converted into the particle kinetic energy. As a result, a backward accelerated electron beam is obtained as a signature of reconnection. The above mechanisms are demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations in both 2D and 3D cases. Facilitating the synchronization of two laser beams, the proposed approach can be used in designing the corresponding experiments on studying fundamental problems of relativistic plasma physics.

  4. The Diffusion Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Hesse, Michael; Neukirch, Thomas; Schindler, Karl; Kuznetsova, Masha; Zenitani, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    A review of present understanding of the dissipation region in magnetic reconnection is presented. The review focuses on results of the thermal inertia-based dissipation mechanism but alternative mechanisms are mentioned as well. For the former process, a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling is presented. Furthermore, a new relation between the electric field expressions for anti-parallel and guide field reconnection is developed.

  5. The role of current sheet formation in driven plasmoid reconnection in laser-produced plasma bubbles

    Lezhnin, Kirill; Fox, William; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-10-01

    We conduct a multiparametric study of driven magnetic reconnection relevant to recent experiments on colliding magnetized laser produced plasmas using the PIC code PSC. Varying the background plasma density, plasma resistivity, and plasma bubble geometry, the results demonstrate a variety of reconnection behavior and show the coupling between magnetic reconnection and global fluid evolution of the system. We consider both collision of two radially expanding bubbles where reconnection is driven through an X-point, and collision of two parallel fields where reconnection must be initiated by the tearing instability. Under various conditions, we observe transitions between fast, collisionless reconnection to a Sweet-Parker-like slow reconnection to complete stalling of the reconnection. By varying plasma resistivity, we observe the transition between fast and slow reconnection at Lundquist number S 103 . The transition from plasmoid reconnection to a single X-point reconnection also happens around S 103 . We find that the criterion δ /di < 1 is necessary for fast reconnection onset. Finally, at sufficiently high background density, magnetic reconnection can be suppressed, leading to bouncing motion of the magnetized plasma bubbles.

  6. Fracture behavior and deformation mechanisms under fast neutron irradiation

    Boutard, J.L.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    We have established the out-of-pile and in-pile deformation mechanism maps of a 316 stainless steel irradiated in a fast reactor. The knowledge of the dominating deformation mechanism either in post irradiation creep experiments or during the in-pile steady state operating conditions allows to rationalize the apparent discrepancy between the very low out-of-pile ductility and the rather high plastic diametral strains which are obtained in the fast reactor environment without fracture

  7. Corotating Magnetic Reconnection Site in Saturn’s Magnetosphere

    Yao, Z. H.; Coates, A. J.; Ray, L. C.; Rae, I. J.; Jones, G. H.; Owen, C. J.; Dunn, W. R.; Lewis, G. R. [UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Grodent, D.; Radioti, A.; Gérard, J.-C. [Laboratoire de Physique Atmosphérique et Planétaire, STAR institute, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Dougherty, M. K. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Space and Atmospheric Physics Group, Department of Physics, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Guo, R. L. [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pu, Z. Y. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Waite, J. H., E-mail: z.yao@ucl.ac.uk [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-09-10

    Using measurements from the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn’s magnetosphere, we propose a 3D physical picture of a corotating reconnection site, which can only be driven by an internally generated source. Our results demonstrate that the corotating magnetic reconnection can drive an expansion of the current sheet in Saturn’s magnetosphere and, consequently, can produce Fermi acceleration of electrons. This reconnection site lasted for longer than one of Saturn’s rotation period. The long-lasting and corotating natures of the magnetic reconnection site at Saturn suggest fundamentally different roles of magnetic reconnection in driving magnetospheric dynamics (e.g., the auroral precipitation) from the Earth. Our corotating reconnection picture could also potentially shed light on the fast rotating magnetized plasma environments in the solar system and beyond.

  8. Explosive magnetic reconnection caused by an X-shaped current-vortex layer in a collisionless plasma

    Hirota, M.; Hattori, Y. [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8677 (Japan); Morrison, P. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    A mechanism for explosive magnetic reconnection is investigated by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of a collisionless tearing mode in a two-fluid model that includes the effects of electron inertia and temperature. These effects cooperatively enable a fast reconnection by forming an X-shaped current-vortex layer centered at the reconnection point. A high-resolution simulation of this model for an unprecedentedly small electron skin depth d{sub e} and ion-sound gyroradius ρ{sub s}, satisfying d{sub e}=ρ{sub s}, shows an explosive tendency for nonlinear growth of the tearing mode, where it is newly found that the explosive widening of the X-shaped layer occurs locally around the reconnection point with the length of the X shape being shorter than the domain length and the wavelength of the linear tearing mode. The reason for the onset of this locally enhanced reconnection is explained theoretically by developing a novel nonlinear and nonequilibrium inner solution that models the local X-shaped layer, and then matching it to an outer solution that is approximated by a linear tearing eigenmode with a shorter wavelength than the domain length. This theoretical model proves that the local reconnection can release the magnetic energy more efficiently than the global one and the estimated scaling of the explosive growth rate agrees well with the simulation results.

  9. On the Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, M.; Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Wang, S.; Chen, L.-J.

    2018-04-01

    A prediction of the steady state reconnection electric field in asymmetric reconnection is obtained by maximizing the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic field on the weak magnetic field (magnetosheath) side. The prediction is within a factor of 2 of the widely examined asymmetric reconnection model (Cassak & Shay, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2795630) in the collisionless limit, and they scale the same over a wide parameter regime. The previous model had the effective aspect ratio of the diffusion region as a free parameter, which simulations and observations suggest is on the order of 0.1, but the present model has no free parameters. In conjunction with the symmetric case (Liu et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.085101), this work further suggests that this nearly universal number 0.1, essentially the normalized fast-reconnection rate, is a geometrical factor arising from maximizing the reconnection rate within magnetohydrodynamic-scale constraints.

  10. Electron Surfing Acceleration in Magnetic Reconnection

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    We discuss that energetic electrons are generated near the X-type magnetic reconnection region due to a surfing acceleration mechanism. In a thin plasma sheet, the polarization electric fields pointing towards the neutral sheet are induced around the boundary between the lobe and plasma sheet in association with the Hall electric current. By using a particle-in-cell simulation, we demonstrate that the polarization electric fields are strongly enhanced in an externally driven reconnection syst...

  11. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Chromosphere

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Ni, Lei; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2017-08-01

    We report on the most recent efforts to accurately and self-consistently model magnetic reconnection processes in the context of the solar chromosphere. The solar chromosphere is a notoriously complex and highly dynamic boundary layer of the solar atmosphere where local variations in the plasma parameters can be of the order of the mean values. At the same time, the interdependence of the physical processes such as magnetic field evolution, local and global energy transfer between internal and electromagnetic plasma energy, radiation transport, plasma reactivity, and dissipation mechanisms make it a particularly difficult system to self-consistently model and understand. Several recent studies have focused on the micro-physics of multi-fluid magnetic reconnection at magnetic nulls in the weakly ionized plasma environment of the lower chromosphere[1-3]. Here, we extend the previous work by considering a range of spatial scales and magnetic field strengths in a configuration with component magnetic reconnection, i.e., for magnetic reconnection with a guide field. We show that in all cases the non-equilibrium reactivity of the plasma and the dynamic interaction among the plasma processes play important roles in determining the structure of the reconnection region. We also speculate as to the possible observables of chromospheric magnetic reconnection and the likely plasma conditions required for generation of Ellerman and IRIS bombs.[1] Leake, Lukin, Linton, and Meier, “Multi-fluid simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma,” ApJ 760 (2012).[2] Leake, Lukin, and Linton, “Magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized plasma,” PoP 20 (2013).[3] Murphy and Lukin, “Asymmetric magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized chromospheric plasmas,” ApJ 805 (2015).[*Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National

  12. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    Basheer N. Al-Duwairi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch, a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network.

  13. Particle acceleration at a reconnecting magnetic separator

    Threlfall, J.; Neukirch, T.; Parnell, C. E.; Eradat Oskoui, S.

    2015-02-01

    Context. While the exact acceleration mechanism of energetic particles during solar flares is (as yet) unknown, magnetic reconnection plays a key role both in the release of stored magnetic energy of the solar corona and the magnetic restructuring during a flare. Recent work has shown that special field lines, called separators, are common sites of reconnection in 3D numerical experiments. To date, 3D separator reconnection sites have received little attention as particle accelerators. Aims: We investigate the effectiveness of separator reconnection as a particle acceleration mechanism for electrons and protons. Methods: We study the particle acceleration using a relativistic guiding-centre particle code in a time-dependent kinematic model of magnetic reconnection at a separator. Results: The effect upon particle behaviour of initial position, pitch angle, and initial kinetic energy are examined in detail, both for specific (single) particle examples and for large distributions of initial conditions. The separator reconnection model contains several free parameters, and we study the effect of changing these parameters upon particle acceleration, in particular in view of the final particle energy ranges that agree with observed energy spectra.

  14. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  15. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria

    Xiaoxue Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond daughter cell separation (DCS driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives, observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria. In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae.

  16. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-08-30

    Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond) daughter cell separation (DCS) driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes) or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae Much of our knowledge on bacterial cytokinesis comes from studying rod-shaped model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis Less is known about variations in this process among different bacterial species. While cell division in many bacteria has been characterized to some extent genetically or biochemically, few species have been examined using video microscopy to uncover the kinetics of cytokinesis and daughter cell separation (DCS). In this work, we found that fast (millisecond) DCS is exhibited by species in two independent clades of Gram-positive bacteria and is particularly prevalent

  18. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  19. Comparison of reconnection in magnetosphere and solar corona

    Imada, Shinsuke; Hirai, Mariko; Isobe, Hiroaki; Oka, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Minoshima, Takashi

    One of the most famous rapid energy conversion mechanisms in space is a magnetic reconnec-tion. The general concept of a magnetic reconnection is that the rapid energy conversion from magnetic field energy to thermal energy, kinetic energy or non-thermal particle energy. The understanding of rapid energy conversion rates from magnetic field energy to other energy is the fundamental and essential problem in the space physics. One of the important goals for studying magnetic reconnection is to answer what plasma condition/parameter controls the energy conversion rates. Earth's magnetotail has been paid much attention to discuss a mag-netic reconnection, because we can discuss magnetic reconnection characteristics in detail with direct in-situ observation. Recently, solar atmosphere has been focused as a space laboratory for magnetic reconnection because of its variety in plasma condition. So far considerable effort has been devoted toward understanding the energy conversion rates of magnetic reconnection, and various typical features associated with magnetic reconnection have been observed in the Earth's magnetotail and the solar corona. In this talk, we first introduce the variety of plasma condition/parameter in solar corona and Earth's magnetotail. Later, we discuss what plasma condition/parameter controls the energy conversion from magnetic field to especially non-thermal particle. To compare non-thermal electron and ion acceleration in magnetic reconnection, we used Hard X-ray (electron) /Neu-tron monitor (ion) for solar corona and Geotail in-situ measurement (electron and ion) for magnetoatil. We found both of electron and ion accelerations are roughly controlled by re-connection electric field (reconnection rate). However, some detail points are different in ion and electron acceleration. Further, we will discuss what is the major difference between solar corona and Earth's magnetotail for particle acceleration.

  20. Particle Demagnetization in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Hesse, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism of magnetic reconnection remains a subject of intense scientific interest. On one hand, one set of recent studies have shown that particle inertia-based processes, which include thermal and bulk inertial effects, provide the reconnection electric field in the diffusion region. In this presentation, we present analytical theory results, as well as 2.5 and three-dimensional PIC simulations of guide field magnetic reconnection. We will show that diffusion region scale sizes in moderate and large guide field cases are determined by electron Larmor radii, and that analytical estimates of diffusion region dimensions need to include description of the heat flux tensor. The dominant electron dissipation process appears to be based on thermal electron inertia, expressed through nongyrotropic electron pressure tensors. We will argue that this process remains viable in three dimensions by means of a detailed comparison of high resolution particle-in-cell simulations.

  1. Multi-megajoule magnetic reconnection experiment

    Degnan, J.H.; Baker, W.L.; Holmes, J.L.; Price, D.W.; Cowan, M.; Graham, J.D.; Lopez, E.A.; Ralph, D.; Roderick, N.F.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment to combine many medium energy, current co-axial gun discharges into two high energy, current discharges is discussed. Multiple sub-megampere DPF-like guns are directed radially inward. Their discharges combine via magnetic reconnection to form two several megampere co-axial discharges. Experimental results and relevant 2D simulations are discussed. Diagnostics include current, voltage, fast photography, neutron and x-ray detectors

  2. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Hahm, T.S.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1984-11-01

    By studying a simple model problem, we examine the time evolution of magnetic field islands which are induced by perturbing the boundary surrounding an incompressible plasma with a resonant surface inside. We find that for sufficiently small boundary perturbations, the reconnection and island formation process occurs on the tearing mode time scale defined by Furth, Killeen, and Rosenbluth. For larger perturbations the time scale is that defined by Rutherford. The resulting asymptotic equilibrium is such that surface currents in the resonant region vanish. A detailed analytical picture of this reconnection process is presented

  3. Superdiffusion revisited in view of collisionless reconnection

    R. A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of diffusion in collisionless space plasmas like those near the magnetopause and in the geomagnetic tail during reconnection is reexamined making use of the division of particle orbits into waiting orbits and break-outs into ballistic motion lying at the bottom, for instance, of Lévy flights. The rms average displacement in this case increases with time, describing superdiffusion, though faster than classical, is still a weak process, being however strong enough to support fast reconnection. Referring to two kinds of numerical particle-in-cell simulations we determine the anomalous diffusion coefficient, the anomalous collision frequency on which the diffusion process is based, and construct a relation between the diffusion coefficients and the resistive scale. The anomalous collision frequency from electron pseudo-viscosity in reconnection turns out to be of the order of the lower-hybrid frequency with the latter providing a lower limit, thus making similar assumptions physically meaningful. Tentative though not completely justified use of the κ distribution yields κ ≈ 6 in the reconnection diffusion region and, for the anomalous diffusion coefficient, the order of several times Bohm diffusivity.

  4. Fast Flux Test Facility sodium pump operating experience - mechanical

    Buonamici, R.

    1987-11-01

    The Heat Transport System (HTS) pumps were designed, fabricated, tested, and installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Plant during the period from September 1970 through July 1977. Since completion of the installation and sodium fill in December 1978, the FFTF Plant pumps have undergone extensive testing and operation with HTS testing and reactor operation. Steady-state hydraulic and mechanical performances have been and are excellent. In all, FFTF primary and secondary pumps have operated in sodium for approximately 75,000 hours and 79,000 hours, respectively, to August 24, 1987

  5. A new magnetic reconnection paradigm: Stochastic plasmoid chains

    Loureiro, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Recent analytical and numerical research in magnetic reconnection has converged on the notion that reconnection sites (current sheets) are unstable to the formation of multiple magnetic islands (plasmoids), provided that the system is sufficiently large (or, in other words, that the Lundquist number of the plasma is high). Nonlinearly, plasmoids come to define the reconnection geometry. Their nonlinear dynamics is rather complex and best thought of as new form of turbulence whose properties are determined by continuous plasmoid formation and their subsequent ejection from the sheet, as well as the interaction (coalescence) between plasmoids of different sizes. The existence of these stochastic plasmoid chains has powerful implications for several aspects of the reconnection process, from determining the reconnection rate to the details and efficiency of the energy conversion and dissipation. In addition, the plasmoid instability may also directly bear on the little understood problem of the reconnection trigger, or onset, i.e., the abrupt transition from a slow stage of energy accumulation to a fast (explosive) stage of energy release. This talk will first provide a brief overview of these recent developments in the reconnection field. I will then discuss recent work addressing the onset problem in the context of a forming current sheet which becomes progressively more unstable to the plasmoid instability. Work partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia via Grants UID/FIS/50010/2013 and IF/00530/2013.

  6. Magnetic reconnection physics in the solar wind with Voyager 2

    Stevens, Michael L.

    2009-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the process by which the magnetic topology evolves in collisionless plasmas. This phenomenon is fundamental to a broad range of astrophysical processes such as stellar flares, magnetospheric substorms, and plasma accretion, yet it is poorly understood and difficult to observe in situ . In this thesis, the solar wind plasma permeating interplanetary space is treated as a laboratory for reconnection physics. I present an exhaustive statistical approach to the identification of reconnection outflow jets in turbulent plasma and magnetic field time series data. This approach has been automated and characterized so that the resulting reconnection survey can be put in context with other related studies. The algorithm is shown to perform similarly to ad hoc studies in the inner heliosphere. Based on this technique, I present a survey of 138 outflow jets for the Voyager 2 spacecraft mission, including the most distant in situ evidence of reconnection discovered to date. Reconnection in the solar wind is shown to be strongly correlated with stream interactions and with solar activity. The solar wind magnetic field is found to be reconnecting via large, quasi-steady slow- mode magnetohydrodynamic structures as far out as the orbit of Neptune. The role of slow-mode shocks is explored and, in one instance, a well-developed reconnection structure is shown to be in good agreement with the Petschek theory for fast reconnection. This is the first reported example of a reconnection exhaust that satisfies the full jump conditions for a stationary slow-mode shock pair. A complete investigation into corotating stream interactions over the Voyager 2 mission has revealed that detectable reconnection structure occurs in about 23% of forced, global-scale current sheets. Contrary to previous studies, I find that signatures of this kind are most likely to be observed for current sheets where the magnetic field shear and the plasma-b are high. Evidence has been found

  7. Reconnection in tokamaks

    Pare, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations with several different computer codes based on the resistive MHD equations have shown that (m = 1, n = 1) tearing modes in tokamak plasmas grow by magnetic reconnection. The observable behavior predicted by the codes has been confirmed in detail from the waveforms of signals from x-ray detectors and recently by x-ray tomographic imaging

  8. A New Ultra Fast Conduction Mechanism in Insulating Polymer Nanocomposites

    M. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brand new phenomenon, namely, electrical conduction via soliton-like ultra fast space charge pulses, recently identified in unfilled cross-linked polyethylene, is shown for the first time to occur in insulating polymer nanocomposites and its characteristics correlated with the electromechanical properties of nanostructured materials. These charge pulses are observed to cross the insulation under low electrical field in epoxy-based nanocomposites containing nanosilica particles with relative weights of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% at speeds orders of magnitude higher than those expected for carriers in insulating polymers. The characteristics of mobility, magnitude and repetition rate for both positive and negative charge pulses are studied in relation to nanofiller concentration. The results show that the ultra fast charge pulses (packets are affected significantly by the concentration of nanoparticles. An explanation is presented in terms of a new conduction mechanism where the mechanical properties of the polymer and movement of polymer chains play an important role in the injection and transport of charge in the form of pulses. Here, the charge transport is not controlled by traps. Instead, it is driven by the contribution of polarization and the resultant electromechanical compression, which is substantially affected by the introduction of nanoparticles into the base polymer.

  9. Turbulence, Magnetic Reconnection in Turbulent Fluids and Energetic Particle Acceleration

    Lazarian, A.; Vlahos, L.; Kowal, G.; Yan, H.; Beresnyak, A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.

    2012-11-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysics. It radically changes many astrophysical phenomena, in particular, the propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. We present the modern understanding of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, in particular its decomposition into Alfvén, slow and fast modes, discuss the density structure of turbulent subsonic and supersonic media, as well as other relevant regimes of astrophysical turbulence. All this information is essential for understanding the energetic particle acceleration that we discuss further in the review. For instance, we show how fast and slow modes accelerate energetic particles through the second order Fermi acceleration, while density fluctuations generate magnetic fields in pre-shock regions enabling the first order Fermi acceleration of high energy cosmic rays. Very importantly, however, the first order Fermi cosmic ray acceleration is also possible in sites of magnetic reconnection. In the presence of turbulence this reconnection gets fast and we present numerical evidence supporting the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac (Astrophys. J. 517:700-718, 1999) model of fast reconnection. The efficiency of this process suggests that magnetic reconnection can release substantial amounts of energy in short periods of time. As the particle tracing numerical simulations show that the particles can be efficiently accelerated during the reconnection, we argue that the process of magnetic reconnection may be much more important for particle acceleration than it is currently accepted. In particular, we discuss the acceleration arising from reconnection as a possible origin of the anomalous cosmic rays measured by Voyagers as well as the origin cosmic ray excess in the direction of Heliotail.

  10. Reconnection on the Sun

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  11. Rapid change of field line connectivity and reconnection in stochastic magnetic fields

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields without a direction of continuous symmetry have the generic feature that neighboring field lines exponentiate away from each other and become stochastic, and hence the ideal constraint of preserving magnetic field line connectivity becomes exponentially sensitive to small deviations from ideal Ohm's law. The idea of breaking field line connectivity by stochasticity as a mechanism for fast reconnection is tested with numerical simulations based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations with a strong guide field line-tied to two perfectly conducting end plates. Starting from an ideally stable force-free equilibrium, the system is allowed to undergo resistive relaxation. Two distinct phases are found in the process of resistive relaxation. During the quasi-static phase, rapid change of field line connectivity and strong induced flow are found in regions of high field line exponentiation. However, although the field line connectivity of individual field lines can change rapidly, the overall pattern of field line mapping appears to deform gradually. From this perspective, field line exponentiation appears to cause enhanced diffusion rather than reconnection. In some cases, resistive quasi-static evolution can cause the ideally stable initial equilibrium to cross a stability threshold, leading to formation of intense current filaments and rapid change of field line mapping into a qualitatively different pattern. It is in this onset phase that the change of field line connectivity is more appropriately designated as magnetic reconnection. Our results show that rapid change of field line connectivity appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fast reconnection.

  12. Observations of Reconnection Flows in a Flare on the Solar Disk

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Fletcher, L.; Wright, P. J.; Hannah, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a well-accepted part of the theory of solar eruptive events, though the evidence is still circumstantial. Intrinsic to the reconnection picture of a solar eruptive event, particularly in the standard model for two-ribbon flares (CSHKP model), are an advective flow of magnetized plasma into the reconnection region, expansion of field above the reconnection region as a flux rope erupts, retraction of heated post-reconnection loops, and downflows of cooling plasma along those loops. We report on a unique set of Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imaging and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopic observations of the disk flare SOL2016-03-23T03:54 in which all four flows are present simultaneously. This includes spectroscopic evidence for a plasma upflow in association with large-scale expanding closed inflow field. The reconnection inflows are symmetric, and consistent with fast reconnection, and the post-reconnection loops show a clear cooling and deceleration as they retract. Observations of coronal reconnection flows are still rare, and most events are observed at the solar limb, obscured by complex foregrounds, making their relationship to the flare ribbons, cusp field, and arcades formed in the lower atmosphere difficult to interpret. The disk location and favorable perspective of this event have removed these ambiguities giving a clear picture of the reconnection dynamics.

  13. Observations of Reconnection Flows in a Flare on the Solar Disk

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Fletcher, L.; Wright, P. J.; Hannah, I. G., E-mail: j.wang.4@research.gla.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-20

    Magnetic reconnection is a well-accepted part of the theory of solar eruptive events, though the evidence is still circumstantial. Intrinsic to the reconnection picture of a solar eruptive event, particularly in the standard model for two-ribbon flares (CSHKP model), are an advective flow of magnetized plasma into the reconnection region, expansion of field above the reconnection region as a flux rope erupts, retraction of heated post-reconnection loops, and downflows of cooling plasma along those loops. We report on a unique set of Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imaging and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopic observations of the disk flare SOL2016-03-23T03:54 in which all four flows are present simultaneously. This includes spectroscopic evidence for a plasma upflow in association with large-scale expanding closed inflow field. The reconnection inflows are symmetric, and consistent with fast reconnection, and the post-reconnection loops show a clear cooling and deceleration as they retract. Observations of coronal reconnection flows are still rare, and most events are observed at the solar limb, obscured by complex foregrounds, making their relationship to the flare ribbons, cusp field, and arcades formed in the lower atmosphere difficult to interpret. The disk location and favorable perspective of this event have removed these ambiguities giving a clear picture of the reconnection dynamics.

  14. Magnetic reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a major issue in solar and astrophysical plasmas. The mathematical result that the evolution of a magnetic field with only point nulls is always locally ideal limits the nature of reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas. Here it is shown that the exponentially increasing separation of neighboring magnetic field lines, which is generic, tends to produce rapid magnetic reconnection if the length of the field lines is greater than about 20 times the exponentiation, or Lyapunov, length

  15. An overview of the Indian program related to fast reactor core mechanical behaviour

    Govindarajan, S.; Bhoje, S.B.; Paranjpe, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    This Indian review paper presents the evolution of the fast breeder program which began with fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) commencing in 1972. The state-of-art in the field of core mechanical behaviour is reviewed

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Neutral sheet Profile During Magnetic Reconnection

    Trintchouk, F.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Kulsrud, R.; Hsu, S.; Carter, T.

    1999-01-01

    During magnetic reconnection, a ''neutral sheet'' current is induced, heating the plasma. The resultant plasma thermal pressure forms a stationary equilibrium with the opposing magnetic fields. The reconnection layer profile holds significant clues about the physical mechanisms which control reconnection. On the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)], a quasi steady-state and axisymmetric neutral sheet profile has been measured precisely using a magnetic probe array with spatial resolution equal to one quarter of the ion gyro-radius. It was found that the reconnecting field profile fits well with a Harris-type profile [E. G. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento 23, 115 (1962)], B(x) approximately tanh(x/delta). This agreement is remarkable since the Harris theory does not take into account reconnection and associated electric fields and dissipation. An explanation for this agreement is presented. The sheet thickness delta is found to be approximately 0.4 times the ion skin depth, which agrees with a generalized Harris theory incorporating non-isothermal electron and ion temperatures and finite electric field. The detailed study of additional local features of the reconnection region is also presented

  17. CRITICAL DIFFERENCES OF ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM STANDARD MODELS

    Nitta, S. [Hinode Science Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Wada, T. [Tsukuba University of Technology, 4-3-15 Amakubo, Tsukuba, 305-8520 (Japan); Fuchida, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime Univesity, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan); Kondoh, K., E-mail: nittasn@yahoo.co.jp, E-mail: tomohide.wada@gmail.com, E-mail: fuchida@sp.cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kondo@cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    We have clarified the structure of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in detail as the result of the spontaneous evolutionary process. The asymmetry is imposed as ratio k of the magnetic field strength in both sides of the initial current sheet (CS) in the isothermal equilibrium. The MHD simulation is carried out by the HLLD code for the long-term temporal evolution with very high spatial resolution. The resultant structure is drastically different from the symmetric case (e.g., the Petschek model) even for slight asymmetry k = 2. (1) The velocity distribution in the reconnection jet clearly shows a two-layered structure, i.e., the high-speed sub-layer in which the flow is almost field aligned and the acceleration sub-layer. (2) Higher beta side (HBS) plasma is caught in a lower beta side plasmoid. This suggests a new plasma mixing process in the reconnection events. (3) A new large strong fast shock in front of the plasmoid forms in the HBS. This can be a new particle acceleration site in the reconnection system. These critical properties that have not been reported in previous works suggest that we contribute to a better and more detailed knowledge of the reconnection of the standard model for the symmetric magnetic reconnection system.

  18. Frequently Occurring Reconnection Jets from Sunspot Light Bridges

    Tian, Hui; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami K.; Young, Peter R.; Ni, Lei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Kaifan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Samanta, Tanmoy; Song, Yongliang; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Chen, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Solid evidence of magnetic reconnection is rarely reported within sunspots, the darkest regions with the strongest magnetic fields and lowest temperatures in the solar atmosphere. Using the world’s largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, we detect prevalent reconnection through frequently occurring fine-scale jets in the Hα line wings at light bridges, the bright lanes that may divide the dark sunspot core into multiple parts. Many jets have an inverted Y-shape, shown by models to be typical of reconnection in a unipolar field environment. Simultaneous spectral imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph show that the reconnection drives bidirectional flows up to 200 km s‑1, and that the weakly ionized plasma is heated by at least an order of magnitude up to ∼80,000 K. Such highly dynamic reconnection jets and efficient heating should be properly accounted for in future modeling efforts of sunspots. Our observations also reveal that the surge-like activity previously reported above light bridges in some chromospheric passbands such as the Hα core has two components: the ever-present short surges likely to be related to the upward leakage of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere, and the occasionally occurring long and fast surges that are obviously caused by the intermittent reconnection jets.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic study for three-dimensional instability of the Petschek type magnetic reconnection

    Shimizu, T.; Kondoh, K.

    2013-01-01

    The 3D instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection process is studied with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, where the 2D model of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is destabilized in three dimension. As well known in many 2D numerical MHD studies, when a 1D current sheet is destabilized with the current-driven anomalous resistivity, the 2D Petschek type fast magnetic reconnection is established. This paper shows that the 2D Petschek type fast magnetic reconnection can be destabilized in three dimension by an initial resistive disturbance which includes a weak fluctuation in the sheet current direction, i.e., along the magnetic neutral line. The resulting 3D fast magnetic reconnection finally becomes intermittent and random through a 3D instability. In addition, it is also shown that the 3D instability is suppressed by the uniform resistivity. It suggests that the 3D instability is caused in the Petschek-type reconnection process which is characterized by a strongly localized magnetic diffusion region and the slow shock acceleration of the plasma jets and is suppressed in the Sweet-Parker type reconnection process

  20. 3D Reconnection and SEP Considerations in the CME-Flare Problem

    Moschou, S. P.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Sokolov, I.; Borovikov, D.; Alvarado Gomez, J. D.; Garraffo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Reconnection is known to play a major role in particle acceleration in both solar and astrophysical regimes, yet little is known about its connection with the global scales and its comparative contribution in the generation of SEPs with respect to other acceleration mechanisms, such as the shock at a fast CME front, in the presence of a global structure such as a CME. Coupling efforts, combining both particle and global scales, are necessary to answer questions about the fundamentals of the energetic processes evolved. We present such a coupling modeling effort that looks into particle acceleration through reconnection in a self-consistent CME-flare model in both particle and fluid regimes. Of special interest is the supra-thermal component of the acceleration due to the reconnection that will at a later time interact colliding with the solar atmospheric material of the more dense chromospheric layer and radiate in hard X- and γ-rays for super-thermal electrons and protons respectively. Two cutting edge computational codes are used to capture the global CME and flare dynamics, specifically a two fluid MHD code and a 3D PIC code for the flare scales. Finally, we are connecting the simulations with current observations in different wavelengths in an effort to shed light to the unified CME-flare picture.

  1. Fast-Response electric drives of Mechanical Engineering objects

    Doykina, L. A.; Bukhanov, S. S.; Gryzlov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article gives a solution to the problem of increasing the speed in the electrical drives of machine-building enterprises due to the application of a structure with ISC control. In this case, it is possible to get rid of the speed sensors. It is noted that in this case no circulating pulsations are applied to the input of the control system, caused by a non-identical interface between the sensor and the shaft of the operating mechanism. For detailed modeling, a mathematical model of an electric drive with distributed parameters was proposed. The calculation of such system was carried out by the finite element method. Taking into account the distributed characteristic of the system parameters allowed one to take into account the discrete nature of the electric machine’s work. The simulation results showed that the response time in the control circuit is estimated at a time constant of 0.0015, which is about twice as fast as in traditional vector control schemes.

  2. Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…

  3. Experimental investigation of the trigger problem in magnetic reconnection

    Katz, Noam; Egedal, Jan; Fox, Will; Le, Ari; Vrublevskis, Arturs; Bonde, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection releases magnetic energy not only in steady state, but also in time-dependent and often explosive events. Here, we investigate the trigger mechanism for this explosive release by using a toroidal experiment in the strong guide-field regime. We observe spontaneous reconnection events with exponentially growing reconnection rates, and we characterize the full 3D dynamics of these events using multiple internal probes. The reconnection is asymmetric: it begins at one toroidal location and propagates around in both directions. The spontaneous onset is facilitated by an interaction between the x-line current channel and a global mode, which appears in the electrostatic potential. It is this mode which breaks axisymmetry and enables a localized decrease in x-line current. We apply a simple model - which relies on ion polarization currents for current continuity - to reproduce the exponential growth and compute the growth rate. The result agrees well with the experimental growth rate.

  4. Reconnecting to the biosphere.

    Folke, Carl; Jansson, Asa; Rockström, Johan; Olsson, Per; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Danell, Kjell; Ebbesson, Jonas; Elmqvist, Thomas; Galaz, Victor; Moberg, Fredrik; Nilsson, Måns; Osterblom, Henrik; Ostrom, Elinor; Persson, Asa; Peterson, Garry; Polasky, Stephen; Steffen, Will; Walker, Brian; Westley, Frances

    2011-11-01

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere--a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  5. Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic fluctuations with ion-cyclotron range of frequency in magnetic reconnection laboratory experiment

    Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection

  6. The Magnetic Reconnection Code: Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies

    Amitava Bhattacharjee

    2007-04-20

    Understanding magnetic reconnection is one of the principal challenges in plasma physics. Reconnection is a process by which magnetic fields reconfigure themselves, releasing energy that can be converted to particle energies and bulk flows. Thanks to the availability of sophisticated diagnostics in fusion and laboratory experiments, in situ probing of magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas, and X-ray emission measurements from solar and stellar plasmas, theoretical models of magnetic reconnection can now be constrained by stringent observational tests. The members of the CMRS comprise an interdisciplinary group drawn from applied mathematics, astrophysics, computer science, fluid dynamics, plasma physics, and space science communities.

  7. Origins of effective resistivity in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Singh, Nagendra [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The mechanisms that provide effective resistivity for supporting collisonless magnetic reconnection have remained unsettled despite numerous studies. Some of these studies demonstrated that the electron pressure nongyrotropy generates the resistivity (η{sub npg}) in the electron diffusion region (EDR). We derive an analytical relation for the effective resistivity (η{sub kin}) by momentum balance in a control volume in the EDR. Both η{sub npg} and η{sub kin} mutually compare well and they also compare well with the resistivity required to support reconnection electric field E{sub rec} in multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations as well as in satellite observations when reconnection occurs in an EDR. But they are about an order of magnitude or so smaller than that required when the reconnection occurred in a much wider reconnecting current sheet (RCS) of half width (w) of the order of the ion skin depth (d{sub i}), observed in the Earth magnetosphere. The chaos-induced resistivity reported in the literature is found to be even more deficient. We find that for reconnection in RCS with w ∼ d{sub i}, anomalous diffusion, such as the universal Bhom diffusion and/or that arising from kinetic Alfven waves, could fairly well account for the required resistivity.

  8. Effects of electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Univrsidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-15

    We present a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure and electron inertia. We performed 2.5D simulations using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects. We check that the ideal invariants of the problem are conserved down to round-off errors. Our numerical results confirm that the change in the topology of the magnetic field lines is exclusively due to the presence of electron inertia. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfvén velocity, which therefore qualifies as fast reconnection.

  9. ENERGY RELEASE AND TRANSFER IN SOLAR FLARES: SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION

    Birn, J.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.

    2009-01-01

    energy. However, due to pressure gradient forces that oppose the Lorentz forces in approximate, or partial force balance, the accelerated plasma becomes slowed down and compressed, whereby the bulk kinetic energy is converted to heat, either locally deposited or transported away by enthalpy flux and deposited later. This mechanism is most relevant in the downflow region, which is more strongly governed by force balance; it is less important in the outflow above the reconnection site, where more energy remains in the form of fast bulk flow.

  10. Reconnection of magnetic field lines

    Heyn, M.F.; Gratton, F.T.; Gnavi, G.; Heindler, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field line diffusion in a plasma is studied on the basis of the non-linear boundary layer equations of dissipative, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Non-linear steady state solutions for a class of plasma parameters have been obtained which are consistent with the boundary conditions appropriate for reconnection. The solutions are self-consistent in connecting a stagnation point flow of a plasma with reconnecting magnetic field lines. The range of the validity of the solutions, their relation to other fluid models of reconnection, and their possible applications to space plasma configurations are pointed out. (Author)

  11. Colour reconnection in WW events

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  12. Influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Usami, Shunsuke; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection is investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation in an open system. In a quasi-steady state when reconnection electric field evolves fully, a current layer evolves locally in a narrow kinetic region and its scale decreases in proportion to an electron meandering scale as the guide field is intensified. Here, the meandering scale stands for an average spatial scale of nongyrotropic motions in the vicinity of the reconnection point. Force terms associated with off-diagonal components of electron and ion pressure tensors, which are originating from nongyrotropic motions of charged particles, becomes dominant at the reconnection point and sustain the reconnection electric field even when the guide field is strong. It is also found that thermalization of both ions and electrons is suppressed by the guide field. For the weak guide field, an electron nonthermal component is significantly created through a fast outburst from the kinetic region, while for the strong guide field, an ion nonthermal component is generated through the acceleration by an in-plane electric field near the magnetic separatrix. (author)

  13. Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air

    Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U, E-mail: s.nijdam@tue.n [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-02-21

    Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p{center_dot}d = 50 {mu}m bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.

  14. Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air

    Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2009-01-01

    Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p·d = 50 μm bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.

  15. Ellerman bombs and UV bursts: reconnection at different atmospheric layers?

    Hansteen, V. H.; Ortiz-Carbonell, A. N.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of magnetic flux through the photosphere and into the outer solar atmosphere produces, amongst many other phenomena, the appearance of Ellerman bombs (EBs) in the photosphere. EBs are observed in the wings of H(alpha) and are highly likely to be due to reconnection in the photosphere, below the chromospheric canopy. However, signs of the reconnection process are also observed in several other spectral lines, typical of the chromosphere or transition region. An example are the UV bursts observed in the transition region lines of Si IV. In this work we analyze high cadence coordinated observations between the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and the IRIS spacecraft in order to study the possible relationship between reconnection events at different layers in the atmosphere, and in particular, the timing history between them. High cadence, high resolution H-alpha images from the SST provide us with the positions, timings and trajectories of Ellerman bombs in an emerging flux region. Simultaneous co-aligned IRIS slit-jaw images at 1400 and 1330 A and detailed Si IV spectra from the fast spectrograph raster allow us to study the transition region counterparts of those photospheric Ellerman bombs. Our main goal is to study whether there is a temporal relationship between the appearance of an EB and the appearance of a UV burst. Eventually we would like to investigate whether reconnection happens at discrete heights, or as a reconnection sheet spanning several layers at the same time.

  16. Fast Radio Bursts’ Emission Mechanism: Implication from Localization

    Lyutikov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We argue that the localization of the repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) at ∼1 Gpc excludes a rotationally powered type of radio emission (e.g., analogs of Crab’s giant pulses coming from very young energetic pulsars) as the origin of FRBs.

  17. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  18. Fast Radio Bursts’ Emission Mechanism: Implication from Localization

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    We argue that the localization of the repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) at ∼1 Gpc excludes a rotationally powered type of radio emission (e.g., analogs of Crab’s giant pulses coming from very young energetic pulsars) as the origin of FRBs.

  19. Diagnostics of solar flare reconnection

    M. Karlický

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new diagnostics of the solar flare reconnection, mainly based on the plasma radio emission. We propose that the high-frequency (600-2000 MHz slowly drifting pulsating structures map the flare magnetic field reconnection. These structures correspond to the radio emission from plasmoids which are formed in the extended current sheet due to tearing and coalescence processes. An increase of the frequency drift of the drifting structures is interpreted as an increase of the reconnection rate. Using this model, time scales of slowly drifting pulsating structure observed during the 12 April 2001 flare by the Trieste radiopolarimeter with high time resolution (1 ms are interpreted as a radio manifestation of electron beams accelerated in the multi-scale reconnection process. For short periods Fourier spectra of the observed structure have a power-law form with power-law indices in the 1.3-1.6 range. For comparison the 2-D MHD numerical modeling of the multi-scale reconnection is made and it is shown that Fourier spectrum of the reconnection dissipation power has also a power-law form, but with power-law index 2. Furthermore, we compute a time evolution of plasma parameters (density, magnetic field etc in the 2-D MHD model of the reconnection. Then assuming a plasma radio emission from locations, where the 'double-resonance' instability generates the upper-hybrid waves due to unstable distribution function of suprathermal electrons, we model radio spectra. Effects of the MHD turbulence are included. The resulting spectra are compared with those observed. It is found, that depending on model parameters the lace bursts and the decimetric spikes can be reproduced. Thus, it is shown that the model can be used for diagnostics of the flare reconnection process. We also point out possible radio signatures of reconnection outflow termination shocks. They are detected as type II-like herringbone structures in the 200-700 MHz frequency range. Finally

  20. Internal and External Reconnection Series Homologous Solar Flares

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) on SOHO and the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh, we examine a series of morphologically homologous solar flares occurring in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) active region 8210 over May 1-2, 1998. An emerging flux region (EFR) impacted against a sunspot to the west and next to a coronal hole to the east is the source of the repeated flaring. An SXT sigmoid parallels the EFR's neutral line at the site of the initial flaring in soft X rays. In EIT each flaring episode begins with the formation of a crinkle pattern external to the EFR. These EIT crinkles move out from, and then in toward, the EFR with velocities approx. 20 km/ s. A shrinking and expansion of the width of the coronal hole coincides with the crinkle activity, and generation and evolution of a postflare loop system begins near the time of crinkle formation. Using a schematic based on magnetograms of the region, we suggest that these observations are consistent with the standard reconnection-based model for solar eruptions but are modified by the presence of the additional magnetic fields of the sunspot and coronal hole. In the schematic, internal reconnection begins inside of the EFR-associated fields, unleashing a flare, postflare loops, and a coronal mass ejection (CME). External reconnection, first occurring between the escaping CME and the coronal hole field and second occurring between fields formed as a result of the first external reconnection, results in the EIT crinkles and changes in the coronal hole boundary. By the end of the second external reconnection, the initial setup is reinstated; thus the sequence can repeat, resulting in morphologically homologous eruptions. Our inferred magnetic topology is similar to that suggested in the "breakout model" of eruptions although we cannot determine if our eruptions are released primarily by the breakout mechanism (external reconnection) or, alternatively

  1. Properties of Turbulence in the Reconnection Exhaust: Numerical Simulations Compared with Observations

    Pucci, F.; Olshevsky, V.; Lapenta, G. [Center for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department Wiskunde, KU Leuven, 200B Celestijnenlaan, Leuven, B-3001 (Belgium); Servidio, S.; Malara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Sorriso-Valvo, L. [Nanotec-CNR, U.O.S. di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 (Italy); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L., E-mail: francesco.pucci@kuleuven.be [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The properties of the turbulence that develops in the outflows of magnetic reconnection have been investigated using self-consistent plasma simulations, in three dimensions. As commonly observed in space plasmas, magnetic reconnection is characterized by the presence of turbulence. Here we provide a direct comparison of our simulations with reported observations of reconnection events in the magnetotail, investigating the properties of the electromagnetic field and the energy conversion mechanisms. In particular, simulations show the development of a turbulent cascade consistent with spacecraft observations, statistics of the dissipation mechanisms in the turbulent outflows similar to the ones observed in reconnection jets in the magnetotail, and that the properties of turbulence vary as a function of the distance from the reconnecting X-line.

  2. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX): Magnetic Reconnection in Linear Geometry

    Intrator, T.; Sovinec, C.; Begay, D.; Wurden, G.; Furno, I.; Werley, C.; Fisher, M.; Vermare, L.; Fienup, W.

