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Sample records for fast ionic conductors

  1. Preparation of lithium fast ionic conductor by sol-gel-hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qinghua; Wang Bengen; Xu Yan; Liu Hongyu

    2006-01-01

    The solid fast ionic conductor was synthesized by the sol-gel-hydrothermal method.The influences of the dispersion reagent,the alkalinity and the calcination temperature on the surface morphology of nanopowders,and the electric conductivity were discussed.When PEG 12000 was used as the dispersion reagent,the alkalinity was 1.0% and the calcination temperature was 550℃; the electric conductivity at ambience temperature of the inorganic nanopowder of lithium fast ionic conductor synthesized was 2.59 ±10-3 S·cm-1.

  2. Characterization and Characteristics of mechanochemically synthesized amorphous fast ionic conductor 50 SISOMO (50AgI-25Ag2O-25MoO3)

    OpenAIRE

    Dayal, Saurabh; Shahi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemically synthesized amorphous 50SISOMO [50AgI-25Ag_2O-25MoO_3] fast ionic conductor shows high ionic conductivity of ~ 6x10^-3 {\\Omega}^-1 cm-1 at room temperature. The highest ionic conductivity is achieved for 36 h milled sample, which is more than three orders of magnitude higher than that of crystalline AgI at room temperature. The samples are thermally stable at least up to ~70 {\\deg}C. Thermoelectric power studies on 50 SISOMO amorphous fast ionic conductors (a-SIC) have been ...

  3. Connection between NMR and electrical conductivity in glassy chalcogenide fast ionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung -Han [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-07-07

    The work documented in this thesis follows the traditional order. In this chapter a general discussion of ionic conduction and of glassy materials are followed by a brief outline of the experimental techniques for the investigation of fast ionic conduction in glassy materials, including NMR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. A summary of the previous and present studies is presented in the last section of this introductory chapter. The details of the background theory and models are found in the Chapter II, followed by the description of the experimental details in Chapter III. Chapter IV of the thesis describes the experimental results and the analysis of the experimental observations followed by the conclusions in chapter V.

  4. Synthesis of a potential fast ionic conductor for Mg 2+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redko, Mikhail [Powermet Inc., Euclid, OH (United States)

    2013-11-30

    This report represents Powdermet’s attempts to synthesize a novel crystalline solid substance–Mg(B5C)2. This was expected to exhibit a high Mg2+ ionic conductivity, exceeding that of all known materials. The project was expected to consist of three major steps: 1) reproduction of a literature synthesis of a rare sodium compound NaB5C; 2) substitution of Na+ cations with Mg2+ cations, resulting in Mg(B5C)2; and 3) analysis of its Mg2+ conductivity. In course of the research, 15 attempts were made to reproduce the literature procedure on synthesis of NaB5C, a precursor to the Mg2+ conductor. The first nine attempts were unsuccessful, but later it was found that NaB5C formed when the synthesis was performed in pressurized Ar atmosphere. Powdermet performed partial exchange of Na+ to Mg2+ by heating NaB5C with magnesium triflate in sulfolane at 260°C. In another avenue, theoretical optimization of the Mg(B5C)2 structure have been performed with distant goal estimate the activation barrier for the Mg2+ diffusion and estimate the temperature at which the mobility of Mg2+ cations will be of the order of 10-2 S*cm.

  5. Mechanochemically synthesized Ag{sub 2}S-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} amorphous fast ionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, J.P. [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology ( I.I.T.) Kanpur-208016 (India); Shahi, K. [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology ( I.I.T.) Kanpur-208016 (India); Department of Physics, I.I.T. Kanpur-208016 (India)], E-mail: kshahi@iitk.ac.in

    2007-06-25

    The mechanochemical synthesis of (Ag{sub 2}S){sub x}-(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-x} amorphous fast ion conductors (a-FICs) and their structural, thermal and electrical characterizations are investigated. It is found that after {approx}10 h of ball-milling, the composition 0.85Ag{sub 2}S-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} becomes amorphous and attains a conductivity of {approx}6 x 10{sup -3} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at 25 {sup o}C which is three times greater than that of the analogous melt-quenched glass. These a-FICs are found to be predominantly ionic in nature and stable under battery conditions. By examining conductivity ({sigma}) versus composition (x), it is concluded that the sharp rise in the conductivity with the dopant Ag{sub 2}S content is largely due to a significant increase in the mobility ({mu}) of Ag{sup +} ions. These results imply that the role of salts (such as Ag{sub 2}S) is not so much to provide free (Ag{sup +}) ions for conduction but to modify the glass structure in a manner that favours fast ion transport. It is believed that these findings will guide the development of various models to relate ion transport with glass structure.

  6. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  7. An investigation of the structural dynamics in the fast ionic conductor Cu{sub 2-{delta}}Se using neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilkin, S.A. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 Australia (Australia)], E-mail: Sergey.Danilkin@ansto.gov.au

    2009-01-07

    Energy resolved neutron diffraction measurements were performed on Cu{sub 1.75}Se and Cu{sub 1.98}Se samples for both {alpha}- and {beta}-phases. In-situ measurements of the Cu{sub 1.98}Se compound during heating show that the {beta}-{alpha} phase transition takes place at 420 K and has noticeable temperature hysteresis. In addition to Bragg reflections, the diffraction patterns of the {alpha}-Cu{sub 1.75}Se at RT and {alpha}-Cu{sub 1.98}Se at 435 K samples taken in conventional two-axis geometry show a broad maximum related to diffuse scattering. This diffuse background is suppressed in the energy resolved experiment which indicates a strong contribution from inelastic scattering coming from correlated thermal displacements of the ions in the super-ionic phase. On the other hand, the diffraction pattern of the non super-ionic {beta}-phase shows only minor differences between spectra measured with and without the analyser crystal.

  8. Ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2008-09-01

    This paper covers advances made in connection with ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed biomimetic nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanorobots and artificial muscles. A review of the fundamental properties and characteristics of IPCNCs will be presented first. This summary will include descriptions of the basic materials' molecular structure and subsequent procedure to manufacture the basic material for chemical plating and electroactivation. Further described are chemical molecular plating technologies to make IPCNCs; nanotechnologies of manufacturing and trapping of nanoparticles; SEM, TEM, SPM and AFM characterization of IPMNCs; biomimetic sensing and actuation characterization techniques; electrical characterization; and equivalent circuit modeling of IPCNCs as electronic materials. A phenomenological model of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms is also presented based on linear irreversible thermodynamics with two driving forces, an electric field and a solvent pressure gradient and two fluxes, electric current density and the ionic+solvent flux.

  9. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  10. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  11. Neutron Scattering Studies of the Ionic Conductor LiI D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N. H.; Kjems, Jørgen; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    1982-01-01

    The structural properties of the ionic conductor LiID2O have been studied by neutron scattering. The cubic room temperature α-phase, Pm3m, is disordered both with respect to the occupation of the Li+-positions and to the orientations of the water molecules. A first order phase transition from the α...

  12. Li mobility in fast ion conductors followed by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Structural features that enhance Li mobility in fast ion conductors with perovskite (Li{sub 3}xLa{sub 2}/3-xTiO{sub 3} series) and Nasicon structure (Li{sub 1}+xTi{sub 2}-xAl{sub x} (PO{sub 4}){sub 3} series) have been investigated. From the analysis of quadrupolar interactions, the local symmetry and exchange processes between structural sites occupied by lithium have been deduced to investigate local motions of lithium in conduction paths of analyzed compounds. The study of spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) and spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times made possible the analysis of the temperature dependence of Li residence times at structural sites. The comparison of these values with those deduced from conductivity (ac and dc-measurements) allowed the study of Li-motion mechanisms. The onset of long range motions requires the analysis of low frequency measurements (T{sub 2} relaxation and dc-conductivity). The non- Arrhenius behaviour, often observed in fast ion conductors, has been ascribed to order/disorder transitions. At increasing temperatures, Li motions become less correlated, producing the decrement of activation energy. In analyzed compounds, a direct measurement of diffusion coefficients has been obtained from NMR experiments performed with the pulse field gradient (PFG) technique. Finally, it is emphasized the importance of the vacancy percolation in conductivity processes. (Author)

  13. Theoretical Study of Lithium Ionic Conductors by Electronic Stress Tensor Density and Electronic Kinetic Energy Density

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Taku; Aihara, Yuichi; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of lithium ionic conductors, ${\\rm Li_3PO_4}$ and ${\\rm Li_3PS_4}$, using the electronic stress tensor density and kinetic energy density with special focus on the ionic bonds among them. We find that, as long as we examine the pattern of the eigenvalues of the electronic stress tensor density, we cannot distinguish between the ionic bonds and bonds among metalloid atoms. We then show that they can be distinguished by looking at the morphology of the electronic interface, the zero surface of the electronic kinetic energy density.

  14. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Liang, Chengdu; An, Ke

    2015-07-01

    This letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. The crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion was observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.

  15. Model for impedance of an ionic conductor sandwiched between blocking electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.

    1992-06-24

    The simplest model for the impedance of an ionic conductor sandwiched between two blocking electrodes is a resistor in series with a capacitor (rc pair) representing the bulk material and the conductor-electrode interface, respectively, and a second capacitor parallel to the rc pair representing the electronic dielectric response of the system. In practice, to describe the experimental data satisfactorily, one needs to replace the interface capacitor with a constant-phase-angle (CPA) element and to add a non-Debye dielectric element parallel to the resistor to represent the local ionic movement. In this paper, some of the existing physical models for the CPA and non-Debye dielectric elements are discussed, and an example is presented for analyzing the impedance data using the resultant circuit model.

  16. Model for impedance of an ionic conductor sandwiched between blocking electrodes. [Example: yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.

    1992-06-24

    The simplest model for the impedance of an ionic conductor sandwiched between two blocking electrodes is a resistor in series with a capacitor (rc pair) representing the bulk material and the conductor-electrode interface, respectively, and a second capacitor parallel to the rc pair representing the electronic dielectric response of the system. In practice, to describe the experimental data satisfactorily, one needs to replace the interface capacitor with a constant-phase-angle (CPA) element and to add a non-Debye dielectric element parallel to the resistor to represent the local ionic movement. In this paper, some of the existing physical models for the CPA and non-Debye dielectric elements are discussed, and an example is presented for analyzing the impedance data using the resultant circuit model.

  17. Spectral densities and diagrams of states of one-dimensional ionic Pauli conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vorobyov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the features of spectra and diagrams of states obtained via exact diagonalization technique for finite ionic conductor chain in periodic boundary conditions. One dimensional ionic conductor is described with the lattice model where ions are treated within the framework of "mixed" Pauli statistics. The ion transfer and nearest-neighbour interaction between ions are taken into account. The spectral densities and diagrams of states for various temperatures and values of interaction are obtained. The conditions of transition from uniform (Mott insulator to the modulated (charge density wave state through the superfluid-like state (similar to the state with the Bose-Einstein condensation observed in hard-core boson models are analyzed.

  18. Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-12-31

    Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation technique to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.

  19. Investigation of La9.33 Si6O26 Oxygen Ionic Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    La9.33Si6O26 Oxygen ionic conductor was synthesized by solid state reaction method. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at room temperature. The results showed that La9.33Si6O26 oxide has the apatite structure with space group P63/m. AC impedance measurements indicated that the oxides sintered in nitrogen have much higher conductivity than those sintered in air. The effects of grain boundaries on the conductivity were discussed.

  20. Control of local ion transport to create unique functional nanodevices based on ionic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Terabe, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Changhao Liang and Masakazu Aono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanometer-scale devices operating under a new principle that could overcome the limitations of current semiconductor devices has attracted interest in recent years. We propose that nanoionic devices that operate by controlling the local transport of ions are promising in this regard. It is possible to control the local transport of ions using the solid electrochemical properties of ionic and electronic mixed conductors. As an example of this concept, here, we report a method of controlling the transport of silver ions of the mixed-conductor silver sulfide (Ag2S crystal and basic research on nanoionic devices based on this mixed conductor. These devices show unique functions such as atom deposition, resistance switching, and quantum point contact switching. The switches operate through the formation and dissolution of an atomic bridge between the electrodes, and the behavior is realized by control of the local solid-state electrochemical reaction. Potential nanoionic devices utilizing the unique functions and characters that do not exist in conventional semiconductor devices are discussed.

  1. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles.

  2. Measurement and modelling of the defect chemistry and transport properties of ceramic oxide mixed ionic and electronic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is ceramic mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs). MIECs have potential uses, such as solid oxygen permeation membranes, as catalysts, and as components in fuel cells. The MIECs examined in this thesis are all oxide ion conducting materials. This thesis describes...

  3. Halide-stabilized LiBH4, a room-temperature lithium fast-ion conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hideki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Takamura, Hitoshi; Ando, Mariko; Noda, Yasuto; Karahashi, Taiki; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-28

    Solid state lithium conductors are attracting much attention for their potential applications to solid-state batteries and supercapacitors of high energy density to overcome safety issues and irreversible capacity loss of the currently commercialized ones. Recently, we discovered a new class of lithium super ionic conductors based on lithium borohydride (LiBH(4)). LiBH(4) was found to have conductivity as high as 10(-2) Scm(-1) accompanied by orthorhombic to hexagonal phase transition above 115 degrees C. Polarization to the lithium metal electrode was shown to be extremely low, providing a versatile anode interface for the battery application. However, the high transition temperature of the superionic phase has limited its applications. Here we show that a chemical modification of LiBH(4) can stabilize the superionic phase even below room temperature. By doping of lithium halides, high conductivity can be obtained at room temperature. Both XRD and NMR confirmed room-temperature stabilization of superionic phase for LiI-doped LiBH(4). The electrochemical measurements showed a great advantage of this material as an extremely lightweight lithium electrolyte for batteries of high energy density. This material will open alternative opportunities for the development of solid ionic conductors other than previously known lithium conductors.