    2001-10-01

    The linear Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) at LANL is a new experiment that can create MHD relevant plasmas to look at the physics of magnetic reconnection. This experiment can scale many relevant parameters because the guns that generate the plasma and current channels do not depend on equilibrium or force balance for startup. We describe the experiment and initial electrostatic and magnetic probe data. Two parallel current channels sweep down a long plasma column and probe data accumulated over many shots gives 3D movies of magnetic reconnection. Our first data tries to define an operating regime free from kink instabilities that might otherwise confuse the data and shot repeatability. We compare this with MHD 2 fluid NIMROD simulations of the single current channel kink stability boundary for a variety of experimental conditions.

  3. Spatial characteristics of magnetotail reconnection

    Genestreti, Kevin J.

    We examine the properties of magnetic reconnection as it occurs in the Earth's magnetosphere, first focusing on the spatial characteristics of the near-Earth magnetotail reconnection site, then analyzing the properties of cold plasma that may affect reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Two models are developed that empirically map the position and occurrence rate of the nightside ion diffusion region, which are based upon Geotail data (first model) and a combination of Geotail and Cluster data (second model). We use these empirical models to estimate that NASA's MMS mission will encounter the ion-scale reconnection site 11+/-4 times during its upcoming magnetotail survey phase. We also find that the occurrence of magnetotail reconnection is localized and asymmetric, with reconnection occurring most frequently at the duskside magnetotail neutral sheet near YGSM* = 5 RE. To determine the physics that governs this asymmetry and localization, we analyze the time history of the solar wind, the instantaneous properties of the magnetotail lobes and current sheet, as well as the geomagnetic activity levels, all for a larger set of Geotail and Cluster reconnection site observations. We find evidence in our own results and in the preexisting literature that localized (small DeltaY) reconnection sites initially form near YGSM* = 5 RE due to an asymmetry in the current sheet thickness. If the solar wind driving remains strong, then localized reconnection sites may expand in the +/-Y direction. The DeltaY extent of the reconnection site ap- pears to be positively correlated with the geomagnetic activity level, which is to be expected for a simplified "energy in equals energy out"-type picture of 3D reconnection. We develop two new methods for determining the temperatures of plasmas that are largely below the energy detection range of electrostatic analyzer instruments. The first method involves the direct application of a theoretical fit to the visible, high-energy portion

  4. Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects

    Ji, Hantao

    1998-01-01

    The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation

  5. Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset

    Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

  6. Neural mechanism for sensing fast motion in dim light.

    Li, Ran; Wang, Yi

    2013-11-07

    Luminance is a fundamental property of visual scenes. A population of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) is sensitive to uniform luminance. In natural vision, however, the retinal image often changes rapidly. Consequently the luminance signals visual cells receive are transiently varying. How V1 neurons respond to such luminance changes is unknown. By applying large static uniform stimuli or grating stimuli altering at 25 Hz that resemble the rapid luminance changes in the environment, we show that approximately 40% V1 cells responded to rapid luminance changes of uniform stimuli. Most of them strongly preferred luminance decrements. Importantly, when tested with drifting gratings, the preferred speeds of these cells were significantly higher than cells responsive to static grating stimuli but not to uniform stimuli. This responsiveness can be accounted for by the preferences for low spatial frequencies and high temporal frequencies. These luminance-sensitive cells subserve the detection of fast motion under the conditions of dim illumination.

  7. Flux Rope Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    C.Z. Cheng; Y. Ren; G.S. Choe; Y.-J. Moon

    2003-01-01

    A physical mechanism of flares, in particular for the flare rise phase, has emerged from our 2-1/2-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. The dynamical evolution of current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection and flux-rope acceleration subject to continuous, slow increase of magnetic shear in the arcade are studied by employing a non-uniform anomalous resistivity in the reconnecting current sheet under gravity. The simulation results directly relate the flux rope's accelerated rising motion with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The simulation results provide good quantitative agreements with observations of the acceleration of flux rope, which manifests in the form of SXR ejecta or erupting filament or CMEs, in the low corona. Moreover, for the X-class flare events studied in this paper the peak reconnection electric field is about O(10 2 V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate p articles to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 10 km. Nonthermal electrons thus generated can produce hard X-rays, consistent with impulsive HXR emission observed during the flare rise phase

  8. Diffusion tensor tractography reveals muscle reconnection during axolotl limb regeneration.

    Cheng-Han Wu

    Full Text Available Axolotls have amazing ability to regenerate their lost limbs. Our previous works showed that after amputation the remnant muscle ends remained at their original location whilst sending satellite cells into the regenerating parts to develop into early muscle fibers in the late differentiation stage. The parental and the newly formed muscle fibers were not connected until very late stage. The present study used non-invasive diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to monitor weekly axolotl upper arm muscles after amputation of their upper arms. DTI tractography showed that the regenerating muscle fibers became visible at 9-wpa (weeks post amputation, but a gap was observed between the regenerating and parental muscles. The gap was filled at 10-wpa, indicating reconnection of the fibers of both muscles. This was confirmed by histology. The DTI results indicate that 23% of the muscle fibers were reconnected at 10-wpa. In conclusion, DTI can be used to visualize axolotls' skeletal muscles and the results of muscle reconnection were in accordance with our previous findings. This non-invasive technique will allow researchers to identify the timeframe in which muscle fiber reconnection takes place and thus enable the study of the mechanisms underlying this reconnection.

  9. Experimental observation of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma

    Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T. D. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. In this work, impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The two-fluid, impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. Several signatures of flux ropes are identified with these events; 3-D high current density regions with O-point structure form during a slow buildup period that precedes a fast disruption of the reconnecting current layer. The observed drop in the reconnection current and spike in the reconnection rate during the disruption are due to ejection of these flux ropes from the layer. Underscoring the 3-D nature of the events, strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are found to play a key role in this process. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. An important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations is also revisited. The wider layers observed in MRX may be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope signatures are observed down to the smallest scales resolved by the diagnostics. Finally, a 3-D two-fluid model is proposed to explain how the observed out-of-plane variation may lead to a localized region of enhanced reconnection that spreads in the direction of the out-of-plane electron flow, ejecting flux ropes from the layer in a 3-D manner.

  10. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10 6 frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs

  11. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

  12. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  13. Crab Flares and Magnetic Reconnection in Pulsar Winds

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    The striped winds of rotation-powered pulsars are ideal sites for magnetic reconnection. The magnetic fields of the wind near the current sheet outside the light cylinder alternate polarity every pulsar period and eventually encounter a termination shock. Magnetic reconnection in the wind has been proposed as a mechanism for transferring energy from electromagnetic fields to particles upstream of the shock (the "sigma" problem), but it is not clear if, where and how this occurs. Fermi and AGILE have recently observed powerful gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula, which challenge traditional models of acceleration at the termination shock. New simulations are revealing that magnetic reconnection may be instrumental in understanding the Crab flares and in resolving the "sigma" problem in pulsar wind nebulae.

  14. Bursting reconnection of the two co-rotating current loops

    Bulanov, Sergei; Sokolov, Igor; Sakai, Jun-Ichi

    2000-10-01

    Two parallel plasma filaments carrying electric current (current loops) are considered. The Ampere force induces the filaments' coalescence, which is accompanied by the reconnection of the poloidal magnetic field. Initially the loops rotate along the axii of symmetry. Each of the two loops would be in equilibrium in the absence of the other one. The dynamics of the reconnection is numerically simulated using high-resolution numerical scheme for low-resistive magneto-hydrodynamics. The results of numerical simulation are presented in the form of computer movies. The results show that the rotation strongly modifies the reconnection process, resulting in quasi-periodic (bursting) appearance and disappearance of a current sheet. Fast sliding motion of the plasma along the current sheet is a significant element of the complicated structure of reconnection (current-vortex sheet). The magnetic surfaces in the overal flow are strongly rippled by slow magnetosonic perturbations, so that the specific spiral structures form. This should result in the particle transport enhancement.

  15. FAST

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  16. Reconnection of magnetic lines in an ideal fluid

    Grad, H.

    1978-04-01

    The rate of reconnection of magnetic lines at an X-point, also growth of a ''tearing'' configuration have always been related to the presence of resistivity or other dissipative mechanisms. These phenomena, exhibiting nonconservation of magnetic line topology, are shown to occur in an ideal, nondissipative fluid, thereby violating beliefs, theorems, and calculations of over a century

  17. The European strategy for fast reactor core static mechanics studies

    Jones, C.H.; Di Francesca, R.; Coors, D.; Steenberghe, T. van

    1987-01-01

    The strategy is designed to meet the needs of participating European countries by achieving the following objectives: To provide generic information and data on the static mechanics of all styles of core of interest, validate codes and optimise new designs. To endorse specific features of SPX2 and SNR2 designs. To provide the new facilities which are needed. To present the programme of work required and timescale. (orig./HP)

  18. SAR Observation and Numerical Simulation of Internal Solitary Wave Refraction and Reconnection Behind the Dongsha Atoll

    Jia, T.; Liang, J. J.; Li, X.-M.; Sha, J.

    2018-01-01

    The refraction and reconnection of internal solitary waves (ISWs) around the Dongsha Atoll (DSA) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) are investigated based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and numerical simulations. In general, a long ISW front propagating from the deep basin of the northern SCS splits into northern and southern branches when it passes the DSA. In this study, the statistics of Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) images show that the northern and southern wave branches can reconnect behind the DSA, but the reconnection location varies. A previously developed nonlinear refraction model is set up to simulate the refraction and reconnection of the ISWs behind the DSA, and the model is used to evaluate the effects of ocean stratification, background currents, and incoming ISW characteristics at the DSA on the variation in reconnection locations. The results of the first realistic simulation agree with consecutive TerraSAR-X (TSX) images captured within 12 h of each other. Further sensitivity simulations show that ocean stratification, background currents, and initial wave amplitudes all affect the phase speeds of wave branches and therefore shift their reconnection locations while shapes and locations of incoming wave branches upstream of the DSA profoundly influence the subsequent propagation paths. This study clarifies the variation in reconnection locations of ISWs downstream of the DSA and reveals the important mechanisms governing the reconnection process, which can improve our understanding of the propagation of ISWs near the DSA.

  19. Seismic appraisal test of control rod drive mechanism of China experiment fast reactor

    Song Qing; Yang Hongyi; Jing Yueqing; Wen Jing; Liu Guijuan; Sun Lei

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the control rod drive mechanism in pool type sodium-cooled fast reactor is the characterized by long, thin, and geometric nonlinearity, and the seismic load is multiple activation. The anti-seismic evaluation is always paid great attention by the countries developing the technology worldwide. This article introduces the seismic appraisal test of the control rod drive mechanism of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) performed on a seismic platform which is vertical shaft style and multiple activation. The result of the test shows the structural integrity and the function of the control rod drive mechanism could meet the design requirements of the earthquake intensity. (authors)

  20. Properties and mechanical behaviour of fuel cans of fast neutron reactors

    Cauvin, R.; Boutard, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Mechanical properties of Stainless steel-316 irradiated up to 100 dpa in fast neutron reactors are examined. Microscopic phenomena involved are reviewed: precipitation, segregation, dislocations, vacancies. Influence on mechanical behaviour of materials are examined: tensile properties, creep, ductility. Consequences on reactor dimensioning are given in conclusion [fr

  1. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum Φ0 = 2πh/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius λm. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  2. Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI in strong magnetic guide field reconnection

    R. A. Treumann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is

  3. Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI) in strong magnetic guide field reconnection

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales) electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR) in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects) involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is of particular

  4. Colour reconnection at LEP2

    Abreu, P

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method (D. Duchesneau, (2001)), are yet inconclusive. (22 refs).

  5. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  6. The mechanism of total disintegration of heavy nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the total disintegration of atomic nuclei by fast hadrons and nuclei is considered. The passage of energetic hadrons through layers of intranuclear matter, accompanied by emission of fast nucleons with kinetic energies from about 20 up to about 500 MeV from definite local small regions in the nuclei around projectile courses in them, allows one to explain simply the occurrence of the total destruction of nuclei involved in the collisions. Light nuclei may be totally disintegrated by fast hadrons and nuclei; heavier nuclei may be totally disintegrated only in central collisions of nuclei with similar mass numbers

  7. Shock formation and structure in magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow.

    Wu, Liangneng; Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Haowei

    2017-08-18

    The features of magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow have been investigated on the basis of compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The super-Alfvenic streaming flow largely enhances magnetic reconnection. The maximum reconnection rate is almost four times larger with super-Alfvenic streaming flow than sub-Alfvénic streaming flow. In the nonlinear stage, it is found that there is a pair of shocks observed in the inflow region, which are manifested to be slow shocks for sub-Alfvénic streaming flow, and fast shocks for super-Alfvénic streaming flow. The quasi-period oscillation of reconnection rates in the decaying phase for super-Alfvénic streaming flow is resulted from the different drifting velocities of the shock and the X point.

  8. Magnetic reconnection in the presence of externally driven and self-generated turbulence

    Karimabadi, H.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process that violates flux freezing and induces change of magnetic field topology in conducting fluids and, as a consequence, converts magnetic field energy into particle energy. It is thought to be operative in laboratory, heliophysical, and astrophysical plasmas. These environments exhibit wide variations in collisionality, ranging from collisionless in the Earth's magnetosphere to highly collisional in molecular clouds. A common feature among these plasmas is, however, the presence of turbulence. We review the present understanding of the effects of turbulence on the reconnection rate, discussing both how strong pre-existing turbulence modifies Sweet-Parker reconnection and how turbulence may develop as a result of reconnection itself. In steady state, reconnection rate is proportional to the aspect ratio of the diffusion region. Thus, two general MHD classes of models for fast reconnection have been proposed, differing on whether they keep the aspect ratio finite by increasing the width due to turbulent broadening or shortening the length of the diffusion layer due to plasmoid instability. One of the consequences of the plasmoid instability model is the possibility that the current sheet thins down to collisionless scales where kinetic effects become dominant. As a result, kinetic effects may be of importance for many astrophysical applications which were considered to be in the realm of MHD. Whether pre-existing turbulence can significantly modify the transition to the kinetic regime is not currently known. Although most studies of turbulent reconnection have been based on MHD, recent advances in kinetic simulations are enabling 3D studies of turbulence and reconnection in the collisionless regime. A summary of these recent works, highlighting similarities and differences with the MHD models of turbulent reconnection, as well as comparison with in situ observations in the magnetosphere and in the solar wind, are presented

  9. Simulations of Hall reconnection in partially ionized plasmas

    Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in the Hall, partially ionized regime in environments as diverse as molecular clouds, protostellar disks and regions of the solar chromosphere. While much is known about Hall reconnection in fully ionized plasmas, Hall reconnection in partially ionized plasmas is, in comparison, still relatively unexplored. This notwithstanding the fact that partial ionization is expected to affect fundamental processes in reconnection such as the transition from the slow, fluid to the fast, kinetic regime, the value of the reconnection rate and the dimensions of the diffusion regions [Malyshkin and Zweibel 2011 , Zweibel et al. 2011]. We present here the first, to our knowledge, fully kinetic simulations of Hall reconnection in partially ionized plasmas. The interaction of electrons and ions with the neutral background is realistically modelled via a Monte Carlo plug-in coded into the semi-implicit, fully kinetic code iPic3D [Markidis 2010]. We simulate a plasma with parameters compatible with the MRX experiments illustrated in Zweibel et al. 2011 and Lawrence et al. 2013, to be able to compare our simulation results with actual experiments. The gas and ion temperature is T=3 eV, the ion to electron temperature ratio is Tr=0.44, ion and electron thermal velocities are calculated accordingly resorting to a reduced mass ratio and a reduced value of the speed of light to reduce the computational costs of the simulations. The initial density of the plasma is set at n= 1.1 1014 cm-3 and is then left free to change during the simulation as a result of gas-plasma interaction. A set of simulations with initial ionisation percentage IP= 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.6 is presented and compared with a reference simulation where no background gas is present (full ionization). In this first set of simulations, we assume to be able to externally control the initial relative densities of gas and plasma. Within this parameter range, the ion but not the electron population is

  10. The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection in Tail-Like Equilibria

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Kuznetsova, Masha

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mode of dynamics in the magnetotail, and is recognized as the basic mechanisms converting stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of plasma particles. The effects of the reconnection process are well documented by spacecraft observations of plasmoids in the distant magnetotail, or bursty bulk flows, and magnetic field dipolarizations in the near Earth region. Theoretical and numerical analyses have, in recent years, shed new light on the way reconnection operates, and, in particular, which microscopic mechanism supports the dissipative electric field in the associated diffusion region. Despite this progress, however. the question of how magnetic reconnection initiates in a tail-like magnetic field with finite flux threading the current i.sheet remains unanswered. Instead, theoretical studies supported by numerical simulations support the point-of-view that such plasma and current sheets are stable with respect to collisionless tearing mode. In this paper, we will further investigate this conclusion, with emphasis on the question whether it remains valid in plasma sheets with embedded thin current sheets. For this purpose, we perform particle-in-cell simulations of the driven formation of thin current sheets, and their subsequent evolution either to equilibrium or to instability of a tearing-type mode. In the latter case we will pay particular attention to the nature of the electric field contribution which unmagnetizes the electrons.

  11. Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio

    Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.

  12. Energetic Particles of keV–MeV Energies Observed near Reconnecting Current Sheets at 1 au

    Khabarova, Olga V. [Heliophysical Laboratory, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation); Zank, Gary P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We provide evidence for particle acceleration up to ∼5 MeV at reconnecting current sheets in the solar wind based on both case studies and a statistical analysis of the energetic ion and electron flux data from the five Advanced Composition Explorer Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) detectors. The case study of a typical reconnection exhaust event reveals (i) a small-scale peak of the energetic ion flux observed in the vicinity of the reconnection exhaust and (ii) a long-timescale atypical energetic particle event (AEPE) encompassing the reconnection exhaust. AEPEs associated with reconnecting strong current sheets last for many hours, even days, as confirmed by statistical studies. The case study shows that time-intensity profiles of the ion flux may vary significantly from one EPAM detector to another partially because of the local topology of magnetic fields, but mainly because of the impact of upstream magnetospheric events; therefore, the occurrence of particle acceleration can be hidden. The finding of significant particle energization within a time interval of ±30 hr around reconnection exhausts is supported by a superposed epoch analysis of 126 reconnection exhaust events. We suggest that energetic particles initially accelerated via prolonged magnetic reconnection are trapped and reaccelerated in small- or medium-scale magnetic islands surrounding the reconnecting current sheet, as predicted by the transport theory of Zank et al. Other mechanisms of initial particle acceleration can contribute also.

  13. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    Nandakumar, Raja

    2001-01-01

    Colour reconnection is the final state interaction between quarks from different sources. It is not yet fully understood and is a source of systematic error for W-boson mass and width measurements in hadronic \\WW decays at LEP2. The methods of measuring this effect and the results of the 4 LEP experiments at $183\\gev\\leq\\rts\\leq 202\\gev$ will be presented.

  14. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  15. Fast analytical model of MZI micro-opto-mechanical pressure sensor

    Rochus, V.; Jansen, R.; Goyvaerts, J.; Neutens, P.; O’Callaghan, J.; Rottenberg, X.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a fast analytical procedure in order to design a micro-opto-mechanical pressure sensor (MOMPS) taking into account the mechanical nonlinearity and the optical losses. A realistic model of the photonic MZI is proposed, strongly coupled to a nonlinear mechanical model of the membrane. Based on the membrane dimensions, the residual stress, the position of the waveguide, the optical wavelength and the phase variation due to the opto-mechanical coupling, we derive an analytical model which allows us to predict the response of the total system. The effect of the nonlinearity and the losses on the total performance are carefully studied and measurements on fabricated devices are used to validate the model. Finally, a design procedure is proposed in order to realize fast design of this new type of pressure sensor.

  16. Rapid reconnection in compressible plasma

    Heyn, M.F.; Semenov, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study of set-up, propagation, and interaction of non-linear and linear magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by magnetic reconnection is presented. The source term of the waves generated by magnetic reconnection is obtained explicitly in terms of the initial background conditions and the local reconnection electric field. The non-linear solution of the problem found earlier, serves as a basis for formulation and extensive investigation of the corresponding linear initial-boundary value problem of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. In plane geometry, the Green close-quote s function of the problem is obtained and its properties are discussed. For the numerical evaluation it turns out that a specific choice of the integration contour in the complex plane of phase velocities is much more effective than the convolution with the real Green close-quote s function. Many complex effects like intrinsic wave coupling, anisotropic propagation characteristics, generation of surface and side wave modes in a finite beta plasma are retained in this analysis. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Multiscale Processes in Magnetic Reconnection

    Surjalal Sharma, A.; Jain, Neeraj

    The characteristic scales of the plasma processes in magnetic reconnection range from the elec-tron skin-depth to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scale, and cross-scale coupling among them play a key role. Modeling these processes requires different physical models, viz. kinetic, electron-magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD), Hall-MHD, and MHD. The shortest scale processes are at the electron scale and these are modeled using an EMHD code, which provides many features of the multiscale behavior. In simulations using initial conditions consisting of pertur-bations with many scale sizes the reconnection takes place at many sites and the plasma flows from these interact with each other. This leads to thin current sheets with length less than 10 electron skin depths. The plasma flows also generate current sheets with multiple peaks, as observed by Cluster. The quadrupole structure of the magnetic field during reconnection starts on the electron scale and the interaction of inflow to the secondary sites and outflow from the dominant site generates a nested structure. In the outflow regions, the interaction of the electron outflows generated at the neighboring sites lead to the development of electron vortices. A signature of the nested structure of the Hall field is seen in Cluster observations, and more details of these features are expected from MMS.

  18. Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection

    Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1997-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)

  19. Impulsive nature in collisional driven reconnection

    Kitabata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1995-11-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. In the impulsive phase, the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up to more than ten times of the driving rate on the boundary. (author)

  20. EVIDENCE FOR NEWLY INITIATED RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    Xu, Xiaojun; Ma, Yonghui; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Wang, Yi; Zuo, Pingbing; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a large-scale reconnection exhaust newly initiated in the solar wind using observations from three spacecraft: ACE, Wind, and ARTEMIS P2. We identified a well-structured X-line exhaust using measurements from ARTEMIS P2 in the downstream solar wind. However, in the upstream solar wind, ACE detected the same current sheet that corresponds to the exhaust identified by ARTEMIS P2 data without showing any reconnection signals. We cannot find any reconnection signals from Wind located between ACE and ARTEMIS P2. Within the exhaust, a magnetic island is identified, which is not consistent with the quasi-steady feature as previously reported and provides further evidence that the reconnection is newly initiated. Our observations show that the entering of energetic particles, probably from Earth's bow shock, makes the crucial difference between the non-reconnecting current sheet and the exhaust. Since no obvious driving factors are responsible for the reconnection initiation, we infer that these energetic particles probably play an important role in the reconnection initiation. Theoretical analysis also shows support for this potential mechanism

  1. Observing Formation of Flux Rope by Tether-cutting Reconnection in the Sun

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Yang, Liheng; Wang, Jincheng; Zhao, Li, E-mail: zkxue@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Yunnan 650216 (China)

    2017-05-10

    Tether-cutting reconnection is considered as one mechanism for the formation of a flux rope. It has been proposed for more than 30 years; however, so far, direct observations of it are very rare. In this Letter, we present observations of the formation of a flux rope via tether-cutting reconnection in NOAA AR 11967 on 2014 February 2 by combining observations with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The tether-cutting reconnection occurs between two sets of highly sheared magnetic arcades. Comprehensive observational evidence of the reconnection is as follows: changes of the connections between the arcades, brightenings at the reconnection site, hot outflows, formation of a flux rope, slow-rise motion of the flux rope, and flux cancelation. The outflows are along three directions from the reconnection site to the footpoints with the velocities from 24 ± 1 km s{sup −1} to 69 ± 5 km s{sup −1}. Additionally, it is found that the newly formed flux rope connects far footpoints and has a left-handed twisted structure with many fine threads and a concave-up-shape structure in the middle. All the observations are in agreement with the tether-cutting model and provide evidence that tether-cutting reconnection leads to the formation of the flux rope associated with flux shear flow and cancelation.

  2. ON THE ROLE OF REPETITIVE MAGNETIC RECONNECTIONS IN EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES IN SOLAR CORONA

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Joshi, Bhuwan [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem, extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number, supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and, hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process—including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations, and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines—agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realizability of the advocated mechanism.

  3. Non-Potential Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Reconnection In Low Collisional Plasmas-Discovery of Solar EUV Mini-Sigmoids and Development of Novel In-Space Propulsion Systems

    Chesny, David

    Magnetic reconnection is the source of many of the most powerful explosions of astrophysical plasmas in the universe. Blazars, magnetars, stellar atmospheres, and planetary magnetic fields have all been shown to be primary sites of strong reconnection events. For studying the fundamental physics behind this process, the solar atmosphere is our most accessible laboratory setting. Magnetic reconnection resulting from non-potential fields leads to plasma heating and particle acceleration, often in the form of explosive activity, contributing to coronal heating and the solar wind. Large-scale non-potential (sigmoid) fields in the solar atmosphere are poorly understood due to their crowded neighborhoods. For the first time, small-scale, non-potential loop structures have been observed in quiet Sun EUV observations. Fourteen unique mini-sigmoid events and three diffuse non-potential loops have been discovered, suggesting a multi-scaled self-similarity in the sigmoid formation process. These events are on the order of 10 arcseconds in length and do not appear in X-ray emissions, where large-scale sigmoids are well documented. We have discovered the first evidence of sigmoidal structuring in EUV bright point phenomena, which are prolific events in the solar atmosphere. Observations of these mini-sigmoids suggest that they are being formed via tether-cutting reconnection, a process observed to occur at active region scales. Thus, tether-cutting is suggested to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. These dynamics are shown to be a function of the free magnetic energy in the quiet Sun network. Recently, the reconnection process has been reproduced in Earth-based laboratory tokamaks. Easily achievable magnetic field configurations can induce reconnection and result in ion acceleration. Here, magnetic reconnection is utilized as the plasma acceleration mechanism for a theoretical propulsion system. The theory of torsional spine reconnection is shown to result in ion

  4. Mechatronics of fuel handling mechanism for fast experimental reactor 'Joyo'

    Fujiwara, Akikazu (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center)

    1984-01-01

    The outline of the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo'' is introduced, and the fuel handling mechanism peculiar to fast reactors is described. The objectives of the construction of Joyo are to obtain the techniques for the design, construction, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of sodium-cooled fast reactors independently, and to use it as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and materials for fast breeder reactors. At present, the reactor is operated at 100 MW maximum thermal output for the second objective. Since liquid sodium is used as the coolant, the atmosphere of the fuel handling course changes such as liquid sodium at 250 deg C, argon gas at 200 deg C and water, in addition, the spent fuel taken out has the decay heat of 2.1 kW at maximum. The fuel handling works in the reactor and fuel transfer works, and the fuel handling mechanism of a fuel exchanger and that of a cask car for fuel handling are described. Relay sequence control system is used for the fuel handling mechanism of Joyo.

  5. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  6. On the location of the stationary reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail

    Buechner, J.; Zeleny, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The reconnection of plasma and magnetic flux, disconnected from the Earth's magnetosphere on its dayside, to the Earth through the geomagnetotail is investigated. A new approach is proposed explaining the physical mechanism responsible for more stationary reconnection in the extremely collisionless plasma of the far magnetotail. Specially the average behaviour of a parameter along the Earth's magnetotail is analyzed, determining the threshold of a collisionless tearing mode instability due to chaotization of the thermal electron motion

  7. Investigation of the viscous reconnection phenomenon of two vortex tubes through spectral simulations

    Beardsell, Guillaume; Dufresne, Louis; Dumas, Guy

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to shed further light on the viscous reconnection phenomenon. To this end, we propose a robust and efficient method in order to quantify the degree of reconnection of two vortex tubes. This method is used to compare the evolutions of two simple initial vortex configurations: orthogonal and antiparallel. For the antiparallel configuration, the proposed method is compared with alternative estimators and it is found to improve accuracy since it can account properly for the formation of looping structures inside the domain. This observation being new, the physical mechanism for the formation of those looping structures is discussed. For the orthogonal configuration, we report results from simulations that were performed at a much higher vortex Reynolds number (ReΓ ≡ circulation/viscosity = 104) and finer resolution (N3 = 10243) than previously presented in the literature. The incompressible Navier-stokes equations are solved directly (Direct Numerical Simulation or DNS) using a Fourier pseudospectral algorithm with triply periodic boundary conditions. The associated zero-circulation constraint is circumvented by solving the governing equations in a proper rotating frame of reference. Using ideas similar to those behind our method to compute the degree of reconnection, we split the vorticity field into its reconnected and non-reconnected parts, which allows to create insightful visualizations of the evolving vortex topology. It also allows to detect regions in the vorticity field that are neither reconnected nor non-reconnected and thus must be associated to internal looping structures. Finally, the Reynolds number dependence of the reconnection time scale Trec is investigated in the range 500 ≤ ReΓ ≤ 10 000. For both initial configurations, the scaling is generally found to vary continuously as ReΓ is increased from T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 to T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 / 2 , thus providing quantitative support for previous claims that the reconnection

  8. A fast-starting mechanical fish that accelerates at 40 m s-2

    Conte, J; Modarres-Sadeghi, Y; Watts, M N; Hover, F S; Triantafyllou, M S

    2010-01-01

    We have built a simple mechanical system to emulate the fast-start performance of fish. The system consists of a thin metal beam covered by a urethane rubber, the fish body and an appropriately shaped tail. The body form of the mechanical fish was modeled after a pike species and selected because it is a widely-studied fast-start specialist. The mechanical fish was held in curvature and hung in water by two restraining lines, which were simultaneously released by a pneumatic cutting mechanism. The potential energy in the beam was transferred into the fluid, thereby accelerating the fish. We measured the resulting acceleration, and calculated the efficiency of propulsion for the mechanical fish model, defined as the ratio of the final kinetic energy of the fish and the initially stored potential energy in the body beam. We also ran a series of flow visualization tests to observe the resulting flow patterns. The maximum start-up acceleration was measured to be around 40 m s -2 , with the maximum final velocity around 1.2 m s -1 . The form of the measured acceleration signal as function of time is quite similar to that of type I fast-start motions studied by Harper and Blake (1991 J. Exp. Biol. 155 175-92). The hydrodynamic efficiency of the fish was found to be around 10%. Flow visualization of the mechanical fast-start wake was also analyzed, showing that the acceleration peaks are associated with the shedding of two vortex rings in near-lateral directions.

  9. Preliminary electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design for first wall and vacuum vessel of FAST

    Lucca, F., E-mail: Flavio.Lucca@LTCalcoli.it [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Bertolini, C. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Crescenzi, F.; Crisanti, F. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Labate, C. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Acton 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy); Manzoni, M.; Marconi, M.; Pagani, I. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Ramogida, G. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Renno, F. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, M. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Roccella, S. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Viganò, F. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The fusion advanced study torus (FAST), with its compact design, high toroidal field and plasma current, faces many of the problems met by ITER, and at the same time anticipates much of the DEMO relevant physics and technology. The conceptual design of the first wall (FW) and the vacuum vessel (VV) has been defined on the basis of FAST operative conditions and of “Snow Flakes” (SF) magnetic topology, which is also relevant for DEMO. The EM loads are one of the most critical load components for the FW and the VV during plasma disruptions and a first dimensioning of these components for such loads is mandatory. During this first phase of R&D activities the conceptual design of the FW and VV have been assessed estimating, by means of FE simulations, the EM loads due to a typical vertical disruption event (VDE) in FAST. EM loads were then transferred on a FE mechanical model of the FAST structures and the mechanical response of the FW and VV design for the analyzed VDE event was assessed. The results indicate that design criteria are not fully satisfied by the current drawing of the VV and FW components. The most critical regions have been individuated and the effect of some geometrical and material changes has been checked in order to improve the structure.

  10. When fast is better: protein folding fundamentals and mechanisms from ultrafast approaches.

    Muñoz, Victor; Cerminara, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Protein folding research stalled for decades because conventional experiments indicated that proteins fold slowly and in single strokes, whereas theory predicted a complex interplay between dynamics and energetics resulting in myriad microscopic pathways. Ultrafast kinetic methods turned the field upside down by providing the means to probe fundamental aspects of folding, test theoretical predictions and benchmark simulations. Accordingly, experimentalists could measure the timescales for all relevant folding motions, determine the folding speed limit and confirm that folding barriers are entropic bottlenecks. Moreover, a catalogue of proteins that fold extremely fast (microseconds) could be identified. Such fast-folding proteins cross shallow free energy barriers or fold downhill, and thus unfold with minimal co-operativity (gradually). A new generation of thermodynamic methods has exploited this property to map folding landscapes, interaction networks and mechanisms at nearly atomic resolution. In parallel, modern molecular dynamics simulations have finally reached the timescales required to watch fast-folding proteins fold and unfold in silico All of these findings have buttressed the fundamentals of protein folding predicted by theory, and are now offering the first glimpses at the underlying mechanisms. Fast folding appears to also have functional implications as recent results connect downhill folding with intrinsically disordered proteins, their complex binding modes and ability to moonlight. These connections suggest that the coupling between downhill (un)folding and binding enables such protein domains to operate analogically as conformational rheostats. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. From vortex reconnections to quantum turbulence

    Lipniacki, T.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative approach to quantum turbulence is proposed in order to derive the evolution equation for vortex line-length density. Special attention is paid to reconnections of vortex lines. The summed line-length change ΔS of two vortex lines resulting from the reconnection (in the presence of counterflow V ns ) can be approximated in the form: δS=-at 1/2 +bV ns 2 t 3/2 , with a>0, b≥0, at least until δS≤0. For steady-state turbulence, the average line-length change left angle ΔS right angle between reconnections has to be zero. If, for a given value of the counterflow, the line density is smaller than the equilibrium one, the reconnections occur less frequently and left angle ΔS right angle becomes positive and the line density grows until the equilibrium is restored. When the line-density is too large, the reconnections are more frequent, the lines shorten between reconnections and the line density gets smaller. The time derivative of the total line density is proportional to the reconnection frequency multiplied by the average line-length change due to a single reconnection. The evolution equation obtained in the proposed approach resembles the alternative Vinen equation. (orig.)

  12. Energy Dissipation and Dynamics in Large Guide Field Turbulence Driven Reconnection at the Magnetopause

    TenBarge, J. M.; Shay, M. A.; Sharma, P.; Juno, J.; Haggerty, C. C.; Drake, J. F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hakim, A.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence and magnetic reconnection are the primary mechanisms responsible for the conversion of stored magnetic energy into particle energy in many space and astrophysical plasmas. The magnetospheric multiscale mission (MMS) has given us unprecedented access to high cadence particle and field data of turbulence and magnetic reconnection at earth's magnetopause. The observations include large guide field reconnection events generated within the turbulent magnetopause. Motivated by these observations, we present a study of large guide reconnection using the fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell component of the Gkeyll simulation framework, and we also employ and compare with gyrokinetics to explore the asymptotically large guide field limit. In addition to studying the configuration space dynamics, we leverage the recently developed field-particle correlations to diagnose the dominant sources of dissipation and compare the results of the field-particle correlation to other energy dissipation measures.

  13. Reconnection at the earth's magnetopause - Magnetic field observations and flux transfer events

    Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of plasma acceleration by magnetic-field-line reconnection at the earth magnetopause and the high-resolution three-dimensional plasma measurements obtained with the ISEE satellites are compared and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, drawings, and histograms. The history of reconnection theory and the results of early satellite observations are summarized; the thickness of the magnetopause current layer is discussed; problems in analyzing the polarization of current-layer rotation are considered; and the flux-transfer events responsible for periods of patchy reconnection are characterized in detail. The need for further observations and refinements of the theory to explain the initiation of reconnection and identify the mechanism determining whether it is patchy or steady-state is indicated.

  14. Application of PDSLin to the magnetic reconnection problem

    Yuan, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in a magnetized plasma at both low and high magnetic Lundquist numbers (the ratio of the resistive diffusion time to the Alfvén wave transit time), which occurs in a wide variety of laboratory and space plasmas, e.g. magnetic fusion experiments, the solar corona and the Earth\\'s magnetotail. An implicit time advance for the two-fluid magnetic reconnection problem is known to be difficult because of the large condition number of the associated matrix. This is especially troublesome when the collisionless ion skin depth is large so that the Whistler waves, which cause the fast reconnection, dominate the physics (Yuan et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 5822-53). For small system sizes, a direct solver such as SuperLU can be employed to obtain an accurate solution as long as the condition number is bounded by the reciprocal of the floating-point machine precision. However, SuperLU scales effectively only to hundreds of processors or less. For larger system sizes, it has been shown that physics-based (Chacón and Knoll 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 188 573-92) or other preconditioners can be applied to provide adequate solver performance. In recent years, we have been developing a new algebraic hybrid linear solver, PDSLin (Parallel Domain decomposition Schur complement-based Linear solver) (Yamazaki and Li 2010 Proc. VECPAR pp 421-34 and Yamazaki et al 2011 Technical Report). In this work, we compare numerical results from a direct solver and the proposed hybrid solver for the magnetic reconnection problem and demonstrate that the new hybrid solver is scalable to thousands of processors while maintaining the same robustness as a direct solver. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Application of PDSLin to the magnetic reconnection problem

    Yuan, Xuefei; Li, Xiaoyesherry; Yamazaki, Ichitaro; Jardin, Stephen C.; Koniges, Alice E.; Keyes, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in a magnetized plasma at both low and high magnetic Lundquist numbers (the ratio of the resistive diffusion time to the Alfvén wave transit time), which occurs in a wide variety of laboratory and space plasmas, e.g. magnetic fusion experiments, the solar corona and the Earth's magnetotail. An implicit time advance for the two-fluid magnetic reconnection problem is known to be difficult because of the large condition number of the associated matrix. This is especially troublesome when the collisionless ion skin depth is large so that the Whistler waves, which cause the fast reconnection, dominate the physics (Yuan et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 5822-53). For small system sizes, a direct solver such as SuperLU can be employed to obtain an accurate solution as long as the condition number is bounded by the reciprocal of the floating-point machine precision. However, SuperLU scales effectively only to hundreds of processors or less. For larger system sizes, it has been shown that physics-based (Chacón and Knoll 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 188 573-92) or other preconditioners can be applied to provide adequate solver performance. In recent years, we have been developing a new algebraic hybrid linear solver, PDSLin (Parallel Domain decomposition Schur complement-based Linear solver) (Yamazaki and Li 2010 Proc. VECPAR pp 421-34 and Yamazaki et al 2011 Technical Report). In this work, we compare numerical results from a direct solver and the proposed hybrid solver for the magnetic reconnection problem and demonstrate that the new hybrid solver is scalable to thousands of processors while maintaining the same robustness as a direct solver. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Electron-inertia effects on driven magnetic field reconnection

    Al-Salti, N.; Shivamoggi, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron-inertia effects on the magnetic field reconnection induced by perturbing the boundaries of a slab of plasma with a magnetic neutral surface inside are considered. Energetics of the tearing mode dynamics with electron inertia which controls the linearized collisionless magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are considered with a view to clarify the role of the plasma pressure in this process. Cases with the boundaries perturbed at rates slow or fast compared with the hydromagnetic evolution rate are considered separately. When the boundaries are perturbed at a rate slow compared with the hydromagnetic evolution rate and fast compared with the resistive diffusion rate, the plasma response for early times is according to ideal MHD. A current sheet formation takes place at the magnetic neutral surface for large times in the ideal MHD stage and plasma becomes motionless. The subsequent evolution of the current sheet is found to be divided into two distinct stages: (i) the electron-inertia stage for small times (when the current sheet is very narrow); (ii) the resistive-diffusion stage for large times. The current sheet mainly undergoes exponential damping in the electron-inertia regime while the bulk of the diffusion happens in the resistivity regime. For large times of the resistive-diffusion stage when plasma flow is present, the current sheet completely disappears and the magnetic field reconnection takes place. When the boundaries are perturbed at a rate fast compared even with the hydromagnetic evolution rate, there is no time for the development of a current sheet and the magnetic field reconnection has been found not to take place

  17. Lessons on collisionless reconnection from quantum fluids

    Yasuhito eNarita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic reconnection in space plasmas remains a challenge in physics in that the phenomenon is associated with the breakdown of frozen-in magnetic field in a collisionless medium. Such a topology change can also be found in superfluidity, known as the quantum vortex reconnection. We give a plasma physicists' view of superfluidity to obtain insights on essential processes in collisionless reconnection, including discussion of the kinetic and fluid pictures, wave dynamics, and time reversal asymmetry. The most important lesson from the quantum fluid is the scenario that reconnection is controlled by the physics of topological defects on the microscopic scale, and by the physics of turbulence on the macroscopic scale. Quantum vortex reconnection is accompanied by wave emission in the form of Kelvin waves and sound waves, which imprints the time reversal asymmetry.

  18. U.S. technology for mechanized/automated fabrication of fast reactor fuel

    Nyman, D.H.; Bennett, D.W.; Claudson, T.T.; Dahl, R.E.; Graham, R.A.; Keating, J.J.; Yatabe, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the U.S. fast reactor Fuel Fabrication Development Program is discussed. The objectives of the program are to develop and evaluate a high throughput pilot fuel fabrication line including close-coupled chemistry and wet scrap recycle operations. The goals of the program are to demonstrate by mechanized/automated and remote processes: reduced personnel exposure, enhanced safegurads/accountability, improved fuel performance, representative fabrication rates and reduced fuel costs

  19. Using observations of slipping velocities to test the hypothesis that reconnection heats the active region corona

    Yang, Kai; Longcope, Dana; Guo, Yang; Ding, Mingde

    2017-08-01

    Numerous proposed coronal heating mechanisms have invoked magnetic reconnection in some role. Testing such a mechanism requires a method of measuring magnetic reconnection coupled with a prediction of the heat delivered by reconnection at the observed rate. In the absence of coronal reconnection, field line footpoints move at the same velocity as the plasma they find themselves in. The rate of coronal reconnection is therefore related to any discrepancy observed between footpoint motion and that of the local plasma — so-called slipping motion. We propose a novel method to measure this velocity discrepancy by combining a sequence of non-linear force-free field extrapolations with maps of photospheric velocity. We obtain both from a sequence of vector magnetograms of an active region (AR). We then propose a method of computing the coronal heating produced under the assumption the observed slipping velocity was due entirely to coronal reconnection. This heating rate is used to predict density and temperature at points along an equilibrium loop. This, in turn, is used to synthesize emission in EUV and SXR bands. We perform this analysis using a sequence of HMI vector magnetograms of a particular AR and compare synthesized images to observations of the same AR made by SDO. We also compare differential emission measure inferred from those observations to that of the modeled corona.