  4. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  5. Electrochemomechanics with flexoelectricity and modelling of electrochemical strain microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengfei; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a new scanning probe microscopy approach, referred to as electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), for probing local ionic flows and electrochemical reactions in solids based on the bias-strain coupling was proposed by Morozovska et al. Then, a series of theoretical papers for analyzing the image formation and spectroscopic mechanism of ESM were published within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics, the Vegard law, the direct flexoelectric coupling effect, the electrostriction effect, and so on. However, most of the models in these papers are limited to the partial coupling or particular process, and numerically solved by using decoupling approximation. In this paper, to model the ESM measurement with the coupling electrical-chemical-mechanical process, the chemical Gibbs function variational principle for the thermal electrical chemical mechanical fully coupling problem is proposed. The fully coupling governing equations are derived from the variational principle. When the tip concentrates the electric field within a small volume of the material, the inhomogeneous electric field is induced. So, both direct and inverse flexoelectric effects should be taken into account. Here, the bulk defect electrochemical reactions are also taken into account, which are usually omitted in the existing works. This theory can be used to deal with coupling problems in solids, including conductors, semiconductors, and piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric dielectrics. As an application of this work, a developed initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically in a mixed ion-electronic conductor. Numerical results show that it is meaningful and necessary to consider the bulk defect chemical reaction. Besides, the chemical reaction and the flexoelectric effect have an interactive influence on each other. This work can provide theoretical basis for the ESM as well as investigating the bulk chemical reaction process in solids.

  6. Accelerated materials design of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei

    2015-07-21

    We perform a first principles computational study of designing the Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) perovskite material to increase its oxygen ionic conductivity. In agreement with the previous experiments, our computation results confirm fast oxygen ionic diffusion and good stability of the NBT material. The oxygen diffusion mechanisms in this new material were systematically investigated, and the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion were revealed. Novel doping strategies focusing on the Na/Bi sublattice were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm(-1) at 900 K compared to the previous Mg doped compositions. This study demonstrated the advantages of first principles calculations in understanding the fundamental structure-property relationship and in accelerating the materials design of the ionic conductor materials.

  7. Pulsed laser annealing of sodium super ionic conductor for carbon dioxide sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shi-Chien; Su, Guo-Dung John, E-mail: gdjsu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.t

    2010-10-29

    This paper discussed a way to improve solid electrolyte carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensor by excimer laser annealing of sodium super ionic conductors (NASICON). The CO{sub 2} sensor used in this paper consists of a thin NASICON layer. We additionally annealed the NASICON to improve its electrical conductivity by pulsed excimer laser. The laser annealing results in re-crystallization of the NASICON thin film and changes the conductivity, grain sizes, and the structure of grain boundaries. From the scanning electron microscope pictures, we saw that NASICON grain sizes were enlarged after laser annealing. Grain sizes were also correlated to laser annealing energy and annealing times. After 2 times annealing of 420 mJ laser energy with 7 pulses each time at 1 Hz repetition rate, the conductivity of NASICON was increased by 90%. When the CO{sub 2} concentration was changed from 1000 ppm to 5000 ppm, the sensor resolution was enhanced up to 66%. These results suggested that appropriate laser annealing treatment not only enlarges NASICON grain sizes but also reduces its resistance. Therefore, the NASICON CO{sub 2} sensor resolution can be improved accordingly.

  8. Impedance spectroscopy of brushite composites and a scaling approach to the dispersion behavior of inhomogeneous ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortet, L.; Gavarri, J. R.; Musso, J.; Nihoul, G.; Clerc, J. P.; Lagarkov, A. N.; Sarychev, A. K.

    1998-09-01

    The conductivity of composites prepared from ceramics is studied. The conductivity has an ionic character and the complex impedance behaves similar to many other inhomogeneous ionic systems. The dependence on the frequency is nonanalytical in form and can be described with some exponents that appear to depend on the concentration. We develop a Monte Carlo algorithm and perform a comprehensive computer simulation of the system. A network analysis reproduces the behavior of the complex impedance so that we can connect experimentally measured quantities to the internal structure of the system. Our theory predicts the values of the exponents and gives their dependence on the structure of a particular system. The most important parameter is the width of the distribution of the local conductivities. When the width increases, the exponents describing the frequency behavior reach universal values that are independent of the particular features of the system. The developed theory can be applied to understand impedance spectroscopy data for various inhomogeneous ionic conductors and some electronic conductors as well.

  9. Structure, ionic conductivity and mobile carrier density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wenlong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M2S + (0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M2S + (0.1Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na2S + B2S3 (x ≤ 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

  10. INTERACTION OF FAST HYDROGEN IONIC CLUSTERS WITH MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Fast ionic clusters Hn+ interact with matter in a specific way which is observed to deviate strongly from the interaction of atomic ions at the same velocity. We present some results obtained at Lyon about foil and gas interactions of hydrogen clusters (5 ≤ n ≤ 23) at projectile velocities close to the Bohr velocity, i.e. dynamics of the cluster fragmentation, charge state of atomic fragments and absolute dissociation cross sections in gas. We also discuss future experiments specially at high...

  11. Local Structural Investigations, Defect Formation, and Ionic Conductivity of the Lithium Ionic Conductor Li 4 P 2 S 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Christian; Sadowski, Marcel; Sicolo, Sabrina; Weber, Dominik A.; Sedlmaier, Stefan J.; Weldert, Kai S.; Indris, Sylvio; Albe, Karsten; Janek, Jurgen; Zeier, Wolfgang G. (JLU); (TU Darmstadt); (Karlsruher)

    2016-12-13

    Glassy, glass–ceramic, and crystalline lithium thiophosphates have attracted interest in their use as solid electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries. Despite similar structural motifs, including PS43–, P2S64–, and P2S74– polyhedra, these materials exhibit a wide range of possible compositions, crystal structures, and ionic conductivities. Here, we present a combined approach of Bragg diffraction, pair distribution function analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the underlying crystal structure of Li4P2S6. In this work, we show that the material crystallizes in a planar structural arrangement as a glass ceramic composite, explaining the observed relatively low ionic conductivity, depending on the fraction of glass content. Calculations based on density functional theory provide an understanding of occurring diffusion pathways and ionic conductivity of this Li+ ionic conductor.

  12. Thermal, optical and dielectric properties of phase stabilized δ - Dy-Bi2O3 ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Swagata; Dutta, Abhigyan

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have investigated the thermal, structural, optical and dielectric properties of Bi1-xDyxO1.5-δ (0.10≤x≤0.40) ionic conductors prepared by citrate auto-ignition method. The Thermo gravimetric-DTA analysis and X-Ray Diffraction pattern confirm the single δ-phase stabilization of doped system beyond 25 mol% doping concentration. XRD analysis also indicates that average crystallite size is maximum and micro strain is minimum for Bi0.75Dy0.25O1.5-δ composition. The optical band gap of the prepared compositions is obtained from the Ultraviolet- Visible spectroscopy that shows a red shift with the increase in Dy content. The presence of different structural bonds is confirmed from FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. Ionic transport property of the prepared compositions has been analyzed using Nyquist plot for dc conduction and Nernst-Einstein relation for ac conduction mechanism. This analysis indicates that the composition Bi0.75Dy0.25O1.5-δ shows highest conductivity. The dielectric properties of these ionic conductors have been analyzed using Havriliak-Negami (HN) formalism. The dielectric permittivity ε' (ω) of all the prepared compositions is found to be within the range 1.61-3.63(x102) in S.I. unit. Analysis of electric modulus data reveals that dielectric and modulus relaxation follows same mechanism. The time-temperature superposition principle has been verified from the scaling of modulus spectra.