  20. A Mechanism for Cytoplasmic Streaming: Kinesin-Driven Alignment of Microtubules and Fast Fluid Flows.

    Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M

    2016-05-10

    The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions

  1. Diagnosis of Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Heating

    Dufor, Mikal T.; Jemiolo, Andrew J.; Keesee, Amy; Cassak, Paul; Tu, Weichao; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-10-01

    The DARTH (Diagnosis of Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Heating) experiment is an intermediate-scale, experimental facility designed to study magnetic reconnection at and below the kinetic scale of ions and electrons. The experiment will have non-perturbative diagnostics with high temporal and three-dimensional spatial resolution, giving it the capability to investigate kinetic-scale physics. Of specific scientific interest are particle acceleration, plasma heating, turbulence and energy dissipation during reconnection. Here we will describe the magnetic field system and the two plasma guns used to create flux ropes that then merge through magnetic reconnection. We will also describe the key diagnostic systems: laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for ion vdf measurements, a 300 GHz microwave scattering system for sub-mm wavelength fluctuation measurements and a Thomson scattering laser for electron vdf measurements. The vacuum chamber is designed to provide unparalleled access for these particle diagnostics. The scientific goals of DARTH are to examine particle acceleration and heating during, the role of three-dimensional instabilities during reconnection, how reconnection ceases, and the role of impurities and asymmetries in reconnection. This work was supported by the by the O'Brien Energy Research Fund.

  2. Effect of fast freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical properties of ordinary-air-entrained concrete.

    Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions.

  3. Toward multi-scale simulation of reconnection phenomena in space plasma

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Usami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtani, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow. On the other hand configuration of the magnetic field leading to formation of diffusion region is determined in macroscopic scale and topological change after reconnection is also expressed in macroscopic scale. Thus magnetic reconnection is typical multi-scale phenomenon and microscopic and macroscopic physics are strongly coupled. Recently Horiuchi et al. developed an effective resistivity model based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results obtained in study of collisionless driven reconnection and applied to a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. They showed reproduction of global behavior in substrom such as dipolarization and flux rope formation by global three dimensional MHD simulation. Usami et al. developed multi-hierarchy simulation model, in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are solved self-consistently and simultaneously. Based on the domain decomposition method, this model consists of three parts: a MHD algorithm for macroscopic global dynamics, a PIC algorithm for microscopic kinetic physics, and an interface algorithm to interlock macro and micro hierarchies. They verified the interface algorithm by simulation of plasma injection flow. In their latest work, this model was applied to collisionless reconnection in an open system and magnetic reconnection was successfully found. In this paper, we describe our approach to clarify multi-scale phenomena and report the current status. Our recent study about extension of the MHD domain to global system is presented. We

  4. Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma

    Werner, Gregory R.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A., E-mail: Greg.Werner@colorado.edu [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, 390 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    As a fundamental process converting magnetic to plasma energy in high-energy astrophysical plasmas, relativistic magnetic reconnection is a leading explanation for the acceleration of particles to the ultrarelativistic energies that are necessary to power nonthermal emission (especially X-rays and gamma-rays) in pulsar magnetospheres and pulsar wind nebulae, coronae and jets of accreting black holes, and gamma-ray bursts. An important objective of plasma astrophysics is therefore the characterization of nonthermal particle acceleration (NTPA) effected by reconnection. Reconnection-powered NTPA has been demonstrated over a wide range of physical conditions using large 2D kinetic simulations. However, its robustness in realistic 3D reconnection—in particular, whether the 3D relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) disrupts NTPA—has not been systematically investigated, although pioneering 3D simulations have observed NTPA in isolated cases. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of NTPA in 3D relativistic reconnection in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, characterizing NTPA as the strength of 3D effects is varied systematically via the length in the third dimension and the strength of the guide magnetic field. We find that, while the RDKI prominently perturbs 3D reconnecting current sheets, it does not suppress particle acceleration, even for zero guide field; fully 3D reconnection robustly and efficiently produces nonthermal power-law particle spectra closely resembling those obtained in 2D. This finding provides strong support for reconnection as the key mechanism powering high-energy flares in various astrophysical systems. We also show that strong guide fields significantly inhibit NTPA, slowing reconnection and limiting the energy available for plasma energization, yielding steeper and shorter power-law spectra.

  5. Magnetic reconnection in the low solar chromosphere with a more realistic radiative cooling model

    Ni, Lei; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lin, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the most likely mechanism responsible for the high temperature events that are observed in strongly magnetized locations around the temperature minimum in the low solar chromosphere. This work improves upon our previous work [Ni et al., Astrophys. J. 852, 95 (2018)] by using a more realistic radiative cooling model computed from the OPACITY project and the CHIANTI database. We find that the rate of ionization of the neutral component of the plasma is still faster than recombination within the current sheet region. For low β plasmas, the ionized and neutral fluid flows are well-coupled throughout the reconnection region resembling the single-fluid Sweet-Parker model dynamics. Decoupling of the ion and neutral inflows appears in the higher β case with β0=1.46 , which leads to a reconnection rate about three times faster than the rate predicted by the Sweet-Parker model. In all cases, the plasma temperature increases with time inside the current sheet, and the maximum value is above 2 ×104 K when the reconnection magnetic field strength is greater than 500 G. While the more realistic radiative cooling model does not result in qualitative changes of the characteristics of magnetic reconnection, it is necessary for studying the variations of the plasma temperature and ionization fraction inside current sheets in strongly magnetized regions of the low solar atmosphere. It is also important for studying energy conversion during the magnetic reconnection process when the hydrogen-dominated plasma approaches full ionization.

  6. The Roles of Fluid Compression and Shear in Electron Energization during Magnetic Reconnection

    Li, Xiaocan; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Birn, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    Particle acceleration in space and astrophysical reconnection sites is an important unsolved problem in studies of magnetic reconnection. Earlier kinetic simulations have identified several acceleration mechanisms that are associated with particle drift motions. Here, we show that, for sufficiently large systems, the energization processes due to particle drift motions can be described as fluid compression and shear, and that the shear energization is proportional to the pressure anisotropy of energetic particles. By analyzing results from fully kinetic simulations, we show that the compression energization dominates the acceleration of high-energy particles in reconnection with a weak guide field, and the compression and shear effects are comparable when the guide field is 50% of the reconnecting component. Spatial distributions of those energization effects reveal that reconnection exhausts, contracting islands, and island-merging regions are the three most important regions for compression and shear acceleration. This study connects particle energization by particle guiding-center drift motions with that due to background fluid motions, as in the energetic particle transport theory. It provides foundations for building particle transport models for large-scale reconnection acceleration such as those in solar flares.

  7. Effect of Ball Weight on Speed, Accuracy, and Mechanics in Cricket Fast Bowling

    Katharine L. Wickington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: (1 to quantify the acute effects of ball weight on ball release speed, accuracy, and mechanics in cricket fast bowling; and (2 to test whether a period of sustained training with underweight and overweight balls is effective in increasing a player’s ball release speed. Ten well-trained adult male cricket players performed maximum-effort deliveries using balls ranging in weight from 46% to 137% of the standard ball weight (156 g. A radar gun, bowling target, and 2D video analysis were used to obtain measures of ball speed, accuracy, and mechanics. The participants were assigned to either an intervention group, who trained with underweight and overweight balls, or to a control group, who trained with standard-weight balls. We found that ball speed decreased at a rate of about 1.1 m/s per 100 g increase in ball weight. Accuracy and bowling mechanics were not adversely affected by changes in ball weight. There was evidence that training with underweight and overweight balls might have produced a practically meaningful increase in bowling speed (>1.5 m/s in some players without compromising accuracy or increasing their risk of injury through inducing poor bowling mechanics. In cricket fast bowling, a wide range of ball weight might be necessary to produce an effective modified-implement training program.

  8. Counterstreaming ions as evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

    Nagai, Tsugunobu; Nakamura, Masao; Shinohara, Iku; Fujimoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    Counterstreaming ions embedded in hot isotropic ions are found at the front of fast earthward plasma flows in the recovery phase of substorms in the Earth's magnetotail. The counterstreaming ions are present only when the northward component of the magnetic field increases in the equatorial plane. Hybrid simulations of magnetic reconnection have been carried out. It is found that counterstreaming ions form in the leading edge of jetting plasmas produced with magnetic reconnection, where the magnetic field lines pile up due to the pre-existing stationary plasmas. These counterstreaming ions originate from cold ions on the northern and southern tail lobe field lines, and earthward transport of the reconnected field lines makes these cold ions flow into the equatorial plane. The present observations provide strong evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

  9. Fuel-cladding mechanical interaction effects in fast reactor mixed oxide fuel

    Boltax, A [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Biancheria, A

    1977-04-01

    Thermal and fast reactor irradiation experiments on mixed oxide fuel pins under steady-state and power change conditions reveal evidence for significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) effects. Analytical studies with the LIFE-III fuel performance code indicate that high cladding stresses can be produced by general and local FCMI effects. Also, evidence is presented to show that local cladding strains can be caused by the accumulation of cesium at the fuel-cladding interface. Although it is apparent that steady-state FCMI effects have not given rise to cladding breaches in current fast reactors, it is anticipated that FCMI may become more important in the future because of interest in: higher fuel burnups; increased power ramp rates; load follow operation; and low swelling cladding alloys. (author)

  10. Fuel-cladding mechanical interaction effects in fast reactor mixed oxide fuel

    Boltax, A.; Biancheria, A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and fast reactor irradiation experiments on mixed oxide fuel pins under steady-state and power change conditions reveal evidence for significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) effects. Analytical studies with the LIFE-III fuel performance code indicate that high cladding stresses can be produced by general and local FCMI effects. Also, evidence is presented to show that local cladding strains can be caused by the accumulation of cesium at the fuel-cladding interface. Although it is apparent that steady-state FCMI effects have not given rise to cladding breaches in current fast reactors, it is anticipated that FCMI may become more important in the future because of interest in: higher fuel burnups; increased power ramp rates; load follow operation; and low swelling cladding alloys. (author)

  11. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  12. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  13. Investigation of magnetic reconnection during a sawtooth crash in a high temperature tokamak

    Yamada, M.; Pomphrey, N.; Budney, R.; Macickam, J.; Nagayama, Y.

    1994-09-01

    This paper reports on a recent laboratory investigation on magnetic reconnection in high temperature tokamak plasmas. The motional stark effect(MSE) diagnostic is employed to measure the pitch angle of magnetic field lines, and hence the q profile. An analytical expression that relates pitch angle to q profile has been developed for a toroidal plasma with circular cross section. During the crash phase of sawtooth oscillations in the plasma discharges, the ECE (electron cyclotron emission) diagnostic measures a fast flattening of the 2-D electron temperature profile in a poloidal plane, an observation consistent with the Kadomtsev reconnection theory. On the other hand motional the MSE measurements indicate that central q values do not relax to unity after the crash, but increase only by 5-10%, typically from 0.7 to 0.75. The latter result is in contradiction with the models of Kadomtsev and/or Wesson. The present study addresses this puzzle by a simultaneous analysis of electron temperature and q profile evolutions. Based on a heuristic model for the magnetic reconnection during the sawtooth crash, the small change of q, i.e. partial reconnection, is attributed to the precipitous drop of pressure gradients which drive the instability and the reconnection process as well as flux conserving plasma dynamics

  14. Corrosion effect of fast reactor fuel claddings on their mechanical properties

    Davydov, E.F.; Krykov, F.N.; Shamardin, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Fast reactor fuel cladding corrosion effect on its mechanical properties was investigated. UO 2 fuel elements were irradiated in the BOP-60 reactor at the linear heat rate of 42 kw/m. Fuel cladding is made of stainless steel OKh16N15M3BR. Calculated maximum cladding temperature is 920 K. Neutron fluence in the central part of fuel elements is 6.3x10 26 m+H- 2 . To investigate the strength changes temperature dependence of corrossion depth, cladding strength reduction factors was determined. Samples plasticity reduction with corrosion layer increase is considered to be a characteristic feature

  15. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  16. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate

    M. Lockwood

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter VHF and CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System HF radars, we study the formation of ionospheric polar cap patches and their relationship to the magnetopause reconnection pulses identified in the companion paper by Lockwood et al. (2005. It is shown that the poleward-moving, high-concentration plasma patches observed in the ionosphere by EISCAT on 23 November 1999, as reported by Davies et al. (2002, were often associated with corresponding reconnection rate pulses. However, not all such pulses generated a patch and only within a limited MLT range (11:00-12:00 MLT did a patch result from a reconnection pulse. Three proposed mechanisms for the production of patches, and of the concentration minima that separate them, are analysed and evaluated: (1 concentration enhancement within the patches by cusp/cleft precipitation; (2 plasma depletion in the minima between the patches by fast plasma flows; and (3 intermittent injection of photoionisation-enhanced plasma into the polar cap. We devise a test to distinguish between the effects of these mechanisms. Some of the events repeat too frequently to apply the test. Others have sufficiently long repeat periods and mechanism (3 is shown to be the only explanation of three of the longer-lived patches seen on this day. However, effect (2 also appears to contribute to some events. We conclude that plasma concentration gradients on the edges of the larger patches arise mainly from local time variations in the subauroral plasma, via the mechanism proposed by Lockwood et al. (2000.

  17. External and Internal Reconnection in Two Filament-Carrying Magnetic-Cavity Solar Eruptions

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We observe two near-limb solar filament eruptions, one of 2000 February 26 and the other of 2002 January 4. For both we use 195 A Fe XII images from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), both of which are on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). For the earlier event we also use soft X-ray telescope (SXT), hard X-ray telescope (HXT), and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) data from the Yohkoh satellite, and hard X-ray data from the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ra.v Observatory (CGRO). Both events occur in quadrupolar magnetic regions, and both have coronal features that we infer belong to the same magnetic cavity structures as the filaments. In both cases, the cavity and filament first rise slowly at approx.10 km/s prior to eruption and then accelerate to approx.100 km/s during the eruption, although the slow-rise movement for the higher altitude cavity elements is clearer in the later event. We estimate that both filaments and both cavities contain masses of approx.10(exp 14)-10(exp 15) and approx.10(exp 15)-10(exp 16) g, respectively. We consider whether two specific magnetic reconnection-based models for eruption onset, the "tether cutting" and the "breakout" models, are consistent with our observations. In the earlier event, soft X-rays from SXT show an intensity increase during the 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, which is consistent with tether- cutting-model predictions. Substantial hard X-rays, however, do not occur until after fast eruption is underway, and so this is a constraint the tether-cutting model must satisfy. During the same 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, there are brightenings and topological changes in the corona indicative of high-altitude reconnection early in the eruption, and this is consistent with breakout predictions. In both eruptions, the state of the overlying loops at the time of onset of the fast-rise phase of

  18. External and Internal Reconnection in Two Filament-Carrying Magnetic Cavity Solar Eruptions

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We observe two near-limb solar filament eruptions. one of 2000 February 26 and the other of 2002 January 4. For both we use 195 A Fe XII images from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI). both of which are on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. (SOHO). For the earlier event we also use soft X-ray telescope (SXT). hard X-ray telescope (HXT). and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) data from the Yohkoh satellite. and hard X-ray data from the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. (CGRO). Both events occur in quadrupolar magnetic regions. and both have coronal features that we infer belong to the same magnetic cavity structures as the filaments. In both cases. the cavity and filament first rise slowly at approx. 10 km/s prior to eruption and then accelerate to approx. 100 km/s during the eruption. although the slow-rise movement for the higher altitude cavity elements is clearer in the later event. We estimate that both filaments and both cavities contain masses of approx. 10(exp14) - 1 0(exp 15) and approx. l0(exp 15) - l0(exp 16) g. respectively. We consider whether two specific magnetic reconnection-based models for eruption onset. the "tether cutting" and the "breakout" models. are consistent with our observations. In the earlier event, soft X-rays from SXT show an intensity increase during the 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins. which is consistent with tether- cutting-model predictions. Substantial hard X-ray. however. do not occur until after fast eruption is underway. and so this is a constraint the tether-cutting model must satisfy. During the same 12 minute interval over which fast eruption begins, there are brightenings and topological changes in the corona indicative of high-altitude reconnection early in the eruption. and this is consistent with breakout predictions. In both eruptions. the state of the overlying loops at the time of onset of the fast

  19. Collisionless magnetic reconnection in a plasmoid chain

    S. Markidis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic features of plasmoid chain formation and evolution are investigated by two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. Magnetic reconnection is initiated in multiple X points by the tearing instability. Plasmoids form and grow in size by continuously coalescing. Each chain plasmoid exhibits a strong out-of plane core magnetic field and an out-of-plane electron current that drives the coalescing process. The disappearance of the X points in the coalescence process are due to anti-reconnection, a magnetic reconnection where the plasma inflow and outflow are reversed with respect to the original reconnection flow pattern. Anti-reconnection is characterized by the Hall magnetic field quadrupole signature. Two new kinetic features, not reported by previous studies of plasmoid chain evolution, are here revealed. First, intense electric fields develop in-plane normally to the separatrices and drive the ion dynamics in the plasmoids. Second, several bipolar electric field structures are localized in proximity of the plasmoid chain. The analysis of the electron distribution function and phase space reveals the presence of counter-streaming electron beams, unstable to the two stream instability, and phase space electron holes along the reconnection separatrices.

  20. Electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Widmer, F.; Muñoz, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, like in planetary magnetospheres, as that of Mercury, energetic electrons are often found near current sheets, which hint at electron acceleration by magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, electron acceleration by reconnection is not well understood yet, in particular, acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection. We have investigated electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection, described by MHD simulations, via test particle calculations. In order to avoid resolving all relevant turbulence scales down to the dissipation scales, a mean-field turbulence model is used to describe the turbulence of sub-grid scales and their effects via a turbulent electromotive force (EMF). The mean-field model describes the turbulent EMF as a function of the mean values of current density, vorticity, magnetic field as well as of the energy, cross-helicity, and residual helicity of the turbulence. We found that, mainly around X-points of turbulent reconnection, strongly enhanced localized EMFs most efficiently accelerated electrons and caused the formation of power-law spectra. Magnetic-field-aligned EMFs, caused by the turbulence, dominate the electron acceleration process. Scaling the acceleration processes to parameters of the Hermean magnetotail, electron energies up to 60 keV can be reached by turbulent plasmoid reconnection through the thermal plasma.

  1. Stochastic sawtooth reconnection in ASDEX Upgrade

    Igochine, V.; Dumbrajs, O.; Zohm, H.; Flaws, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate non-complete sawtooth reconnection in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Such reconnection phenomena are associated with internal m/n = 1/1 kink mode which does not vanish after the crash phase (as would be the case for complete reconnection). It is shown that this sawtooth cannot be fully described by pure m/n = 1/1 mode and that higher harmonics play an important role during the sawtooth crash phase. We employ the Hamiltonian formalism and reconstructed perturbations to model incomplete sawtooth reconnection. It is demonstrated that stochastization appears due to the excitation of low-order resonances which are present in the corresponding q-profiles inside the q = 1 surface which reflects the key role of the q 0 value. Depending on this value two completely different situations are possible for one and the same mode perturbations: (i) the resonant surfaces are present in the q-profile leading to stochasticity and sawtooth crash (q 0 ∼ 0.7 ± 0.1); (ii) the resonant surfaces are not present, which means no stochasticity in the system and no crash event (q 0 ∼ 0.9 ± 0.05). Accordingly the central safety factor value is always less than unity in the case of a non-complete sawtooth reconnection. Our investigations show that the stochastic model agrees well with the experimental observations and can be proposed as a promising candidate for an explanation of the sawtooth reconnection

  2. Innovative design for FAST divertor compatible with remote handling, electromagnetic and mechanical analyses

    Di Gironimo, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.digironimo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Cacace, Maurizio [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Crescenzi, Fabio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Labate, Carmelenzo [CREATE, University of Naples Parthenope, Via Acton 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy); Lanzotti, Antonio [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lucca, Flavio [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Marzullo, Domenico; Mozzillo, Rocco [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Pagani, Irene [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Ramogida, Giuseppe; Roccella, Selanna [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Viganò, Fabio [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The conceptual design of FAST divertor has been carried out through a continuous process of requirements refinement and design optimization (V-model approach), in order to achieve a design suited to the needs, RH compatible and ITER-like. • Thermal, structural and electromagnetic analyses have been performed, resulting in requirements refinement. • FAST divertor is now characterized by more realistic, reliable and functional features, satisfying thermo-mechanical capabilities and the remote handling (RH) compatibility. - Abstract: Divertor is a crucial component in Tokamaks, aiming to exhaust the heat power and particles fluxes coming from the plasma during discharges. This paper focuses on the optimization process of FAST divertor, aimed at achieving required thermo-mechanical capabilities and the remote handling (RH) compatibility. Divertor RH system final layout has been chosen between different concept solutions proposed and analyzed within the principles of Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The design was aided by kinematic simulations performed using Digital Mock-Up capabilities of Catia software. Considerable electromagnetic (EM) analysis efforts and top-down CAD approach enabled the design of a final and consistent concept, starting from a very first dimensioning for EM loads. In the final version here presented, the divertor cassette supports a set of tungsten (W) actively cooled tiles which compose the inner and outer vertical targets, facing the plasma and exhausting the main part of heat flux. W-tiles are assembled together considering a minimum gap tolerance (0.1–0.5 mm) to be mandatorily respected. Cooling channels have been re-dimensioned to optimize the geometry and the layout of coolant volume inside the cassette has been modified as well to enhance the general efficiency.

  3. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-06-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

  4. Analysis for mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.; Lal, H.; Sethi, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident (CDA) in a fast breeder reactor are described. The consequences are development of deformations and strains in the vessels, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and decay heat exchangers (DHX), impact of sodium slug on the bottom surface of the top shield, sodium release to reactor containment building through top shield penetrations, sodium fire and consequent temperature and pressure rise in reactor containment building (RCB). These are quantified for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) for a CDA with 100 MJ work potential. The results are validated by conducting a series of experiments on 1/30 and 1/13 scaled down models with increasing complexities. Mechanical energy release due to nuclear excursion is simulated by chemical explosion of specially developed low density explosive charge. Based on these studies, structural integrity of primary containment, IHX and DHX is demonstrated. The sodium release to RCB is 350 kg which causes pressure rise of 12 kPa in RCB. (author)

  5. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness

  6. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness.

  7. Testing and qualification of Control and Safety Rod and its drive mechanism of Fast Breeder Reactor

    Rajan Babu, V.; Veerasamy, R.; Patri, Sudheer; Ignatius Sundar Raj, S.; Kumar Krovvidi, S.C.S.P.; Dash, S.K.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Rajan, K.K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has two independent fast acting diverse shutdown systems. The absorber rod of the first system is called Control and Safety Rod (CSR). CSR and its Drive Mechanism (CSRDM) are used for reactor control and for safe shutdown of the reactor by scram action. In view of the safety role, the qualification of CSRDM is one of the important requirements. CSR and CSRDM were qualified in two stages by extensive testing. In the first stage, the critical subassemblies of the mechanism, such as scram release electromagnet, hydraulic dashpot and dynamic seals and CSR subassembly, were tested and qualified individually simulating the operating conditions of the reactor. Experiments were also carried out on sodium vapour deposition in the annular gaps between the stationary and mobile parts of the mechanism. In the second stage, full-scale CSRDM and CSR were subjected to all the integrated functional tests in air, hot argon and subsequently in sodium simulating the operating conditions of the reactor and finally subjected to endurance tests. Since the damage occurring in CSRDM and CSR is mainly due to fatigue cycles during scram actions, the number of test cycles was decided based on the guidelines given in ASME, Section III, Div. 1. The results show that the performance of CSRDM and CSR is satisfactory. Subsequent to the testing in sodium, the assemblies having contact with liquid sodium/sodium vapour were cleaned using CO 2 process and the total cleaning process has been established, so that the mechanism can be reused in sodium. The various stages of qualification programmes have raised the confidence level on the performance of the system as a whole for the intended and reliable operation in the reactor.

  8. Mechanism of fast lattice diffusion of hydrogen in palladium: Interplay of quantum fluctuations and lattice strain

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Ogata, Shigenobu; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanism of the nanostructure-mediated high diffusivity of H in Pd is of recent scientific interest and also crucial for industrial applications. Here, we present a decisive scenario explaining the emergence of the fast lattice-diffusion mode of interstitial H in face-centered cubic Pd, based on the quantum mechanical natures of both electrons and nuclei under finite strains. Ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics was applied to predict the temperature- and strain-dependent free energy profiles for H migration in Pd over a temperature range of 150-600 K and under hydrostatic tensile strains of 0.0%-2.4%; such strain conditions are likely to occur in real systems, especially around the elastic fields induced by nanostructured defects. The simulated results revealed that, for preferential H location at octahedral sites, as in unstrained Pd, the activation barrier for H migration (Q ) was drastically increased with decreasing temperature owing to nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, as tetrahedral sites increased in stability with lattice expansion, nuclear quantum effects became less prominent and ceased impeding H migration. This implies that the nature of the diffusion mechanism gradually changes from quantum- to classical-like as the strain is increased. For H atoms in Pd at the hydrostatic strain of ˜2.4 % , we determined that the mechanism promoted fast lattice diffusion (Q =0.11 eV) of approximately 20 times the rate of conventional H diffusion (Q =0.23 eV) in unstrained Pd at a room temperature of 300 K.

  9. Collisionless magnetic reconnection in large-scale electron-positron plasmas

    Daughton, William; Karimabadi, Homa

    2007-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in reconnection physics is how the dynamical evolution will scale to macroscopic systems of physical relevance. This issue is examined for electron-positron plasmas using two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations with both open and periodic boundary conditions. The resulting evolution is complex and highly dynamic throughout the entire duration. The initial phase is distinguished by the coalescence of tearing islands to larger scale while the later phase is marked by the expansion of diffusion regions into elongated current layers that are intrinsically unstable to plasmoid generation. It appears that the repeated formation and ejection of plasmoids plays a key role in controlling the average structure of a diffusion region and preventing the further elongation of the layer. The reconnection rate is modulated in time as the current layers expand and new plasmoids are formed. Although the specific details of this evolution are affected by the boundary and initial conditions, the time averaged reconnection rate remains fast and is remarkably insensitive to the system size for sufficiently large systems. This dynamic scenario offers an alternative explanation for fast reconnection in large-scale systems

  10. The Response Time of the Magnetopause Reconnection Location to Changes in the Solar Wind: MMS Case Study

    Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gomez, R. G.; Grimes, E. W.; Lewis, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Pollock, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause is the mechanism by which magnetic fields in different regions change topology to create open magnetic field lines that allow energy, mass, and momentum to flow into the magnetosphere. It is the primary science goal of the recently launched MMS mission to unlock the mechanism of magnetic reconnection with a novel suite of plasma and field instruments. This study investigates several magnetopause crossings in the vicinity of the X-line on 19 September 2015 and compares the observed X-line location with predictions from the Maximum Magnetic Shear model. Rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field OMF) during the magnetopause crossings together with the close proximity of the four MMS satellites are used to determine the response time of the reconnection X-line location to changes in the IMF. The reconnection location exhibits a continuous motion during slow changes in the IMF but a delayed response to sudden changes in the IMF.

  11. A statistical model of uplink inter-cell interference with slow and fast power control mechanisms

    Tabassum, Hina

    2013-09-01

    Uplink power control is in essence an interference mitigation technique that aims at minimizing the inter-cell interference (ICI) in cellular networks by reducing the transmit power levels of the mobile users while maintaining their target received signal quality levels at base stations. Power control mechanisms directly impact the interference dynamics and, thus, affect the overall achievable capacity and consumed power in cellular networks. Due to the stochastic nature of wireless channels and mobile users\\' locations, it is important to derive theoretical models for ICI that can capture the impact of design alternatives related to power control mechanisms. To this end, we derive and verify a novel statistical model for uplink ICI in Generalized-K composite fading environments as a function of various slow and fast power control mechanisms. The derived expressions are then utilized to quantify numerically key network performance metrics that include average resource fairness, average reduction in power consumption, and ergodic capacity. The accuracy of the derived expressions is validated via Monte-Carlo simulations. Results are generated for multiple network scenarios, and insights are extracted to assess various power control mechanisms as a function of system parameters. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  12. A statistical model of uplink inter-cell interference with slow and fast power control mechanisms

    Tabassum, Hina; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Dawy, Zaher; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Uplink power control is in essence an interference mitigation technique that aims at minimizing the inter-cell interference (ICI) in cellular networks by reducing the transmit power levels of the mobile users while maintaining their target received signal quality levels at base stations. Power control mechanisms directly impact the interference dynamics and, thus, affect the overall achievable capacity and consumed power in cellular networks. Due to the stochastic nature of wireless channels and mobile users' locations, it is important to derive theoretical models for ICI that can capture the impact of design alternatives related to power control mechanisms. To this end, we derive and verify a novel statistical model for uplink ICI in Generalized-K composite fading environments as a function of various slow and fast power control mechanisms. The derived expressions are then utilized to quantify numerically key network performance metrics that include average resource fairness, average reduction in power consumption, and ergodic capacity. The accuracy of the derived expressions is validated via Monte-Carlo simulations. Results are generated for multiple network scenarios, and insights are extracted to assess various power control mechanisms as a function of system parameters. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  13. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments

    Gekelman, W.; Stenzel, R.L.; Wild, N.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory experiment concerned with the basic physics of magnetic field line reconnection is discussed. Stimulated by important processes in space plasmas and anomalous transport in fusion plasmas the work addresses the following topics: Dynamic magnetic fields in a high beta plasma, magnetic turbulence, plasma dynamics and energy transport. First, the formation of magnetic neutral sheets, tearing and island coalescence are shown. Nonstationary magnetic fluctuations are statistically evaluated displaying the correlation tensor in the #betta#-k domain for mode identification. Then, the plasma properties are analyzed with particular emphasis on transport processes. Although the classical fluid flow across the separatrix can be observed, the fluctuation processes strongly modify the plasma dynamics. Direct measurements of the fluid force density and ion acceleration indicate the presence of an anomalous scattering process characterized by an effective scattering tensor. Turbulence also enhances the plasma resistivity by one to two orders of magnitude. Measurements of the three-dimensional electron distribution function using a novel energy analyzer exhibit the formation of runaway electrons in the current sheet. Associated micro-instabilities are observed. Finally, a macroscopic disruptive instability of the current sheet is observed. Excess magnetic field energy is converted at a double layer into particle kinetic energy and randomized through beam-plasma instabilities. These laboratory results are compared with related observations in space and fusion plasmas. (Auth.)

  14. TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION BETWEEN TWO SOLAR FILAMENTS TRIGGERING OUTFLOWS AND A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Leping [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2016-02-20

    Triggering mechanisms of solar eruptions have long been a challenge. A few previous case studies have indicated that preceding gentle filament merging via magnetic reconnection may launch following intense eruption, according to the tether-cutting (TC) model. However, the detailed process of TC reconnection between filaments has not been exhibited yet. In this work, we report the high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) of TC reconnection between two sheared filaments in NOAA active region 12146. The TC reconnection commenced on ∼15:35 UT on 2014 August 29 and triggered an eruptive GOES C4.3-class flare ∼8 minutes later. An associated coronal mass ejection appeared in the field of view of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO C2 about 40 minutes later. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of IRIS data, bright plasma outflows generated by the TC reconnection are clearly observed, which moved along the subarcsecond fine-scale flux tube structures in the erupting filament. Based on the imaging and spectral observations, the mean plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the TC reconnection outflows are separately measured to be ∼79 and 86 km s{sup −1}, which derives an average real speed of ∼120 km s{sup −1}. In addition, it is found that spectral features, such as peak intensities, Doppler shifts, and line widths in the TC reconnection region are evidently enhanced compared to those in the nearby region just before the flare.

  15. Internal and External reconnection in a Series of Homologous Solar Flares

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (EIT) on SOHO and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh, we examine a series of morphologically homologous solar flares occurring in NOAA AR 8210 over May 1-2, 1998. An emerging flux region (EFR) impacted against a sunspot to the west and next to a coronal hole to the east is the source of the repeated flaring. An SXT sigmoid parallels the EFR's neutral line at the site of the initial flaring in soft X-rays. In EIT, each flaring episode begins with the formation of a crinkle pattern external to the EFR. These EIT crinkles move out from, and then in toward, the EFR with velocities approximately 20 km/s. A shrinking and expansion of the width of the coronal hole coincides with the crinkle activity, and generation and evolution of a postflare loop system begins near the. time of crinkle formation. Using a schematic based on magnetograms of the region, we suggest that these observations are consistent with the standard reconnection-based model for solar eruptions, but modified by the presence of the additional magnetic fields of the sunspot and coronal hole. In the schematic, internal reconnection begins inside of the EFR-associated fields, unleashing a flare, postflare loops, and a CME. External reconnection, first occurring between the escaping CME and the coronal hole field, and second occurring between fields formed as a result of the first external reconnection, results in the EIT crinkles and changes in the coronal hole boundary. By the end of the second external reconnection, the initial setup is reinstated; thus the sequence can repeat, resulting in morphologically homologous eruptions. Our inferred magnetic topology is similar to that suggested in the "breakout model" of eruptions [Antiochos, 1998], although we cannot determine if our eruptions are released primarily by the breakout mechanism (external reconnection) or, alternatively, are released primarily by the internal reconnection.

  16. Study of energy conversion and partitioning in the magnetic reconnection layer of a laboratory plasma

    Yamada, Masaaki; Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Ji, Hantao; Kulsrud, Russell M.; Myers, Clayton E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    While the most important feature of magnetic reconnection is that it energizes plasma particles by converting magnetic energy to particle energy, the exact mechanisms by which this happens are yet to be determined despite a long history of reconnection research. Recently, we have reported our results on the energy conversion and partitioning in a laboratory reconnection layer in a short communication [Yamada et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 4474 (2014)]. The present paper is a detailed elaboration of this report together with an additional dataset with different boundary sizes. Our experimental study of the reconnection layer is carried out in the two-fluid physics regime where ions and electrons move quite differently. We have observed that the conversion of magnetic energy occurs across a region significantly larger than the narrow electron diffusion region. A saddle shaped electrostatic potential profile exists in the reconnection plane, and ions are accelerated by the resulting electric field at the separatrices. These accelerated ions are then thermalized by re-magnetization in the downstream region. A quantitative inventory of the converted energy is presented in a reconnection layer with a well-defined, variable boundary. We have also carried out a systematic study of the effects of boundary conditions on the energy inventory. This study concludes that about 50% of the inflowing magnetic energy is converted to particle energy, 2/3 of which is ultimately transferred to ions and 1/3 to electrons. Assisted by another set of magnetic reconnection experiment data and numerical simulations with different sizes of monitoring box, it is also observed that the observed features of energy conversion and partitioning do not depend on the size of monitoring boundary across the range of sizes tested from 1.5 to 4 ion skin depths.

  17. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Turbulent Reconnection

    Garrel, Christian; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos

    2018-05-01

    Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) cannot efficiently accelerate particles without the presence of self-consistently generated or pre-existing strong turbulence (δB/B ˜ 1) in the vicinity of the shock. The problem we address in this article is: if large amplitude magnetic disturbances are present upstream and downstream of a shock then Turbulent Reconnection (TR) will set in and will participate not only in the elastic scattering of particles but also in their heating and acceleration. We demonstrate that large amplitude magnetic disturbances and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS), spontaneously formed in the strong turbulence in the vicinity of a shock, can accelerate particles as efficiently as DSA in large scale systems and on long time scales. We start our analysis with "elastic" scatterers upstream and downstream and estimate the energy distribution of particles escaping from the shock, recovering the well known results from the DSA theory. Next we analyze the additional interaction of the particles with active scatterers (magnetic disturbances and UCS) upstream and downstream of the shock. We show that the asymptotic energy distribution of the particles accelerated by DSA/TR has very similar characteristics with the one due to DSA alone, but the synergy of DSA with TR is much more efficient: The acceleration time is an order of magnitude shorter and the maximum energy reached two orders of magnitude higher. We claim that DSA is the dominant acceleration mechanism in a short period before TR is established, and then strong turbulence will dominate the heating and acceleration of the particles. In other words, the shock serves as the mechanism to set up a strongly turbulent environment, in which the acceleration mechanism will ultimately be the synergy of DSA and TR.

  18. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β min is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β min , resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β min . The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight

  19. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    Anuar, Nuraslinda, E-mail: nuraslinda@uniten.edu.my; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the β{sub min} is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the β{sub min}, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the β{sub min}. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  20. Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Myers, Clayton E. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection are studied in the collisionless plasma of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). The plasma is in the two-fluid regime, where the motion of the ions is decoupled from that of the electrons within the ion diffusion region. The reconnection process studied here is quasi-symmetric since plasma parameters such as the magnitude of the reconnecting magnetic field, the plasma density, and temperature are compatible on each side of the current sheet. Our experimental data show that the in-plane (Hall) electric field plays a key role in ion heating and acceleration. The electrostatic potential that produces the in-plane electric field is established by electrons that are accelerated near the electron diffusion region. The in-plane profile of this electrostatic potential shows a “well” structure along the direction normal to the reconnection current sheet. This well becomes deeper and wider downstream as its boundary expands along the separatrices where the in-plane electric field is strongest. Since the in-plane electric field is 3–4 times larger than the out-of-plane reconnection electric field, it is the primary source of energy for the unmagnetized ions. With regard to ion acceleration, the Hall electric field causes ions near separatrices to be ballistically accelerated toward the outflow direction. Ion heating occurs as the accelerated ions travel into the high pressure downstream region. This downstream ion heating cannot be explained by classical, unmagnetized transport theory; instead, we conclude that ions are heated by re-magnetization of ions in the reconnection exhaust and collisions. Two-dimensional (2-D) simulations with the global geometry similar to MRX demonstrate downstream ion thermalization by the above mechanisms. Electrons are also significantly heated during reconnection. The electron temperature sharply increases across the separatrices and peaks just outside of the

  1. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    Maedler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The fission processes of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in the Hartree-Fock time dependence approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale 10 -22 s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field energies in front of the fragments. These particles are called ''catapult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutrons in low-energy fission. The significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions is discussed

  2. Green's function of compressible Petschek-type magnetic reconnection

    Penz, Thomas; Semenov, V.S.; Ivanova, V.V.; Heyn, M.F.; Ivanov, I.B.; Biernat, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to analyze the wave and shock structures arising from Petschek-type magnetic reconnection. Based on a time-dependent analytical approach developed by Heyn and Semenov [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2725 (1996)] and Semenov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 62 (2004)], we calculate the perturbations caused by a delta function-shaped reconnection electric field, which allows us to achieve a representation of the plasma variables in the form of Green's functions. Different configurations for the initial conditions are considered. In the case of symmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields and symmetric plasma density, the well-known structure of an Alfven discontinuity, a fast body wave, a slow shock, a slow wave, and a tube wave occurs. In the case of asymmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields, additionally surface waves are found. We also discuss the case of symmetric, antiparallel magnetic fields and asymmetric densities, which leads to a faster propagation in the lower half plane, causing side waves forming a Mach cone in the upper half plane. Complex effects like anisotropic propagation characteristics, intrinsic wave coupling, and the generation of different nonlinear and linear wave modes in a finite β plasma are retained. The temporal evolution of these wave and shock structures is shown

  3. Magnetic reconnection under anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic approximation

    Hirabayashi, K.; Hoshino, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection by using one- and two-dimensional collisionless MHD codes based on the double adiabatic approximation and the Landau closure model. We bridge the gap between the Petschek-type MHD reconnection model accompanied by a pair of slow shocks and the observational evidence of the rare occasion of in-situ slow shock observations. Our results showed that once magnetic reconnection takes place, a firehose-sense (p ∥ >p ⊥ ) pressure anisotropy arises in the downstream region, and the generated slow shocks are quite weak comparing with those in an isotropic MHD. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, however, the resultant reconnection rate is 10%–30% higher than that in an isotropic case. This result implies that the slow shock does not necessarily play an important role in the energy conversion in the reconnection system and is consistent with the satellite observation in the Earth's magnetosphere

  4. Ultra-fast magnetic resonance encephalography of physiological brain activity - Glymphatic pulsation mechanisms?

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Wang, Xindi; Korhonen, Vesa; Keinänen, Tuija; Tuovinen, Timo; Autio, Joonas; LeVan, Pierre; Keilholz, Shella; Zang, Yu-Feng; Hennig, Jürgen; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2016-06-01

    The theory on the glymphatic convection mechanism of cerebrospinal fluid holds that cardiac pulsations in part pump cerebrospinal fluid from the peri-arterial spaces through the extracellular tissue into the peri-venous spaces facilitated by aquaporin water channels. Since cardiac pulses cannot be the sole mechanism of glymphatic propulsion, we searched for additional cerebrospinal fluid pulsations in the human brain with ultra-fast magnetic resonance encephalography. We detected three types of physiological mechanisms affecting cerebral cerebrospinal fluid pulsations: cardiac, respiratory, and very low frequency pulsations. The cardiac pulsations induce a negative magnetic resonance encephalography signal change in peri-arterial regions that extends centrifugally and covers the brain in ≈1 Hz cycles. The respiratory ≈0.3 Hz pulsations are centripetal periodical pulses that occur dominantly in peri-venous areas. The third type of pulsation was very low frequency (VLF 0.001-0.023 Hz) and low frequency (LF 0.023-0.73 Hz) waves that both propagate with unique spatiotemporal patterns. Our findings using critically sampled magnetic resonance encephalography open a new view into cerebral fluid dynamics. Since glymphatic system failure may precede protein accumulations in diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia, this methodological advance offers a novel approach to image brain fluid dynamics that potentially can enable early detection and intervention in neurodegenerative diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Numerical simulation of internal reconnection event in spherical tokamak

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Sato, Tetsuya

    1999-07-01

    Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are executed in a full toroidal geometry to clarify the physical mechanisms of the Internal Reconnection Event (IRE), which is observed in the spherical tokamak experiments. The simulation results reproduce several main properties of IRE. Comparison between the numerical results and experimental observation indicates fairly good agreements regarding nonlinear behavior, such as appearance of localized helical distortion, appearance of characteristic conical shape in the pressure profile during thermal quench, and subsequent appearance of the m=2/n=1 type helical distortion of the torus. (author)

  6. Moving grids for magnetic reconnection via Newton-Krylov methods

    Yuan, Xuefei; Jardin, Stephen C.; Keyes, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a set of computationally efficient, adaptive grids for magnetic reconnection phenomenon where the current density can develop large gradients in the reconnection region. Four-field extended MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) equations

  7. Magnetic Reconnection in Different Environments: Similarities and Differences

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Kuznetsova, Masha; Zenitani, Seiji; Birn, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific situation, magnetic reconnection may involve symmetric or asymmetric inflow regions. Asymmetric reconnection applies, for example, to reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, whereas reconnection in the nightside magnetotail tends to involve more symmetric geometries. A combination of review and new results pertaining to magnetic reconnection is being presented. The focus is on three aspects: A basic, MHD-based, analysis of the role magnetic reconnection plays in the transport of energy, followed by an analysis of a kinetic model of time dependent reconnection in a symmetric current sheet, similar to what is typically being encountered in the magnetotail of the Earth. The third element is a review of recent results pertaining to the orientation of the reconnection line in asymmetric geometries, which are typical for the magnetopause of the Earth, as well as likely to occur at other planets.

  8. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.’s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.’s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client’s privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay. PMID:27171160

  9. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    Yan-Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs, and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  10. Magnetic reconnection in magnetotail and solar plasmas

    Wang Xiaogang.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of current sheets which dominates the heating of the solar corona and the onset of substorms due to collisionless tearing instability in the magnetotail are investigated in the context of magnetic field line reconnection in space plasmas. In Chapters 2 and 3 of this thesis, the collisionless tearing instability and current disruption of the magnetotail are considered. The linear collisionless tearing instability, with wavelengths of the order of 10 R E , and with a growth rate γ ∼ 10 -2 /sec, is identified as a possible mechanism for the growth phase of a substorm. The linear analysis is carried out in the presence of an equilibrium B y -field, neglected in other theories. The nonlinear theory of collisionless tearing mode is dominated by mode coupling effects. From the evolution equations for electro-magnetic field perturbations, the author derived a nonlinear growth rate by generalizing the boundary layer techniques of linear theory. He finds that the nonlinear growth is of the order of 1 sec, much faster than the linear growth. It is proposed that collisionless tearing modes provide a mechanism for current disruption observed by spacecrafts. The electrical field generated during the nonlinear evolution can cause particle acceleration in the earth-tail direction. His estimates indicate ion energies up to 0.7 MeV and electron energies up to 8.1 MeV, which is not inconsistent with the observations. In the Chapter 4 it is shown that current sheets can be formed in Parker's model of the solar corona in the presence of smooth photospheric flows, despite van Ballegooijen and Field's proof that in an ideal plasma current sheets doe not occur unless the boundary velocity field is discontinuous

  11. Stellar flare oscillations: evidence for oscillatory reconnection and evolution of MHD modes

    Doyle, J. G.; Shetye, J.; Antonova, A. E.; Kolotkov, D. Y.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stangalini, M.; Gupta, G. R.; Avramova, A.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report on the detection of a range of quasi-periodic pulsations (20-120 s; QPPs) observed during flaring activity of several magnetically active dMe stars, namely AF Psc, CR Dra, GJ 3685A, Gl 65, SDSS J084425.9+513830, and SDSS J144738.47+035312.1 in the GALEX NUV filter. Based on a solar analogy, this work suggests that many of these flares may be triggered by external drivers creating a periodic reconnection in the flare current sheet or an impulsive energy release giving rise to an avalanche of periodic bursts that occur at time intervals that correspond to the detected periods, thus generating QPPs in their rising and peak phases. Some of these flares also show fast QPPs in their decay phase, indicating the presence of fast sausage mode oscillations either driven externally by periodic reconnection or intrinsically in the post-flare loop system during the flare energy release.

  12. Magnetic Reconnection in Extreme Astrophysical Environments

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma physics process of breaking ideal-MHD's frozen-in constraints on magnetic field connectivity and of dramatic rearranging of the magnetic topol-ogy, which often leads to a violent release of the free magnetic energy. Reconnection has long been acknowledged to be of great importance in laboratory plasma physics (magnetic fusion) and in space and solar physics (responsible for solar flares and magnetospheric substorms). In addition, its importance in Astrophysics has been increasingly recognized in recent years. However, due to a great diversity of astrophysical environments, the fundamental physics of astrophysical magnetic reconnection can be quite different from that of the traditional recon-nection encountered in the solar system. In particular, environments like the solar corona and the magnetosphere are characterized by relatively low energy densities, where the plasma is ad-equately described as a mixture of electrons and ions whose numbers are conserved and where the dissipated magnetic energy basically stays with the plasma. In contrast, in many high-energy astrophysical phenomena the energy density is so large that photons play as important a role as electrons and ions and, in particular, radiation pressure and radiative cooling become dominant. In this talk I focus on the most extreme case of high-energy-density astrophysical reconnec-tionreconnection of magnetar-strength (1014 - 1015 Gauss) magnetic fields, important for giant flares in soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs), and for rapid magnetic energy release in either the central engines or in the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). I outline the key relevant physical processes and present a new theoretical picture of magnetic reconnection in these environments. The corresponding magnetic energy density is so enormous that, when suddenly released, it inevitably heats the plasma to relativistic temperatures, resulting in co-pious production of electron

  13. Formation of hard power laws in the energetic particle spectra resulting from relativistic magnetic reconnection.

    Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-10

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.

  14. Simulation of small-scale coronal explosives due to magnetic reconnections

    Fan Quanlin; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing; Zhong Dingkun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of small-scale explosive phenomena in the lower corona have been simulated by solving the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. Numerical results show that the magnetic reconnections in a long coronal current sheet consist of a series of discrete small reconnection events, coalescence of magnetic islands, and plasmoid ejections, corresponding to the explosive events occurring intermittently and as bursts in a mentioned observational case. The generation of magnetic islands via multiple-X-point reconnection and their coalescence processes, to some extent, are qualitatively similar to the sequence of brightenings in the active region NOAA 8668. The strong ejections are possibly related to the recorded extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting structures. Morphological comparison and quantitative check of the plasma parameters support this candidate mechanism, and the idea that explosive events that appear to last long may not be single events, but a succession of explosive events either resolved or unresolved. The temporal energy conversion process is also examined

  15. Power-law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritsky, V. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.

  16. Power-Law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona

    Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.; Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritskiy, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.

  17. Magnetic field reconnection at the dayside magnetopause

    Rijnbeek, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic field reconnection is a fundamental energy conversion process, and the energy liberated during this process gives rise to phenomena which can be observed in space and laboratory plasmas. At the dayside magnetopause reconnection results in a coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. Manifestations of this include large disturbances in the magnetic field known as flux transfer events, and accelerated plasma flows along the magnetopause. Progress has been made in the development of a physical model incorporating such phenomena, aided by experimental data from various spacecraft missions

  18. Evolutionary traces decode molecular mechanism behind fast pace of myosin XI

    Syamaladevi Divya P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic class XI myosins are the fastest processive motors known. This class functions in high-velocity cytoplasmic streaming in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. The velocities at which they process are ten times faster than its closest class V homologues. Results To provide sequence determinants and structural rationale for the molecular mechanism of this fast pace myosin, we have compared the sequences from myosin class V and XI through Evolutionary Trace (ET analysis. The current study identifies class-specific residues of myosin XI spread over the actin binding site, ATP binding site and light chain binding neck region. Sequences for ET analysis were accumulated from six plant genomes, using literature based text search and sequence searches, followed by triple validation viz. CDD search, string-based searches and phylogenetic clustering. We have identified nine myosin XI genes in sorghum and seven in grape by sequence searches. Both the plants possess one gene product each belonging to myosin type VIII as well. During this process, we have re-defined the gene boundaries for three sorghum myosin XI genes using fgenesh program. Conclusion Molecular modelling and subsequent analysis of putative interactions involving these class-specific residues suggest a structural basis for the molecular mechanism behind high velocity of plant myosin XI. We propose a model of a more flexible switch I region that contributes to faster ADP release leading to high velocity movement of the algal myosin XI.

  19. Anomalous heating and plasmoid formation in pulsed power driven magnetic reconnection experiments

    Hare, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process occurring in various plasma environments, including high energy density plasmas. In this talk we will present results from a recently developed magnetic reconnection platform driven by the MAGPIE pulsed power generator (1 MA, 250 ns) at Imperial College London. In these experiments, supersonic, sub-Alfvénic plasma flows collide, bringing anti-parallel magnetic fields into contact and producing a well-defined, elongated reconnection layer. This layer is long-lasting (>200 ns, > 10 hydrodynamic flow times) and is diagnosed using a suite of high resolution, spatially and temporally resolved diagnostics which include laser interferometry, Thomson scattering and Faraday rotation imaging. We observe significant heating of the electrons and ions inside the reconnection layer, and calculate that the heating must occur on time-scales far faster than can be explained by classical mechanisms. Possible anomalous mechanisms include in-plane electric fields caused by two-fluid effects, and enhanced resistivity and viscosity caused by kinetic turbulence. We also observe the repeated formation of plasmoids in the reconnection layer, which are ejected outwards along the layer at super-Alfvénic velocities. The O-point magnetic field structure of these plasmoids is determined using in situ magnetic probes, and these plasmoids could also play a role in the anomalous heating of the electrons and ions. In addition, we present further modifications to this experimental platform which enable us to study asymmetric reconnection or measure the out-of-plane magnetic field inside the plasmoids. This work was supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Grant No. EP/N013379/1, and by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Awards No. DE-F03-02NA00057 and No. DE-SC-0001063.

  20. Effect of Radiation on Chromospheric Magnetic Reconnection: Reactive and Collisional Multi-fluid Simulations

    Alvarez Laguna, A.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lani, A.; Deconinck, H. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Sint-Genesius-Rode (Belgium); Mansour, N. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 230-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We study magnetic reconnection under chromospheric conditions in five different ionization levels from 0.5% to 50% using a self-consistent two-fluid (ions + neutrals) model that accounts for compressibility, collisional effects, chemical inequilibrium, and anisotropic heat conduction. Results with and without radiation are compared, using two models for the radiative losses: an optically thin radiation loss function, and an approximation of the radiative losses of a plasma with photospheric abundances. The results without radiation show that reconnection occurs faster for the weakly ionized cases as a result of the effect of ambipolar diffusion and fast recombination. The tearing mode instability appears earlier in the low ionized cases and grows rapidly. We find that radiative losses have a stronger effect than was found in previous results as the cooling changes the plasma pressure and the concentration of ions inside the current sheet. This affects the ambipolar diffusion and the chemical equilibrium, resulting in thin current sheets and enhanced reconnection. The results quantify this complex nonlinear interaction by showing that a strong cooling produces faster reconnections than have been found in models without radiation. The results accounting for radiation show timescales and outflows comparable to spicules and chromospheric jets.

  1. Heating properties of merging/reconnection startup of high-beta ST

    Ono, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    The high-power reconnection heating of spherical tokamak (ST) has been studied in the TS-3 experiment by use of axial merging of two STs. In this method, the merging/magnetic reconnection transformed a part of magnetic energy of merging STs into their thermal energy within short reconnection time. Our present low-field merging (0.3-0.5kG, R∼0.2m) attained the maximum heating power of 4-10MW and increased the beta-values of STs by factor 2-3 transiently. The ion heating energy was found to increase inversely with the q-value (B t component) of two STs. The most probable cause for this dependence is fast reconnection speed/ outflow speed due to large anomalous resistivity of current sheet in low-q state. After merging startup, decrease in beta was observed especially in low-q STs, indicating that the final beta value of ST increased with the q-value. (author)

  2. Magnetic Reconnection as a Driver for a Sub-ion-scale Cascade in Plasma Turbulence

    Franci, L.; Cerri, S.S.; Califano, F.; Landi, S.; Papini, E.; Verdini, A.; Matteini, L.; Jenko, F.; Hellinger, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 850, č. 1 (2017), L16/1-L16/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic reconnection * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016

  3. Electron Acceleration by Cascading Reconnection in the Solar Corona. II. Resistive Electric Field Effects

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Bárta, Miroslav; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 94/1-94/14 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : acceleration of particles * magnetic reconnection * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  4. Electron Acceleration by Cascading Reconnection in the Solar Corona. I. Magnetic Gradient and Curvature Drift Effects

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Bárta, Miroslav; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 815, č. 1 (2015), 6/1-6/17 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : acceleration of particles * magnetic reconnection * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  5. Exploratory development of the reconnection launcher 1986-1990

    Cowan, M.; Widner, M.M.; Cnare, E.C.; Duggin, B.W.; Kaye, R.J.; Freeman, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the exploratory development phase for the reconnection launcher. This is an induction launcher which features a contractless, solid armature with either flat-plate or cylindrical geometry. The strategy for successful design is discussed, emphasizing the way we resolve the issues of ohmic heating and high-voltage requirements for high velocity. The indispensable role of a fast-running, mesh-matrix code is stressed. The authors describe three multistage launchers. One of these achieved muzzle velocity of 1 km/s with a 150-gram flat-plate projectile. The other two have launched cylindrical projectiles at 335 m/s, one with relatively heavy projectiles of 5 kg, the other with relatively light ones of 10 grams. The cylindrical projectiles can be spin-stabilized prior to launch for improved flight. We outline the potential of this technology for earth-to-orbit launch of small satellites

  6. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    Karahan, Aydin; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO 2 -PuO 2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  7. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2010-01-31

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  8. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  9. Reconnecting Youth. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Reconnecting Youth" is an elective, credit-bearing course for students at risk of dropping out of school due to frequent absenteeism, low grades, or a history of dropping out. The curriculum focuses on building self-esteem, decision making, personal control, and interpersonal communication skills. The What Works Clearninghouse (WWC)…

  10. Colour reconnection in DELPHI at LEP

    Abreu, P.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary results of two different methods for the search of colour reconnection effects (CR), used in the DELPHI experiment at LEP are presented. The methods were found to be largely uncorrelated, and a combined likelihood for values of the κ strength parameter in the SK-I model is given

  11. Collisionless Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic and Kinetic Turbulence

    Loureiro, Nuno F.; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been proposed that the inertial interval in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is terminated at small scales not by a Kolmogorov-like dissipation region, but rather by a new sub-inertial interval mediated by tearing instability. However, many astrophysical plasmas are nearly collisionless so the MHD approximation is not applicable to turbulence at small scales. In this paper, we propose an extension of the theory of reconnection-mediated turbulence to plasmas which are so weakly collisional that the reconnection occurring in the turbulent eddies is caused by electron inertia rather than by resistivity. We find that the transition scale to reconnection-mediated turbulence depends on the plasma beta and on the assumptions of the plasma turbulence model. However, in all of the cases analyzed, the energy spectra in the reconnection-mediated interval range from E({k}\\perp ){{dk}}\\perp \\propto {k}\\perp -8/3{{dk}}\\perp to E({k}\\perp ){{dk}}\\perp \\propto {k}\\perp -3{{dk}}\\perp .

  12. The effect of fasting on the important molecular mechanisms related to cancer treatment

    Vahideh Keyvani; Mohammad Amin Kerachian

    2014-01-01

    Fasting does have remarkable benefits in the treatment of cancer and another diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and a multitude of other chronic diseases. It has been determined that fasting could play an important role during cancer treatment and progression via the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as other growth factors. Also, it has been shown that fasting would enhance the chemotherapy effect in cancer patients, selectively protects normal cells and ...

  13. INJECTION OF PLASMA INTO THE NASCENT SOLAR WIND VIA RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY SUPERGRANULAR ADVECTION

    Yang Liping; He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Chen Wenlei; Zhang Lei; Wang Linghua; Yan Limei; Peter, Hardi; Marsch, Eckart; Feng, Xueshang

    2013-01-01

    To understand the origin of the solar wind is one of the key research topics in modern solar and heliospheric physics. Previous solar wind models assumed that plasma flows outward along a steady magnetic flux tube that reaches continuously from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the corona. Inspired by more recent comprehensive observations, Tu et al. suggested a new scenario for the origin of the solar wind, in which it flows out in a magnetically open coronal funnel and mass is provided to the funnel by small-scale side loops. Thus mass is supplied by means of magnetic reconnection that is driven by supergranular convection. To validate this scenario and simulate the processes involved, a 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) numerical MHD model is established in the present paper. In our simulation a closed loop moves toward an open funnel, which has opposite polarity and is located at the edge of a supergranulation cell, and magnetic reconnection is triggered and continues while gradually opening up one half of the closed loop. Its other half connects with the root of the open funnel and forms a new closed loop which is submerged by a reconnection plasma stream flowing downward. Thus we find that the outflowing plasma in the newly reconnected funnel originates not only from the upward reconnection flow but also from the high-pressure leg of the originally closed loop. This implies an efficient supply of mass from the dense loop to the dilute funnel. The mass flux of the outflow released from the funnel considered in our study is calculated to be appropriate for providing the mass flux at the coronal base of the solar wind, though additional heating and acceleration mechanisms are necessary to keep the velocity at the higher location. Our numerical model demonstrates that in the funnel the mass for the solar wind may be supplied from adjacent closed loops via magnetic reconnection as well as directly from the footpoints of open funnels.

  14. Unraveling the Nature of Steady Magnetopause Reconnection Versus Flux Transfer Events

    Raeder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mode of energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. It is known to occur in different forms depending on solar wind and magnetospheric conditions. In particular, steady reconnection can be distinguished from pulse-like reconnection events which are also known as Flux Transfer Events (FTEs). The formation mechanism of FTEs and their contolling factors remain controversial. We use global MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to show that for southward IMF conditions: a) steady reconnection preferentially occurs without FTEs when the stagnation flow line nearly coincides with the X-line location, which requires small dipole tilt and nearly due southward IMF, b) FTEs occur when the flow/field symmetry is broken, which requires either a large dipole tilt and/or a substantial east-west component of the IMF, c) the predicted spacecraft signature and the repetition frequency of FTEs in the simulations agrees very well with typical observations, lending credibility to the the model, d) the fundamental process that leads to FTE formation is multiple X-line formation caused by the flow and field patterns in the magnetosheath and requires no intrinsic plasma property variations like variable resistivity, e) if the dipole tilt breaks the symmetry FTEs occur only in the winter hemisphere whereas the reconnection signatures in the summer hemisphere are steady with no bipolar FTE-like signatures, f) if the IMF east-west field component breaks the symmetry FTEs occur in both hemispheres, and g) FTE formation depends on sufficient resolution and low diffusion in the model -- coarse resolution and/or high diffusivity lead to flow-through reconnection signatures that appear unphysical given the frequent observation of FTEs.

  15. The effect of fasting on the important molecular mechanisms related to cancer treatment

    Vahideh Keyvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fasting does have remarkable benefits in the treatment of cancer and another diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and a multitude of other chronic diseases. It has been determined that fasting could play an important role during cancer treatment and progression via the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 as well as other growth factors. Also, it has been shown that fasting would enhance the chemotherapy effect in cancer patients, selectively protects normal cells and organisms from chemotherapy toxicity, while simultaneously sensitizing tumors. In this article, we discuss the benefits of fasting in the treatment of cancer through several different molecular pathways.

  16. A fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism

    Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Li-bo

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a variety of chaos-based image cryptosystems have been investigated to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission. Most of them are based on permutation-diffusion architecture, in which permutation and diffusion are two independent procedures with fixed control parameters. This property results in two flaws. (1) At least two chaotic state variables are required for encrypting one plain pixel, in permutation and diffusion stages respectively. Chaotic state variables produced with high computation complexity are not sufficiently used. (2) The key stream solely depends on the secret key, and hence the cryptosystem is vulnerable against known/chosen-plaintext attacks. In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism is proposed to enhance the security and promote the efficiency of chaos-based image cryptosystems. Experimental simulations and extensive cryptanalysis have been carried out and the results prove the superior security and high efficiency of the scheme.

  17. Water regime of mechanical-biological pretreated waste materials under fast-growing trees.

    Rüth, Björn; Lennartz, Bernd; Kahle, Petra

    2007-10-01

    In this study mechanical-biological pre-treated waste material (MBP) was tested for suitability to serve as an alternative surface layer in combination with fast-growing and water-consumptive trees for final covers at landfill sites. The aim was to quantify evapotranspiration and seepage losses by numerical model simulations for two sites in Germany. In addition, the leaf area index (LAI) of six tree species over the growing season as the driving parameter for transpiration calculations was determined experimentally. The maximum LAI varied between 3.8 and 6.1 m2 m(-2) for poplar and willow clones, respectively. The evapotranspiration calculations revealed that the use of MBP waste material for re-cultivation enhanced evapotranspiration by 40 mm year(-1) (10%) over an 11 year calculation period compared to a standard mineral soil. Between 82% (for LAI(max) = 3.8) and 87% (for LAI(max) = 6.1) of the average annual precipitation (506 mm) could be retained from the surface layer assuming eastern German climate conditions, compared with a retention efficiency between 79 and 82% for a mineral soil. Although a MBP layer in conjunction with water-consumptive trees can reduce vertical water losses as compared to mineral substrates, the effect is not sufficient to meet legal regulations.

  18. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  19. Dextran as a fast resorbable and mechanically stiff coating for flexible neural probes

    Kil, D.; Brancato, L.; Puers, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we report on the use of dextran as a temporary, fast dissolving stiff coating for flexible neural probes. Although polymer-based neural implants offer several advantages, compared to their rigid silicon counterparts, they pose significant challenges during implantation. Due to their extreme flexibility, they have the tendency to buckle under the axial load applied during insertion. The structural stiffness of the implants can be temporarily increased by applying a bioresorbable dextran coating which eases the penetration of neural tissue. For this application three types of dextran with different molecular weights are analysed. The dissolution rate of the coatings is reported as well as the increased bending stiffness resulting from the dextran coating of Parylene C neural probes. Based on these findings the dissolution rate can be linked to parameters such as molecular weight, coating thickness and the surface area exposed to the dissolution medium. The mechanical characterization yields information on how the structural stiffness of neural probes can be tuned by varying the dextran’s molecular weight and coating thickness.

  20. Fast Simulation of Mechanical Heterogeneity in the Electrically Asynchronous Heart Using the MultiPatch Module.

    John Walmsley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrical asynchrony occurs as a result of cardiac pacing or conduction disorders such as left bundle-branch block (LBBB. Electrically asynchronous activation causes myocardial contraction heterogeneity that can be detrimental for cardiac function. Computational models provide a tool for understanding pathological consequences of dyssynchronous contraction. Simulations of mechanical dyssynchrony within the heart are typically performed using the finite element method, whose computational intensity may present an obstacle to clinical deployment of patient-specific models. We present an alternative based on the CircAdapt lumped-parameter model of the heart and circulatory system, called the MultiPatch module. Cardiac walls are subdivided into an arbitrary number of patches of homogeneous tissue. Tissue properties and activation time can differ between patches. All patches within a wall share a common wall tension and curvature. Consequently, spatial location within the wall is not required to calculate deformation in a patch. We test the hypothesis that activation time is more important than tissue location for determining mechanical deformation in asynchronous hearts. We perform simulations representing an experimental study of myocardial deformation induced by ventricular pacing, and a patient with LBBB and heart failure using endocardial recordings of electrical activation, wall volumes, and end-diastolic volumes. Direct comparison between simulated and experimental strain patterns shows both qualitative and quantitative agreement between model fibre strain and experimental circumferential strain in terms of shortening and rebound stretch during ejection. Local myofibre strain in the patient simulation shows qualitative agreement with circumferential strain patterns observed in the patient using tagged MRI. We conclude that the MultiPatch module produces realistic regional deformation patterns in the asynchronous heart and that

  1. Compact toroid formation using barrier fields and controlled reconnection in the TRX-1 field reversed theta pinch

    Hoffman, A.L.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    TRX-1 is a new 20 cm diameter, 1-m long field reversed theta pinch with a magnetic field swing of 10 kG in 3 μsec. It employs z discharge preionization and octopole barrier fields to maximize flux trapping on first half cycle operation. Cusp coils are used at the theta pinch ends to delay reconnection and fast mirror coils are used to trigger reconnection at a time designed to maximize axial heating efficiency and toroid lifetime. These controls are designed to study toroid formation methods which are claimed to be especially efficient by Russian experimenters. Studies have been conducted on flux trapping efficiency, triggered reconnection, and equilibrium and lifetime

  2. The relation between reconnected flux, the parallel electric field, and the reconnection rate in a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection

    Wendel, D. E.; Olson, D. K.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Adrian, M. L.; Aunai, N.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of parallel electric fields and their relationship to the location and rate of magnetic reconnection in a large particle-in-cell simulation of 3D turbulent magnetic reconnection with open boundary conditions. The simulation's guide field geometry inhibits the formation of simple topological features such as null points. Therefore, we derive the location of potential changes in magnetic connectivity by finding the field lines that experience a large relative change between their endpoints, i.e., the quasi-separatrix layer. We find a good correspondence between the locus of changes in magnetic connectivity or the quasi-separatrix layer and the map of large gradients in the integrated parallel electric field (or quasi-potential). Furthermore, we investigate the distribution of the parallel electric field along the reconnecting field lines. We find the reconnection rate is controlled by only the low-amplitude, zeroth and first–order trends in the parallel electric field while the contribution from fluctuations of the parallel electric field, such as electron holes, is negligible. The results impact the determination of reconnection sites and reconnection rates in models and in situ spacecraft observations of 3D turbulent reconnection. It is difficult through direct observation to isolate the loci of the reconnection parallel electric field amidst the large amplitude fluctuations. However, we demonstrate that a positive slope of the running sum of the parallel electric field along the field line as a function of field line length indicates where reconnection is occurring along the field line

  3. Redistribution of Mechanical Work at the Knee and Ankle Joints During Fast Running in Minimalist Shoes.

    Fuller, Joel T; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-10-01

    Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes. Crossover study. Research laboratory. Twenty-six trained runners (age = 30.0 ± 7.9 years [age range, 18-40 years], height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass = 75.3 ± 8.2 kg, weekly training distance = 27 ± 15 km) who ran with a habitual rearfoot foot-strike pattern and had no experience running in minimalist shoes. Participants completed overground running trials at 18 km/h in minimalist and conventional shoes. Sagittal-plane kinematics and joint work at the knee and ankle joints were computed using 3-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction force data. Foot-strike pattern was classified as rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike based on strike index and ankle angle at initial contact. We observed no difference in foot-strike classification between shoes (χ 2 1 = 2.29, P = .13). Ankle angle at initial contact was less (2.46° versus 7.43°; t 25 = 3.34, P = .003) and strike index was greater (35.97% versus 29.04%; t 25 = 2.38, P = .03) when running in minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. We observed greater negative (52.87 J versus 42.46 J; t 24 = 2.29, P = .03) and positive work (68.91 J versus 59.08 J; t 24 = 2.65, P = .01) at the ankle but less negative (59.01 J versus 67.02 J; t 24 = 2.25, P = .03) and positive work (40.37 J versus 47.09 J; t 24 = 2.11, P = .046) at the knee with minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. Running in minimalist shoes at a fast speed caused a redistribution of work from the knee to the ankle joint. This finding suggests that runners changing from conventional to minimalist

  4. A fast platform for simulating semi-flexible fiber suspensions applied to cell mechanics

    Nazockdast, Ehssan, E-mail: ehssan@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Computational Biology, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Rahimian, Abtin, E-mail: arahimian@acm.org [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Zorin, Denis, E-mail: dzorin@cs.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Shelley, Michael, E-mail: shelley@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Computational Biology, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We present a novel platform for the large-scale simulation of three-dimensional fibrous structures immersed in a Stokesian fluid and evolving under confinement or in free-space in three dimensions. One of the main motivations for this work is to study the dynamics of fiber assemblies within biological cells. For this, we also incorporate the key biophysical elements that determine the dynamics of these assemblies, which include the polymerization and depolymerization kinetics of fibers, their interactions with molecular motors and other objects, their flexibility, and hydrodynamic coupling. This work, to our knowledge, is the first technique to include many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), and the resulting fluid flows, in cellular assemblies of flexible fibers. We use non-local slender body theory to compute the fluid–structure interactions of the fibers and a second-kind boundary integral formulation for other rigid bodies and the confining boundary. A kernel-independent implementation of the fast multipole method is utilized for efficient evaluation of HIs. The deformation of the fibers is described by nonlinear Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and their polymerization is modeled by the reparametrization of the dynamic equations in the appropriate non-Lagrangian frame. We use a pseudo-spectral representation of fiber positions and implicit time-stepping to resolve large fiber deformations, and to allow time-steps not excessively constrained by temporal stiffness or fiber–fiber interactions. The entire computational scheme is parallelized, which enables simulating assemblies of thousands of fibers. We use our method to investigate two important questions in the mechanics of cell division: (i) the effect of confinement on the hydrodynamic mobility of microtubule asters; and (ii) the dynamics of the positioning of mitotic spindle in complex cell geometries. Finally to demonstrate the general applicability of the method, we simulate the sedimentation of a

  5. A fast platform for simulating semi-flexible fiber suspensions applied to cell mechanics

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Rahimian, Abtin; Zorin, Denis; Shelley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel platform for the large-scale simulation of three-dimensional fibrous structures immersed in a Stokesian fluid and evolving under confinement or in free-space in three dimensions. One of the main motivations for this work is to study the dynamics of fiber assemblies within biological cells. For this, we also incorporate the key biophysical elements that determine the dynamics of these assemblies, which include the polymerization and depolymerization kinetics of fibers, their interactions with molecular motors and other objects, their flexibility, and hydrodynamic coupling. This work, to our knowledge, is the first technique to include many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), and the resulting fluid flows, in cellular assemblies of flexible fibers. We use non-local slender body theory to compute the fluid–structure interactions of the fibers and a second-kind boundary integral formulation for other rigid bodies and the confining boundary. A kernel-independent implementation of the fast multipole method is utilized for efficient evaluation of HIs. The deformation of the fibers is described by nonlinear Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and their polymerization is modeled by the reparametrization of the dynamic equations in the appropriate non-Lagrangian frame. We use a pseudo-spectral representation of fiber positions and implicit time-stepping to resolve large fiber deformations, and to allow time-steps not excessively constrained by temporal stiffness or fiber–fiber interactions. The entire computational scheme is parallelized, which enables simulating assemblies of thousands of fibers. We use our method to investigate two important questions in the mechanics of cell division: (i) the effect of confinement on the hydrodynamic mobility of microtubule asters; and (ii) the dynamics of the positioning of mitotic spindle in complex cell geometries. Finally to demonstrate the general applicability of the method, we simulate the sedimentation of a

  6. Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants

    Caroline Ann Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Newer antidepressants are needed for the many individuals with major depressive disorder that do not respond adequately to treatment and because of a delay of weeks before the emergence of therapeutic effects. Recent evidence from clinical trials shows that the NMDA antagonist ketamine is a revolutionary novel antidepressant because it acts rapidly and is effective for treatment-resistant patients. A single infusion of ketamine alleviates depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depressed patients within hours and these effects may be sustained for up to 2 weeks. Although the discovery of ketamine’s effects has reshaped drug discovery for antidepressants, the psychotomimetic properties of this compound limit the use of this therapy to the most severely ill patients. In order to develop additional antidepressants like ketamine, adequate preclinical behavioral screening paradigms for fast-acting antidepressants need to be established and used to identify the underlying neural mechanisms. This review examines the preclinical literature attempting to model the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. Acute administration of ketamine has produced effects in behavioral screens for antidepressants like the forced swim test, novelty suppression of feeding and in rodent models for depression. Protracted behavioral effects of ketamine have been reported to appear after a single treatment that last for days. This temporal pattern is similar to its clinical effects and may serve as a new animal paradigm for rapid antidepressant effects in humans. In addition, protracted changes in molecules mediating synaptic plasticity have been implicated in mediating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of ketamine. Current preclinical studies are examining compounds with more specific pharmacological effects at glutamate receptors and synapses in order to develop additional rapidly acting antidepressants without the hallucinogenic side effects or abuse

  7. Cell transformation in vitro by fast neutrons of different energies: implications for mechanisms

    Barendsen, G.W.; Gaiser, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed to analyse the dependence of the induction of cell transformation and cell reproductive death in cultures of C3H/10T1/2 cells, NBCH-3 cells and WAGR-2 cells on the energy of mono-energetic fast neutrons. The dose-effect relations for 300 kV, 4.2 MeV X rays, 15 MeV and 0.5 MeV neutrons have been analysed on the basis of the representations F(D) = t 1 D+t 2 D 2 and S(D)/S(0) = exp [-a 1 D+a 2 D 2 )] for transformation and survival respectively. The results show that a 1 values for all radiations are a factor of approximately 10 3 larger than corresponding t 1 values. The RBE values for cell reproductive death derived as ratios of a 1 for the various neutrons and 300 kV x rays are similar to the corresponding RBE values for cell transformation derived as ratios of t 1 values of neutrons and X rays. These similarities in the RBE values and differences in absolute values of a 1 and t 1 can be compared with results from published dose-effect relations for reproductive death and chromosome aberrations obtained for other cell lines. The insights obtained can be applied to derive a hypothesis about the induction of these effects, assuming similarities in energy requirements and physico-chemical primary mechanisms of the induction of damage in chromosomes and differences in the specificities of the sites and total size of the targets on chromosomes associated with the various endpoints observed. (author)

  8. A fast platform for simulating semi-flexible fiber suspensions applied to cell mechanics

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Rahimian, Abtin; Zorin, Denis; Shelley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel platform for the large-scale simulation of three-dimensional fibrous structures immersed in a Stokesian fluid and evolving under confinement or in free-space in three dimensions. One of the main motivations for this work is to study the dynamics of fiber assemblies within biological cells. For this, we also incorporate the key biophysical elements that determine the dynamics of these assemblies, which include the polymerization and depolymerization kinetics of fibers, their interactions with molecular motors and other objects, their flexibility, and hydrodynamic coupling. This work, to our knowledge, is the first technique to include many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), and the resulting fluid flows, in cellular assemblies of flexible fibers. We use non-local slender body theory to compute the fluid-structure interactions of the fibers and a second-kind boundary integral formulation for other rigid bodies and the confining boundary. A kernel-independent implementation of the fast multipole method is utilized for efficient evaluation of HIs. The deformation of the fibers is described by nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and their polymerization is modeled by the reparametrization of the dynamic equations in the appropriate non-Lagrangian frame. We use a pseudo-spectral representation of fiber positions and implicit time-stepping to resolve large fiber deformations, and to allow time-steps not excessively constrained by temporal stiffness or fiber-fiber interactions. The entire computational scheme is parallelized, which enables simulating assemblies of thousands of fibers. We use our method to investigate two important questions in the mechanics of cell division: (i) the effect of confinement on the hydrodynamic mobility of microtubule asters; and (ii) the dynamics of the positioning of mitotic spindle in complex cell geometries. Finally to demonstrate the general applicability of the method, we simulate the sedimentation of a cloud of

  9. Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection

    Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.

    2017-02-01

    Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic

  10. Mechanisms for the Production of Fast HI from Dissociation of H2 on Saturn

    Liu, Xianming; Johnson, Paul; Malone, Charles; Young, Jason; Kanik, Isik; Shemansky, Donald

    2010-05-01

    Images of the Saturn system obtained by the Cassini UVIS at a pixel resolution of 0.1 × 0.1 Saturn radii (Rs) reveal atomic hydrogen in ballistic and escaping trajectories sourced at the top of the thermosphere, primarily in the southern sunlit hemisphere. The main feature in the image is a distinctive H Lyman-α plume structure with FWHM of 0.56 Rs at the exobase sub-solar limb at ~ -13.5° latitude constituting the core of the distributed outward flow of atomic hydrogen from the sunlit hemisphere, with a counterpart on the anti-solar side peaking near the equator above the exobase limb. The structure of the image indicates that part of the out-flowing population is sub-orbital and re-enters the thermosphere in ~ 5 hour time scale. A larger and more broadly distributed component fills the magnetosphere to beyond 45 Rs in the orbital plane and 20 Rs latitudinally above and below the plane in an asymmetric distribution in local time. Molecular hydrogen emission in extreme and far ultraviolet regions collected with the H Lyman-α into the image mosaic reveals a distinctive resonance property correlated with the atomic hydrogen plume and shows a strong deviation of H2 X 1Σg+ from local thermodynamic equilibrium in the main source region. The inferred approximate globally averaged energy deposition at the top of the thermosphere from the production of the hot atomic hydrogen accounts for the measured atmospheric temperature. Possible processes for the fast atomic hydrogen formation from dissociation of H2 include the excitation of singlet-ungerade states and doubly excited states by photons and electrons, and the excitation of the singlet-gerade and triplet states by electrons, and chemical reactions involving the formation and dissociative recombination of H3+. Based on the available laboratory measurements and quantum mechanics calculations, the assessment of various mechanisms for H2 - H production, especially those producing H atoms with sufficient energy to

  11. On acceleration of plasmoids in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetotail reconnection

    Scholer, M.; Hautz, R.

    1991-01-01

    The formation and acceleration of plasmoids is investigated by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The initial equilibrium contains a plasma sheet with a northward magnetic field (B z ) component and a tailward pressure gradient. Reconnection is initiated by three different methods: Case A, a constant resistivity is applied everywhere and a tearing mode evolves, case B, a spatially localized resistivity is fixed in the near-Earth region, and case C, the resistivity is allowed to depend on the electrical current density. In case A, the authors obtain the same results as have been presented by Otto et al. (1990): the tearing instability releases the tension of the closed field lines so that the inherent pressure gradient of the two-dimensional system is not balanced anymore. The pressure gradient then sets the plasmoid into motion. Any sling-shot effect of open magnetic field lines is of minor importance. A completely different behavior has been found in cases B and C. In these cases the high-speed flow in the wedge-shaped region tailward of the near-Earth neutral line pushes against the detached plasmoid and drives it tailward. The ideal terms contributing to the acceleration are still only the pressure and the magnetic field term. However, in these cases the pressure is due to the dynamic pressure of the fast outflow from the reconnection region. The outflow in the wedge-shaped region on both sides of the neutral line is due to acceleration of plasma by tangential magnetic stresses at the slow mode shocks extending form the X line

  12. Coordination Mechanism in Fast Human Movements - Experimental and Modelling Studies. Volume 2.

    1982-02-01

    the involved muscle . Knapik and Ramos (33) have proposed that fast twitch muscle fiber may be responsible for a maximun speed move- ment, while slow ...repetition with submaximun weight (low intensity), Wolcott (56) attempted to selectively fatigue the fast and slow twitch muscle fiber. Both intensities of...B. "Enzyme Activity and Fibre Composition in Skeletal Muscle of Trained and Untrained Men." Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 312-319, 1972. 40

  13. Nonlinear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas

    Ottaviani, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    The magnetic reconnection in collisionless regimes, where electron inertia is responsible for the decoupling of the plasma motion from that of the field lines, is discussed. Since the linear theory of m=1 modes breaks down for very small magnetic island widths, a non linear analysis is called for. Thus, the behaviour of a collisionless, 2-D fluid slab model in the limit {rho}/d -> 0, is analyzed. The main result is that, when the island size is larger than the linear layer but smaller than the equilibrium scale length, the reconnection rate exhibits a quasi-explosive time behaviour, during which a current density sub-layer narrower than the skin depth is formed. It is believed that the inclusion of the electron initial term in Ohm`s law opens the possibility to understand the rapidity of relaxation process observed in low collisionality plasmas. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Thermonuclear Burning

    Gatto, R.; Coppi, B.

    2017-10-01

    Considering that fusion reaction products (e.g. α-particles) deposit their energy on the electrons, the relevant thermal energy balance equation is characterized by a fusion source term, a relatively large longitudinal thermal conductivity and an appropriate transverse thermal conductivity. Then, looking for modes that are radially localized around rational surfaces, reconnected field configurations are found that can be sustained by the electron thermal energy source due to fusion reactions. Then this process can be included in the category of endogenous reconnection processes and may be viewed as a form of the thermonuclear instability that can develop in an ignited inhomogeneous plasma. A complete analysis of the equations supporting the relevant theory is reported. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  15. Localized Oscillatory Energy Conversion in Magnetopause Reconnection

    Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Cassak, P. A.; Webster, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Rager, A. C.; Hwang, K.-J.; Phan, T. D.; Genestreti, K. J.; Allen, R. C.; Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Gershman, D.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wilder, F. D.; Graham, D. B.; Hesse, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Price, L. M.; Shay, M. A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Pollock, C. J.; Denton, R. E.; Newman, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Data from the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission are used to investigate asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the dayside boundary between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. High-resolution measurements of plasmas and fields are used to identify highly localized ( 15 electron Debye lengths) standing wave structures with large electric field amplitudes (up to 100 mV/m). These wave structures are associated with spatially oscillatory energy conversion, which appears as alternatingly positive and negative values of J · E. For small guide magnetic fields the wave structures occur in the electron stagnation region at the magnetosphere edge of the electron diffusion region. For larger guide fields the structures also occur near the reconnection X-line. This difference is explained in terms of channels for the out-of-plane current (agyrotropic electrons at the stagnation point and guide field-aligned electrons at the X-line).

  16. Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.

  17. General connected and reconnected fields in plasmas

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.

    2018-02-01

    For plasma dynamics, more encompassing than the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) approximation, the foundational concepts of "magnetic reconnection" may require deep revisions because, in the larger dynamics, magnetic field is no longer connected to the fluid lines; it is replaced by more general fields (one for each plasma specie) that are weighted combination of the electromagnetic and the thermal-vortical fields. We study the two-fluid plasma dynamics plasma expressed in two different sets of variables: the two-fluid (2F) description in terms of individual fluid velocities, and the one-fluid (1F) variables comprising the plasma bulk motion and plasma current. In the 2F description, a Connection Theorem is readily established; we show that, for each specie, there exists a Generalized (Magnetofluid/Electro-Vortic) field that is frozen-in the fluid and consequently remains, forever, connected to the flow. This field is an expression of the unification of the electromagnetic, and fluid forces (kinematic and thermal) for each specie. Since the magnetic field, by itself, is not connected in the first place, its reconnection is never forbidden and does not require any external agency (like resistivity). In fact, a magnetic field reconnection (local destruction) must be interpreted simply as a consequence of the preservation of the dynamical structure of the unified field. In the 1F plasma description, however, it is shown that there is no exact physically meaningful Connection Theorem; a general and exact field does not exist, which remains connected to the bulk plasma flow. It is also shown that the helicity conservation and the existence of a Connected field follow from the same dynamical structure; the dynamics must be expressible as an ideal Ohm's law with a physical velocity. This new perspective, emerging from the analysis of the post MHD physics, must force us to reexamine the meaning as well as our understanding of magnetic reconnection.

  18. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION AND CORONAL HOLE DYNAMICS

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed fields, often referred to as 'interchange' reconnection, on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent three-dimensional topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully three-dimensional MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases, we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed fields. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary and find that the field remains well connected throughout this process. Our results, therefore, provide essential support for the quasi-steady models of the open field, because in these models the open and closed flux are assumed to remain topologically distinct as the photosphere evolves. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. On the other hand, the results argue against models in which open flux is assumed to diffusively penetrate deeply inside the closed field region under a helmet streamer. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations.

  19. Aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection in asymmetric systems

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Kuznetsova, Masha [Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Zenitani, Seiji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Birn, Joachim [Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: the direction of the reconnection line in configurations with nonvanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement for particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide.

  20. Aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection in asymmetric systems

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Kuznetsova, Masha; Zenitani, Seiji; Birn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: the direction of the reconnection line in configurations with nonvanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement for particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide

  1. Aspects of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Systems

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nicolas; Zeitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric reconnection is being investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The research has two foci: the direction of the reconnection line in configurations with non-vanishing magnetic fields; and the question why reconnection can be faster if a guide field is added to an otherwise unchanged asymmetric configuration. We find that reconnection prefers a direction, which maximizes the available magnetic energy, and show that this direction coincides with the bisection of the angle between the asymptotic magnetic fields. Regarding the difference in reconnection rates between planar and guide field models, we demonstrate that a guide field can provide essential confinement for particles in the reconnection region, which the weaker magnetic field in one of the inflow directions cannot necessarily provide.

  2. Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey

    A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.

  3. Plasmoid statistics in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    Petropoulou, M.; Christie, I. M.; Sironi, L.; Giannios, D.