  13. In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using short-lived radiotracer beam of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jeong, S.C., E-mail: sunchan.jeong@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, Y.X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T.K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advance Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakao, A.; Ueno, H. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Y.H. [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, S.; Mukai, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using short-lived α-emitting {sup 8}Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed {sup 8}Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/s in lithium ionic conductors.

  14. High-performance rechargeable batteries with nanoparticle active materials, photochemically regenerable active materials, and fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-04-04

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  15. Absorption Spectra and Ionic Conductivity of RbxCs1-xAg4I5 Superionic Conductors Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yang; SUN Jia-Lin; ZHANG Guo-Sheng; GUO Ji-Hua; WANG Zheng-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ A series of RbxCs1-xAg4I5 (x = 0-1) thin films were grown by vacuum evaporation on NaCl crystal substratesat 350K. The absorption spectra of these films were measured at 80 K in the wavelength range from 240nm to 400nm. It is shown that superionic conductor thin films of quaternary compound Rb0.5Cs0.5Ag4I5 and ternarycompound RbAg4I5 can be obtained at x = 0.5-0.6 and x = 0.7-1, respectively. At x = 0.65, the combinedcompound film of the mixture of 30mol% RbAg4I5 and 70mol% Rb0.5Cs0.5Ag4I5 is presented. Then, based on the spectral positions of the A1 and A2 peaks, we determined that the Rb0.5Cs0.5Ag4I5 exciton coupling energy Rex is 0.21 eV, the forbidden zone width Eg is 3.82eV and the exciton radius aex is 0.70nm. Furthermore, the ionic conductivities of superionic conductor thin films of RbAg4I5 and Rb0.5Cso.5Ag4I5 and their mixture film are investigated, respectively, in the temperature range 303 K-393 K.

  16. Ion-polyether coordination complexes: crystalline ionic conductors for clean energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Peter G

    2006-03-21

    Ion-polyether complexes are the solid state analogues of crown ether and cryptand complexes. They represent a fascinating class of coordination compounds in their own right, with the ability to support ionic conductivity and the potential to be used as electrolytes in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Here the recent discovery of ionic conductivity in crystalline ion-polyether complexes, when for 30 years such materials were considered to be insulators, is described, along with their closely related structural chemistry.

  17. Fast plasmonic laser nanowelding for a Cu-nanowire percolation network for flexible transparent conductors and stretchable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungyong; Hong, Sukjoon; Ham, Jooyeun; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Jinhwan; Kang, Bongchul; Lee, Phillip; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Lee, Seung S; Yang, Min-Yang; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2014-09-01

    A facile fast laser nanoscale welding process uses the plasmonic effect at a nanowire (NW) junction to suppress oxidation and successfully fabricate a Cu-NW-based percolation-network conductor. The "nanowelding" process does not require an inert or vacuum environment. Due to the low-temperature and fast-process nature, plasmonic laser nanowelding may form Cu-nanowire networks on heat-sensitive, flexible or even stretchable substrates.

  18. Structure, sintering and electrical properties of new ionic conductor Ag{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouki, R., E-mail: riadh.marzouki@hotmail.fr [Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Guesmi, A. [Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Georges, S. [Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Matériaux et des Interfaces LEPMI, UMR 5279, CNRS: Grenoble INP, Université de Savoie, Université Joseph Fourier, BP75. 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Zid, M.F.; Driss, A. [Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-02-15

    A new silver–cobalt arsenate, Ag{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6}, is synthesized by solid state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction and impedance spectroscopy. The phase crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m with a = 10.755(2) Å, b = 14.937(2) Å, c = 6.731(2) Å, and β = 106.17(3)°. The structure is described as a three-dimensional anionic framework having interconnecting tunnels running along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0]. The former contains the silver cations. Ball milling is used as mechanical means to reduce the particles sizes of the as synthesized powder. At the optimal sintering temperature of 1173 K, dense ceramics (96% of the relative density) are obtained. Their microstructure is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The conductivity of the ceramics is studied at different relative densities over a temperature interval from 437 to 773 K. The high conductivity at 210 °C (3.3 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1}) and the activation energy (Ea = 0.45 eV) show that Ag{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6} is a fast ionic conductor.

  19. Fast Ignition and Sustained Combustion of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash B. (Inventor); Piper, Lawrence G. (Inventor); Oakes, David B. (Inventor); Sabourin, Justin L. (Inventor); Hicks, Adam J. (Inventor); Green, B. David (Inventor); Tsinberg, Anait (Inventor); Dokhan, Allan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A catalyst free method of igniting an ionic liquid is provided. The method can include mixing a liquid hypergol with a HAN (Hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based ionic liquid to ignite the HAN-based ionic liquid in the absence of a catalyst. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can be injected into a combustion chamber. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can impinge upon a stagnation plate positioned at top portion of the combustion chamber.

  20. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleutot, Benoit; Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li3PO4 coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li3PO4 coated Li4Ti5O12 is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g-1 at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  1. Hydrogen tunneling in the perovskite ionic conductor BaCe1-xYxO3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, F.; Craciun, F.; Deganello, F.; La Parola, V.; Roncari, E.; Sanson, A.

    2008-08-01

    We present low-temperature anelastic and dielectric spectroscopy measurements on the perovskite ionic conductor BaCe1-xYxO3-x/2 in the protonated, deuterated, and outgassed states. Three main relaxation processes are ascribed to proton migration, reorientation about an Y dopant, and tunneling around the same O atom. An additional relaxation maximum appears only in the dielectric spectrum around 60 K and does not involve H motion but may be of electronic origin, e.g., small polaron hopping. The peak at the lowest temperature, assigned to H tunneling, has been fitted with a relaxation rate presenting crossovers from one-phonon transitions, nearly independent of temperature, to two-phonon processes, varying as T7 , to Arrhenius type. Substituting H with D lowers the overall rate by eight times. The corresponding peak in the dielectric loss has an intensity nearly 40 times smaller than expected from the classical reorientation of the electric dipole associated with the OH complex. This fact is discussed in terms of coherent tunneling states of H in a cubic and orthorhombically distorted lattice, possibly indicating that only H in the symmetric regions of twin boundaries exhibit tunneling, and in terms of reduction in the effective dipole due to lattice polarization.

  2. Electrochemical performance of Li-rich oxide composite material coated with Li0.75La0.42TiO3 ionic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Liao, Pin-Ci; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2017-03-01

    Li-rich (spray-dried (SP)-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2) composite materials were prepared via two-step ball-mill and spray dry methods by using LiOH, α-MnO2, β-Ni(OH)2 raw materials. Two raw materials of α-MnO2 nanowires and microsphere β-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. In addition, Li0.75La0.42TiO3 (LLTO) fast ionic conductor was coated on SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composite via a sol-gel method. The properties of the LLTO-coated SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composites were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman, XPS, and the AC impedance method. The discharge capacities of 1 wt.%-LLTO-coated SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composites were 256, 250, 231, 200, 158, and 114 mAh g-1 at rates of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5C, respectively, in the voltage range 2.0-4.8 V. The 1 wt.%-LLTO-coated Li-rich oxide composite showed the discharge capacities of up to 256 mAh g-1 in the first cycle at 0.1C. After 30 cycles, the discharge capacity of 244 mAh g-1 was obtained, which showed the capacity retention of 95.4%.