    2018-04-01

    Plasmoids, overdense blobs of plasma containing magnetic fields and high-energy particles, are a self-consistent outcome of the reconnection process in the relativistic regime. Recent two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that plasmoids can undergo a variety of processes (e.g. mergers, bulk acceleration, growth, and advection) within the reconnection layer. We developed a Monte Carlo code, benchmarked with the recent PIC simulations, to examine the effects of these processes on the steady-state size and momentum distributions of the plasmoid chain. The differential plasmoid size distribution is shown to be a power law, ranging from a few plasma skin depths to ˜0.1 of the reconnection layer's length. The power-law slope is shown to be linearly dependent upon the ratio of the plasmoid acceleration and growth rates, which slightly decreases with increasing plasma magnetization. We perform a detailed comparison of our results with those of recent PIC simulations and briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of our findings through the representative case of flaring events from blazar jets.

  4. Magnetic Reconnection in MHD and Kinetic Turbulence

    Loureiro, Nuno; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Recent works have revisited the current understanding of Alfvénic turbulence to account for the role of magnetic reconnection. Theoretical arguments suggest that reconnection inevitably becomes important in the inertial range, at the scale where it becomes faster than the eddy turnover time. This leads to a transition to a new sub-inertial interval, suggesting a route to energy dissipation that is fundamentally different from that envisioned in the usual Kolmogorov-like phenomenology. These concepts can be extended to collisionless plasmas, where reconnection is enabled by electron inertia rather than resistivity. Although several different cases must then be considered, a common result is that the energy spectrum exhibits a scaling with the perpendicular wave number that scales between k⊥- 8 / 3 and k⊥- 3 , in favourable agreement with many numerical results and observations. Work supported by NSF-DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering, Award No. DE-SC0016215, and by NSF CAREER Award No. 1654168 (NFL); and by NSF Grant NSF AGS- 1261659 and by the Vilas Associates Award of UWM (SB).

  5. Radio Emissions from Magnetopause Reconnection Events

    Fung, S. F.; Kunze, J.

    2017-12-01

    A new terrestrial radio emission has recently been identified and attributed to a source connected to the magnetopause magnetic reconnection process [Fung et al., 2013]. Known as the terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB), the new emission was observed by both the IMAGE and Geotail spacecraft during a period of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz >0) as a temporal and isolated burst of emission with perhaps well-defined or directed emission cones. Spectral and spin-modulation analyses showed that both the intensity and source direction of the emission are sensitive to the variability of the IMF. The strong control of the emission by the IMF suggests that the emission is connected to the magnetopause reconnection process. A number of potential TMRB events have now been identified by surveying all the dynamic spectrogram data obtained by the IMAGE, Geotail, Cluster, and Wind spacecraft in 5/2000-12/2005. This paper will present our analyses of how the spectral signatures and beaming characteristics of the emissions might depend on the IMF orientations, and thus their likelihood of being TMRBs. Special emphasis will be on events associated with northward and southward IMF in order to determine if TMRBs might be generally produced from magnetopause reconnection processes. Fung, S. F., K. Hashimoto, H. Kojima, S. A. Boardsen, L. N. Garcia, H. Matsumoto, J. L. Green, and B. W. Reinisch (2013), Terrestrial myriametric radio burst observed by IMAGE and Geotail satellites, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi:10.1002/jgra.50149.

  6. Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Qiu, Jiong, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We propose a mechanism for quasi-periodic oscillations of both coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flare loops as related to magnetic reconnection in eruptive solar flares. We perform two-dimensional numerical MHD simulations of magnetic flux rope eruption, with three different values of the global Lundquist number. In the low Lundquist number run, no oscillatory behavior is found. In the moderate Lundquist number run, on the other hand, quasi-periodic oscillations are excited both at the bottom of the flux rope and at the flare loop top. In the high Lundquist number run, quasi-periodic oscillations are also excited; in the meanwhile, the dynamics become turbulent owing to the formation of multiple plasmoids in the reconnection current sheet. In high and moderate Lundquist number runs, thin reconnection jets collide with the flux rope bottom or flare loop top and dig them deeply. Steep oblique shocks are formed as termination shocks where reconnection jets are bent (rather than decelerated) in the horizontal direction, resulting in supersonic backflows. The structure becomes unstable, and quasi-periodic oscillations of supersonic backflows appear at locally confined high-beta regions at both the flux rope bottom and flare loop top. We compare the observational characteristics of quasi-periodic oscillations in erupting flux ropes, post-CME current sheets, flare ribbons, and light curves with corresponding dynamical structures found in our simulation.

  7. Simulation study of MHD relaxation and reconnection processes in RFP plasma

    Kusano, Kanya; Kunimoto, Kaito; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamano, Teruo; Sato, Tetsuya

    1991-01-01

    The authors have studied several nonlinear processes in RFP plasma through the use of 3D MHD simulations. In particular, they have shed light on: (1) dynamo and self-sustainment in reversed-field pinch (RFP), (2) phase locking process in MHD relaxation, and (3) the heating and acceleration in magnetic reconnection process. First, the contributions of the kink (m = 1) mode (linearly unstable) and of the m = 0 mode (driven by nonlinear coupling) to the dynamo are qualitatively evaluated using a high accuracy simulation. It is found that, if the free energy to drive kink instabilities is as small as that in the actual experimental plasma, the m = 0 modes, driven nonlinearly, play a more important role for the flux generation than the kink modes. Secondly, numerical simulations of the self-sustainment process in a RFP are performed. It is confirmed that the self-sustainment process is a coherent oscillating process composed of the MHD relaxation and the resistive diffusion processes. Toroidal phase locking process of kink modes is numerically observed in simulations of self-reversal and self-sustainment processes. It has characteristics similar to the slinky mode observed in the OHTE experiment. A detailed investigation reveals that nonlinear coupling between the most unstable two kink modes governs the entire dynamics in all kink modes and leads to the phase locking process. They find that reconnection can accelerate plasma over a local Alfven speed. This is a result of the fact that the magnetic field in the downstream area plays a similar role to de Laval nozzle. They also investigate the heating mechanisms in reconnection process. It is revealed that the viscous heating rate is as large as the joule heating rate in the reconnection process. This result implies that the viscous heating in the reconnection process is an important candidate for the mechanism to explain the RFP experiments where the ion temperatures is higher than the electron temperature

  8. An electromagnetic drift instability in the magnetic reconnection experiment and its importance for magnetic reconnection

    Kulsrud, Russell; Ji Hantao; Fox, William; Yamada, Masaaki

    2005-01-01

    The role which resistivity plays in breaking magnetic field lines, heating the plasma, and plasma-field slippage during magnetic reconnection is discussed. Magnetic fluctuations are observed in the MRX (magnetic reconnection experiment) [M. Yamada, H. Ji, S. Hsu, T. Carter, R. Kulsrud, N. Bertz, F. Jobes, Y. Ono, and F. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] that are believed to provide resistive friction or wave resistivity. A localized linear theory has been proposed for their origin as an obliquely propagating lower hybrid drift instability. In this paper, the linear theory of the instability is summarized, and the resulting heating and slippage are calculated from quasilinear theory. Making use of measured amplitudes of the magnetic fluctuations in the MRX, the amount of these effects is estimated. Within the experimental uncertainties they are shown to be quite important for the magnetic reconnection process

  9. An Electromagnetic Drift Instability in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) and its Importance for Magnetic Reconnection

    Russell Kulsrud; Hantao Ji; Will Fox; Masaaki Yamada

    2005-01-01

    The role which resistivity plays in breaking magnetic field lines, heating the plasma, and plasma field slippage during magnetic reconnection is discussed. Magnetic fluctuations are observed in the MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment) that are believed to provide resistive friction or wave resistivity. A localized linear theory has been proposed for their origin as an obliquely propagating Lower Hybrid Drift Instability. In this paper, the linear theory of the instability is summarized, and the resulting heating and slippage are calculated from quasi-linear theory. Making use of measured amplitudes of the magnetic fluctuations in the MRX the amount of these effects is estimated. Within the experimental uncertainties they are shown to be quite important for the magnetic reconnection process

  10. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Egedal, J.; Ng, J.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma

  11. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Egedal, J. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Ng, J. [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Scudder, J. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma.

  12. On the location of dayside magnetic reconnection during an interval of duskward oriented IMF

    J. A. Wild

    2007-02-01

    findings are consistent with previously proposed mechanisms of solar wind modulation of the dayside reconnection rate.

  13. Radio Jets as Driving Mechanism of Fast Outflows: The HI View

    Morganti, Raffaella; Maccagni, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; Schulz, Robert; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The complex and multi-phase nature of gas outflows is one of the properties highlighted by the work in recent years on AGN-driven outflows. In particular, the cold gas is found to play a more important role than previously expected. Surprisingly, HI has been shown to be a good tracer of fast

  14. FORMATION AND RECONNECTION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to directly apply the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of two-dimensional (2D) reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.

  15. Final Technical Report: Magnetic Reconnection in High-Energy Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Fox, William [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This report describes the final results from the DOE Grant DE-SC0007168, “Fast Magnetic Reconnection in HED Laser-Produced Plasmas.” The recent generation of laboratory high-energy-density physics facilities has opened significant physics opportunities for experimentally modeling astrophysical plasmas. The goal of this proposal is to use these new tools to study fundamental problems in plasma physics and plasma astrophysics. Fundamental topics in this area involve study of the generation, amplification, and fate of magnetic fields, which are observed to pervade the plasma universe and govern its evolution. This project combined experiments at DOE laser facilities with kinetic plasma simulation to study these processes. The primary original goal of the project was to study magnetic reconnection using a new experimental platform, colliding magnetized laser-produced plasmas. However through a series of fortuitous discoveries, the work broadened out to allow significant advancement on multiple topics in laboratory astrophysics, including magnetic reconnection, Weibel instability, and collisionless shocks.

  16. Accessing the Asymmetric Collisionless Reconnection Regime in the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX)

    Greess, S.; Egedal, J.; Olson, J.; Millet-Ayala, A.; Myers, R.; Wallace, J.; Clark, M.; Forest, C.

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic effects are expected to dominate the collisionless reconnection regime, where the mean free path is large enough that the anisotropic electron pressure can develop without being damped away by collisional pitch angle scattering. In simulations, the anisotropic pressure drives the formation of outflow jets [1]. These jets are expected to play a role in the reconnection layer at the Earth's magnetopause, which is currently being explored by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) [2]. Until recently, this regime of anisotropic pressure was inaccessible by laboratory experiments, but new data from the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX) shows that fully collisionless reconnection can now be achieved in the laboratory. Future runs at TREX will delve deeper into this collisionless regime in both the antiparallel and guide-field cases. [1] Le, A. et al. JPP, 81(1). doi: 10.1017/S0022377814000907. [2] Burch, J. L. et al. Space Sci. Rev. 199,5. doi: 10.1007/s11214-015-0164-9 Supported in part by NSF/DOE award DE-SC0013032.

  17. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  18. Overview of UK programme on mechanical properties of fast reactor structural materials

    Wood, D.S.

    The UK programme has been devised to endorse the use of Type 316 steel and its associated weld metal in the primary circuit of a fast reactor. In relation to ferritic steels for the steam generator, most emphasis is being placed on 9%Cr1%Mo steel (thin and thick section), with attention also being given to 2.25%Cr1%Mo steel and a number of high strength 9%Cr steels. Baseline information is being obtained on material 'as received' condition but emphasis is also being given to service conditions which may influence the behaviour such as thermal aging, irradiation and sodium environments. The situation regarding and future work intentions on these steels for UK fast reactor applications is given

  19. The effects of fast-neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel

    Dalton, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the effects of fast-neutron irradiation on the tensile properties of austenitic stainless steels at irradiation temperatures of less than 400 degrees Celcius, using as an example, work carried out at Pelindaba on an AISI 316 type steel produced in South Africa. Damage produced in these steels at higher irradiation temperatures and fluences is also briefly discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of some methods of overcoming or decreasing the effects of irradiation damage [af

  20. Dynamic mechanical properties of polymer blends of polypropylene and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) irradiated with fast electrons

    Mihaylova, M.; Kresteva, M.; Perena, J; Phillips, P.

    2001-01-01

    Extruded blends of polypropylene and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) irradiated with fast electrons were studied. The dynamic mechanical properties were investigated with respects to the blend composition and irradiation dose. Two glass transition temperatures corresponding to the glass transitions of the pure components were observed. Their existence is an evidence of immiscibility of the components. Nevertheless, the peaks broadening, the single jump in the storage modulus values and the changes of T g with the blend ratio suggest the creation of an interface region, leading to the improvement of the compatibility of the components. The irradiation with fast electrons at doses higher than 100 KGy results in single T g transition because of the broadening of the interface layer. (authors)

  1. Magnetic Reconnection at a Three-dimensional Solar Null Point

    Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Baumann, Gisela; Galsgaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Using a specific solar null point reconnection case studied by Masson et al (2009; ApJ 700, 559) we investigate the dependence of the reconnection rate on boundary driving speed, numerical resolution, type of resistivity (constant or numerical), and assumed stratification (constant density or sol...

  2. Tail reconnection in the global magnetospheric context: Vlasiator first results

    Palmroth, Minna; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Juusola, Liisa; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Hietala, Heli; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Ganse, Urs; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Vainio, Rami; Hesse, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The key dynamics of the magnetotail have been researched for decades and have been associated with either three-dimensional (3-D) plasma instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection. We apply a global hybrid-Vlasov code, Vlasiator, to simulate reconnection self-consistently in the ion kinetic scales in the noon-midnight meridional plane, including both dayside and nightside reconnection regions within the same simulation box. Our simulation represents a numerical experiment, which turns off the 3-D instabilities but models ion-scale reconnection physically accurately in 2-D. We demonstrate that many known tail dynamics are present in the simulation without a full description of 3-D instabilities or without the detailed description of the electrons. While multiple reconnection sites can coexist in the plasma sheet, one reconnection point can start a global reconfiguration process, in which magnetic field lines become detached and a plasmoid is released. As the simulation run features temporally steady solar wind input, this global reconfiguration is not associated with sudden changes in the solar wind. Further, we show that lobe density variations originating from dayside reconnection may play an important role in stabilising tail reconnection.

  3. Reconnection in Solar Flares: Outstanding Questions Hiroaki Isobe ...

    Although the idea of magnetic reconnection for explaining the energy release in solar flares had been proposed many decades ago (Parker 1957; Sweet. 1958) it was after Yohkoh (Ogawara et al. 1991) observations that the reality of mag- netic reconnection occurring during solar flares was established. Examples of evi-.

  4. Progress in the theory of magnetic reconnection phenomena

    Ottaviani, M.; Arcis, N.; Maget, P.; Zwingmann, W.; Grasso, D.; Militello, F.; Porcelli, F.

    2004-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on magnetic reconnection in hot plasma confinement devices is reviewed. The presentation highlights the common aspects of reconnection phenomena, and current research trends are emphasised. Progress in understanding the dynamics of slowly evolving modes of the tearing family, based on advanced analytic techniques and numerical simulation, as well as of faster modes that lead to internal disruptions, is reported. (authors)

  5. LOW-ALTITUDE RECONNECTION INFLOW-OUTFLOW OBSERVATIONS DURING A 2010 NOVEMBER 3 SOLAR ERUPTION

    Savage, Sabrina L.; Holman, Gordon; Su, Yang [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seaton, Daniel B. [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion-an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from {approx}150 to 690 km s{sup -1} with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfven speeds, we estimate the Alfvenic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be {approx}10{sup 2} km s{sup -1} with outflow speeds ranging from {approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}-indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops-presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  6. LOW-ALTITUDE RECONNECTION INFLOW-OUTFLOW OBSERVATIONS DURING A 2010 NOVEMBER 3 SOLAR ERUPTION

    Savage, Sabrina L.; Holman, Gordon; Su, Yang; Reeves, Katharine K.; Seaton, Daniel B.; McKenzie, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion—an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from ∼150 to 690 km s –1 with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfvén speeds, we estimate the Alfvénic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be ∼10 2 km s –1 with outflow speeds ranging from ∼10 2 to 10 3 km s –1 —indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops—presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  7. Plasmoid dynamics in flare reconnection and the frequency drift of the drifting pulsating structure

    Bárta, Miroslav; Karlický, Marian; Žemlička, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 253, 1-2 (2008), s. 173-189 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1100; GA AV ČR IAA300030701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar flares * magnetic reconnection * radio bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.774, year: 2008

  8. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  9. The effect of guide-field and boundary conditions on collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Works of Tsiklauri and Haruki [Phys. Plasmas 15, 102902 (2008); 14, 112905 (2007)] are extended by inclusion of the out-of-plane magnetic (guide) field. In particular, magnetic reconnection during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse for varying out-of-plane guide-fields is studied using a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code. For zero guide-field, cases for both open and closed boundary conditions are investigated, where magnetic flux and particles are lost and conserved, respectively. It is found that reconnection rates, out-of-plane currents and density in the X-point increase more rapidly and peak sooner in the closed boundary case, but higher values are reached in the open boundary case. The normalized reconnection rate is fast: 0.10-0.25. In the open boundary case it is shown that an increase of guide-field yields later onsets in the reconnection peak rates, while in the closed boundary case initial peak rates occur sooner but are suppressed. The reconnection current changes similarly with increasing guide-field; however for low guide-fields the reconnection current increases, giving an optimal value for the guide-field between 0.1 and 0.2 times the in-plane field in both cases. Also, in the open boundary case, it is found that for guide-fields of the order of the in-plane magnetic field, the generation of electron vortices occurs. Possible causes of the vortex generation, based on the flow of decoupled particles in the diffusion region and localized plasma heating, are discussed. Before peak reconnection onset, oscillations in the out-of-plane electric field at the X-point are found, ranging in frequency from approximately 1 to 2 ω{sub pe} and coinciding with oscillatory reconnection. These oscillations are found to be part of a larger wave pattern in the simulation domain. Mapping the out-of-plane electric field along the central lines of the domain over time and applying a 2D Fourier transform reveal that

  10. Review of recent experiments on magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasmas

    Yamada, M.

    1995-02-01

    The present paper reviews recent laboratory experiments on magnetic reconnection. Examples will be drawn from electron current sheet experiments, merging spheromaks, and from high temperature tokamak plasmas with the Lundquist numbers exceeding 10 7 . These recent laboratory experiments create an environment which satisfies the criteria for MHD plasma and in which the global boundary conditions can be controlled externally. Experiments with fully three dimensional reconnection are now possible. In the most recent TFTR tokamak discharges, Motional Stark effect (MSE) data have verified the existence of a partial reconnection. In the experiment of spheromak merging, a new plasma acceleration parallel to the neutral line has been indicated. Together with the relationship of these observations to the analysis of magnetic reconnection in space and in solar flares, important physics issues such as global boundary conditions, local plasma parameters, merging angle of the field lines, and the 3-D aspects of the reconnection are discussed

  11. The Time-Dependent Structure of the Electron Reconnection Layer

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Collisionless magnetic reconnection is often associated with time-dependent behavior. Specifically, current layers in the diffusion region can become unstable to tearing-type instabilities on one hand, or to instabilities with current-aligned wave vectors on the other. In the former case, the growth of tearing instabilities typically leads to the production of magnetic islands, which potentially provide feedback on the reconnection process itself, as well as on the rate of reconnection. The second class of instabilities tend to modulate the current layer along the direction of the current flow, for instance generating kink-type perturbations, or smaller-scale turbulence with the potential to broaden the current layer. All of these processes contribute to rendering magnetic reconnection time-dependent. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of these effects, and a discussion of how much they contribute to the overall magnetic reconnection rate.

  12. Magnetic Reconnection Results on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    Kornack, T. W.; Sollins, P. K.; Brown, M. R.

    1997-11-01

    Linear and 2D arrays of magnetic probes are used to study magnetic reconnection in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Opposing coaxial plasma guns form two identical spheromaks into adjacent 0.5 m diameter copper flux conservers. The flux conservers have symmetrical openings that allow the spheromaks to merge in a controlled manner. The stable equilibrium of the spheromaks provides a reservoir of magnetic flux for reconnection experiments. Currently, the magnetic configuration of the spheromaks allows the study of counter-helicity reconnection. Preliminary analysis will be presented and may include 2D B field movies of the reconnection region, measurement of the reconnection rate and comparison to the Sweet-Parker and standard Petschek models.

  13. MAVEN Observations of Magnetic Reconnection on the Dayside Martian Magnetosphere

    DiBraccio, Gina A.; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.; Brain, David A.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Mitchell, David L.; Harada, Yuki; Hara, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission offers a unique opportunity to investigate the complex solar wind-planetary interaction at Mars. The Martian magnetosphere is formed as the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) drapes around the planet's ionosphere and localized crustal magnetic fields. As the solar wind interacts with this induced magnetosphere, magnetic reconnection can occur at any location where a magnetic shear is present. Reconnection between the IMF and the induced and crustal fields facilitates a direct plasma exchange between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere. Here we address the occurrence of magnetic reconnection on the dayside magnetosphere of Mars using MAVEN magnetic field and plasma data. When reconnection occurs on the dayside, a non-zero magnetic field component normal to the obstacle, B_N, will result. Using minimum variance analysis, we measure BN by transforming Magnetometer data into boundary-normal coordinates. Selected events are then further examined to identify plasma heating and energization, in the form of Alfvénic outflow jets, using Solar Wind Ion Analyzer measurements. Additionally, the topology of the crustal fields is validated from electron pitch angle distributions provided by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer. To understand which parameters are responsible for the onset of reconnection, we test the dependency of the dimensionless reconnection rate, calculated from BN measurements, on magnetic field shear angle and plasma beta (the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure). We assess the global impact of reconnection on Mars' induced magnetosphere by combining analytical models with MAVEN observations to predict the regions where reconnection may occur. Using this approach we examine how IMF orientation and magnetosheath parameters affect reconnection on a global scale. With the aid of analytical models we are able to assess the role of reconnection on a global scale to better understand which

  14. Mathematical modelling of performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism in sodium cooled fast reactor during scram action

    Rajan Babu, V.; Thanigaiyarasu, G.; Chellapandi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of safety rod during scram action in fast reactor. • Effects of hydraulics, structural interaction and geometry on drop time of safety rod are understood. • Using simplified model, drop time can be assessed replacing detailed CFD analysis. • Sensitivities of the related parameters on drop time are understood. • Experimental validation qualifies the modelling and computer software developed. - Abstract: Performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism which are parts of shutdown systems in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plays a major role in ensuring safe operation of the plant during all the design basis events. The safety rods are to be inserted into the core within a stipulated time during off-normal conditions of the reactor. Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of a safety rod and its drive mechanism in a typical 500 MWe SFR during scram action is considered in the present study. A full-scale prototype system has undergone qualification tests in air, water and in sodium simulating the operating conditions in the reactor. In this paper, the salient features of the safety rod and its mechanism, details related to mathematical modelling and sensitivity of the parameters having influence on drop time are presented. The outcomes of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results. In this process, the mathematical model and the computer software developed are validated

  15. Three-dimensional relativistic pair plasma reconnection with radiative feedback in the Crab Nebula

    Cerutti, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, UCB 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: bcerutti@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: greg.werner@colorado.edu, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    The discovery of rapid synchrotron gamma-ray flares above 100 MeV from the Crab Nebula has attracted new interest in alternative particle acceleration mechanisms in pulsar wind nebulae. Diffuse shock-acceleration fails to explain the flares because particle acceleration and emission occur during a single or even sub-Larmor timescale. In this regime, the synchrotron energy losses induce a drag force on the particle motion that balances the electric acceleration and prevents the emission of synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV. Previous analytical studies and two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations indicate that relativistic reconnection is a viable mechanism to circumvent the above difficulties. The reconnection electric field localized at X-points linearly accelerates particles with little radiative energy losses. In this paper, we check whether this mechanism survives in three dimension (3D), using a set of large PIC simulations with radiation reaction force and with a guide field. In agreement with earlier works, we find that the relativistic drift kink instability deforms and then disrupts the layer, resulting in significant plasma heating but few non-thermal particles. A moderate guide field stabilizes the layer and enables particle acceleration. We report that 3D magnetic reconnection can accelerate particles above the standard radiation reaction limit, although the effect is less pronounced than in 2D with no guide field. We confirm that the highest-energy particles form compact bunches within magnetic flux ropes, and a beam tightly confined within the reconnection layer, which could result in the observed Crab flares when, by chance, the beam crosses our line of sight.

  16. Particle Acceleration and Heating by Turbulent Reconnection

    Vlahos, Loukas; Pisokas, Theophilos; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent flows in the solar wind, large-scale current sheets, multiple current sheets, and shock waves lead to the formation of environments in which a dense network of current sheets is established and sustains “turbulent reconnection.” We constructed a 2D grid on which a number of randomly chosen grid points are acting as scatterers (I.e., magnetic clouds or current sheets). Our goal is to examine how test particles respond inside this large-scale collection of scatterers. We study the energy gain of individual particles, the evolution of their energy distribution, and their escape time distribution. We have developed a new method to estimate the transport coefficients from the dynamics of the interaction of the particles with the scatterers. Replacing the “magnetic clouds” with current sheets, we have proven that the energization processes can be more efficient depending on the strength of the effective electric fields inside the current sheets and their statistical properties. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles only for the stochastic Fermi process. We have shown that the evolution of the particles inside a turbulent reconnecting volume is not a solution of the FP equation, since the interaction of the particles with the current sheets is “anomalous,” in contrast to the case of the second-order Fermi process.

  17. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING BY TURBULENT RECONNECTION

    Vlahos, Loukas; Pisokas, Theophilos; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent flows in the solar wind, large-scale current sheets, multiple current sheets, and shock waves lead to the formation of environments in which a dense network of current sheets is established and sustains “turbulent reconnection.” We constructed a 2D grid on which a number of randomly chosen grid points are acting as scatterers (i.e., magnetic clouds or current sheets). Our goal is to examine how test particles respond inside this large-scale collection of scatterers. We study the energy gain of individual particles, the evolution of their energy distribution, and their escape time distribution. We have developed a new method to estimate the transport coefficients from the dynamics of the interaction of the particles with the scatterers. Replacing the “magnetic clouds” with current sheets, we have proven that the energization processes can be more efficient depending on the strength of the effective electric fields inside the current sheets and their statistical properties. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck (FP) equation, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles only for the stochastic Fermi process. We have shown that the evolution of the particles inside a turbulent reconnecting volume is not a solution of the FP equation, since the interaction of the particles with the current sheets is “anomalous,” in contrast to the case of the second-order Fermi process.

  18. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING BY TURBULENT RECONNECTION

    Vlahos, Loukas; Pisokas, Theophilos; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2016-08-10

    Turbulent flows in the solar wind, large-scale current sheets, multiple current sheets, and shock waves lead to the formation of environments in which a dense network of current sheets is established and sustains “turbulent reconnection.” We constructed a 2D grid on which a number of randomly chosen grid points are acting as scatterers (i.e., magnetic clouds or current sheets). Our goal is to examine how test particles respond inside this large-scale collection of scatterers. We study the energy gain of individual particles, the evolution of their energy distribution, and their escape time distribution. We have developed a new method to estimate the transport coefficients from the dynamics of the interaction of the particles with the scatterers. Replacing the “magnetic clouds” with current sheets, we have proven that the energization processes can be more efficient depending on the strength of the effective electric fields inside the current sheets and their statistical properties. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck (FP) equation, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles only for the stochastic Fermi process. We have shown that the evolution of the particles inside a turbulent reconnecting volume is not a solution of the FP equation, since the interaction of the particles with the current sheets is “anomalous,” in contrast to the case of the second-order Fermi process.

  19. Magnetic reconnection during eruptive magnetic flux ropes

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We perform a three-dimensional (3D) high resolution numerical simulation in isothermal magnetohydrodynamics to study the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed during an eruption of a twisted magnetic flux rope (MFR). Because the twist distribution violates the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, the kink instability occurs, and the MFR is distorted. The centre part of the MFR loses its equilibrium and erupts upward, which leads to the formation of a 3D CS underneath it. Methods: In order to study the magnetic reconnection inside the CS in detail, mesh refinement has been used to reduce the numerical diffusion and we estimate a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of the CS. Results: The refined mesh allows us to resolve fine structures inside the 3D CS: a bifurcating sheet structure signaling the 3D generalization of Petschek slow shocks, some distorted-cylindrical substructures due to the tearing mode instabilities, and two turbulence regions near the upper and the lower tips of the CS. The topological characteristics of the MFR depend sensitively on the observer's viewing angle: it presents as a sigmoid structure, an outwardly expanding MFR with helical distortion, or a flare-CS-coronal mass ejection symbiosis as in 2D flux-rope models when observed from the top, the front, or the side. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  1. Hall MHD reconnection in cometary magnetotail

    Jovanovic, Dusan; Shukla, Padma Kant; Morfill, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    The fine structure of cometary tails (swirls, loops and blobs) is studied in the framework of resistive magnetic reconnection without a guide field in a dusty plasma. For a high-beta plasma (β ∼ 1) consisting of electrons, ions, and immobile dust grains, a two-fluid description is used to study electromagnetic perturbations with the frequency below Ωi, propagating at an arbitrary angle, and including the effects of Hall current. A zero-order current associated with the anti-parallel magnetic configuration may exist even in the limit of zero plasma temperature in a dusty plasma due to a symmetry breaking between electrons and ions by dust grains that yields an E-vector x B-vector current. In the perturbed state, a new linear electromagnetic mode is found in dusty plasma which is evanescent below the Rao cut-off frequency and has the characteristic wavelength comparable to the ion skin depth, which enables the reconnection at short spatial scales. The role of the dust is found to be twofold, yielding a new mode outside of the current sheet and altering the continuity conditions at its edge by an inhomogeneous Doppler shift associated with the E-vector x B-vector current

  2. Effect of magnetic reconnection in stellar plasma

    Hammoud, M.; El Eid, M.; Darwish, M.

    2017-06-01

    An important phenomenon in Astrophysics is the process of magnetic reconnection (MGR), which is envisaged to understand the solar flares, coronal mass ejection, interaction of the solar wind with the Earth’s magnetic field (so called geomagnetic storm) and other phenomena. In addition, it plays a role in the formation of stars. MGR involves topological change of a set of magnetic field lines leading to a new equilibrium configuration of lower magnetic energy. The MGR is basically described in the framework of the Maxwell’s equations linked to Navier-Stockes equations. Nevertheless, many details are still not understood. In this paper, we investigate the MGR process in the framework of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a single conducting fluid using a modern powerful computational tool (OpenFOAM). We will show that the MGR process takes place only if resistivity exists. However, despite the high conductivity of the plasma, resistivity becomes effective in a very thin layer generating sharp gradients of the magnetic field, and thus accelerating the reconnection process. The net effect of MGR is that magnetic energy is converted into thermal and kinetic energies leading to heating and acceleration of charged particles. The Sun’s coronal ejection is an example of the MGR process.

  3. MMS Observations of Vorticity Near Sites of Magnetic Reconnection

    Paterson, W. R.; Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Mackler, D. A.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Schiff, C.; Shuster, J. R.; Viñas, A. F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    With highly capable plasma instruments on four spacecraft flown in tetrahedral formation, it is possible for MMS investigators to approximate spatial derivatives of the plasma parameters observed. Here, we examine vorticity of the electron and ion components of the plasma computed from the curl of velocity as measured by the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI). Vorticity of magnetospheric plasma has not previously been studied on scales of tens-of-km to less than 10 km, which are the typical inter-spacecraft separations for MMS. Nor has it been explored on time scales of 30 ms for electrons and 150 ms for ions, which are the burst data rates for the FPI spectrometers. Review of observations from the magnetopause and magnetotail phases of the mission finds increases in vorticity associated with near encounters with the electron diffusion region, with nearby regions of measurable current, and with elevated electron and ion temperatures. These are suggestive of a possible role for turbulence in magnetic reconnection. In this presentation we provide an assessment of the quality of these measurements and discuss their potential significance.

  4. Reduction in degree of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction by shroud tube in control rods for the fast reactor

    Donomae, Takako; Katsuyama, Kozo; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Koji; Yamamoto, Masaya; Soga, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a long-life control rod for fast reactors is being conducted at Joyo. One of the challenges in developing a long-life control rod is the restraint of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction (ACMI). First, a helium-bonding rod was selected as a control rod for the experimental fast reactor Joyo, which is the first liquid metal fast reactor in Japan. Its lifetime was limited by ACMI, which is induced by the swelling and relocation of B 4 C pellets. To restrain ACMI, a shroud tube was inserted into the gap between the B 4 C pellets and the cladding tube. However, once B 4 C pellets cracked and broke into small fragments, relocation occurred. After this, the narrow gap closed immediately as the degree of B 4 C pellet swelling increased. To solve this problem, the gap was widened during design, and sodium was selected as the bonding material instead of helium to restrain the increase in pellet temperature. Irradiation testing of the modified sodium-bonding control rod confirmed that ACMI would be restrained by the shroud tube regardless of the occurrence of B 4 C pellet relocation. As a result of these improvements, the estimated lifetime of the control rod at Joyo was doubled. In this paper, the results of postirradiation examination are reported. (author)

  5. Fast Magnetosonic Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes: Testing Local Wave Excitation Mechanism

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Lunjin; Denton, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Linear Vlasov theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for electromagnetic fluctuations in a homogeneous, magnetized, and collisionless plasma are used to investigate a fast magnetosonic wave event observed by the Van Allen Probes. The fluctuating magnetic field observed exhibits a series of spectral peaks at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency Ωp and has a dominant compressional component, which can be classified as fast magnetosonic waves. Furthermore, the simultaneously observed proton phase space density exhibits positive slopes in the perpendicular velocity space, ∂fp/∂v⊥>0, which can be a source for these waves. Linear theory analyses and PIC simulations use plasma and field parameters measured in situ except that the modeled proton distribution is modified to have larger ∂fp/∂v⊥ under the assumption that the observed distribution corresponds to a marginally stable state when the distribution has already been scattered by the excited waves. The results show that the positive slope is the source of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, and as a result of interactions with the excited waves the evolving proton distribution progresses approximately toward the observed distribution.

  6. Laser-driven magnetic reconnection in the multi-plasmoid regime

    Totorica, Samuel; Abel, Tom; Fiuza, Frederico

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a promising candidate mechanism for accelerating the nonthermal particles associated with explosive astrophysical phenomena. Laboratory experiments are starting to probe multi-plasmoid regimes of relevance for particle acceleration. We have performed two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to explore particle acceleration for parameters relevant to laser-driven reconnection experiments. We have extended our previous work to explore particle acceleration in larger system sizes. Our results show the transition to plasmoid-dominated acceleration associated with the merging and contraction of plasmoids that further extend the maximum energy of the power-law tail of the particle distribution. Furthermore, we have modeled Coulomb collisions and will discuss the influence of collisionality on the plasmoid formation, dynamics, and particle acceleration.

  7. Nonlinear response of a neoclassical four-field magnetic reconnection model to localized current drive

    Lazzaro, E.; Comisso, L.; Valdettaro, L.

    2010-01-01

    In tokamaks magnetic islands arise from an unstable process of tearing and reconnecting of helical field lines across rational surfaces. After a linear stage the magnetic instability develops through three characteristic nonlinear stages where increasingly complex topological alterations occur in the form of the magnetic islands. The problem of response of reconnection process to the injection of an external current suitably localized is addressed using a four-field model in a plane slab plasma, with a novel extension to account consistently of the relevant neoclassical effects, such as bootstrap current and pressure anisotropy. The results found have implications on the interpretation of the possible mechanism of present day experimental results on neoclassical tearing modes as well as on the concepts for their control or avoidance.

  8. Simultaneous Observations of p-mode Light Walls and Magnetic Reconnection Ejections above Sunspot Light Bridges

    Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Xiaohong, E-mail: yijunhou@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.

  9. A possible mechanism in heavy ion induced reactions: 'fast fission process'

    Borderie, B.; Gardes, D.; Berlanger, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the orbital angular momentum l on the mass distribution of fission fragments is studied, both on previously available data on heavy ion induced fission and in new specifically planned experiments: systems 40 Ar + 165 Ho and 24 Mg + 181 Ta at bombarding energies ranging from 180 up to 391 MeV and leading to the same fissionning nucleus 205 At wigh different l distributions. When l values corresponding to a vanished fission barrier are reached, the mass distribution broadens. This suggest the existence of a specific process, 'fast fission', at l-values leading to compound nucleus formation and deep inelastic collisions, respectively. This process and its conditions of occurrence are discussed; of special interest are the correlated differences between the limitations to the fission cross-section and the fission mass distributions broadenings, respectively, for the Ar + Ho and Mg + Ta systems

  10. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  11. Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David

    2018-02-01

    We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.

  12. Study of driven magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, H.; Hsu, S.; Carter, T.; Kulsrud, R.; Bretz, N.; Jobes, F.; Ono, Yasushi; Perkins, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) has been constructed to investigate the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in a well controlled laboratory setting. This device creates an environment satisfying the criteria for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma (S much-gt 1, ρ i much-lt L). The boundary conditions can be controlled externally, and experiments with fully three-dimensional reconnection are now possible. In the initial experiments, the effects of the third vector component of reconnecting fields have been studied. Two distinctively different shapes of neutral sheet current layers, depending on the third component, are identified during driven magnetic reconnection. Without the third component (anti-parallel or null-helicity reconnection), a thin double-Y shaped diffusion region is identified. A neutral sheet current profile is measured accurately to be as narrow as order ion gyro-radius. In the presence of an appreciable third component (co-helicity reconnection), an O-shaped diffusion region appears and grows into a spheromak configuration

  13. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    Goetz, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    Magnetic reconnection has long been considered to be the cause of sawtooth oscillations and major disruptions in tokamak experiments. Experimental confirmation of reconnection models has been hampered by the difficulty of direct measurement of reconnection, which would involve tracing field lines for many transits around the tokamak. Perhaps the most stringent test of reconnection in a tokamak involves measurement of the safety factor q. Reconnection arising from a single helical disturbance with mode numbers m and n should raise q to m/n everywhere inside of the original resonant surface. Total reconnection should also flatten the temperature and current density profiles inside of this surface. Disruptive instabilities have been studied in the Tokapole 2, a poloidal divertor tokamak. When Tokapole 2 is operated in the material limiter configuration, a major disruption results in current termination as in most tokamaks. However, when operated in the magnetic limiter configuration current termination is suppressed and major disruptions appear as giant sawtooth oscillations. The objective of this thesis is to determine if total reconnection is occurring during major disruptions. To accomplish this goal, the poloidal magnetic field has been directly measured in Tokapole 2 with internal magnetic coils. A full two-dimensional measurement over the central current channel has been done. From these measurements, the poloidal magnetic flux function is obtained and the magnetic surfaces are plotted. The flux-surface-averaged safety factor is obtained by integrating the local magnetic field line pitch over the experimentally obtained magnetic surface

  14. Monte Carlo study of the mechanisms of transport of fast neutrons in various media

    Ku, L.

    1976-01-01

    The technique of analyzing Monte Carlo histories was used to study the details of neutron transport and slowing down mechanisms. The statistical properties of life histories of ''exceptional'' neutrons, i.e., those staying closer to the source or penetrating to larger distances from the source, were compared to those of the general population. The macroscopic behavior of ''exceptional'' neutrons was also related to the interaction mechanics and to the microscopic properties of the medium

  15. Mechanisms for Selective Single-Cell Reactivation during Offline Sharp-Wave Ripples and Their Distortion by Fast Ripples.

    Valero, Manuel; Averkin, Robert G; Fernandez-Lamo, Ivan; Aguilar, Juan; Lopez-Pigozzi, Diego; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Cid, Elena; Tamas, Gabor; Menendez de la Prida, Liset

    2017-06-21

    Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples. We found that firing selectivity was dominated by an event- and cell-specific synaptic drive, modulated in single cells by changes in the excitatory/inhibitory ratio measured intracellularly. This mechanism collapses during pathological fast ripples to exacerbate and randomize neuronal firing. Acute administration of a use- and cell-type-dependent sodium channel blocker reduced neuronal collapse and randomness and improved recall in epileptic rats. We propose that cell-specific synaptic inputs govern firing selectivity of CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp-wave ripples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Does the Electron Dynamics Affect the Reconnection Rate in a Typical Reconnection Layer?

    Hesse, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether the microscale controls the macroscale or vice-versa remains one of the most challenging problems in plasmas. A particular topic of interest within this context is collisionless magnetic reconnection, where both points of views are espoused by different groups of researchers. This presentation will focus on this topic. We will begin by analyzing the properties of electron diffusion region dynamics both for guide field and anti-parallel reconnection, and how they can be scaled to different inflow conditions. As a next step, we will study typical temporal variations of the microscopic dynamics with the objective of understanding the potential for secular changes to the macroscopic system. The research will be based on a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling.

  17. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    Anderson, J. K., E-mail: jkanders@wisc.edu; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.

  18. Numerical Study of the Cascading Energy Conversion of the Reconnecting Current Sheet in Solar Eruptions

    Ye, J.; Lin, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Shen, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a resistive magnetohydrodynamical study (2D) of the CME eruption based on the Lin & Forbes model (2000) regarding the cascading reconnection by a high-order Godunov scheme code, to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the internal structure of the current sheet (CS) and the high reconnection rate. The main improvements of this work include: 1) large enough spatial scale consistent with the stereo LASCO data that yields an observable current sheet 2) A realistic plasma environment (S&G, 1999) adopted rather than an isothermal atmosphere and higher resolution inside CS 3) The upper boundary condition set to be open. The simulation shows a typical acceleration below 2 R⊙, then its speed slightly fluctuated, and the flux rope velocity is estimated to be 100 km/s-250 km/s for a slow CME. The reconnection rates are around 0.02 estimated from inflow and outflow velocities. The dynamic features show a great consistence with the LASCO observations. Looking into the fine structure of CS, magnetic reconnection initializes with a Sweet-Parker stage, and undergoes the time-dependent Petschek/fractural patterns. While the CME continues climbing up, the outflow region becomes turbulent which enhances the reconnection rates furthermore. The local reconnection rates present a simple linear dependence with the length-width ratio of multiple small-scale CSs. The principal X-point is close to the Sun's surface during the entire eruption, causing the energy partition to be unequal. Energy conversion in the vicinity of the principal X-point has also been addressed by simply employing energy equations. And we demonstrate that the dominant energy transfer consists of a conversion of the incoming Poynting flux to enthalpy flux in the sunward direction and bulk kinetic energy in the CME direction. The spectrum of magnetic energy doesn't follow a simple power law after secondary islands appear, and the spectrum index varies from 1.5 to 2

  19. Dependence of the dayside magnetopause reconnection rate on local conditions

    Wang, Shan; Kistler, Lynn M.; Mouikis, Christopher G.; Petrinec, Steven M.

    2015-08-01

    We estimate the reconnection rates for eight dayside magnetopause reconnection events observed by the Cluster spacecraft and compare them with the predictions of the Cassak-Shay Formula (Rcs) Cassak and Shay (2007). The measured reconnection rate is determined by calculating the product of the inflow velocity and magnetic field in the magnetosheath inflow region. The predicted reconnection rate is calculated using the plasma parameters on both sides of the current layer, including the contributions of magnetosheath H+, magnetospheric hot H+ and O+, and magnetospheric cold ions. The measured reconnection rates show clear correlations with Rcs with an aspect ratio of 0.07. The O+ and cold ions can contribute up to ~30% of the mass density, which may reduce the reconnection rate for individual events. However, the variation of the reconnection rate is dominated by the variation of the magnetosheath parameters. In addition, we calculated the predicted reconnection rate using only magnetosheath parameters (Rsh). The correlation of the measured rate with Rsh was better than the correlation with Rcs, with an aspect ratio of 0.09. This might indicate deviations from the Cassak-Shay theory caused by the asymmetric reconnection structure and kinetic effects of different inflow populations. A better aspect ratio is expected to be between the ones determined using Rcs and Rsh. The aspect ratio does not show a clear dependence on the O+ concentration, likely because the O+ contribution is too small in these events. The aspect ratio also does not show a clear correlation with density asymmetry or guide field.

  20. Electron magnetic reconnection without ion coupling in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath

    Phan, T. D.; Eastwood, J. P.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Fujimoto, M.; Cassak, P. A.; Øieroset, M.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Rager, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C.; Pyakurel, P. S.; Haggerty, C. C.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.; Oka, M.; Ergun, R. E.; Retino, A.; Le Contel, O.; Argall, M. R.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Magnes, W.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in current sheets is a magnetic-to-particle energy conversion process that is fundamental to many space and laboratory plasma systems. In the standard model of reconnection, this process occurs in a minuscule electron-scale diffusion region1,2. On larger scales, ions couple to the newly reconnected magnetic-field lines and are ejected away from the diffusion region in the form of bi-directional ion jets at the ion Alfvén speed3-5. Much of the energy conversion occurs in spatially extended ion exhausts downstream of the diffusion region6. In turbulent plasmas, which contain a large number of small-scale current sheets, reconnection has long been suggested to have a major role in the dissipation of turbulent energy at kinetic scales7-11. However, evidence for reconnection plasma jetting in small-scale turbulent plasmas has so far been lacking. Here we report observations made in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath region (downstream of the bow shock) of an electron-scale current sheet in which diverging bi-directional super-ion-Alfvénic electron jets, parallel electric fields and enhanced magnetic-to-particle energy conversion were detected. Contrary to the standard model of reconnection, the thin reconnecting current sheet was not embedded in a wider ion-scale current layer and no ion jets were detected. Observations of this and other similar, but unidirectional, electron jet events without signatures of ion reconnection reveal a form of reconnection that can drive turbulent energy transfer and dissipation in electron-scale current sheets without ion coupling.

  1. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  2. New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2011-01-01

    A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.

  3. New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2012-01-01

    A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron s rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.

  4. Helicity conservation under quantum reconnection of vortex rings.

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that under quantum reconnection, simulated by using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, self-helicity of a system of two interacting vortex rings remains conserved. By resolving the fine structure of the vortex cores, we demonstrate that the total length of the vortex system reaches a maximum at the reconnection time, while both writhe helicity and twist helicity remain separately unchanged throughout the process. Self-helicity is computed by two independent methods, and topological information is based on the extraction and analysis of geometric quantities such as writhe, total torsion, and intrinsic twist of the reconnecting vortex rings.

  5. Process of magnetic reconnection as a source of longitudinal currents

    Sidneva, M.V.; Semenov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations in magnetic field and current system as applied to conditions in the Earth magnetospheric tail are calculated so as to show that three-dimensional reconnection leads inevitably to the appearance of a system of longitudinal currents. With reference to current layer of the magnetospheric tail the longitudinal currents appearing in the process of reconnection are directed to the Earth on the morning side and from Earth - on the evening side. The results presented suggest that magnetic reconnection can serve as a sourse of the Birkeland current loop of a substorm

  6. Macroscale particle simulation of externally driven magnetic reconnection

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1991-09-01

    Externally driven reconnection, assuming an anomalous particle collision model, is numerically studied by means of a 2.5D macroscale particle simulation code in which the field and particle motions are solved self-consistently. Explosive magnetic reconnection and energy conversion are observed as a result of slow shock formation. Electron and ion distribution functions exhibit large bulk acceleration and heating of the plasma. Simulation runs with different collision parameters suggest that the development of reconnection, particle acceleration and heating do not significantly depend on the parameters of the collision model. (author)

  7. Mechanical behavior of fast reactor fuel pin cladding subjected to simulated overpower transients

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Cladding mechanical property data for analysis and prediction of fuel pin transient behavior were obtained under experimental conditions in which the temperature ramps of reactor transients were simulated. All cladding specimens were 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel and were cut from EBR-II irradiated fuel pins. It was determined that irradiation degraded the cladding ductility and failure strength. Specimens that had been adjacent to the fuel exhibited the poorest properties. Correlations were developed to describe the effect of neutron fluence on the mechanical behavior of the cladding. Metallographic examinations were conducted to characterize the failure mode and to establish the nature of internal and external surface corrosion. Various mechanisms for the fuel adjacency effect were examined and results for helium concentration profiles were presented. Results from the simulated transient tests were compared with TREAT test results

  8. Hybrid Multi-Physics Modeling of an Ultra-Fast Electro-Mechanical Actuator

    Ara Bissal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of an HVDC breaker are to generate impulsive forces in the order of hundreds of kilonewtons within fractions of a millisecond, to withstand the arising internal mechanical stresses and to transmit these forces via an electrically-insulating device to the contact system with minimum time delay. In this work, several models were developed with different levels of complexity, computation time and accuracy. Experiments were done with two mushroom-shaped armatures to validate the developed simulation models. It was concluded that although the electromagnetic force generation mechanism is highly sensitive to the mechanical response of the system, the developed first order hybrid model is able to predict the performance of the breaker with good accuracy.

  9. Resistive instabilities and field line reconnection

    White, R.B.

    1980-05-01

    A review is given of the linear theory of reconnection for a plane current layer. The three basic modes are the Rippling Mode, the Gravitational Interchange Mode, and the Tearing Mode. A derivation is given of the magnetic field energy which provides the driving force for the tearing mode. The necessary concepts for the analysis of tearing modes in cylindrical geometry are introduced. The equations governing tearing mode evolution in a tokamak are expanded to lowest order in the inverse aspect ratio. The tearing mode in a toroidal device is closely related to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic kink mode, and this relationship is stressed in the derivations of the linear growth rates for modes with poloidal model number m > 2 and for the quite different m = 1 mode. The nonlinear theory of tearing mode development and the implications of this theory for the understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement devices is reviewed

  10. Gas cooled fast reactor control rod drive mechanism deceleration unit. Test program

    Wagner, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of the airtesting portion of the proof-of-principle testing of a Control Rod Scram Deceleration Device developed for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The device utilizes a grooved flywheel to decelerate the translating assembly (T/A). Two cam followers on the translating assembly travel in the flywheel grooves and transfer the energy of the T/A to the flywheel. The grooves in the flywheel are straight for most of the flywheel length. Near the bottom of the T/A stroke the grooves are spiraled in a decreasing slope helix so that the cam followers accelerate the flywheel as they transfer the energy of the falling T/A. To expedite proof-of-principle testing, some of the materials used in the fabrication of certain test article components were not prototypic. With these exceptions the concept appears to be acceptable. The initial test of 300 scrams was completed with only one failure and the failure was that of a non-prototypic cam follower outer sleeve material

  11. The mechanism of fast-gate opening in ClC-0.

    Engh, Anita M; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Maduke, Merritt

    2007-10-01

    ClC-0 is a chloride channel whose gating is sensitive to both voltage and chloride. Based on analysis of gating kinetics using single-channel recordings, a five-state model was proposed to describe the dependence of ClC-0 fast-gate opening on voltage and external chloride (Chen, T.-Y., and C. Miller. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:237-250). We aimed to use this five-state model as a starting point for understanding the structural changes that occur during gating. Using macroscopic patch recordings, we were able to reproduce the effects of voltage and chloride that were reported by Chen and Miller and to fit our opening rate constant data to the five-state model. Upon further analysis of both our data and those of Chen and Miller, we learned that in contrast to their conclusions, (a) the features in the data are not adequate to rule out a simpler four-state model, and (b) the chloride-binding step is voltage dependent. In order to be able to evaluate the effects of mutants on gating (described in the companion paper, see Engh et al. on p. 351 of this issue), we developed a method for determining the error on gating model parameters, and evaluated the sources of this error. To begin to mesh the kinetic model(s) with the known CLC structures, a model of ClC-0 was generated computationally based on the X-ray crystal structure of the prokaryotic homolog ClC-ec1. Analysis of pore electrostatics in this homology model suggests that at least two of the conclusions derived from the gating kinetics analysis are consistent with the known CLC structures: (1) chloride binding is necessary for channel opening, and (2) chloride binding to any of the three known chloride-binding sites must be voltage dependent.

  12. A Cheap Linear Attention Mechanism with Fast Lookups and Fixed-Size Representations

    de Brébisson, Alexandre; Vincent, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The softmax content-based attention mechanism has proven to be very beneficial in many applications of recurrent neural networks. Nevertheless it suffers from two major computational limitations. First, its computations for an attention lookup scale linearly in the size of the attended sequence. Second, it does not encode the sequence into a fixed-size representation but instead requires to memorize all the hidden states. These two limitations restrict the use of the softmax attention mechani...

  13. Particle Acceleration and Fractional Transport in Turbulent Reconnection

    Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2017-11-01

    We consider a large-scale environment of turbulent reconnection that is fragmented into a number of randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs), and we statistically analyze the acceleration of particles within this environment. We address two important cases of acceleration mechanisms when particles interact with the UCS: (a) electric field acceleration and (b) acceleration by reflection at contracting islands. Electrons and ions are accelerated very efficiently, attaining an energy distribution of power-law shape with an index 1-2, depending on the acceleration mechanism. The transport coefficients in energy space are estimated from test-particle simulation data, and we show that the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation fails to reproduce the simulation results when the transport coefficients are inserted into it and it is solved numerically. The cause for this failure is that the particles perform Levy flights in energy space, while the distributions of the energy increments exhibit power-law tails. We then use the fractional transport equation (FTE) derived by Isliker et al., whose parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives are inferred from the simulation data, and solving the FTE numerically, we show that the FTE successfully reproduces the kinetic energy distribution of the test particles. We discuss in detail the analysis of the simulation data and the criteria that allow one to judge the appropriateness of either an FTE or a classical FP equation as a transport model.

  14. Particle Acceleration and Fractional Transport in Turbulent Reconnection

    Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2017-11-01

    We consider a large-scale environment of turbulent reconnection that is fragmented into a number of randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs), and we statistically analyze the acceleration of particles within this environment. We address two important cases of acceleration mechanisms when particles interact with the UCS: (a) electric field acceleration and (b) acceleration by reflection at contracting islands. Electrons and ions are accelerated very efficiently, attaining an energy distribution of power-law shape with an index 1–2, depending on the acceleration mechanism. The transport coefficients in energy space are estimated from test-particle simulation data, and we show that the classical Fokker–Planck (FP) equation fails to reproduce the simulation results when the transport coefficients are inserted into it and it is solved numerically. The cause for this failure is that the particles perform Levy flights in energy space, while the distributions of the energy increments exhibit power-law tails. We then use the fractional transport equation (FTE) derived by Isliker et al., whose parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives are inferred from the simulation data, and solving the FTE numerically, we show that the FTE successfully reproduces the kinetic energy distribution of the test particles. We discuss in detail the analysis of the simulation data and the criteria that allow one to judge the appropriateness of either an FTE or a classical FP equation as a transport model.

  15. Energy balance in current sheets: From Petschek to gravity driven reconnection

    Mercier, C.; Heyvaerts, J.

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown earlier that energy balance processes play a very important role in the determination of the reconnection regime in the central diffusive region of a steady Petschek flow (usually considered elsewhere as isothermal and incompressible): as a consequence of the plasma thermal properties, abrupt transitions in the reconnection regime may occur for special external conditions. The regime becomes then a dynamical one, and it was suggested that onset of plasma microturbulence may result and act as a primary triggering mechanism in solar flares. In this paper we will reexamine the problem of onset of such dynamical transition and conclude that plasma microturbulence does not appear in a straightforward way. However it is possible that the canonical Petschek regime may evolute into a new one in which the dissipative sheet is no longer infinitesimal with respect to the dimensions of the structure, and in which gravity plays an important role. Flare triggering, if related to the reconnection regime, must then proceed by more complex processes, possibly related to tearing mode dynamics, or to more global properties of the magnetic structure of the active region. (orig.)

  16. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    S. Kasahara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  17. "Diffusion" region of magnetic reconnection: electron orbits and the phase space mixing

    Kropotkin, Alexey P.

    2018-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of electrons in the vicinity of magnetic field neutral lines during magnetic reconnection, deep inside the diffusion region where the electron motion is nonadiabatic, has been numerically analyzed. Test particle orbits are examined in that vicinity, for a prescribed planar two-dimensional magnetic field configuration and with a prescribed uniform electric field in the neutral line direction. On electron orbits, a strong particle acceleration occurs due to the reconnection electric field. Local instability of orbits in the neighborhood of the neutral line is pointed out. It combines with finiteness of orbits due to particle trapping by the magnetic field, and this should lead to the effect of mixing in the phase space, and the appearance of dynamical chaos. The latter may presumably be viewed as a mechanism producing finite conductivity in collisionless plasma near the neutral line. That conductivity is necessary to provide violation of the magnetic field frozen-in condition, i.e., for magnetic reconnection to occur in that region.

  18. Observational Evidence of Magnetic Reconnection for Brightenings and Transition Region Arcades in IRIS Observations

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui; Feng, Li [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195, Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Grubecka, Michalina, E-mail: nj.lihui@pmo.ac.cn [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, Kopernika 11, 51-622, Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-02-10

    By using a new method of forced-field extrapolation, we study the emerging flux region AR11850 observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamical Observatory . Our results suggest that the bright points (BPs) in this emerging region exhibit responses in lines formed from the upper photosphere to the transition region, which have relatively similar morphologies. They have an oscillation of several minutes according to the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data at 1600 and 1700 Å. The ratio between the BP intensities measured in 1600 and 1700 Å filtergrams reveals that these BPs are heated differently. Our analysis of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetic field and the corresponding topology in AR11850 indicates that the BPs are located at the polarity inversion line and most of them are related to magnetic reconnection or cancelation. The heating of the BPs might be different due to different magnetic topology. We find that the heating due to the magnetic cancelation would be stronger than the case of bald patch reconnection. The plasma density rather than the magnetic field strength could play a dominant role in this process. Based on physical conditions in the lower atmosphere, our forced-field extrapolation shows consistent results between the bright arcades visible in slit-jaw image 1400 Å and the extrapolated field lines that pass through the bald patches. It provides reliable observational evidence for testing the mechanism of magnetic reconnection for the BPs and arcades in the emerging flux region, as proposed in simulation studies.

  19. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  20. Magnetic reconnection and self-organized plasma systems

    Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the recent results from the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) at PPPL are discussed along with their relationship to observations from solar flares, the magnetosphere, and current carrying pinch discharges such as tokamaks, reversed field pinches, spheromaks and field reversed configurations. It is found that the reconnection speed decreases as the angle of merging field lines decreases, consistent with the well-established observation in the dayside magnetosphere. This observation can also provide a qualitative interpretation of a generally observed trend in pinch plasmas, namely that magnetic field diffuses (or reconnects) faster when magnetic shear is larger. A recently conceived research project, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques), will also be discussed. (author)

  1. Electron-Scale Measurements of Magnetic Reconnection in Space

    Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Phan, T. D.; Chen, L.-J.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Argall, M. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  2. Electron and ion distribution functions in magnetopause reconnection

    Wang, S.; Chen, L. J.; Bessho, N.; Hesse, M.; Kistler, L. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Mouikis, C.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate electron and ion velocity distribution functions in dayside magnetopause reconnection events observed by the Cluster and MMS spacecraft. The goal is to build a spatial map of electron and ion distribution features to enable the indication of the spacecraft location in the reconnection structure, and to understand plasma energization processes. Distribution functions, together with electromagnetic field structures, plasma densities, and bulk velocities, are organized and compared with particle-in-cell simulation results to indicate the proximities to the reconnection X-line. Anisotropic features in the distributions of magnetospheric- and magnetosheath- origin electrons at different locations in the reconnection inflow and exhaust are identified. In particular, parallel electron heating is observed in both the magnetosheath and magnetosphere inflow regions. Possible effects of the guide field strength, waves, and upstream density and temperature asymmetries on the distribution features will be discussed.

  3. Slipping magnetic reconnection during an X-class solar flare observed by SDO/AIA

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Karlický, M., E-mail: J.Dudik@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mjanvier@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2014-04-01

    We present SDO/AIA observations of an eruptive X-class flare of 2012 July 12, and compare its evolution with the predictions of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation. We focus on the dynamics of flare loops that are seen to undergo slipping reconnection during the flare. In the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 131 Å observations, lower parts of 10 MK flare loops exhibit an apparent motion with velocities of several tens of km s{sup –1} along the developing flare ribbons. In the early stages of the flare, flare ribbons consist of compact, localized bright transition-region emission from the footpoints of the flare loops. A differential emission measure analysis shows that the flare loops have temperatures up to the formation of Fe XXIV. A series of very long, S-shaped loops erupt, leading to a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO. The observed dynamics are compared with the evolution of magnetic structures in the 'standard solar flare model in 3D.' This model matches the observations well, reproducing the apparently slipping flare loops, S-shaped erupting loops, and the evolution of flare ribbons. All of these processes are explained via 3D reconnection mechanisms resulting from the expansion of a torus-unstable flux rope. The AIA observations and the numerical model are complemented by radio observations showing a noise storm in the metric range. Dm-drifting pulsation structures occurring during the eruption indicate plasmoid ejection and enhancement of the reconnection rate. The bursty nature of radio emission shows that the slipping reconnection is still intermittent, although it is observed to persist for more than an hour.

  4. Comment on Lockwood and Davis, "On the longitudinal extent of magnetopause reconnection pulses"

    W. J. Heikkila

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Lockwood and Davis (1996 present a concise description of magnetopause reconnection pulses, with the claimed support of three types of observations: (1 flux transfer events (FTE, (2 poleward-moving auroral forms on the dayside, and (3 steps in cusp ion dispersion characteristics. However, there are a number of errors and misconceptions in the paper that make their conclusions untenable. They do not properly take account of the fact that the relevant processes operate in the presence of a plasma. They fail to notice that the source of energy (a dynamo with E · J<0 must be close to the region of dissipation (the electrical load with E · J>0 in transient phenomena, since energy (or information cannot travel faster than the group velocity of waves in the medium (here the Alfvén velocity VA. In short, Lockwood and Davis use the wrong contour in their attempt to evaluate the electromotive force (emf. This criticism goes beyond their article: a dynamo is not included in the usual definition of reconnection, only the reconnection load. Without an explicit source of energy in the assumed model, the idea of magnetic reconnection is improperly posed. Recent research has carried out a superposed epoch analysis of conditions near the dayside magnetopause and has found the dynamo and the load, both within the magnetopause current sheet. Since the magnetopause current is from dawn to dusk, the sign of E · J reflects the sign of the electric field. The electric field reverses, within the magnetopause; this can be discovered by an application of Lenz's law using the concept of erosion of the magnetopause. The net result is plasma transfer across the magnetopause to feed the low latitude boundary layer, at least partly on closed field lines, and viscous interaction as the mechanism by which solar wind plasma couples to the magnetosphere.

  5. Room and ultrahigh temperature structure-mechanical property relationships of tungsten alloys formed by field assisted sintering technique (FAST)

    Browning, Paul N.; Alagic, Sven [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Kulkarni, Anil [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Matson, Lawrence [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States); Singh, Jogender, E-mail: jxs46@arl.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Tungsten based alloys have become of critical importance in a number of applications including plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, rocket nozzles for aerospace applications, and in kinetic energy penetrators in the defense industry. Formation of components for these uses by powder metallurgical techniques has proven challenging, due to tungsten's relatively poor sinterability. Here we report the use of field assisted sintering technique (FAST) to produce high density, fine grain alloys with mechanical properties comparable or superior to that of components produced by conventional techniques. Alloys of pure tungsten, W-3 vol%TiC, W-5 vol%TiC, and W-10 vol%Ta were synthesized at 2100 °C, 35 MPa for 25 min using FAST. Microstructural characterization revealed effective reduction of grain size with TiC addition and preferential diffusion of oxygen into the center of tantalum particles in tantalum containing alloys. Tensile testing of alloys revealed TiC addition to W resulted in substantially improved ultimate tensile strength at the cost of ductility in comparison at temperatures up to 1926 °C (3500 °F) however this strengthening effect was lost at 2204 °C (4000 °F). Addition of 10 vol%Ta to W resulted in reduced hardness at room temperature, but substantially increased yield strength at the cost of slightly reduced ductility at 1926 °C and 2204 °C.

  6. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    Goetz, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The safety factor within a tokamak plasma has been measured during a major disruption. During the disruption, the central safety factor jumps from below one to above one, while the total current is unchanged. This implies that total reconnection has occurred. This observation is in contract to the absence of total reconnection observed during a sawtooth oscillation in the same device. 11 refs., 6 figs

  7. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Fast – Fired Clinker Tiles Based on Wierzbka I Raw Material

    Gajek M.; Rapacz-Kmita A.; Dudek M.; Partyka J.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of research on microstructural and mechanical properties of floor tiles clinker manufactured on the basis of Wierzbka I raw material, which is part of the deposit Wierzbka, near Suchedniów. Wierzbka I clay was added in various volume fractions to the standard tile compositions used in industrial practice. The samples were pressed in a range of from 21 MPa to 42 MPa and fired in the laboratory furnace at 1130°C to 1190°C. Selected compositions were pressed at 28 MP...

  8. A generalized two-fluid picture of non-driven collisionless reconnection and its relation to whistler waves

    Yoon, Young Dae

    2017-10-01

    A generalized, intuitive two-fluid picture of 2D non-driven collisionless magnetic reconnection is described using results from a full-3D numerical simulation. The relevant two-fluid equations simplify to the condition that the flux associated with canonical circulation Q =me ∇ ×ue +qe B is perfectly frozen into the electron fluid. Q is the curl of P =meue +qe A , which is the electron canonical momenrum. Since ∇ . Q = 0 , the Q flux tubes are incompressible and so have a fixed volume. Because they are perfectly frozen into the electron fluid, the Q flux tubes cannot reconnect. Following the behavior of these Q flux tubes provides an intuitive insight into 2D collisionless reconnection of B . In the reconnection geometry, a small perturbation to the central electron current sheet effectively brings a localized segment of a Q flux tube towards the X-point. This flux tube segment is convected downwards with the central electron current, effectively stretching the flux tube, decreasing its cross-section to maintain a fixed volume and so increasing the magnitude of Q . Also, because Q is the sum of the electron vorticity and the magnetic field, the two terms may change in such a way that one term becomes smaller while the other becomes larger while preserving constant Q flux. This allows magnetic reconnection, which is a conversion of magnetic field into particle velocity, to occur without any dissipation mechanism. The entire process has positive feedback with no restoring mechanism and therefore is an instability. The Q motion provides an interpretation for other phenomena as well, such as spiked central electron current filaments. The simulated reconnection rate was found to agree with a previous analytical calculation having the same geometry. Energy analysis shows that the magnetic energy is converted and propagated mainly in the form of the Poynting flux, while helicity analysis shows that the canonical helicity ∫ P . QdV as a whole must be considered when

  9. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na 2 O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na 2 O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  10. Fast determination of the current loss mechanisms in textured crystalline Si-based solar cells

    Nakane, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    A quite general device analysis method that allows the direct evaluation of optical and recombination losses in crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based solar cells has been developed. By applying this technique, the current loss mechanisms of the state-of-the-art solar cells with ˜20% efficiencies have been revealed. In the established method, the optical and electrical losses are characterized from the analysis of an experimental external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum with very low computational cost. In particular, we have performed the EQE analyses of textured c-Si solar cells by employing the experimental reflectance spectra obtained directly from the actual devices while using flat optical models without any fitting parameters. We find that the developed method provides almost perfect fitting to EQE spectra reported for various textured c-Si solar cells, including c-Si heterojunction solar cells, a dopant-free c-Si solar cell with a MoOx layer, and an n-type passivated emitter with rear locally diffused solar cell. The modeling of the recombination loss further allows the extraction of the minority carrier diffusion length and surface recombination velocity from the EQE analysis. Based on the EQE analysis results, the current loss mechanisms in different types of c-Si solar cells are discussed.

  11. MMS Observation of Magnetic Reconnection in the Turbulent Magnetosheath

    Vörös, Z.; Yordanova, E.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Li, W.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Fischer, D.; Vaivads, A.; Eriksson, E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G.; Ergun, R. E.; Leitner, M.; Leubner, M. P.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C.; Giles, B. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we use the full armament of the MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale) spacecraft to study magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath downstream of a quasi-parallel bow shock. Contrarily to the magnetopause and magnetotail cases, only a few observations of reconnection in the magnetosheath have been reported. The case study in this paper presents, for the first time, both fluid-scale and kinetic-scale signatures of an ongoing reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. The spacecraft are crossing the reconnection inflow and outflow regions and the ion diffusion region (IDR). Inside the reconnection outflows D shape ion distributions are observed. Inside the IDR mixing of ion populations, crescent-like velocity distributions and ion accelerations are observed. One of the spacecraft skims the outer region of the electron diffusion region, where parallel electric fields, energy dissipation/conversion, electron pressure tensor agyrotropy, electron temperature anisotropy, and electron accelerations are observed. Some of the difficulties of the observations of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasma are also outlined.

  12. Current disruption and its spreading in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg; Dorfman, Seth; Ji, Hantao; Surjalal Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent magnetic reconnection experiments (MRX) [Dorfman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 233 (2013)] have disclosed current disruption in the absence of an externally imposed guide field. During current disruption in MRX, both the current density and the total observed out-of-reconnection-plane current drop simultaneous with a rise in out-of-reconnection-plane electric field. Here, we show that current disruption is an intrinsic property of the dynamic formation of an X-point configuration of magnetic field in magnetic reconnection, independent of the model used for plasma description and of the dimensionality (2D or 3D) of reconnection. An analytic expression for the current drop is derived from Ampere's Law. Its predictions are verified by 2D and 3D electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) simulations. Three dimensional EMHD simulations show that the current disruption due to localized magnetic reconnection spreads along the direction of the electron drift velocity with a speed which depends on the wave number of the perturbation. The implications of these results for MRX are discussed

  13. Imaging Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in a Solar Eruptive Flare

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Sun, X.; Qiu, J.; Priest, E. R.

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic events in the solar atmosphere. It is widely accepted that flares are powered by magnetic reconnection in the corona. An eruptive flare is usually accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, both of which are probably driven by the eruption of a magnetic flux rope (MFR). Here we report an eruptive flare on 2016 March 23 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations exhibit the clear rise and eruption of an MFR. In particular, the observations reveal solid evidence of magnetic reconnection from both the corona and chromosphere during the flare. Moreover, weak reconnection is observed before the start of the flare. We find that the preflare weak reconnection is of tether-cutting type and helps the MFR to rise slowly. Induced by a further rise of the MFR, strong reconnection occurs in the rise phases of the flare, which is temporally related to the MFR eruption. We also find that the magnetic reconnection is more of 3D-type in the early phase, as manifested in a strong-to-weak shear transition in flare loops, and becomes more 2D-like in the later phase, as shown by the apparent rising motion of an arcade of flare loops.

  14. ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN WEAKLY IONIZED CHROMOSPHERIC PLASMAS

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-01

    Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase

  15. MAVEN observations of magnetic reconnection in the Martian magnetotail

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Larson, D. E.; Brain, D. A.; Andersson, L.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Collinson, G.; Livi, R.; Hara, T.; Ruhunusiri, S.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that changes magnetic field topology and converts magnetic energy into particle energy. Although reconnection may play a key role in controlling ion escape processes at Mars, the fundamental properties of local physics and global dynamics of magnetic reconnection in the Martian environment remain unclear owing to the lack of simultaneous measurements of ions, electrons, and magnetic fields by modern instrumentation. Here we present comprehensive MAVEN observations of reconnection signatures in the near-Mars magnetotail. The observed reconnection signatures include (i) Marsward bulk flows of H+, O+, and O2+ ions, (ii) counterstreaming ion beams along the current sheet normal direction, (iii) Hall magnetic fields, and (iv) trapped electrons with two-sided loss cones. The measured velocity distribution functions of different ion species exhibit mass-dependent characteristics which are qualitatively consistent with previous multi-species kinetic simulations and terrestrial tail observations. The MAVEN observations demonstrate that the near-Mars magnetotail provides a unique environment for studying multi-ion reconnection.

  16. Imaging Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in a Solar Eruptive Flare

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Sun, X. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Qiu, J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Priest, E. R., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic events in the solar atmosphere. It is widely accepted that flares are powered by magnetic reconnection in the corona. An eruptive flare is usually accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, both of which are probably driven by the eruption of a magnetic flux rope (MFR). Here we report an eruptive flare on 2016 March 23 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations exhibit the clear rise and eruption of an MFR. In particular, the observations reveal solid evidence of magnetic reconnection from both the corona and chromosphere during the flare. Moreover, weak reconnection is observed before the start of the flare. We find that the preflare weak reconnection is of tether-cutting type and helps the MFR to rise slowly. Induced by a further rise of the MFR, strong reconnection occurs in the rise phases of the flare, which is temporally related to the MFR eruption. We also find that the magnetic reconnection is more of 3D-type in the early phase, as manifested in a strong-to-weak shear transition in flare loops, and becomes more 2D-like in the later phase, as shown by the apparent rising motion of an arcade of flare loops.

  17. ADVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA INTO THE HELIOSPHERE ACROSS THE RECONNECTING HELIOPAUSE

    Strumik, M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Czechowski, A.; Macek, W. M.; Ratkiewicz, R.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss results of magnetohydrodynamical model simulations of plasma dynamics in the proximity of the heliopause (HP). The model is shown to fit details of the magnetic field variations observed by the Voyager 1 spacecraft during the transition from the heliosphere to the local interstellar medium (LISM). We propose an interpretation of magnetic field structures observed by Voyager 1 in terms of fine-scale physical processes. Our simulations reveal an effective transport mechanism of relatively dense LISM plasma across the reconnecting HP into the heliosphere. The mechanism is associated with annihilation of magnetic sectors in the heliospheric plasma near the HP

  18. Mechanical behavior of a fast reactor core: Application of the 3D codes to SUPER PHENIX 1

    Bernard, A.; Masoni, P.; Dorsselaere, J.P. van

    1983-01-01

    The series of the 3-dimensional mechanical codes of a fast reactor core was used for the first time within the framework of a design study of an industrial reactor: SUPER-PHENIX 1. These codes are the following ones: - ARGOH which calculates the behavior of an isolated subassembly. - HARMONIE which calculates the core mechanical equilibrium - TRACAR which yields a graphic visualization of HARMONIE results, and calculates the handling forces and support reactions - HARMOREA which calculates the reactivity variations between given equilibrium states (for instance: pads effect and diagrid effect); now at the end of its development. The calculations were performed on 1/3 of the SPX1 core. Their purpose is double: - on the one hand, to check design criteria, and provide the loadings for the subassembly mechanical design studies; on the other hand, to evaluate the reactivity effects, related to the horizontal core deformations, and useful for operation and safety studies. The results of these calculations showed that the design criteria were verified for the contractual lifetime of the subassemblies. (orig.)

  19. Self-reinforcing process of the reconnection electric field in the electron diffusion region and onset of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Lu Quanming; Lu San; Huang Can; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui

    2013-01-01

    The onset of collisionless magnetic reconnection is considered to be controlled by electron dynamics in the electron diffusion region, where the reconnection electric field is balanced mainly by the off-diagonal electron pressure tensor term. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are employed in this paper to investigate the self-reinforcing process of the reconnection electric field in the electron diffusion region, which is found to grow exponentially. A theoretical model is proposed to demonstrate such a process in the electron diffusion region. In addition the reconnection electric field in the pileup region, which is balanced mainly by the electromotive force term, is also found to grow exponentially and its growth rate is twice that in the electron diffusion region. (paper)

  20. An Upgrade Pinning Block: A Mechanical Practical Aid for Fast Labelling of the Insect Specimens.

    Ghafouri Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Ghafouri Moghaddam, Mostafa; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Mokhtari, Azizollah

    2017-01-01

    A new mechanical innovation is described to deal with standard labelling of dried specimens on triangular cards and/or pinned specimens in personal and public collections. It works quickly, precisely, and easily and is very useful for maintaining label uniformity in collections. The tools accurately sets the position of labels in the shortest possible time. This tools has advantages including rapid processing, cost effectiveness, light weight, and high accuracy, compared to conventional methods. It is fully customisable, compact, and does not require specialist equipment to assemble. Conventional methods generally require locating holes on the pinning block surface when labelling with a resulting risk to damage of the specimens. Insects of different orders can be labelled by this simple and effective tool.

  1. Mechanical properties test data of Alloy 718 for liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications

    Korth, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical property test data are reported for Alloy 718 with two heat treatments: conventional heat treatment (CHT) for base metal and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) heat treatment (IHT) for base and weld metal. Tests were conducted in air from 24 to 704 degree C and include elastic properties (Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio), tensile properties, creep-rupture properties, fatigue properties, creep-fatigue properties, and Charpy impact behavior. Effects of long term thermal aging at 538, 593, 649, and 704 degree C for times to 25,000 h are also reported for CHT material (tensile, creep-rupture, fatigue, and Charpy), and IHT material (tensile, and Charpy). 18 refs., 63 figs., 36 tabs

  2. THE ROLE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONALLY SUPPORTED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  3. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  4. Convergent mechanisms favor fast amyloid formation in two lambda 6a Ig light chain mutants.

    Valdés-García, Gilberto; Millán-Pacheco, César; Pastor, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients. Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation. To look into the structural and dynamical differences in the native state of these proteins, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Despite the structural similarity of the germline protein and the mutants, we found differences in their dynamical signatures that explain the mutants' increased tendency to form amyloids. The contact network alterations caused by the mutations, though different, converge in affecting two anti-aggregation motifs present in light chain variable domains, suggesting a different starting point for aggregation in lambda chains compared to kappa chains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Global dynamics of magnetic reconnection in VINETA II

    Bohlin, Hannes

    2014-12-12

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process where a change in field line connectivity occurs in a current sheet at the boundary between regions of opposing magnetic fields. In this process, energy stored in the magnetic field is converted into kinetic and thermal energy, which provides a source of plasma heating and energetic particles. Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in many space and laboratory plasma phenomena, e.g. solar flares, Earth's magnetopause dynamics and instabilities in tokamaks. A new linear device (VINETAII) has been designed for the study of the fundamental physical processes involved in magnetic reconnection. The plasma parameters are such that magnetic reconnection occurs in a collision-dominated regime. A plasma gun creates a localized current sheet, and magnetic reconnection is driven by modulating the plasma current and the magnetic field structure. The plasma current is shown to flow in response to a combination of an externally induced electric field and electrostatic fields in the plasma, and is highly affected by axial sheath boundary conditions. Further, the current is changed by an additional axial magnetic field (guide field), and the current sheet geometry was demonstrated to be set by a combination of magnetic mapping and cross-field plasma diffusion. With increasing distance from the plasma gun, magnetic mapping results in an increase of the current sheet length and a decrease of the width. The control parameter is the ratio of the guide field to the reconnection magnetic field strength. Cross-field plasma diffusion leads to a radial expansion of the current sheet at low guide fields. Plasma currents are also observed in the azimuthal plane and were found to originate from a combination of the field-aligned current component and the diamagnetic current generated by steep in-plane pressure gradients in combination with the guide field. The reconnection rate, defined via the inductive electric field, is shown to be

  6. OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AT A 3D NULL POINT ASSOCIATED WITH A SOLAR ERUPTION

    Sun, J. Q.; Yang, K.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic null has long been recognized as a special structure serving as a preferential site for magnetic reconnection (MR). However, the direct observational study of MR at null-points is largely lacking. Here, we show the observations of MR around a magnetic null associated with an eruption that resulted in an M1.7 flare and a coronal mass ejection. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites X-ray profile of the flare exhibited two peaks at ∼02:23 UT and ∼02:40 UT on 2012 November 8, respectively. Based on the imaging observations, we find that the first and also primary X-ray peak was originated from MR in the current sheet (CS) underneath the erupting magnetic flux rope (MFR). On the other hand, the second and also weaker X-ray peak was caused by MR around a null point located above the pre-eruption MFR. The interaction of the null point and the erupting MFR can be described as a two-step process. During the first step, the erupting and fast expanding MFR passed through the null point, resulting in a significant displacement of the magnetic field surrounding the null. During the second step, the displaced magnetic field started to move back, resulting in a converging inflow and subsequently the MR around the null. The null-point reconnection is a different process from the current sheet reconnection in this flare; the latter is the cause of the main peak of the flare, while the former is the cause of the secondary peak of the flare and the conspicuous high-lying cusp structure.

  7. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  8. Modeling the effects of fast-neutron irradiation on the subsequent mechanical behaviour of type 316 stainless steel

    Dimelfi, R.J.; Kramer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model describing the subsequent mechanical behaviour of type 316 stainless steel exposed to a fast reactor environment is presented. A constitutive law for the flow stress, based on the Voce equation, is introduced. The strain-rate and temperature-dependence of the flow stress is formulated in this equation; and it is assumed that all contributions to changes in the flow stress, at a given temperature and strain-rate, are manifested in a single hardness parameter. Physically-based models for work hardening, irradition hardening, and irradiation softening are presented. By combining the constitutive law with the relations describing the hardness, a system of equations is presented which describes the mechanical response of the material after specified neutron irradiation and thermal exposure. When the model is used to analyze flow stress data on unirradiated material as well as material irradiated over a wide range of fluence and temperature, agreement between predicted and observed behaviour is shown, supporting the assumption of a single flow law incorporating a single hardness parameter. (orig.)

  9. IRRADIATION CREEP AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC STEELS IRRADIATED IN THE BN-350 FAST REACTOR

    Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, A. M.; Budylkin, N. I.; Mironova, E. G.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.; Loltukhovsky, A. G.; Bochvar, A. A.; Garner, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Russian ferritic/martensitic steels EP-450 and EP-823 were irradiated to 20-60 dpa in the BN-350 fast reactor in the form of pressurized creep tubes and small rings used for mechanical property tests. Data derived from these steels serves to enhance our understanding of the general behavior of this class of steels. It appears that these steels exhibit behavior that is very consistent with that of Western steels. Swelling is relatively low at high neutron exposure and confined to temperatures less then 420 degrees C, but may be camouflaged somewhat by precipitation-related densification. The irradiation creep studies confirm that the creep compliance of F/M steels is about one-half that of austenitic steels, and that the loss of strength at test temperatures above 500 degrees C is a problem generic to all F/M steels. This conclusion is supported by post-irradiation measurement of short-term mechanical properties. At temperatures below 500 degrees C both steels retain their high strength (yield stress 0.2=550-600 MPa), but at higher test temperatures a sharp decrease of strength properties occurs. However, the irradiated steels still retain high post-irradiation ductility at test temperatures in the range of 20-700 degrees C.

  10. The effect of fast and slow motor unit activation on whole-muscle mechanical performance: the size principle may not pose a mechanical paradox.

    Holt, N C; Wakeling, J M; Biewener, A A

    2014-05-22

    The output of skeletal muscle can be varied by selectively recruiting different motor units. However, our knowledge of muscle function is largely derived from muscle in which all motor units are activated. This discrepancy may limit our understanding of in vivo muscle function. Hence, this study aimed to characterize the mechanical properties of muscle with different motor unit activation. We determined the isometric properties and isotonic force-velocity relationship of rat plantaris muscles in situ with all of the muscle active, 30% of the muscle containing predominately slower motor units active or 20% of the muscle containing predominately faster motor units active. There was a significant effect of active motor unit type on isometric force rise time (p motor units were active than when either fast or slow motor units were selectively activated. We propose this is due to the greater relative effects of factors such as series compliance and muscle resistance to shortening during sub-maximal contractions. The findings presented here suggest that recruitment according to the size principle, where slow motor units are activated first and faster ones recruited as demand increases, may not pose a mechanical paradox, as has been previously suggested.

  11. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  12. A novel role of dendritic gap junction and mechanisms underlying its interaction with thalamocortical conductance in fast spiking inhibitory neurons

    Sun Qian-Quan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the roles of dendritic gap junctions (GJs of inhibitory interneurons in modulating temporal properties of sensory induced responses in sensory cortices. Electrophysiological dual patch-clamp recording and computational simulation methods were used in combination to examine a novel role of GJs in sensory mediated feed-forward inhibitory responses in barrel cortex layer IV and its underlying mechanisms. Results Under physiological conditions, excitatory post-junctional potentials (EPJPs interact with thalamocortical (TC inputs within an unprecedented few milliseconds (i.e. over 200 Hz to enhance the firing probability and synchrony of coupled fast-spiking (FS cells. Dendritic GJ coupling allows fourfold increase in synchrony and a significant enhancement in spike transmission efficacy in excitatory spiny stellate cells. The model revealed the following novel mechanisms: 1 rapid capacitive current (Icap underlies the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels; 2 there was less than 2 milliseconds in which the Icap underlying TC input and EPJP was coupled effectively; 3 cells with dendritic GJs had larger input conductance and smaller membrane response to weaker inputs; 4 synchrony in inhibitory networks by GJ coupling leads to reduced sporadic lateral inhibition and increased TC transmission efficacy. Conclusion Dendritic GJs of neocortical inhibitory networks can have very powerful effects in modulating the strength and the temporal properties of sensory induced feed-forward inhibitory and excitatory responses at a very high frequency band (>200 Hz. Rapid capacitive currents are identified as main mechanisms underlying interaction between two transient synaptic conductances.

  13. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    R.P. Kelley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a 252Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the 4He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the 4He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For 252Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a 252Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  14. Statistics of the tripolar electrostatic solitary waves within magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail

    Li, S. Y.; Zhang, S. F.; Cai, H.; Chen, X. Q.; Deng, X. H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we report the observations and statistical characteristics of tripolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) along the plasma sheet boundary layer near the magnetic reconnection X line in the near-Earth magnetotail. Within reconnection diffusion region, the tripolar ESWs are ample and are continuously observed during one burst interval (8.75 s) of the Geotail/WaveForm Capture in the neutral plasma sheet where β > 1 on 10:20 UT, 2 February 1996. The tripolar ESW is suggested to be one kind of steady-going solitary structure. More than 200 waveforms with clear tripolar characteristics are differentiated for statistical analysis, and result shows that (1) their amplitude is within 100->500 μV/m, with an average amplitude of about 254 μV/m; (2) the pulse width of the tripolar ESWs is 0.5-1.0 ms, with an average value of about 0.75 ms; (3) it is asymmetrical in both the amplitude and pulse width of the tripolar ESWs: most part of the tripolar ESWs (about 76.5%) are asymmetrical in the amplitude of one hump and the other one, and more than 75% (about 177 amount the 236 waveforms) of the tripolar ESWs are asymmetrical in the time duration of the two humps in the waveform; (4) most of the tripolar ESWs are with the potential humps of 10-60 mV, small ratio of them with potential humps larger than 100 mV. The tripolar ESWs with net potential drop of about 10-50 mV can be interpreted as "weak" double layers. The possible generation mechanism of tripolar ESWs and their role in reconnection are discussed by studying the particle distribution during which the tripolar ESWs are continuously observed. The observation of tripolar ESWs presents evidence of complex structure of electron holes within the reconnection diffusion region and is helpful to the understanding of the energy release process of reconnection.