  3. Percolation Theory in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes with a Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Percolation theory is generalized to predict the effective properties of specific solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes, which consist of a pure ion conducting material (e.g., YSZ or GDC and a mixed electron and ion conducting material (e.g., LSCF, LSCM or CeO2. The investigated properties include the probabilities of an LSCF particle belonging to the electron and ion conducting paths, percolated three-phase-boundary electrochemical reaction sites, which are based on different assumptions, the exposed LSCF surface electrochemical reaction sites and the revised expressions for the inter-particle ionic conductivities among LSCF and YSZ materials. The effects of the microstructure parameters, such as the volume fraction of the LSCF material, the particle size distributions of both the LSCF and YSZ materials (i.e., the mean particle radii and the non-dimensional standard deviations, which represent the particle size distributions and the porosity are studied. Finally, all of the calculated results are presented in non-dimensional forms to provide generality for practical application. Based on these results, the relevant properties can be easily evaluated, and the microstructure parameters and intrinsic properties of each material are specified.

  4. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  5. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  6. Fast photo-induced phase switching in organic conductor crystal; (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Guerin, Laurent; Uchida, Naoki; Fukaya, Souichi; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Matsuda, Kazunari; Ota, Akira; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi

    Organic conductor (EDO-TTF) 2PF6 crystal shows metal (M)-insulator (I) transition at 280 K. Here, we report the occurrence of highly efficient photo-conversion from insulator to metal phase within a few pico-seconds.

  7. Study of the nearly constant dielectric loss regime in ionic conductors with pyrochlore-like structure; Estudio del regimen de perdidas dielectricas constantes en conductores ionicos con estructura de tipo pirocloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guillen, M. r.; Fuentes, A. F.; Diaz-Guillen, J. a.; Santamaria, J.; Leon, C.

    2012-07-01

    We report on ac conductivity measurement of oxide ion conductors with composition Gd{sub 2}(ZryTi{sub 1}-y){sub 2}O{sub 7} and a pyrochlore type structure, at temperatures between -20 and 250 degree centigrade and in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 3 MHz by using impedance spectroscopy. Results show that a crossover from a power law dependence to a linear frequency dependence (or nearly constant loss behavior) in the ac conductivity can be clearly observed in a wide temperature range. This crossover is found to be thermally activated, and its activation energy ENCL to be much lower than the activation energy Edc for the dc conductivity. We also found that the values of ENCL are almost independent of composition, and therefore of the concentration of mobile oxygen vacancies, unlike those of Edc. Moreover, for each composition, the values of E{sub N}CL=0.67{+-}0.04 eV are very similar to those estimated for the energy barrier for the ions to leave their cages, E{sub {alpha}}=0.69{+-}0.05 eV. These results support that the nearly constant loss behavior, ubiquitous in ionic conductors, is originated from caged ion dynamics. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. Protic Organic Ionic Plastic Crystals: Fast Solid-State Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Aili, David; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating between 100 °C and 200 °C are desirable because they offer significant benefits, such as improved electrode kinetics, simpler water and heat management, and better tolerance to fuel impurities, leading to higher overall s...

  9. A New Family of Ce6MoO15 as Fast Oxide Ion Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jing; Meng Jian; Bo Qibing; Che Ping; Wang Jingping; Liu Jianfen; Lu Minfeng; Zhang Deping; Fang Daqing; Cao Xueqiang

    2004-01-01

    A novel solid solution Ce6MoO15 was achieved. Their structure and oxide ionic conductivity were studied.Based on Ce6MoO15, rare earth element substitution on cerium site shows that all resulting oxides enhance the conductivity further, and have high oxide-ion conductivity, which may be a kind of promising material for SOFCs.

  10. Pharmaceutically active ionic liquids with solids handling, enhanced thermal stability, and fast release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bica, Katharina; Rodríguez, Héctor; Gurau, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds in ionic liquid form immobilized onto mesoporous silica are stable, easily handled solids, with fast and complete release from the carrier material when placed into an aqueous environment. Depending on specific ion-surface interactions, they may also exhibit...

  11. Investigation of a metal-ionic conductor interface in thin film samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, G.; Danto, Y.; Barriere, A.S.; Duc, T.M.; Garaud, Y.

    1982-03-26

    The surface of an evaporated thin film of the ionic conductor ..beta..-PbF/sub 2/ was analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared with those obtained from nuclear and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. An analysis of the Au-..beta..-PbF/sub 2/ interface shows the presence of a thin layer of partly oxidized metallic lead. Part of this interfacial lead diffused across the gold film towards the external surface where it became bound to oxygen. An electrical analysis of the interface was performed by studying the capacitance as a function of the surface potential. The differences between experimental and calculated values are discussed in the light of the XPS measurements.

  12. Measurement and modelling of the defect chemistry and transport properties of ceramic oxide mixed ionic and electronic conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The mixed ionic and electronic conducting fluorite and perovskite materials examined in this thesis are all oxide ion conducting materials. The defect chemistry and transport properties of a number of these materials are measured using: 1) a measurement technique using an oxygen pump and an electrol

  13. Formation of new functional materials and device heterostructures on the basis of nanosystems of superionic conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Despotuli; A.; L.; Andreeva; A.; V.

    2005-01-01

    Search for conditions of conservation of fast ionic transport (FIT) in nanosystems of advanced superionic conductors (ASIC)[1-4] and synthesis of new types of device thin-film heterostructures on this basis is a fundamental scientific problem. ASICs (α-AgI, solid electrolytes of the family RbAg4I5, etc. ) are crystals with a record high level of ionic conductivity and a low value of activation energy E~0. 1 eV.……

  14. Formation of new functional materials and device heterostructures on the basis of nanosystems of superionic conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Search for conditions of conservation of fast ionic transport (FIT) in nanosystems of advanced superionic conductors (ASIC)[1-4] and synthesis of new types of device thin-film heterostructures on this basis is a fundamental scientific problem. ASICs (α-AgI, solid electrolytes of the family RbAg4I5, etc. ) are crystals with a record high level of ionic conductivity and a low value of activation energy E~0. 1 eV.

  15. Structure and dynamics of the fast lithium ion conductor "Li7La3Zr2O12".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Dölle, Janis; Berendts, Stefan; Kuhn, Alexander; Bottke, Patrick; Wilkening, Martin; Heitjans, Paul; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Lotnyk, Andriy; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Janek, Jürgen

    2011-11-21

    The solid lithium-ion electrolyte "Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12)" (LLZO) with a garnet-type structure has been prepared in the cubic and tetragonal modification following conventional ceramic syntheses routes. Without aluminium doping tetragonal LLZO was obtained, which shows a two orders of magnitude lower room temperature conductivity than the cubic modification. Small concentrations of Al in the order of 1 wt% were sufficient to stabilize the cubic phase, which is known as a fast lithium-ion conductor. The structure and ion dynamics of Al-doped cubic LLZO were studied by impedance spectroscopy, dc conductivity measurements, (6)Li and (7)Li NMR, XRD, neutron powder diffraction, and TEM precession electron diffraction. From the results we conclude that aluminium is incorporated in the garnet lattice on the tetrahedral 24d Li site, thus stabilizing the cubic LLZO modification. Simulations based on diffraction data show that even at the low temperature of 4 K the Li ions are blurred over various crystallographic sites. This strong Li ion disorder in cubic Al-stabilized LLZO contributes to the high conductivity observed. The Li jump rates and the activation energy probed by NMR are in very good agreement with the transport parameters obtained from electrical conductivity measurements. The activation energy E(a) characterizing long-range ion transport in the Al-stabilized cubic LLZO amounts to 0.34 eV. Total electric conductivities determined by ac impedance and a four point dc technique also agree very well and range from 1 × 10(-4) Scm(-1) to 4 × 10(-4) Scm(-1) depending on the Al content of the samples. The room temperature conductivity of Al-free tetragonal LLZO is about two orders of magnitude lower (2 × 10(-6) Scm(-1), E(a) = 0.49 eV activation energy). The electronic partial conductivity of cubic LLZO was measured using the Hebb-Wagner polarization technique. The electronic transference number t(e-) is of the order of 10(-7). Thus, cubic LLZO is an almost exclusive

  16. LiI-doped N,N-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium iodide, an archetypal rotator-phase ionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Josefina; Seeber, Aaron J; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2005-11-03

    N,N-Dimethyl-pyrrolidinium iodide, and the effect of doping with LiI, has been investigated using DSC, NMR, and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of a small amount of LiI enhances the ionic conductivity by up to 3 orders of magnitude for this ionic solid. Furthermore, a slight decrease in phase transition onset temperatures, as well as the appearance of a superimposed narrow line in the (1)H NMR spectra with dopant, suggest that the LiI facilitates the mobility of the matrix material, possibly by the introduction of vacancies within the lattice. (7)Li NMR line width measurements reveal a narrow Li line width, decreasing in width and increasing in intensity with temperature, indicating mobile Li ions.

  17. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS:PART Ⅰ. IONIC CONDUCTION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF LI-COMPLEX BASED ON ACRYLAMIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zhenghua; XU Kang; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Acrylamide was introduced onto the chain of poly[oligo(oxyethylene) methacrylate] as a polar constituent, and the effect of its presence on the mechanical strength and ionic conduction properties of Li-salt complex based on the resultant copolymer was investigated. The introduction of the polar constituent raises chain rigidity, retards crystallization of oligo(oxyethylene) domain and promotes the dissociation of lithium salt. The factors work on the mechanical and conduction properties synergistically, therefore both of the properties are improved simultaneously as the consequence of acrylamide- introduction.

  18. A Review of Surface Analysis Techniques for the Investigation of the Phenomenon of Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis with Alkaline Ionic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús González-Cobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis (EPOC with alkali ionic conductors has been widely studied in literature due to its operational advantages vs. alkali classical promotion. This phenomenon allows to electrochemically control the alkali promoter coverage on a catalyst surface in the course of the catalytic reaction. Along the study of this phenomenon, a large variety of in situ and ex situ surface analysis techniques have been used to investigate the origin and mechanism of this kind of promotion. In this review, we analyze the most important contributions made on this field which have clearly evidenced the presence of adsorbed alkali surface species on the catalyst films deposited on alkaline solid electrolyte materials during EPOC experiments. Hence, the use of different surface analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM, or scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, led to a better understanding of the alkali promoting effect, and served to confirm the theory of electrochemical promotion on this kind of catalytic systems. Given the functional similarities between alkali electrochemical and chemical promotion, this review aims to bring closer this phenomenon to the catalysis scientific community.

  19. Direct evidence of stacking disorder in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor Sr4Fe6O12+δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Marta D; Abakumov, Artem M; Ramasse, Quentin M; Erni, Rolf

    2013-04-23

    Determining the structure-to-property relationship of materials becomes particularly challenging when the material under investigation is dominated by defects and structural disorder. Knowledge on the exact atomic arrangement at the defective structure is required to understand its influence on the functional properties. However, standard diffraction techniques deliver structural information that is averaged over many unit cells. In particular, information about defects and order-disorder phenomena is contained in the coherent diffuse scattering intensity which often is difficult to uniquely interpret. Thus, the examination of the local disorder in materials requires a direct method to study their structure on the atomic level with chemical sensitivity. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with atomic-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we show that the controversial structural arrangement of the Fe2O2+δ layers in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting Sr4Fe6O12+δ perovskite can be unambiguously resolved. Our results provide direct experimental evidence for the presence of a nanomixture of "ordered" and "disordered" domains in an epitaxial Sr4Fe6O12+δ thin film. The most favorable arrangement is the disordered structure and is interpreted as a randomly occurring but well-defined local shift of the Fe-O chains in the Fe2O2+δ layers. By analyzing the electron energy-loss near-edge structure of the different building blocks in the Sr4Fe6O12+δ unit cell we find that the mobile holes in this mixed ionic-electronic conducting oxide are highly localized in the Fe2O2+δ layers, which are responsible for the oxide-ion conductivity. A possible link between disorder and oxygen-ion transport along the Fe2O2+δ layers is proposed by arguing that the disorder can effectively break the oxygen diffusion pathways.

  20. Sensitive and Fast Humidity Sensor Based on A Redox Conducting Supramolecular Ionic Material for Respiration Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Zhang, Li; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-01-03

    Real-time monitoring of respiratory rate (RR) is highly important for human health, clinical diagnosis, and fundamental scientific research. Exhaled humidity-based RR monitoring has recently attracted increased attention because of its accuracy and portability. Here, we report a new design of an exhaled humidity sensor for the real-time monitoring of the RR based on a synthetic redox conducting supramolecular ionic material (SIM). The humidity-dependent conducting SIM is prepared by ionic self-assembly in aqueous solutions of electroactive 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,10-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) decane (C10(mim)2). By taking full advantage of the high hygroscopicity and water stability arising from the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between two building blocks (i.e., ABTS and C10(mim)2), the SIM-based humidity sensor exhibits both high sensitivity (less than 0.1% relative humidity) and fast response time (∼37 ms). These excellent properties allow this humidity sensor to noninvasively monitor the RRs of not only humans but also rats that have a much faster RR and much smaller tidal volume than humans. Moreover, this sensor could also be efficiently used for the real-time monitoring of the recovery process of rats from anesthesia.

  1. Slow and fast capacitive process taking place at the ionic liquid/electrode interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roling, Bernhard; Drüschler, Marcel; Huber, Benediki

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterise the interface between the ultrapure room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and a Au(111) working electrode at electrode potentials more positive than the open circuit potential (-0.14 V vs. Pt pseudo-reference). Plots of the potential-dependent data in the complex capacitance plane reveal the existence of a fast and a slow capacitive process. In order to derive the contribution of both processes to the overall capacitance, the complex capacitance data were fitted using an empirical Cole-Cole equation. The differential capacitance of the fast process is almost constant between -0.14 V and +0.2 V (vs. Pt pseudo-reference) and decreases at more positive potentials, while the differential capacitance of the slower process exhibits a maximum at +0.2 V. This maximum leads to a maximum in the overall differential capacitance. We attribute the slow process to charge redistributions in the innermost ion layer, which require an activation energy in excess of that for ion transport in the room temperature ionic liquid. The differential capacitance maximum of the slow process at +0.2 V is most likely caused by reorientations of the 1-butyl-1l-methylpyrrolidinium cations in the innermost layer with the positively charged ring moving away from the Au(111) surface and leaving behind voids which are then occupied by anions. In a recent Monte Carlo simulation by Federov, Georgi and Kornyshev (Electrochem. Commun. 2010, 12, 296), such a process was identified as the origin of a differential capacitance maximum in the anodic regime. Our results suggest that the time scales of capacitive processes at the ionic liquid/metal interface are an important piece of information and should be considered in more detail in future experimental and theoretical studies.