  15. Evidence for transient, local ion foreshocks caused by dayside magnetopause reconnection

    Y. Pfau-Kempf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a scenario resulting in time-dependent behaviour of the bow shock and transient, local ion reflection under unchanging solar wind conditions. Dayside magnetopause reconnection produces flux transfer events driving fast-mode wave fronts in the magnetosheath. These fronts push out the bow shock surface due to their increased downstream pressure. The resulting bow shock deformations lead to a configuration favourable to localized ion reflection and thus the formation of transient, travelling foreshock-like field-aligned ion beams. This is identified in two-dimensional global magnetospheric hybrid-Vlasov simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere performed using the Vlasiator model (http://vlasiator.fmi.fi. We also present observational data showing the occurrence of dayside reconnection and flux transfer events at the same time as Geotail observations of transient foreshock-like field-aligned ion beams. The spacecraft is located well upstream of the foreshock edge and the bow shock, during a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field and in the absence of any solar wind or interplanetary magnetic field perturbations. This indicates the formation of such localized ion foreshocks.

  16. Synergy of Stochastic and Systematic Energization of Plasmas during Turbulent Reconnection

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The important characteristic of turbulent reconnection is that it combines large-scale magnetic disturbances (δ B/B∼ 1) with randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs). Many well-known nonlinear MHD structures (strong turbulence, current sheet(s), shock(s)) lead asymptotically to the state of turbulent reconnection. We analyze in this article, for the first time, the energization of electrons and ions in a large-scale environment that combines large-amplitude disturbances propagating with sub-Alfvénic speed with UCSs. The magnetic disturbances interact stochastically (second-order Fermi) with the charged particles and play a crucial role in the heating of the particles, while the UCSs interact systematically (first-order Fermi) and play a crucial role in the formation of the high-energy tail. The synergy of stochastic and systematic acceleration provided by the mixture of magnetic disturbances and UCSs influences the energetics of the thermal and nonthermal particles, the power-law index, and the length of time the particles remain inside the energy release volume. We show that this synergy can explain the observed very fast and impulsive particle acceleration and the slightly delayed formation of a superhot particle population.

  17. Reconnection-driven Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in a Simulated Coronal-hole Jet

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Roberts, Merrill A. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T., E-mail: vadim.uritsky@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray jets occur frequently in magnetically open coronal holes on the Sun, especially at high solar latitudes. Some of these jets are observed by white-light coronagraphs as they propagate through the outer corona toward the inner heliosphere, and it has been proposed that they give rise to microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. To predict and understand the signatures of coronal-hole jets, we have performed a detailed statistical analysis of such a jet simulated by an adaptively refined magnetohydrodynamics model. The results confirm the generation and persistence of three-dimensional, reconnection-driven magnetic turbulence in the simulation. We calculate the spatial correlations of magnetic fluctuations within the jet and find that they agree best with the Müller–Biskamp scaling model including intermittent current sheets of various sizes coupled via hydrodynamic turbulent cascade. The anisotropy of the magnetic fluctuations and the spatial orientation of the current sheets are consistent with an ensemble of nonlinear Alfvén waves. These properties also reflect the overall collimated jet structure imposed by the geometry of the reconnecting magnetic field. A comparison with Ulysses observations shows that turbulence in the jet wake is in quantitative agreement with that in the fast solar wind.

  18. On the instability of a quasiequilibrium current sheet and the onset of impulsive bursty reconnection

    Skender, Marina; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional reconnecting current sheet is studied numerically in the magnetohydrodynamic approach. Different simulation setups are employed in order to follow the evolution of the formed current sheet in diverse configurations: two types of initial equilibria, Harris and force-free, two types of boundary conditions, periodic and open, with uniform and nonuniform grid set, respectively. All the simulated cases are found to exhibit qualitatively the same behavior in which a current sheet evolves slowly through a series of quasiequilibria; eventually it fragments and enters a phase of fast impulsive bursty reconnection. In order to gain more insight on the nature and characteristics of the instability taking place, physical characteristics of the simulated current sheet are related to its geometrical properties. At the adopted Lundquist number of S=10 4 and Reynolds number R=10 4 , the ratio of the length to width (aspect ratio) of the formed current sheet is observed to increase slowly in time up to a maximum value at which it fragments. Moreover, additional turbulence applied to the system is shown to exhibit the same qualitative steps, but with the sooner onset of the fragmentation and at smaller aspect ratio.

  19. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  20. Observations of significant flux closure by dual lobe reconnection

    S. M. Imber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an interval of dual lobe reconnection during which interplanetary magnetic field lines are captured by the magnetosphere by reconnecting at high latitudes in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. This event was identified using measurements of the ionospheric convection flow and observations of the aurora using the SuperDARN radars and the IMAGE spacecraft. A cusp spot, characteristic of northward IMF, is clearly visible for a 30 min period enabling the ionospheric footprint of the Northern Hemisphere merging gap to be accurately determined. During the interval a strong burst of sunward flow across the dayside open/closed field line boundary (OCB is observed, which we interpret as the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere following a burst of reconnection. Noon-midnight and dawn-dusk keograms of the aurora show that the polar cap shrinks during the interval indicating that a large amount of flux was closed by the reconnection. Using the SuperDARN potential maps it is possible to calculate that the amount of flux closed during the interval is 0.13 GWb which represents approximately 10% of the pre-existing polar cap. The number of ions captured by the burst of dual lobe reconnection was calculated to be ~2.2×1031, more than sufficient to populate a cold, dense plasma sheet. That a dense plasma sheet was not subsequently observed is discussed in terms of subsequent changes in the IMF.

  1. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  2. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  3. Ion-Scale Structure in Mercury's Magnetopause Reconnection Diffusion Region

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John C.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Poh, Gangkai; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The strength and time dependence of the electric field in a magnetopause diffusion region relate to the rate of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and a planetary magnetic field. Here we use approximately 150 milliseconds measurements of energetic electrons from the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed over Mercury's dayside polar cap boundary (PCB) to infer such small-scale changes in magnetic topology and reconnection rates. We provide the first direct measurement of open magnetic topology in flux transfer events at Mercury, structures thought to account for a significant portion of the open magnetic flux transport throughout the magnetosphere. In addition, variations in PCB latitude likely correspond to intermittent bursts of approximately 0.3 to 3 millivolts per meter reconnection electric fields separated by approximately 5 to10 seconds, resulting in average and peak normalized dayside reconnection rates of approximately 0.02 and approximately 0.2, respectively. These data demonstrate that structure in the magnetopause diffusion region at Mercury occurs at the smallest ion scales relevant to reconnection physics.

  4. An experimental platform for pulsed-power driven magnetic reconnection

    Hare, J. D.; Suttle, L. G.; Lebedev, S. V.; Loureiro, N. F.; Ciardi, A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Clayson, T.; Eardley, S. J.; Garcia, C.; Halliday, J. W. D.; Robinson, T.; Smith, R. A.; Stuart, N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tubman, E. R.

    2018-05-01

    We describe a versatile pulsed-power driven platform for magnetic reconnection experiments, based on the exploding wire arrays driven in parallel [Suttle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 225001 (2016)]. This platform produces inherently magnetised plasma flows for the duration of the generator current pulse (250 ns), resulting in a long-lasting reconnection layer. The layer exists for long enough to allow the evolution of complex processes such as plasmoid formation and movement to be diagnosed by a suite of high spatial and temporal resolution laser-based diagnostics. We can access a wide range of magnetic reconnection regimes by changing the wire material or moving the electrodes inside the wire arrays. We present results with aluminium and carbon wires, in which the parameters of the inflows and the layer that forms are significantly different. By moving the electrodes inside the wire arrays, we change how strongly the inflows are driven. This enables us to study both symmetric reconnection in a range of different regimes and asymmetric reconnection.

  5. Test-electron analysis of the magnetic reconnection topology

    Borgogno, D.; Perona, A.; Grasso, D.

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) investigations of the magnetic reconnection field topology in space and laboratory plasmas have identified the abidance of magnetic coherent structures in the stochastic region, which develop during the nonlinear stage of the reconnection process. Further analytical and numerical analyses highlighted the efficacy of some of these structures in limiting the magnetic transport. The question then arises as to what is the possible role played by these patterns in the dynamics of the plasma particles populating the chaotic region. In order to explore this aspect, we provide a detailed description of the nonlinear 3D magnetic field topology in a collisionless magnetic reconnection event with a strong guide field. In parallel, we study the evolution of a population of test electrons in the guiding-center approximation all along the reconnection process. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear spatial redistribution of the initially thermal electrons and show how the electron dynamics in the stochastic region depends on the sign and on the value of their velocities. While the particles with the highest positive speed populate the coherent current structures that survive in the chaotic sea, the presence of the manifolds calculated in the stochastic region defines the confinement area for the electrons with the largest negative velocity. These results stress the link between the magnetic topology and the electron motion and contribute to the overall picture of a non-stationary fluid magnetic reconnection description in a geometry proper to physical systems where the effects of the curvature can be neglected.

  6. Structure of reconnection boundary layers in incompressible MHD

    Sonnerup, B.U.Oe.; Wang, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The incompressible MHD equations with nonvanishing viscosity and resistivity are simplified by use of the boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and magnetic field in the exit flow regions of magnetic field reconnection configurations when the reconnection rate is small. The conditions are derived under which self-similar solutions exist of the resulting boundary layer equations. For the case of zero viscosity and resistivity, the equations describing such self-similar layers are then solved in terms of quadratures, and the resulting flow and field configurations are described. Symmetric solutions, relevant, for example, to reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, as well as asymmetric solutions, relevant to reconnection at the earth's magnetopause, are found to exist. The nature of the external solutions to which the boundary layer solutions should be matched is discussed briefly, but the actual matching, which is to occur at Alfven-wave characteristic curves in the boundary layer solutions, is not carried out. Finally, it is argued that the solutions obtained may also be used to describe the structure of the intense vortex layers observed to occur at magnetic separatrices in computer simulations and in certain analytical models of the reconnection process

  7. Magnetic Reconnection as Revealed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Phan, T.; Le Contel, O.; Webster, J.; Genestreti, K.; Ergun, R.; Chen, L. J.; Wang, S.; Dorelli, J.; Rager, A. C.; Graham, D.; Gershman, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has completed its prime mission observations and has now entered an extended mission phase. During the two-year prime mission MMS made fundamental advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection as enabled by its unprecedentedly high-resolution plasma and field measurements, which were made from 4 identical spacecraft in tetrahedral formations ranging down to 7 km. The primary objective of MMS is to understand reconnection at the electron scale, and this objective was accomplished by detailed analysis of 32 electron diffusion regions at the dayside magnetopause and a significant number in the magnetotail, which are still being captured and analyzed. Significant interplay between theory and experiment has occurred throughout the mission leading to the discovery of agyrotropic "crescent-shaped" electron velocity-space distributions, which carry the out-of-plane current; the electron pressure tensor divergence, which produces the reconnection electric field; standing oblique whistler waves, which produce intense dissipation in sub-gyroscale regions near the X-line and electron stagnation point; beam-plasma interactions leading to whistler-mode and Langmuir waves; electromagnetic drift waves leading to corrugated magnetopause current sheets, and numerous other new reconnection-related phenomena. In this talk the many new aspects of reconnection discovered by MMS will be placed into context and used to evaluate our current level of understanding of this universally important space plasma phenomenon.

  8. Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions

    Craig, I.J.D.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Watson, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies c H >η, where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular 'separator' component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c H 2 >η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c H 2 >η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is 'head-on' (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced

  9. DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD AND REMOVAL OF MAGNETIC FLUX FROM CLOUDS VIA TURBULENT RECONNECTION

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.; Cho, J.

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion of astrophysical magnetic fields in conducting fluids in the presence of turbulence depends on whether magnetic fields can change their topology via reconnection in highly conducting media. Recent progress in understanding fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence reassures that the magnetic field behavior in computer simulations and turbulent astrophysical environments is similar, as far as magnetic reconnection is concerned. This makes it meaningful to perform MHD simulations of turbulent flows in order to understand the diffusion of magnetic field in astrophysical environments. Our studies of magnetic field diffusion in turbulent medium reveal interesting new phenomena. First of all, our three-dimensional MHD simulations initiated with anti-correlating magnetic field and gaseous density exhibit at later times a de-correlation of the magnetic field and density, which corresponds well to the observations of the interstellar media. While earlier studies stressed the role of either ambipolar diffusion or time-dependent turbulent fluctuations for de-correlating magnetic field and density, we get the effect of permanent de-correlation with one fluid code, i.e., without invoking ambipolar diffusion. In addition, in the presence of gravity and turbulence, our three-dimensional simulations show the decrease of the magnetic flux-to-mass ratio as the gaseous density at the center of the gravitational potential increases. We observe this effect both in the situations when we start with equilibrium distributions of gas and magnetic field and when we follow the evolution of collapsing dynamically unstable configurations. Thus, the process of turbulent magnetic field removal should be applicable both to quasi-static subcritical molecular clouds and cores and violently collapsing supercritical entities. The increase of the gravitational potential as well as the magnetization of the gas increases the segregation of the mass and magnetic flux in the

  10. SPATIAL GROWTH OF CURRENT-DRIVEN INSTABILITY IN RELATIVISTIC ROTATING JETS AND THE SEARCH FOR MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Singh, Chandra B.; Pino, Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal [Department of Astronomy (IAG-USP), University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Mizuno, Yosuke, E-mail: csingh@iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-06-10

    Using the three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code RAISHIN, we investigated the influence of the radial density profile on the spatial development of the current-driven kink instability along magnetized rotating, relativistic jets. For the purposes of our study, we used a nonperiodic computational box, the jet flow is initially established across the computational grid, and a precessional perturbation at the inlet triggers the growth of the kink instability. We studied light and heavy jets with respect to the environment depending on the density profile. Different angular velocity amplitudes have been also tested. The results show the propagation of a helically kinked structure along the jet and a relatively stable configuration for the lighter jets. The jets appear to be collimated by the magnetic field, and the flow is accelerated owing to conversion of electromagnetic into kinetic energy. We also identify regions of high current density in filamentary current sheets, indicative of magnetic reconnection, which are associated with the kink-unstable regions and correlated with the decrease of the sigma parameter of the flow. We discuss the implications of our findings for Poynting-flux-dominated jets in connection with magnetic reconnection processes. We find that fast magnetic reconnection may be driven by the kink-instability turbulence and govern the transformation of magnetic into kinetic energy, thus providing an efficient way to power and accelerate particles in active galactic nucleus and gamma-ray-burst relativistic jets.

  11. Collisionless Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and vortex-induced reconnection in the external region of the Earth magnetotail

    Pegoraro, F; Faganello, M; Califano, F

    2008-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma streaming with a non uniform velocity, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability plays a major role in mixing different plasma regions and in stretching the magnetic field lines leading to the formation of layers with a sheared magnetic field where magnetic field line reconnection can take place. A relevant example is provided by the formation of a mixing layer between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind at low latitudes during northward periods. In the considered configuration, in the presence of a magnetic field nearly perpendicular to the plane defined by the velocity field and its inhomogeneity direction, velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which advects and distorts the magnetic field configuration. If the Alfven velocity associated to the in-plane magnetic field is sufficiently weak with respect to the variation of the fluid velocity in the plasma, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generates fully rolled-up vortices which advect the magnetic field lines into a complex configuration, causing the formation of current layers along the inversion curves of the in-plane magnetic field component. Pairing of the vortices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is a well know phenomenon in two-dimensional hydrodynamics. Here we investigate the development of magnetic reconnection during the vortex pairing process and show that completely different magnetic structures are produced depending on how fast the reconnection process develops on the time scale set by the pairing process.

  12. Ion heating and magnetic flux pile-up in a magnetic reconnection experiment with super-Alfvénic plasma inflows

    Suttle, L. G.; Hare, J. D.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ciardi, A.; Loureiro, N. F.; Burdiak, G. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Clayson, T.; Halliday, J. W. D.; Niasse, N.; Russell, D.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tubman, E.; Lane, T.; Ma, J.; Robinson, T.; Smith, R. A.; Stuart, N.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a magnetic reconnection experiment in which the kinetic, magnetic, and thermal properties of the plasma each play an important role in the overall energy balance and structure of the generated reconnection layer. Magnetic reconnection occurs during the interaction of continuous and steady flows of super-Alfvénic, magnetized, aluminum plasma, which collide in a geometry with two-dimensional symmetry, producing a stable and long-lasting reconnection layer. Optical Thomson scattering measurements show that when the layer forms, ions inside the layer are more strongly heated than electrons, reaching temperatures of Ti˜Z ¯ Te≳300 eV—much greater than can be expected from strong shock and viscous heating alone. Later in time, as the plasma density in the layer increases, the electron and ion temperatures are found to equilibrate, and a constant plasma temperature is achieved through a balance of the heating mechanisms and radiative losses of the plasma. Measurements from Faraday rotation polarimetry also indicate the presence of significant magnetic field pile-up occurring at the boundary of the reconnection region, which is consistent with the super-Alfvénic velocity of the inflows.

  13. Magnetic reconnection in plasma under inertial confinement fusion conditions driven by heat flux effects in Ohm's law.

    Joglekar, A S; Thomas, A G R; Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A

    2014-03-14

    In the interaction of high-power laser beams with solid density plasma there are a number of mechanisms that generate strong magnetic fields. Such fields subsequently inhibit or redirect electron flows, but can themselves be advected by heat fluxes, resulting in complex interplay between thermal transport and magnetic fields. We show that for heating by multiple laser spots reconnection of magnetic field lines can occur, mediated by these heat fluxes, using a fully implicit 2D Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code. Under such conditions, the reconnection rate is dictated by heat flows rather than Alfvènic flows. We find that this mechanism is only relevant in a high β plasma. However, the Hall parameter ωcτei can be large so that thermal transport is strongly modified by these magnetic fields, which can impact longer time scale temperature homogeneity and ion dynamics in the system.

  14. Preliminary results of very fast computation of Moment Magnitude and focal mechanism in the context of tsunami warning

    Schindelé, François; Roch, Julien; Rivera, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Various methodologies were recently developed to compute the moment magnitude and the focal mechanism, thanks to the real time access to numerous broad-band seismic data. Several methods were implemented at the CENALT, in particular the W-Phase method developed by H. Kanamori and L. Rivera. For earthquakes of magnitudes in the range 6.5-9.0, this method provides accurate results in less than 40 minutes. The context of the tsunami warning in Mediterranean, a small basin impacted in less than one hour, and with small sources but some with high tsunami potential (Boumerdes 2003), a comprehensive tsunami warning system in that region should include very fast computation of the seismic parameters. The results of the values of Mw, the focal depth and the type of fault (reverse, normal, strike-slip) are the most relevant parameters expected for the tsunami warning. Preliminary results will be presented using data in the North-eastern and Mediterranean region for the recent period 2010-2014. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  15. Fire Hose Instability in the Multiple Magnetic Reconnection

    Alexandrova, A.; Retino, A.; Divin, A. V.; Le Contel, O.; Matteini, L.; Breuillard, H.; Deca, J.; Catapano, F.; Cozzani, G.; Nakamura, R.; Panov, E. V.; Voros, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We present observations of multiple reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. In particular, we observe an ion temperature anisotropy characterized by large temperature along the magnetic field, between the two active X-lines. The anisotropy is associated with right-hand polarized waves at frequencies lower than the ion cyclotron frequency and propagating obliquely to the background magnetic field. We show that the observed anisotropy and the wave properties are consistent with linear kinetic theory of fire hose instability. The observations are in agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations of multiple reconnection. The results suggest that the fire hose instability can develop during multiple reconnection as a consequence of the ion parallel anisotropy that is produced by counter-streaming ions trapped between the X-lines.

  16. Collisionless magnetic reconnection associated with coalescence of flux bundles

    Tanaka, Motohiko.

    1994-11-01

    The basic process of collisionless reconnection is studied in terms of coalescence of magnetized flux bundles using an implicit particle simulation of two-dimensions. The toroidal electric field that directly relates to magnetic reconnection is generated solenoidally in a region much broader than the current sheet whose width is a few electron skin depths. The reconnected flux increases linearly in time, but it is insensitive to finite Larmor radii of the ions in this Sweet-Parker regime. The toroidal electric field is controlled by a balance of transit acceleration of finite-mass electrons and their removal by sub-Alfvenic E x B drift outflow. The simulation results supports the collisionless Ohm's law E t ≅η eq J t with η eq the inertia resistivity. (author)

  17. Evidence for magnetic field reconnection at the earth's magnetopause

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Paschmann, G.; Papamastorakis, I.; Sckopke, N.; Haerendel, G.; Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Gosling, J. T.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven Northern Hemisphere crossings of the dayside magnetopause by the ISEE spacecraft are examined to test the hypothesis that the large plasma flow speeds observed in the magnetopause and boundary layer are the result of the plasma acceleration intrinsic to the magnetic field reconnection process. In several cases energetic magnetospheric particles with the proper flow anisotropy, and in one case, reflected magnetosheath particles, were observed outside the magnetopause but adjacent to it. All results support the reconnection hypothesis. The energetic particles were also used to identify the outer separatrix surface, in one case of which is was possible to conclude from its location relative to the magnetopause that the reconnection site was in the vicinity of the equatorial plane rather than in the cusp. The electric field tangential to the magnetopause is inferred to be in the 0.4-2.8 mV/m range.

  18. Limiting velocity of reconnection in a current layer

    Podgornyj, A.N.; Syrovatskij, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Formation of a plasma current layer from a strong perturbation wave with the Mach magnetic number Msub(a)=1 is investigated numerically within the framework of magnetic hydrodynamics. It is shown that velocity of plasma flowing into the layer is established as small one as compared with the Alfven velocity. At the current layer boundary the Mach magnetic number Msub(a, c)=0.14-0.2. A great decrease in plasma velocity to the current layer results from the counterpressure of a magnetic field, intensity of which near the layer increases due to the storage of magnetic force lines which do not yet reconnect. Calculational results demonstrate the existence of limiting velocity of magnetic reconnection constituting tenth shares of the Mach magnetic number. Influence of this phenomenon on a character of reconnection in the Earth magnetosphere is discussed

  19. A RECONNECTION-DRIVEN MODEL OF THE HARD X-RAY LOOP-TOP SOURCE FROM FLARE 2004 FEBRUARY 26

    Longcope, Dana; Qiu, Jiong; Brewer, Jasmine [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    A compact X-class flare on 2004 February 26 showed a concentrated source of hard X-rays at the tops of the flare’s loops. This was analyzed in previous work and interpreted as plasma heated and compressed by slow magnetosonic shocks (SMSs) generated during post-reconnection retraction of the flux. That work used analytic expressions from a thin flux tube (TFT) model, which neglected many potentially important factors such as thermal conduction and chromospheric evaporation. Here we use a numerical solution of the TFT equations to produce a more comprehensive and accurate model of the same flare, including those effects previously omitted. These simulations corroborate the prior hypothesis that slow-mode shocks persist well after the retraction has ended, thus producing a compact, loop-top source instead of an elongated jet, as steady reconnection models predict. Thermal conduction leads to densities higher than analytic estimates had predicted, and evaporation enhances the density still higher, but at lower temperatures. X-ray light curves and spectra are synthesized by convolving the results from a single TFT simulation with the rate at which flux is reconnected, as measured through motion of flare ribbons, for example. These agree well with light curves observed by RHESSI and GOES and spectra from RHESSI . An image created from a superposition of TFT model runs resembles one produced from RHESSI observations. This suggests that the HXR loop-top source, at least the one observed in this flare, could be the result of SMSs produced in fast reconnection models like Petschek’s.

  20. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection, Chromospheric Evaporation, Implosion, and Precursors in the 2014 September 10 X1.6-Class Solar Flare

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Polito, V.; Janvier, M.; Mulay, S.M.; Karlický, Marian; Aulanier, G.; Del Zanna, G.; Dzifčáková, Elena; Mason, H. E.; Schmieder, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 823, č. 1 (2016), 41/1-41/21 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1652; GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:The Royal Society/Newton Fellowship(GB) NFAluminiNF120818 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * flares * magnetic reconnection Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  1. Experimental Verification of the Hall Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    Yang Ren; Masaaki Yamada; Stefan Gerhardt; Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn

    2005-01-01

    In this letter we report a clear and unambiguous observation of the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field suggested by numerical simulations in the reconnecting current sheet in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). Measurements show that the Hall effect is large in collisionless regime and becomes small as the collisionality increases, indicating that the Hall effect plays an important role in collisionless reconnection

  2. Physical conditions in the reconnection layer in pulsar magnetospheres

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, UCB 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States); Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (∼100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  3. Observational Test of the Dayside Magnetopause Reconnection Rate

    Wang, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.

    2014-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection, the reconnection rate (R) is expected to follow the Cassak-Shay formula with an aspect ratio of around 0.1. At the magnetopause, reconnection is asymmetric, with the dense shocked solar wind population on the magnetosheath side, and a normally hot and tenuous population on the magnetospheric side. However, the hot magnetospheric population can contain a significant O+ component that increases the mass density, and the magnetospheric population may also include a cold dense population of plasmaspheric origin. We perform a statistical study of 13 magnetopause reconnection events observed by Cluster to determine how the reconnection rate depends on these different populations. The events are mainly at high latitudes, due to the Cluster orbit. Our results show that the measured R generally follows the Cassak-Shay prediction when all populations are included. However, the predicted rate only considering the magnetosheath contribution also correlates well with the measured R. For individual events, cold ions can make a comparable contribution to the magnetosheath H+ when there are plasmaspheric drainage plumes; the contribution of the magnetospheric hot O+ can be up to ~30%. However, the variation of solar wind conditions has a larger effect on the variation in the reconnection rate. The aspect ratio does not vary systematically with the O+ content, and 0.1 is a reasonable estimation. The outflow velocity is around the hybrid Alfven speed, but there is not a strong correlation. This may be due to motion of the x-line, or effects of the magnetosheath shear flow.

  4. Dynamics of Auroras Conjugate to the Dayside Reconnection Region.

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Doolittle, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    During periods of northward IMF Bz, observations of the IMAGE satellite FUV instrument demonstrated the existence of an auroral footprint of the dayside lobe reconnection region. Under these conditions the dayside "reconnection spot" is a distinct feature being separated from the dayside auroral oval. In the IMAGE data, ~100 km spatial and 2 minutes temporal resolution, this feature appeared as a modest size, 200 to 500 km in diameter, diffuse spot which was present steadily while the IMF conditions lasted and the solar wind particle pressure was large enough to create a detectable signature. Based on this evidence, dayside reconnection observed with this resolution appears to be a steady state process. There have been several attempts to identify and study the "reconnection foot print aurora" with higher resolution from the ground. South Pole Station and the network of the US Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGO-s) in Antarctica have all sky imagers that monitor the latitude region of interest (70 to 85 degrees geomagnetic) near midday during the Antarctic winter. In this paper we present sequences of auroral images that were taken during different conditions of Bz and therefore they are high spatial resolution detailed views of the auroras associated with reconnection. During negative Bz, auroras appear to be dynamic with poleward moving auroral forms that are clearly observed by ground based imagers with a ~few km spatial resolution. During positive Bz however the extremely high latitude aurora is much more stable and shows no preferential meridional motions. It should be noted that winter solstice conditions, needed for ground based observations, produce a dipole tilt in which reconnection is not expected to be symmetric and the auroral signatures might favor the opposite hemisphere.

  5. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  6. Endogenous magnetic reconnection and associated high energy plasma processes

    Coppi, B.; Basu, B.

    2018-02-01

    An endogenous reconnection process involves a driving factor that lays inside the layer where a drastic change of magnetic field topology occurs. A process of this kind is shown to take place when an electron temperature gradient is present in a magnetically confined plasma and the evolving electron temperature fluctuations are anisotropic. The width of the reconnecting layer remains significant even when large macroscopic distances are considered. In view of the fact that there are plasmas in the Universe with considerable electron thermal energy contents this feature can be relied upon in order to produce generation or conversion of magnetic energy, high energy particle populations and momentum and angular momentum transport.

  7. Development of Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection in a Magnetic Island

    Huang, Can; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Rongsheng; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, San; Wang, Shui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we report that the electron Kelvin–Helmholtz instability is unstable in the current layer associated with a large-scale magnetic island, which is formed in multiple X-line guide field reconnections. The current sheet is fragmented into many small current sheets with widths down to the order of the electron inertial length. Secondary magnetic reconnection then occurs in these fragmented current sheets, which leads to a turbulent state. The electrons are highly energized in such a process.

  8. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  9. The physical foundation of the reconnection electric field

    Hesse, M.; Liu, Y.-H.; Chen, L.-J.; Bessho, N.; Wang, S.; Burch, J. L.; Moretto, T.; Norgren, C.; Genestreti, K. J.; Phan, T. D.; Tenfjord, P.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a key charged particle transport and energy conversion process in environments ranging from astrophysical systems to laboratory plasmas [Yamada et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 603-664 (2010)]. Magnetic reconnection facilitates plasma transport by establishing new connections of magnetic flux tubes, and it converts, often explosively, energy stored in the magnetic field to kinetic energy of charged particles [J. L. Burch and J. F. Drake, Am. Sci. 97, 392-299 (2009)]. The intensity of the magnetic reconnection process is measured by the reconnection electric field, which regulates the rate of flux tube connectivity changes. The change of magnetic connectivity occurs in the current layer of the diffusion zone, where the plasma transport is decoupled from the transport of magnetic flux. Here we report on computer simulations and analytic theory to provide a self-consistent understanding of the role of the reconnection electric field, which extends substantially beyond the simple change of magnetic connections. Rather, we find that the reconnection electric field is essential to maintain the current density in the diffusion region, which would otherwise be dissipated by a set of processes. Natural candidates for current dissipation are the average convection of current carriers away from the reconnection region by the outflow of accelerated particles, or the average rotation of the current density by the magnetic field reversal in the vicinity. Instead, we show here that the current dissipation is the result of thermal effects, underlying the statistical interaction of current-carrying particles with the adjacent magnetic field. We find that this interaction serves to redirect the directed acceleration of the reconnection electric field to thermal motion. This thermalization manifests itself in form of quasi-viscous terms in the thermal energy balance of the current layer. This collisionless viscosity, found in the pressure evolution equation

  10. Simulation experiment on magnetic field reconnection processes in tokamak

    Kiwamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two experimental studies on magnetic field line reconnection processes relevant to tokamak physics are going on in Japan. In Yokohama National University, reconnection of poloidal magnetic field lines is studied by the author when reversing the toroidal current of a small toroidal plasma in a short period (typically less than 4 μsec). Interaction of two current carrying plasma (linear) columns is being studied by Kawashima and his coleagues in Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences. Mutual attraction and merging of the plasma columns and resulting plasma heating are reported. (author)

  11. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors

  12. Evidence for Tether-Cutting Reconnection in a Quadrupole Magnetic Configuration in the April 9, 2001, M7.9 Flare

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Karlický, Marian; Hu, Q.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 235, 1-2 (2006), s. 147-160 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar flare * magnetic reconnection Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.887, year: 2006

  13. Free microparticles—An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  14. Free microparticles-An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers.

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  15. Solar wind energy and electric field transfer to the Earth's magnetosphere VIA magnetopause reconnection

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Some general expressions for the convection and parallel electric fields as well as for the energy transfer, due to magnetopause reconnection, are derived using a nose-reconnection model that takes into account the presence of the clefts. For the case of equal geomagnetic and magnetosheath field amplitudes, the expression for the power dissipated by the convection electric field reduces to the substorm parameter e widely discussed in the recent literature. This result suggests that magnetopause reconnection is defined at the nose with a tilted reconnection line, but that the convection electric field is related only to the dawn-dusk component of the reconnection electric field, as defined at high latitudes

  16. Collisionless tearing mode reconnection at the dayside magnetopause of the earth's magnetosphere

    Quest, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine if the collisionless tearing mode, a plasma instability, is a viable mechanism for interconnecting field lines at the dayside magnetopause. More generally, it was wished to test theoretically the assertion that collisionless tearing is a probable first step in cosmical reconnection. The procedure was to model the magnetopause as a local one-dimensional Vlasov equilibrium, and then calculate the linear and nonlinear stability properties of tearing and tearing-like oscillations. Quantitative estimates of the range of plasma parameter space over which significant growth occurs were obtained. Assuming that significant tearing mode growth implies significant reconnection, conditions were determined for which tearing will be important to dayside reconnection. Linearly it was found that the growth rate is relatively insensitive to the temperature of the species, but depends sensitively on (1) the thickness of the magnetopause current, (2) the number density at the location of the singular layer, and (3) the magnitude of the magnetic shear. For significant linear growth the magnetopause half-sheet thickness was required to be on the order of or less than a thermal ion gyroradius, the number density was required to be no more than 100 cm - 3 , and the magnetosheath field was required to be locally antialigned with the magnetospheric field. If the above conditions are met, which are stringent but not impossible, the mode will linearly amplify. Another topic examined is the question of the structure of the tearing eigenmodes at the dayside magnetopause. By considering finite transit time effects on electron Landau resonance it was concluded that magnetopause tearing turbulence probably occurs in spatially bounded wave packets

  17. Electron heating in the exhaust of magnetic reconnection with negligible guide field

    Wang, Shan; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kistler, Lynn M.; Shuster, Jason R.; Guo, Ruilong

    2016-03-01

    Electron heating in the magnetic reconnection exhaust is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations, space observations, and theoretical analysis. Spatial variations of the electron temperature (Te) and associated velocity distribution functions (VDFs) are examined and understood in terms of particle energization and randomization processes that vary with exhaust locations. Inside the electron diffusion region (EDR), the electron temperature parallel to the magnetic field (Te∥) exhibits a local minimum and the perpendicular temperature (Te⊥) shows a maximum at the current sheet midplane. In the intermediate exhaust downstream from the EDR and far from the magnetic field pileup region, Te⊥/Te∥ is close to unity and Te is approximately uniform, but the VDFs are structured: close to the midplane, VDFs are quasi-isotropic, whereas farther away from the midplane, VDFs exhibit field-aligned beams directed toward the midplane. In the far exhaust, Te generally increases toward the midplane and the pileup region, and the corresponding VDFs show counter-streaming beams. A distinct population with low v∥ and high v⊥ is prominent in the VDFs around the midplane. Test particle results show that the magnetic curvature near the midplane produces pitch angle scattering to generate quasi-isotropic distributions in the intermediate exhaust. In the far exhaust, electrons with initial high v∥ (v⊥) are accelerated mainly through curvature (gradient-B) drift opposite to the electric field, without significant pitch angle scattering. The VDF structures predicted by simulations are observed in magnetotail reconnection measurements, indicating that the energization mechanisms captured in the reported simulations are applicable to magnetotail reconnection with negligible guide field.

  18. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-01-31

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium

  19. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    Karahan, Aydin; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO 2 -PuO 2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium reactors

  20. Foreshock-like density cavity in the outflow region of magnetotail reconnection

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cluster spacecraft crossing of the magnetotail, a novel density depleted cavity in association with magnetic compressions in the outflow region of reconnection was observed. It contains intense reflected field-aligned particles, which are produced by a generation mechanism similar to that of the terrestrial foreshock, and hence manifests a foreshock-like morphology. In this cavity, reflected field-aligned proton beams were observed and simultaneously the feature of magnetic-mirror loss-cone proton distributions were found. Magnetic field fluctuations, especially quasi-monochromatic oscillations, were recorded. Both the leading egde and the ULF wave boundary of the ion foreshock are identified from the time sequence of proton and magnetic field observations. Just upstream of the leading egde of the ion foreshock, reflected field-aligned electrons were detected, whose distribution has a narrow bump-on-tail pattern. However, close to the shock front, reflected electrons with a broad bump-on-tail pattern was measured. These two different manifestations of reflected electrons reveal the differences in their microscopic physics of the reflecting process. Moreover, a part of incident ions was further accelerated in the cavity due to trans-time magnetic pumping which provides another possible mechanism in the multi-step acceleration processes in reconnection.

  1. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  2. Global and local disturbances in the magnetotail during reconnection

    T. V. Laitinen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine Cluster observations of a reconnection event at xGSM=−15.7 RE in the magnetotail on 11 October 2001, when Cluster recorded the current sheet for an extended period including the entire duration of the reconnection event. The onset of reconnection is associated with a sudden orientation change of the ambient magnetic field, which is also observed simultaneously by Goes-8 at geostationary orbit. Current sheet oscillations are observed both before reconnection and during it. The speed of the flapping motions is found to increase when the current sheet undergoes the transition from quiet to active state, as suggested by an earlier statistical result and now confirmed within one single event. Within the diffusion region both the tailward and earthward parts of the quadrupolar magnetic Hall structure are recorded as an x-line passes Cluster. We report the first observations of the Hall structure conforming to the kinks in the current sheet. This results in relatively strong fluctuations in Bz, which are shown to be the Hall signature tilted in the yz plane with the current sheet.

  3. Magnetotail Reconnection and Flux Circulation: Jupiter and Saturn Compared

    Jackman, C. M.; Vogt, M. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Boardsen, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Jovian magnetosphere has been visited by eight spacecraft, and the magnetometer data have been used to identify dozens of plasmoids and 250 field dipolarizations associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail [e.g. Vogt et al., 2010]. Since the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn in 2004, the magnetometer instrument has also been used to identify reconnection signatures. The deepest magnetotail orbits were in 2006, and during this time 34 signatures of plasmoids were identified. In this study we compare the statistical properties of plasmoids at Jupiter and Saturn such as duration, size, location, and recurrence period. Such parameters can be influenced by many factors, including the different Dungey cycle timescales and cross-magnetospheric potential drops at the two planets. We present superposed epoch analyses of plasmoids at the two planets to determine their average properties and to infer their role in the reconfiguration of the nightside of the magnetosphere. We examine the contributions of plasmoids to the magnetic flux transfer cycle at both planets. At Jupiter, there is evidence of an extended interval after reconnection where the field remains northward (analogous to the terrestrial post-plasmoid plasma sheet). At Saturn we see a similar feature, and calculate the amount of flux closed on average in reconnection events, leading us to an estimation of the recurrence rate of plasmoid release.

  4. Study of Local Reconnection Physics in a Laboratory Plasma

    Hantao Ji; Troy Carter; Scott Hsu; Masaaki Yamada

    2001-01-01

    A short review of physics results obtained in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) is given with an emphasis on the local features of magnetic reconnection in a controlled environment. Stable two-dimensional current sheets are formed and sustained by induction using two internal coils. The observed reconnection rates are found to be quantitatively consistent with a generalized Sweet-Parker model which incorporates compressibility, unbalanced upstream-downstream pressure, and the effective resistivity. The latter is significantly enhanced over its classical values in the low collisionality regime. Strong local ion heating is measured by an optical probe during the reconnection process, and at least half of the increased ion energy must be due to nonclassical processes, consistent with the resistivity enhancement. Characteristics of high-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations detected in the current sheet suggest presence of the lower-hybrid-drift-like waves with significant magnetic components. The detailed structures of the current sheet are measured and compared with Harris theory and two-fluid theory

  5. The Impact of Geometrical Constraints on Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nico; Kuznetsova, Masha; Frolov, Rebekah; Black, Carrrie

    2012-01-01

    One of the most often cited features associated with collisionless magnetic reconnection is a Hall-type magnetic field, which leads, in antiparallel geometries, to a quadrupolar magnetic field signature. The combination of this out of plane magnetic field with the reconnection in-plane magnetic field leads to angling of magnetic flux tubes out of the plane defined by the incoming magnetic flux. Because it is propagated by Whistler waves, the quadrupolar field can extend over large distances in relatively short amounts of time - in fact, it will extend to the boundary of any modeling domain. In reality, however, the surrounding plasma and magnetic field geometry, defined, for example, by the overall solar wind flow, will in practice limit the extend over which a flux tube can be angled out of the main plain. This poses the question to what extent geometric constraints limit or control the reconnection process and this is the question investigated in this presentation. The investigation will involve a comparison of calculations, where open boundary conditions are set up to mimic either free or constrained geometries. We will compare momentum transport, the geometry of the reconnection regions, and the acceleration if ions and electrons to provide the current sheet in the outflow jet.

  6. Reconnection Mediated by Magnetic Fractures and the Solar Flare

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2018-03-01

    Reconnection of sheared magnetic fields is commonly treated by regarding the component perpendicular to the antiparallel components as a largely inert guide field. In this paper an alternative is proposed in which the free energy residing in the shear field is being converted prior to reconnection. This happens in high-density, dissipative current sheets bordering the reconnection site. A global scenario is presented in which low-intensity currents out of the photosphere are converging into the narrow, high-intensity currents at high altitude. This is enabled by the obliqueness of the latter. The very short timescale of the energy conversion causes a lateral propagation of the current sheets. In a quasi-stationary situation, it balances the reconnection rate, which turns out to be much lower than in guide-field approaches. Another important consequence of the obliqueness is the field-parallel emission of runaway electrons. Accelerated up to tens of keV, they are possibly important contributors to the production of hard X-rays during the impulsive phase of a flare, but only in areas of upward-directed currents. Quantitative evaluation of the model predicts various potentially observable properties, such as width and propagation speed of the generated flare ribbons, spatial dependences of the electron spectrum, size of the area of energy deposition, and successive decrease of the shear angle between conjugate footpoints. The presented theoretical model can account for the observed brightness asymmetry of flare ribbons with respect to the direction of the vertical currents.

  7. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION PLASMA

    Imada, S.; Shimizu, T.; Murakami, I.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of time-dependent ionization and the recombination processes on magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Petschek-type steady reconnection, in which the magnetic energy is mainly converted at the slow-mode shocks, was assumed. We carried out the time-dependent ionization calculation in the magnetic reconnection structure. We only calculated the transient ionization of iron; the other species were assumed to be in ionization equilibrium. The intensity of line emissions at specific wavelengths was also calculated for comparison with Hinode or other observations in future. We found the following: (1) iron is mostly in non-equilibrium ionization in the reconnection region; (2) the intensity of line emission estimated by the time-dependent ionization calculation is significantly different from that determined from the ionization equilibrium assumption; (3) the effect of time-dependent ionization is sensitive to the electron density in the case where the electron density is less than 10 10 cm –3 ; (4) the effect of thermal conduction lessens the time-dependent ionization effect; and (5) the effect of radiative cooling is negligibly small even if we take into account time-dependent ionization.