  2. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  3. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  4. Engineering Mixed Ionic Electronic Conduction in La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3+ δ Nanostructures through Fast Grain Boundary Oxygen Diffusivity

    KAUST Repository

    Saranya, Aruppukottai M.

    2015-04-09

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Nanoionics has become an increasingly promising field for the future development of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, such as batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Particularly, nanostructured materials offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. However, the enhancement of the mass transport properties at the nanoscale has often been found to be difficult to implement in nanostructures. Here, an artificial mixed ionic electronic conducting oxide is fabricated by grain boundary (GB) engineering thin films of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ. This electronic conductor is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with high density of vertically aligned GBs with high concentration of strain-induced defects. Since this type of GBs present a remarkable enhancement of their oxide-ion mass transport properties (of up to six orders of magnitude at 773 K), it is possible to tailor the electrical nature of the whole material by nanoengineering, especially at low temperatures. The presented results lead to fundamental insights into oxygen diffusion along GBs and to the application of these engineered nanomaterials in new advanced solid state ionics devices such are micro-solid oxide fuel cells or resistive switching memories. An electronic conductor such as La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with excellent electronic and oxygen mass transport properties. Oxygen diffusion highways are created by promoting a high concentration of strain-induced defects in the grain boundary region. This novel strategy opens the way for synthesizing new families of artificial mixed ionic-electronic conductors by design.

  5. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquids into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Men

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquids have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  6. Garnet-Type Fast Li-Ion Conductors with High Ionic Conductivities for All-Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Fang; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K; Wei, Lu; Guo, Xin

    2017-04-12

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries with metallic Li anodes and solid electrolytes could offer superior energy density and safety over conventional Li-ion batteries. However, compared with organic liquid electrolytes, the low conductivity of solid electrolytes and large electrolyte/electrode interfacial resistance impede their practical application. Garnet-type Li-ion conducting oxides are among the most promising electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work, the large-radius Rb is doped at the La site of cubic Li6.10Ga0.30La3Zr2O12 to enhance the Li-ion conductivity for the first time. The Li6.20Ga0.30La2.95Rb0.05Zr2O12 electrolyte exhibits a Li-ion conductivity of 1.62 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which is the highest conductivity reported until now. All-solid-state Li-ion batteries are constructed from the electrolyte, metallic Li anode, and LiFePO4 active cathode. The addition of Li(CF3SO2)2N electrolytic salt in the cathode effectively reduces the interfacial resistance, allowing for a high initial discharge capacity of 152 mAh g(-1) and good cycling stability with 110 mAh g(-1) retained after 20 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.05 C at 60 °C.

  7. Study on Lithium Fast Ion Conductors of Li3xLa0.67-xInyTi1-2yPyO3 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 章宁; 王文继

    2003-01-01

    Perovskite-type lithium fast ion conductors of Li3xLa0.67-xInyTi1-2yPyO3 system were prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction shows that perovskite solid solution forms in the ranges of x=0.10~0.12, y≤0.2. AC impedance measurements indicate that the bulk conductivities and the total conductivities are of 1×10-4 and 1×10-5 S*cm-1 at 25 ℃ respectively. The compositions have low bulk activation energies of 20 kJ*mol-1 in the temperature ranges of 298~523 K and total activation energies of 40 kJ*mol-1 in the temperature ranges of 298~623 K.

  8. Electric characterization of grain boundaries in ionic conductors by impedance spectroscopy measurements in a bicrystal; Caracterizacion electrica de fronteras de grano en conductores ionicos mediante medidas de espectroscopia de impedancias en un bicristal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechero, M. A.; Rocci Riner Schmidt, M.; Diaz-Guillen, M.; Doaz-Guillen, M. R.; Dura, O.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; Santamaria, J.; Leon, C.

    2012-07-01

    Here we show impedance spectroscopy measurements on a bicrystal of the ionically conducting Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). By using micrometer sized electrodes it is possible to measure ionic transport perpendicular to a single grain boundary, and characterize its electrical properties. We are thus able to obtain the microscopic parameters that determine the charge distribution at the grain boundary and the ionic transport through it, as the potential energy barrier {delta}{phi} = 0.35{+-}0.01 V at 275 degree centigrade, and the space charge layer thickness {lambda} = 5{+-}1 A. These values are significantly different from those previously obtained in polycrystalline ceramic samples of the same material, and show much better agreement with the values predicted by the Mott-Schottky model for the charge distribution and ionic transport through the grain boundary. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Strong pinning in very fast grown reactive co-evaporated GdBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. MacManus-Driscoll

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on compositional tuning to create excellent field-performance of Jc in “self-doped,” GdBa2Cu3O7−y (GdBCO coated conductors grown by ultrafast reactive co-evaporation. In order to give excess liquid and Gd2O3, the overall compositions were all Ba-poor and Cu-rich compared to GdBCO. The precise composition was found to be critical to the current carrying performance. The most copper-rich composition had an optimum self-field Jc of 3.2 MA cm−2. A more Gd-rich composition had the best in-field performance because of the formation of low coherence, splayed Gd2O3 nanoparticles, giving Jc (77 K, 1 T of over 1 MA cm−2 and Jc (77 K, 5 T of over 0.1 MA cm−2.

  10. Rietveld neutron powder profile analysis and electrical conductivity of the fast silver-ion conductor (LaO)AgS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmer, D.; Wuensch, B. J.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    1999-11-18

    Lanthanum silver oxysulfide, (LaO)AgS, exhibits a predominantly ionic conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1} S/cm between 300 K and 770 K. The tetragonal structure consists of alternating (LaO) and (AgS) sheets, their sequence being O-La-S-Ag-S-La-O. The structure suggests that ionic transport arises from migration of silver ions within the AgS layers analogous to sodium ion transport in Na-{beta}-alumina. Neutron powder diffraction data measured at five temperatures between 300 K and 770 K are analyzed using the Rietveld method to determine the distribution and thermal vibration parameters of the mobile silver ions. The structural investigation is accompanied by measurements of the total conductivity in the same temperature range in order to resolve severe discrepancies in the literature data.