  8. Wave driven magnetic reconnection in the Taylor problem

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ma Zhiwei; Linde, Timur

    2003-01-01

    An improved Laplace transform theory is developed in order to investigate the initial response of a stable slab plasma equilibrium enclosed by conducting walls to a suddenly applied wall perturbation in the so-called Taylor problem. The novel feature of this theory is that it does not employ asymptotic matching. If the wall perturbation is switched on slowly compared to the Alfven time then the plasma response eventually asymptotes to that predicted by conventional asymptotic matching theory. However, at early times there is a compressible Alfven wave driven contribution to the magnetic reconnection rate which is not captured by asymptotic matching theory, and leads to a significant increase in the reconnection rate. If the wall perturbation is switched on rapidly compared to the Alfven time then strongly localized compressible Alfven wave-pulses are generated which bounce backward and forward between the walls many times. Each instance these wave-pulses cross the resonant surface they generate a transient surge in the reconnection rate. The maximum pulse driven reconnection rate can be much larger than that predicted by conventional asymptotic matching theory

  9. Color-reconnection in Z → 3 jets

    Rudolph, G.

    2004-01-01

    The electric charge distribution of gluon jets with a rapidity gap is sensitive to possible effects of color reordering in the final quark-gluon cascade. High statistics data from the ALEPH experiment at LEP-1 are used to test the predictions of different color reconnection models. (author)

  10. Proxy and in-situ studies of dayside magnetopause reconnection

    Scurry, L.; Russell, C.T. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The functional dependence of magnetic reconnection on solar wind parameters is examined utilizing the am geomagnetic index and satellite observations at the magnetopause. Several parameters in the solar wind are found to control geomagnetic activity. Reconnection is found to be most efficient when the interplanetary magnetic field is southward, although some activity remains when the IMF is horizontal and slightly northward. The reconnection efficiency increases with the solar wind dynamic pressure but decreases when the Mach number is greater than 7.5. These results are compared with the functional dependencies found by correlating solar wind and magnetosheath measurements with observations of accelerated tows at the magnetopause. Accelerated tows are found to occur most often when the interplanetary magnetic field is directed southward. However, accelerated flows do occur when the IMF is horizontal and northward. Accelerated flows are also affected by the magnetosheath beta such that higher beta inhibits their occurrence. The location of accelerated tows indicates that reconnection occurs mainly at the subsolar point.

  11. Energy transfer by magnetopause reconnection and the substorm parameter epsilon

    Gonzalez-Alarcon, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C. de.

    1983-01-01

    An expression for the magnetopause reconnection power based on the dawn-dusk component of the reconnection electric field, that reduces to the substorm parameter epsilon for the limit that involves equal geomagnetic (B sub(G)) and magnetosheath (B sub(M)) magnetic field amplitudes at the magnetopause, is contrasted with the expression based on the whole reconnection electric field vector obtained by Gonzalez. The correlation examples of this report show that this (more general) expression for the reconnection power seems to correlate with the empirical dissipation parameter U sub(T) from Akasofu, with slightly better correlation coefficients than those obtained from similar correlations between the parameter epsilon and U sub(T). Thus, these (better) correlations show up for the more familiar values of the ratio B sub(G) / B sub(M) > 1. Nevertheless, the (expected) relatively small difference that seems to exist between these correlation coefficients suggests that, for practical purposes, the parameter epsilon could be used as well (instead of the more general expression) in similar correlation studies due to its impler format. On the other hand, studies that refer mainly to the difference in the magnitudes of epsilon and of the more general expression are expected to give results with less negligible differences. (Author) [pt

  12. Remote Sensing of the Reconnection Electric Field From In Situ Multipoint Observations of the Separatrix Boundary

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2018-05-01

    A remote sensing technique to infer the local reconnection electric field based on in situ multipoint spacecraft observation at the reconnection separatrix is proposed. In this technique, the increment of the reconnected magnetic flux is estimated by integrating the in-plane magnetic field during the sequential observation of the separatrix boundary by multipoint measurements. We tested this technique by applying it to virtual observations in a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection without a guide field and confirmed that the estimated reconnection electric field indeed agrees well with the exact value computed at the X-line. We then applied this technique to an event observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission when crossing an energetic plasma sheet boundary layer during an intense substorm. The estimated reconnection electric field for this event is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than a typical value of magnetotail reconnection.

  13. High fidelity kinetic modeling of magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasma

    Stanier, A.; Daughton, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, a great deal of progress has been made towards understanding the physics of magnetic reconnection in weakly collisional regimes of relevance to both fusion devices, and to space and astrophysical plasmas. However, there remain some outstanding unsolved problems in reconnection physics, such as the generation and influence of plasmoids (flux ropes) within reconnection layers, the development of magnetic turbulence, the role of current driven and streaming instabilities, and the influence of electron pressure anisotropy on the layer structure. Due to the importance of these questions, new laboratory reconnection experiments are being built to allow controlled and reproducible study of such questions with the simultaneous acquisition of high time resolution measurements at a large number of spatial points. These experiments include the FLARE facility at Princeton University and the T-REX experiment at the University of Wisconsin. To guide and interpret these new experiments, and to extrapolate the results to space applications, new investments in kinetic modeling tools are required. We have recently developed a cylindrical version of the VPIC Particle-In-Cell code with the capability to perform first-principles kinetic simulations that approach experimental device size with more realistic geometry and drive coils. This cylindrical version inherits much of the optimization work that has been done recently for the next generation many-cores architectures with wider vector registers, and achieves comparable conservation properties as the Cartesian code. Namely it features exact discrete charge conservation, and a so-called "energy-conserving" scheme where the energy is conserved in the limit of continuous time, i.e. without contribution from spatial discretization (Lewis, 1970). We will present initial results of modeling magnetic reconnection in the experiments mentioned above. Since the VPIC code is open source (https

  14. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a novel FeCrNiBSi advanced high-strength steel: Slow, accelerated and fast casting cooling rates

    Askari-Paykani, Mohsen; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir; Miresmaeili, Reza

    2016-06-21

    In the current work, three different solidification routes and a two-step heat treatment process were applied to a novel FeCrNiBSi alloy system to introduce a new candidate for advanced high-strength steels. The evolution of the microstructure after solidification, heat treatment, and tensile deformation was characterized using optical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as hardness and room temperature uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of the different solidification routes and heat treatment parameters on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of this steel are discussed. Grain refinement, precipitation hardening, and solid solution as a result of the fast casting cooling rate led to an increase in strength at improved ductility. This result can be explained partly by the less severe stress/strain partitioning at the matrix grain/M{sub 2}B interfaces and better interface cohesion. Moreover, the stress/strain partitioning characteristics between the matrix grains and M{sub 2}B led to a higher initial strain hardening rate. The fast casting cooling rate further promoted ductile fracture mechanisms, which is a result of increased cleavage fracture stress. The higher casting cooling rate and two-step heat treatment resulted in a strong increase in formability index, from 8 GPa% to 24 GPa%, at which the mechanical properties occupy the TRIP envelope. Heat treatment of the fast-cooling specimens led to a small reduction in yield and tensile strength and 22% total elongation percentage improvement (from 10% to 32%).

  15. IS MAGNETIC RECONNECTION THE CAUSE OF SUPERSONIC UPFLOWS IN GRANULAR CELLS?

    Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstr. 6, D-79110, Freiburg (Germany); Martinez Pillet, V.; Quintero Noda, C.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Avd. Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Bellot Rubio, L. R., E-mail: borrero@kis.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: wolfgang@kis.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: vmp@ll.iac.es, E-mail: cqn@ll.iac.es, E-mail: jab@ll.iac.es, E-mail: jti@iaa.es, E-mail: lbellot@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2013-05-01

    In a previous work, we reported on the discovery of supersonic magnetic upflows on granular cells in data from the SUNRISE/IMaX instrument. In the present work, we investigate the physical origin of these events employing data from the same instrument but with higher spectral sampling. By means of the inversion of Stokes profiles we are able to recover the physical parameters (temperature, magnetic field, line-of-sight velocity, etc.) present in the solar photosphere at the time of these events. The inversion is performed in a Monte-Carlo-like fashion, that is, repeating it many times with different initializations and retaining only the best result. We find that many of the events are characterized by a reversal in the polarity of the magnetic field along the vertical direction in the photosphere, accompanied by an enhancement in the temperature and by supersonic line-of-sight velocities. In about half of the studied events, large blueshifted and redshifted line-of-sight velocities coexist above/below each other. These features can be explained in terms of magnetic reconnection, where the energy stored in the magnetic field is released in the form of kinetic and thermal energy when magnetic field lines of opposite polarities coalesce. However, the agreement with magnetic reconnection is not perfect and, therefore, other possible physical mechanisms might also play a role.

  16. Chapter 6 Quantum Mechanical Methods for Loss-Excitation and Loss-Ionization in Fast Ion-Atom Collisions

    Belkic, Dzevad

    quantum mechanical perturbation theories applied to electron loss collisions involving two hydrogen-like atoms. Both the one- and two-electron transitions (target unaffected by collision, as well as loss-ionization) are thoroughly examined in various intervals of impact energies varying from the threshold via the Massey peak to the Bethe asymptotic region. Systematics are established for the fast, simple, and accurate computations of cross sections for loss-excitation and loss-ionization accounting for the entire spectra of all four particles, including two free electrons and two free protons. The expounded algorithmic strategy of quantum mechanical methodologies is of great importance for wide applications to particle transport physics, especially in fusion research and hadron radiotherapy. This should advantageously replace the current overwhelming tendency in these fields for using phenomenological modeling with artificial functions extracted from fitting the existing experimental/theoretical data bases for cross sections.

  17. A model of fast radio bursts: collisions between episodic magnetic blobs

    Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Geng, Jin-Jun; Li, Bing

    2018-06-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright radio pulses from the sky with millisecond durations and Jansky-level flux densities. Their origins are still largely uncertain. Here we suggest a new model for FRBs. We argue that the collision of a white dwarf with a black hole can generate a transient accretion disk, from which powerful episodicmagnetic blobs will be launched. The collision between two consecutive magnetic blobs can result in a catastrophic magnetic reconnection, which releases a large amount of free magnetic energy and forms a forward shock. The shock propagates through the cold magnetized plasma within the blob in the collision region, radiating through the synchrotron maser mechanism, which is responsible for a non-repeating FRB signal. Our calculations show that the theoretical energetics, radiation frequency, duration timescale and event rate can be very consistent with the observational characteristics of FRBs.

  18. Magnetotail Fast Flow Occurrence Rate and Dawn-Dusk Asymmetry at XGSM ˜ -60 RE

    Kiehas, S. A.; Runov, A.; Angelopolos, V.; Hietala, H.; Korovinksiy, D.

    2018-03-01

    As a direct result of magnetic reconnection, plasma sheet fast flows act as primary transporter of mass, flux, and energy in the Earth's magnetotail. During the last decades, these flows were mainly studied within XGSM>-60RE, as observations near or beyond lunar orbit were limited. By using 5 years (2011-2015) of ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moons Interaction with the Sun) data, we statistically investigate earthward and tailward flows at around 60 RE downtail. A significant fraction of fast flows is directed earthward, comprising 43% (vx>400 km/s) to 56% (vx>100 km/s) of all observed flows. This suggests that near-Earth and midtail reconnection are equally probable of occurring on either side of the ARTEMIS downtail distance. For fast convective flows (v⊥x>400 km/s), this fraction of earthward flows is reduced to about 29%, which is in line with reconnection as source of these flows and a downtail decreasing Alfvén velocity. More than 60% of tailward convective flows occur in the dusk sector (as opposed to the dawn sector), while earthward convective flows are nearly symmetrically distributed between the two sectors for low AL (>-400 nT) and asymmetrically distributed toward the dusk sector for high AL (infer that near-Earth reconnection is preferentially located at dusk, whereas midtail reconnection (X >- 60RE) is likely symmetric across the tail during weak substorms and asymmetric toward the dusk sector for strong substorms, as the dawn-dusk asymmetric nature of reconnection onset in the near-Earth region progresses downtail.

  19. RECONNECTION-DRIVEN CORONAL-HOLE JETS WITH GRAVITY AND SOLAR WIND

    Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Pariat, E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2017-01-01

    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  20. Windsock memory COnditioned RAM (CO-RAM) pressure effect: Forced reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    Vörös, Z.; Facskó, G.; Khodachenko, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a key physical concept explaining the addition of magnetic flux to the magnetotail and closed flux lines back-motion to the dayside magnetosphere. This scenario elaborated by Dungey (1963) can explain many aspects of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes, including substorms. However, neither the Dungey model nor its numerous modifications were able to explain fully the onset conditions for MR in the tail. In this paper, we introduce new onset conditions for forced MR in the tail. We call our scenario the "windsock memory conditioned ram pressure effect." Our nonflux transfer-associated forcing is introduced by a combination of the large-scale windsock motions exhibiting memory effects and solar wind dynamic pressure actions on the nightside magnetopause during northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Using global MHD Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 simulation results, upstream data from Wind, magnetosheath data from Cluster 1 and distant tail data from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission, we show that the simultaneous occurrence of vertical windsock motions of the magnetotail and enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure introduces strong nightside disturbances, including enhanced electric fields and persistent vertical cross-tail shear flows. These perturbations, associated with a stream interaction region in the solar wind, drive MR in the tail during episodes of northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We detect MR indirectly, observing plasmoids in the tail and ground-based signatures of earthward moving fast flows. We also consider the application to solar system planets and close-in exoplanets, where the proposed scenario can elucidate some new aspects of solar/stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  1. Theory and Simulations of Incomplete Reconnection During Sawteeth Due to Diamagnetic Effects

    Beidler, Matthew Thomas

    Tokamaks use magnetic fields to confine plasmas to achieve fusion; they are the leading approach proposed for the widespread production of fusion energy. The sawtooth crash in tokamaks limits the core temperature, adversely impacts confinement, and seeds disruptions. Adequate knowledge of the physics governing the sawtooth crash and a predictive capability of its ramifications has been elusive, including an understanding of incomplete reconnection, i.e., why sawteeth often cease prematurely before processing all available magnetic flux. In this dissertation, we introduce a model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes resulting from increasing diamagnetic effects in the nonlinear phase of magnetic reconnection. Physically, the reconnection inflow self-consistently convects the high pressure core of a tokamak toward the q=1 rational surface, thereby increasing the pressure gradient at the reconnection site. If the pressure gradient at the rational surface becomes large enough due to the self-consistent evolution, incomplete reconnection will occur due to diamagnetic effects becoming large enough to suppress reconnection. Predictions of this model are borne out in large-scale proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations of reconnection in a 2D slab geometry and are also consistent with data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). Additionally, we present simulations from the 3D extended-MHD code M3D-C1 used to study the sawtooth crash in a 3D toroidal geometry for resistive-MHD and two-fluid models. This is the first study in a 3D tokamak geometry to show that the inclusion of two-fluid physics in the model equations is essential for recovering timescales more closely in line with experimental results compared to resistive-MHD and contrast the dynamics in the two models. We use a novel approach to sample the data in the plane of reconnection perpendicular to the (m,n)=(1,1) mode to carefully assess the reconnection physics. Using local measures of

  2. Reconnecting with the past on social network sites

    Shklovski, Irina

    we do not know why people seek out such ties and whether they benefit from them. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of how people in Russia and Kazakhstan used SNSs for communication and relational maintenance. For many of the participants SNSs had offered an opportunity...... for reconnection with lapsed ties that brought about deeply emotional experiences of nostalgic remembrances and intimate exchanges of current status. In this process of reconnecting, they established connections not only with each other but also with a kind of past that was long gone. These ties were not expected...... to function as social resources or as active providers of support. In many ways, these ties explicitly lacked a purpose beyond emotional remembrance, as they were rarely re-integrated into daily life. Nevertheless, these ties remained connections to a past even as they at times became digital connections...

  3. Particle acceleration and reconnection in the solar wind

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Department of Space Science, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Khabarova, O. [Heliophysical Laboratory, IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 290-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Decker, R. B. [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized quasi-2D small-scale magnetic island reconnection processes. An advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution describes particle transport and energization in a region of interacting magnetic islands [1; 2]. The dominant charged particle energization processes are 1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging, and 2) magnetic island contraction. The acceleration of charged particles in a “sea of magnetic islands” in a super-Alfvénic flow, and the energization of particles by combined diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic island reconnection processes are discussed.

  4. The generalized Ohm's law in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Cai, H.J.; Lee, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    The generalized Ohm close-quote s law and the force balance near neutral lines in collisionless magnetic reconnection is studied based on two-dimensional full particle simulations in which the ion endash electron mass ratio is set to be 1836. The off-diagonal elements of a plasma pressure tensor are found to be responsible for the breakdown of the frozen-in condition in collisionless reconnection. While the off-diagonal elements of the electron pressure tensor are dominant terms in the generalized Ohm close-quote s law near neutral lines, the ion off-diagonal pressure terms are of significant importance when ions are main current carriers. The spatial scale of electron off-diagonal pressure term P xy (e) is also found to be proportional to the Dungey length scale, (m e E y /eβ 2 ) 1/3 , where β=∂B z /∂x. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Ion distributions in a two-dimensional reconnection field geometry

    Curran, D.B.; Goertz, C.K.; Whelan, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE observations have shown trapped ion distributions in the magnetosphere along with streaming ion distributions in the magnetosheath. The more energetic ion beams are found to exist further away from the magnetopause than lower-energy ion beams. In order to understand these properties of the data, we have taken a simple two-dimensional reconnection model which contains a neutral line and an azimuthal electric field and compared its predictions with the experimental data of September 8, 1978. Our model explains trapped particles in the magnetosphere due to nonadiabatic mirroring in the magnetosheath and streaming ions in the magnetosheath due to energization at the magnetopause. The model also shows the higher-energy ions extending further into the magnetosheath, away from the magnetopause than the lower-energy ions. This suggests the ion data of September 8, 1978 are consistent with a reconnection geometry. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  6. How Does the Electron Dynamics Affect the Global Reconnection Rate

    Hesse, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether the microscale controls the macroscale or vice-versa remains one of the most challenging problems in plasmas. A particular topic of interest within this context is collisionless magnetic reconnection, where both points of views are espoused by different groups of researchers. This presentation will focus on this topic. We will begin by analyzing the properties of electron diffusion region dynamics both for guide field and anti-parallel reconnection, and how they can be scaled to different inflow conditions. As a next step, we will study typical temporal variations of the microscopic dynamics with the objective of understanding the potential for secular changes to the macroscopic system. The research will be based on a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling.

  7. Moving grids for magnetic reconnection via Newton-Krylov methods

    Yuan, Xuefei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a set of computationally efficient, adaptive grids for magnetic reconnection phenomenon where the current density can develop large gradients in the reconnection region. Four-field extended MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) equations with hyperviscosity terms are transformed so that the curvilinear coordinates replace the Cartesian coordinates as the independent variables, and moving grids\\' velocities are also considered in this transformed system as a part of interpolating the physical solutions from the old grid to the new grid as time advances. The curvilinear coordinates derived from the current density through the Monge-Kantorovich (MK) optimization approach help to reduce the resolution requirements during the computation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ISEE observations of the magnetopause: Reconnection and the energy balance

    Paschmann, G.; Papamastorakis, I.; Sckopke, N.; Sonnerup, B.U.O.; Bame, S.J.; Russell, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    According to the usual magnetopause reconnection model, plasma flows across the magnetopause current sheet, which is a rotational discontinuity with a nonzero normal magnetic field component B/sub n/, from the magnetosheath into the magnetospheric boundary layer. As the plasma crosses the sheet, which has net current I, it is accelerated by the I x B/sub n/ force and flows toward the poles with speeds up to twice the Alfven speed

  9. Near-Earth Reconnection Ejecta at Lunar Distances

    Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A.; Lu, S.; Zhou, X.-Z.

    2018-04-01

    Near-Earth magnetotail reconnection leads to formation of earthward and tailward directed plasma outflows with an increased north-south magnetic field strength(|Bz|) at their leading edges. We refer to these regions of enhanced |Bz| and magnetic flux transport Ey as reconnection ejecta. They are composed of what have been previously referred to as earthward dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs) and tailward rapid flux transport (RFT) events. Using two-point observations of magnetic and electric fields and particle fluxes by the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun probes orbiting around Moon at geocentric distances R ˜ 60RE, we statistically studied plasma moments and particle energy spectra in RFTs and compared them with those observed within DFBs in the near-Earth plasma sheet by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes. We found that the ion average temperatures and spectral slopes in RFTs at R ˜ 60RE are close to those in DFBs observed at 15 balance, the average RFT ion temperature corresponds to a lobe field BL˜20 nT. This leads us to suggest that the ion population within the tailward ejecta originated in the midtail plasma sheet at 20≤R≤30RE and propagated to the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun location without undergoing any further energy gain. Conversely, electron temperatures in DFBs at 15 < R < 25RE are a factor of 2.5 higher than those in RFTs at R ˜ 60RE.

  10. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t(bar t) events at the Tevatron

  11. The dependence of cusp ion signatures on the reconnection rate

    S. K. Morley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of structure in cusp ion dispersions is important for helping to understand the temporal and spatial structure of magnetopause reconnection. "Stepped" and "sawtooth" signatures have been shown to be caused by temporal variations in the reconnection rate under the same physical conditions for different satellite trajectories. The present paper shows that even for a single satellite path, a change in the amplitude of any reconnection pulses can alter the observed signature and even turn sawtooth into stepped forms and vice versa. On 20 August 1998, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP craft F-14 crossed the cusp just to the south of Longyearbyen, returning on the following orbit. The two passes by the DMSP F-14 satellites have very similar trajectories and the open-closed field line boundary (OCB crossings, as estimated from the SSJ/4 precipitating particle data and Polar UVI images, imply a similarly-shaped polar cap, yet the cusp ion dispersion signatures differ substantially. The cusp crossing at 08:54 UT displays a stepped ion dispersion previously considered to be typical of a meridional pass, whereas the crossing at 10:38 UT is a sawtooth form ion dispersion, previously considered typical of a satellite travelling longitudinally with respect to the OCB. It is shown that this change in dispersed ion signature is likely to be due to a change in the amplitude of the pulses in the reconnection rate, causing the stepped signature. Modelling of the low-energy ion cutoff under different conditions has reproduced the forms of signature observed.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating, magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers

  12. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    Sandhoff, Marisa; /Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  13. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in partially ionised gases

    Innocenti, M. E.; Jiang, W.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection has been explored for decades as a way to convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy and heat and to accelerate particles in environments as different as the solar surface, planetary magnetospheres, the solar wind, accretion disks, laboratory plasmas. When studying reconnection via simulations, it is usually assumed that the plasma is fully ionised, as it is indeed the case in many of the above-mentioned cases. There are, however, exceptions, the most notable being the lower solar atmosphere. Small ionisation fractions are registered also in the warm neutral interstellar medium, in dense interstellar clouds, in protostellar and protoplanetary accreditation disks, in tokamak edge plasmas and in ad-hoc laboratory experiments [1]. We study here how magnetic reconnection is modified by the presence of a neutral background, i.e. when the majority of the gas is not ionised. The ionised plasma is simulated with the fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code iPic3D [2]. Collisions with the neutral background are introduced via a Monte Carlo plug-in. The standard Monte Carlo procedure [3] is employed to account for elastic, excitation and ionization electron-neutral collisions, as well as for elastic scattering and charge exchange ion-neutral collisions. Collisions with the background introduce resistivity in an otherwise collisionless plasma and modifications of the particle distribution functions: particles (and ions at a faster rate) tend to thermalise to the background. To pinpoint the consequences of this, we compare reconnection simulations with and without background. References [1] E E Lawrence et al. Physical review letters, 110(1):015001, 2013. [2] S Markidis et al. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80(7):1509-1519, 2010. [3] K Nanbu. IEEE Transactions on plasma science, 28(3):971-990, 2000.

  14. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  15. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Wilder, F. D.; Holmes, J. C.; Stawarz, J. E.; Eriksson, S.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Usanova, M. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Hesse, M.; Chen, L. J.; Lapenta, G.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Drake, J.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Nakamura, R.; Marklund, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E∥ ) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E∥ events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100 mV /m , which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E∥ events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E∥ events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

  16. Actions of lyotropic anions on the mechanical properties of fast and slow twitch rat muscles at different temperatures

    Wondmikun, Y.; Soukup, Tomáš; Asmussen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2003), s. 123-129 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) -; Schwerpunkt Muskelforschung(DE) As 74/1-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : slow and fast muscles * contractile properties * lyotropic anions Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  17. Magnetic Reconnection and Particle Acceleration in the Solar Corona

    Neukirch, Thomas

    Reconnection plays a major role for the magnetic activity of the solar atmosphere, for example solar flares. An interesting open problem is how magnetic reconnection acts to redistribute the stored magnetic energy released during an eruption into other energy forms, e.g. gener-ating bulk flows, plasma heating and non-thermal energetic particles. In particular, finding a theoretical explanation for the observed acceleration of a large number of charged particles to high energies during solar flares is presently one of the most challenging problems in solar physics. One difficulty is the vast difference between the microscopic (kinetic) and the macro-scopic (MHD) scales involved. Whereas the phenomena observed to occur on large scales are reasonably well explained by the so-called standard model, this does not seem to be the case for the small-scale (kinetic) aspects of flares. Over the past years, observations, in particular by RHESSI, have provided evidence that a naive interpretation of the data in terms of the standard solar flare/thick target model is problematic. As a consequence, the role played by magnetic reconnection in the particle acceleration process during solar flares may have to be reconsidered.

  18. Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas

    Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.

  19. Magnetic reconnection processes induced by a CME expansion

    A. Bemporad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10–11 December 2005 a slow CME occurred in the Western Hemisphere in between two coronal streamers. SOHO/MDI magnetograms show a multipolar magnetic configuration at the photosphere: a complex of active regions located at the CME source and two bipoles at the base of the lateral coronal streamers. White light observations reveal that the CME expansion affects both of them and induces the release of plasma within or close to the nearby streamers. These transient phenomena are possibly due to magnetic reconnections induced by the CME expansion and occurring inside the streamer current sheet or between the CME flanks and the streamer. These events have been observed by the SOHO/UVCS with the spectrometer slit centered at 1.8 R⊙ over about a full day. In this work we focus on the interaction between the CME and the streamer: the UVCS spectral interval included UV lines from ions at different temperatures of maximum formation such as O VI, Si XIII and Al Xi. These data gave us the opportunity to infer the evolution of plasma temperature and density at the reconnection site and adjacent regions. These are relevant to characterize secondary reconnection processes occurring during a CME development.

  20. Small-Scale Dayside Magnetic Reconnection Analysis via MMS

    Pritchard, K. R.; Burch, J. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Webster, J.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Rager, A. C.; Phan, T.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has the primary objective of understanding the physics of the reconnection electron diffusion region (EDR), where magnetic energy is transformed into particle energy. In this poster, we present data from an EDR encounter that occurred in late December 2016 at approximately 11:00 MLT with a moderate guide field. The spacecraft were in a tetrahedral formation with an average inter-spacecraft distance of approximately 7 kilometers. During this event electron crescent-shaped distributions were observed in the electron stagnation region as is typical for asymmetric reconnection. Based on the observed ion velocity jets, the spacecraft traveled just south of the EDR. Because of the close spacecraft separation, fairly accurate computation of the Hall, electron pressure divergence, and electron inertia components of the reconnection electric field could be made. In the region of the crescent distributions good agreement was observed, with the strongest component being the normal electric field and the most significant sources being electron pressure divergence and the Hall electric field. While the strongest currents were in the out-of-plane direction, the dissipation was strongest in the normal direction because of the larger magnitude of the normal electric field component. These results are discussed in light of recent 3D PIC simulations performed by other groups.

  1. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong

    2014-06-01

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines.

  2. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines

  3. Intermittent bursts induced by double tearing mode reconnection

    Wei, Lai; Wang, Zheng-Xiong, E-mail: zxwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configuration is assumed to be the steady-state operation scenario for the future advanced tokamaks like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In this work, we numerically discover a phenomenon of violent intermittent bursts induced by self-organized double tearing mode (DTM) reconnection in the RMS configuration during the very long evolution, which may continuously lead to annular sawtooth crashes and thus badly impact the desired steady-state operation of the future advanced RMS tokamaks. The key process of the intermittent bursts in the off-axis region is similar to that of the typical sawtooth relaxation oscillation in the positive magnetic shear configuration. It is interestingly found that in the decay phase of the DTM reconnection, the zonal field significantly counteracts equilibrium field to make the magnetic shear between the two rational surfaces so weak that the residual self-generated vortices of the previous DTM burst are able to trigger a reverse DTM reconnection by curling the field lines.

  4. Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.

  5. Magnetic field, reconnection, and particle acceleration in extragalactic jets

    Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1992-01-01

    Extra-galactic radio jets are investigated theoretically taking into account that the jet magnetic field is dragged out from the central rotating source by the jet flow. Thus, magnetohydrodynamic models of jets are considered with zero net poloidal current and flux, and consequently a predominantly toroidal magnetic field. The magnetic field naturally has a cylindrical neutral layer. Collisionless reconnection of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the neutral layer acts to generate a non-axisymmetric radial magnetic field. In turn, axial shear-stretching of reconnected toroidal field gives rise to a significant axial magnetic field if the flow energy-density is larger than the energy-density of the magnetic field. This can lead to jets with an apparent longitudinal magnetic field as observed in the Fanaroff-Riley class II jets. In the opposite limit, where the field energy-density is large, the field remains mainly toroidal as observed in Fanaroff-Riley class I jets. Driven collisionless reconnection at neutral layers may lead to acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies in the weak electrostatic field of the neutral layer. A simple model is discussed for particle acceleration at neutral layers in electron/positron and electron/proton plasmas.

  6. Forced current sheet structure, formation and evolution: application to magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere

    V. I. Domrin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available By means of a simulation model, the earlier predicted nonlinear kinetic structure, a Forced Kinetic Current Sheet (FKCS, with extremely anisotropic ion distributions, is shown to appear as a result of a fast nonlinear process of transition from a previously existing equilibrium. This occurs under triggering action of a weak MHD disturbance that is applied at the boundary of the simulation box. In the FKCS, current is carried by initially cold ions which are brought into the CS by convection from both sides, and accelerated inside the CS. The process then appears to be spontaneously self-sustained, as a MHD disturbance of a rarefaction wave type propagates over the background plasma outside the CS. Comparable to the Alfvénic discontinuity in MHD, transformation of electromagnetic energy into the energy of plasma flows occurs at the FKCS. But unlike the MHD case, ``free" energy is produced here: dissipation should occur later, through particle interaction with turbulent waves generated by unstable ion distribution being formed by the FKCS action. In this way, an effect of magnetic field ``annihilation" appears, required for fast magnetic reconnection. Application of the theory to observations at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail is considered.

  7. [Post-traumatic reconnection of the cervical spinal cord with skeletal striated muscles. Study in adult rats and marmosets].

    Horvat, J C; Affane-Boulaid, F; Baillet-Derbin, C; Davarpanah, Y; Destombes, J; Duchossoy, Y; Emery, E; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Mira, J C; Moissonnier, P; Pécot-Dechavassine, M; Reviron, T; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Tadié, M; Ye, J H

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt at repairing the injured spinal cord of adult mammals (rat, dog and marmoset) and its damaged muscular connections, we are currently using: 1) peripheral nerve autografts (PNG), containing Schwann cells, to trigger and direct axonal regrowth from host and/or transplanted motoneurons towards denervated muscular targets; 2) foetal spinal cord transplants to replace lost neurons. In adult rats and marmosets, a PNG bridge was used to joint the injured cervical spinal cord to a denervated skeletal muscle (longissimus atlantis [rat] or biceps brachii [rat and marmoset]). The spinal lesion was obtained by the implantation procedure of the PNG. After a post-operative delay ranging from 2 to 22 months, the animals were checked electrophysiologically for functional muscular reconnection and processed for a morphological study including retrograde axonal tracing (HRP, Fast Blue, True Blue), histochemistry (AChE, ATPase), immunocytochemistry (ChAT) and EM. It was thus demonstrated that host motoneurons of the cervical enlargement could extend axons all the way through the PNG bridge as: a) in anaesthetized animals, contraction of the reconnected muscle could be obtained by electrical stimulation of the grafted nerve; b) the retrograde axonal tracing studies indicated that a great number of host cervical neurons extended axons into the PNG bridge up to the muscle; c) many of them were assumed to be motoneurons (double labelling with True Blue and an antibody against ChAT); and even alpha-motoneurons (type C axosomatic synapses in HRP labelled neurons seen in EM in the rat); d) numerous ectopic endplates were seen around the intramuscular tip of the PNG. In larger (cavitation) spinal lesions (rat), foetal motoneurons contained in E14 spinal cord transplants could similarly grow axons through PNG bridges up to the reconnected muscle. Taking all these data into account, it can be concluded that neural transplants are interesting tools for evaluating both the

  8. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  9. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  10. Reconnect on Facebook: The Role of Information Seeking Behavior and Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors.

    Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson

    2016-08-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered.

  11. Hot magnetospheric O+ and cold ion behavior in magnetopause reconnection: Cluster observations

    Wang, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Liu, Y.; Genestreti, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    In reconnection, the presence of heavy ions like O+ increases the ion mass density reducing the fluid's Alfvén speed. In addition, it may modify the reconnection structure, which can also change the reconnection rate. However, because O+ ions have a larger Larmor radii than H+ ions at the same velocity, they may not be fully entrained in the reconnection flow and may have kinetic effects other than just increasing the mass density. In this study, for the first time, the ion velocity distribution functions of H+ and O+ from one magnetopause reconnection event with a strong guide field are analyzed to determine in detail the behavior of the different ion populations. We show that the hot magnetospheric O+ ions, along with the hot magnetospheric H+ ions almost fully participate in the reconnection exhaust flows. Finite Larmor radius effects are also apparent and control how far the ions extend on the magnetosheath side. Ion signatures consistent with heating after being picked up in the reconnection exhaust flow are observed in the H+ and O+ distribution functions. The dynamics of the cold magnetospheric ions depends on where they enter the reconnection region. If they enter the reconnection region at the downstream separatrix, they will be taken away by the magnetic field in an adiabatic way as analyzed by Drake et al. (2009a); if they enter close to the diffusion region, they behave as pick-up ions.

  12. Inertial-Range Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind.

    Lalescu, Cristian C; Shi, Yi-Kang; Eyink, Gregory L; Drivas, Theodore D; Vishniac, Ethan T; Lazarian, Alexander

    2015-07-10

    In situ spacecraft data on the solar wind show events identified as magnetic reconnection with wide outflows and extended "X lines," 10(3)-10(4) times ion scales. To understand the role of turbulence at these scales, we make a case study of an inertial-range reconnection event in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. We observe stochastic wandering of field lines in space, breakdown of standard magnetic flux freezing due to Richardson dispersion, and a broadened reconnection zone containing many current sheets. The coarse-grain magnetic geometry is like large-scale reconnection in the solar wind, however, with a hyperbolic flux tube or apparent X line extending over integral length scales.

  13. Radio Evidence of Break-out Reconnection?

    Aurass, H.; Mann, G.; Zlobec, P.; Karlický, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 730, č. 1 (2011), 57/1-57/9 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solarcorona * coronal mass ejections * solar flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  14. Kinetic modeling of particle acceleration in a solar null point reconnection region

    Baumann, Gisela; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the particle acceleration mechanism in solar coronal 3D reconnection null-point regions. Starting from a potential field extrapolation of a SOHO magnetogram taken on 2002 November 16, we first performed MHD simulations with horizontal motions observed by SOHO...... particles and 3.5 billion grid cells of size 17.5\\,km --- these simulations offer a new opportunity to study particle acceleration in solar-like settings....... applied to the photospheric boundary of the computational box. After a build-up of electric current in the fan-plane of the null-point, a sub-section of the evolved MHD data was used as initial and boundary conditions for a kinetic particle-in-cell model of the plasma. We find that sub...

  15. Runaway acceleration during magnetic reconnection in tokamaks

    Helander, P; Eriksson, L-G; Andersson, F

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the basic theory of runaway electron production is reviewed and recent progress is discussed. The mechanisms of primary and secondary generation of runaway electrons are described and their dynamics during a tokamak disruption is analysed, both in a simple analytical model and through numerical Monte Carlo simulation. A simple criterion for when these mechanisms generate a significant runaway current is derived, and the first self-consistent simulations of the electron kinetics in a tokamak disruption are presented. Radial cross-field diffusion is shown to inhibit runaway avalanches, as indicated in recent experiments on JET and JT-60U. Finally, the physics of relativistic post-disruption runaway electrons is discussed, in particular their slowing down due to emission of synchrotron radiation, and their ability to produce electron-positron pairs in collisions with bulk plasma ions and electrons

  16. New Aspects of a Lid-Removal Mechanism in the Onset of a SEP-Producing Eruption Sequence

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Knox, Javon M

    2014-06-01

    We examine a sequence of two ejective eruptions from a single active region on 2012 January 23, using magnetograms and EUV images from SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA, and EUV images from STEREO. Cheng et al. (2013) showed that the first eruption's (``Eruption 1'') flux rope was apparent only in ``hotter'' AIA channels, and that it removed overlying field that allowed the second eruption (``Eruption 2'') to begin via ideal MHD instability; here we say Eruption 2 began via a ``lid removal'' mechanism. We show that during Eruption-1's onset, its flux rope underwent ``tether weakening'' (TW) reconnection with the field of an adjacent active region. Standard flare loops from Eruption 1 developed over Eruption-2's flux rope and enclosed filament, but these overarching new loops were unable to confine that flux rope/filament. Eruption-1's flare loops, from both TW reconnection and standard-flare-model internal reconnection, were much cooler than Eruption-2's flare loops (GOES thermal temperatures of ~9 MK compared to ~14 MK). This eruption sequence produced a strong solar energetic particle (SEP) event (10 MeV protons, >10^3 pfu for 43 hrs), apparently starting when Eruption-2's CME blasted through Eruption-1's CME at 5---10 R_s. This occurred because the two CMEs originated in close proximity and in close time sequence: Eruption-1's fast rise started soon after the TW reconnection; the lid removal by Eruption-1's ejection triggered the slow onset of Eruption 2; and Eruption-2's CME, which started ~1 hr later, was three times faster than Eruption-1's CME.

  17. The Effect of Ion Multi-scales on Magnetic Reconnection in Earth's Magnetotail - Cluster Observations"

    Shojaei Ardakani, A.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Roytershteyn, V.; Omelchenko, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A recent statistical study, using Cluster observations, showed that during substorms, a higher O+ content in the plasma sheet during the substorm growth phase, makes it more difficult to trigger reconnection [Liu et al, 2013]. In addition, they showed that, in contrast to predictions that the reconnection rate during the substorm expansion phase slows down in the presence of O+, the magnetotail unloading rate is actually faster when the O+ content is higher. This could be due to a faster local reconnection rate or due to reconnection occurring over a greater width in the tail when the O+ content of the plasma sheet is high. To address this question, we use reconnection events observed by Cluster that have different densities of O+ and we determine the local reconnection rate. For the calculation of the reconnection rate we use CODIF observations from the boundary layer/lobes around flow reversals where the distribution functions show signatures of the presence of cold plasma convecting towards the current sheet. In addition, we use timing analysis to deduce the movement of the x-line. This methodology will be compared with the estimation of the reconnection rate using results from fully kinetic and hybrid particle-in-cell simulations that model reconnection in the presence of O+ in both local geometry and in a model magnetotail equilibrium. Finally, we use the deduced local reconnection rate together with the total magnetotail pressure rate of change (from Liu et al., [2013]) to estimate the cross-tail extent of the reconnecting plasma sheet.

  18. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Design: Safety, Neutronics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Mechanics, Fuel, Core, and Plant Design

    Smith, C

    2010-02-22

    The idea of developing fast spectrum reactors with molten lead (or lead alloy) as a coolant is not a new one. Although initially considered in the West in the 1950s, such technology was not pursued to completion because of anticipated difficulties associated with the corrosive nature of these coolant materials. However, in the Soviet Union, such technology was actively pursued during the same time frame (1950s through the 1980s) for the specialized role of submarine propulsion. More recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the West for such technology, both for critical systems as well as for Accelerator Driven Subcritical (ADS) systems. Meanwhile, interest in the former Soviet Union, primarily Russia, has remained strong and has expanded well beyond the original limited mission of submarine propulsion. This section reviews the past and current status of LFR development.

  19. Effects of high thermal and high fast fluences on the mechanical properties of type 6061 aluminum in the HFBR

    Weeks, J.R.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Tichler, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is an epithermal, externally moderated (by D 2 O) facility designed to produce neutron beams for research. Type 6061 T-6 aluminum was used for the beam tubes, pressure vessel, fuel cladding, and most other components in the high flux area. The HFBR has operated since 1965. The epithermal, external moderation of the HFBR means that materials irradiated in different areas of the facility receive widely different flux spectra. Thus, specimens from a control rod drive follower tube (CRDF) have received 1.5 /times/ 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) and 3.2 /times/ 10 23 n/cm 2 thermal fluence, while those from a vertical thimble flow shroud received 1.9 /times/ 10 23 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) and 1.0 /times/ 10 23 n/cm 2 thermal. These numbers correspond to fast to thermal fluence ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.9. Irradiations are occurring at approximately 333/degree/K. The data indicate that the increase in tensile strength and decrease in ductility result primarily from the thermal fluence, i.e., the transmutation of aluminum to silicon. These effects appear to be saturating at fluences above approximately 1.8 /times/ 10 23 n/cm 2 thermal at values of 90,000 psi (6700 Kg/mm 2 ) and 9%, respectively. The specimens receiving the highest fluence ratios appear to have less increase in tensile strength and less decrease in ductility than specimens with a lower fast to thermal fluence ratio and the same thermal fluence, suggesting a possible beneficial effect of the high energy neutrons in preventing formation of silicon crystallites. 7 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Fast ion stabilization of the ion temperature gradient driven modes in the Joint European Torus hybrid-scenario plasmas: a trigger mechanism for internal transport barrier formation

    Romanelli, M; Zocco, A [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F, E-mail: Michele.Romanelli@ccfe.ac.u [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Understanding and modelling turbulent transport in thermonuclear fusion plasmas are crucial for designing and optimizing the operational scenarios of future fusion reactors. In this context, plasmas exhibiting state transitions, such as the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB), are particularly interesting since they can shed light on transport physics and offer the opportunity to test different turbulence suppression models. In this paper, we focus on the modelling of ITB formation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [1] hybrid-scenario plasmas, where, due to the monotonic safety factor profile, magnetic shear stabilization cannot be invoked to explain the transition. The turbulence suppression mechanism investigated here relies on the increase in the plasma pressure gradient in the presence of a minority of energetic ions. Microstability analysis of the ion temperature gradient driven modes (ITG) in the presence of a fast-hydrogen minority shows that energetic ions accelerated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system (hydrogen, n{sub H,fast}/n{sub D,thermal} up to 10%, T{sub H,fast}/T{sub D,thermal} up to 30) can increase the pressure gradient enough to stabilize the ITG modes driven by the gradient of the thermal ions (deuterium). Numerical analysis shows that, by increasing the temperature of the energetic ions, electrostatic ITG modes are gradually replaced by nearly electrostatic modes with tearing parity at progressively longer wavelengths. The growth rate of the microtearing modes is found to be lower than that of the ITG modes and comparable to the local E x B-velocity shearing rate. The above mechanism is proposed as a possible trigger for the formation of ITBs in this type of discharges.