  11. Promotional role of Li4Ti5O12 as polysulfide adsorbent and fast Li+ conductor on electrochemical performances of sulfur cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tianbiao; Hu, Xuebu; Ji, Penghui; Shang, Biao; Peng, Qimeng; Zhang, Yaoyao; Song, Ruiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries attract much attention due to its high specific capacity and energy density compared to lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Herein, a novel composite named as (void/nano-Li4Ti5O12 pieces)@C [(v/n-L)@C] was designed and prepared as a sulfur host. Spinel Li4Ti5O12 here as a multifunctional additive played as polysulfide adsorbent agent and fast Li+ conductor, and carbon shell was designed as electronic conductor, as well as volume barrier to limit the volume expansion caused by sulfur. As-prepared (S/nano-Li4Ti5O12 pieces)@C [(S/n-L)@C] are core-shell spheres, which are about 200 nm in size. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 and sulfur were coated by the outer carbon shell with a thickness of about 20 nm. The experimental results show that electrochemical performances of (S/n-L)@C cathode were enhanced effectively compared to S@C cathode. At 0.5C and 1C, the discharge capacity of (S/n-L)@C was 33.5% and 40.1% higher than that of S@C at 500th cycle. Even at 2C, its capacity reached 600.9 mAh g-1 at 1000th cycle. Li+ conductivity of (S/n-L)@C was one order of magnitude higher than that of S@C, which was reach to 2.55 × 10-8 S cm-1. The experiment results indicate Li4Ti5O12 plays a promotional role on electrochemical performances of sulfur cathode, especially for stable cycling performance and high rate performance.

  12. Fast ionic conduction in tetravalent metal pyrophosphate-alkali carbonate composites: New potential electrolytes for intermediate-temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Bhardwaj, Aman; Gautam, Sandeep K.; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Kim, In-Ho; Song, Sun-Ju

    2017-03-01

    Here we present a report on synthesis and characterization of tetravalent metal pyrophosphate (TMP) and alkali carbonate (A2CO3; A = Li and/or Na) composites. The TMP-carbonate composites are prepared by mixing indium-doped tin pyrophosphate or yttrium-doped zirconium pyrophosphate with Li2CO3 or an eutectic mixture of Li2CO3-Na2CO3 in different wt.% ratios. The phase composition, microstructure and electrical conductivity of the sintered specimen are analyzed. In addition, the effect of different TMP and A2CO3 phases is investigated. A maximum ionic conductivity of 5.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 630 °C is observed in this study with a Sn0.9In0.1P2O7-Li2CO3 composite. Based on the literature data, TMP-carbonate composites can be considered to be primarily a proton and oxygen-ion co-ionic conductor and, therefore, have strong potential as electrolytes in fuel cells in 500-700 °C range.

  13. Mechanical synthesis and structural properties of the fast fluoride-ion conductor PbSnF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Fumika; Mori, Kazuhiro; Yonemura, Masao; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kamiyama, Takashi; Otomo, Toshiya; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu

    2017-09-01

    A fluoride-ion conductor, γ-PbSnF4, was synthesized by the mechanical milling. In addition, β-PbSnF4 was obtained by aging the γ-PbSnF4 at 473 K. The electrical conductivity of β-PbSnF4 is relatively higher than that of γ-PbSnF4 at 298 K. The crystal structure analysis of γ- and β-PbSnF4 was carried out using neutron diffraction data. From the obtained occupancies, fluoride ions were located at the Fγ(1) normal site (62%) and Fγ(2) interstitial site (38%) in γ-PbSnF4 and the Fβ(1) normal site (31%), Fβ(2) normal site (25%), and Fβ(3) interstitial site (44%) in β-PbSnF4. In particular, the number of fluoride ions at the F interstitial site increased after the γ-to-β phase transition: 38% at Fγ(2) to 44% at Fβ(3). It is most likely that the ratio of fluoride ions to vacancies (or the effective carrier concentration) was optimized in the ;-Fβ(1)-Fβ(3)-Fβ(3)-Fβ(1)-; conduction pathways of fluoride ions in β-PbSnF4.

  14. 脉冲磁场激励下圆柱导体内瞬态涡流场的快速计算%Fast Calculation of Transient Eddy Current Field in Cylindrical Conductor Excited by Pulsed Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛伟

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical model of transient eddy current field is built in cylindrical conductor excited by pulsed magnetic field. Theoretical calculation and experimental measurement of cylindrical conductor in pulsed magnetic field are carried out. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental results in a good agreement, indicate that the fast calculation method of transient eddy current field in cylindrical conductor is effective.%建立了脉冲磁场激励下圆柱导体内瞬态涡流场的理论模型.实现了瞬态涡流场的快速计算.通过实例表明上述圆柱导体内瞬态涡流场的快速计算方法有效.

  15. Fast Measurement of Methanol Concentration in Ionic Liquids by Potential Step Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Hainstock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of direct methanol fuel cells required the attention to the electrolyte. A good electrolyte should not only be ionic conductive but also be crossover resistant. Ionic liquids could be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells. Monitoring methanol was critical in several locations in a direct methanol fuel cell. Conductivity could be used to monitor the methanol content in ionic liquids. The conductivity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate had a linear relationship with the methanol concentration. However, the conductivity was significantly affected by the moisture or water content in the ionic liquid. On the contrary, potential step could be used in sensing methanol in ionic liquids. This method was not affected by the water content. The sampling current at a properly selected sampling time was proportional to the concentration of methanol in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The linearity still stood even when there was 2.4 M water present in the ionic liquid.

  16. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  17. Low Temperature Synthesis of Cubic-phase Fast-ionic Conducting Bi-doped Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanz, Derek K.; Marinero, Ernesto

    We report on the synthesis of cubic-phase fast ionic conducting garnet solid state electrolytes based on LiLaZrO (LLZO) at unprecedented low synthesis temperatures. Ionic conductivities around 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm are readily achieved. Bismuth aliovalent substitution into LLZO utilizing the Pechini processing method is successfully employed to synthesize LiLaZrBiO compounds. Cubic phase LiLaZrBiO powders are generated in the temperature range 650C to 900C in air. In contrast, in the absence of Bi and under identical synthesis conditions, the cubic phase of LiLaZrO is not formed below 750C and a transformation to the poor ionically conducting tetragonal phase is observed at 800C for the undoped compound. The critical role of Bi in lowering the formation temperature of the garnet cubic phase and the improvements in ionic conductivity are elucidated in this work through microstructural and electrochemical studies.

  18. One-Step Fabrication of Stretchable Copper Nanowire Conductors by a Fast Photonic Sintering Technique and Its Application in Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Su; Jiu, Jinting; Gao, Yue; Tian, Yanhong; Araki, Teppei; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Nogi, Masaya; Koga, Hirotaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2016-03-09

    Copper nanowire (CuNW) conductors have been considered to have a promising perspective in the area of stretchable electronics due to the low price and high conductivity. However, the fabrication of CuNW conductors suffers from harsh conditions, such as high temperature, reducing atmosphere, and time-consuming transfer step. Here, a simple and rapid one-step photonic sintering technique was developed to fabricate stretchable CuNW conductors on polyurethane (PU) at room temperature in air environment. It was observed that CuNWs were instantaneously deoxidized, welded and simultaneously embedded into the soft surface of PU through the one-step photonic sintering technique, after which highly conductive network and strong adhesion between CuNWs and PU substrates were achieved. The CuNW/PU conductor with sheet resistance of 22.1 Ohm/sq and transmittance of 78% was achieved by the one-step photonic sintering technique within only 20 μs in air. Besides, the CuNW/PU conductor could remain a low sheet resistance even after 1000 cycles of stretching/releasing under 10% strain. Two flexible electronic devices, wearable sensor and glove-shaped heater, were fabricated using the stretchable CuNW/PU conductor, demonstrating that our CuNW/PU conductor could be integrated into various wearable electronic devices for applications in food, clothes, and medical supplies fields.

  19. An easy, green and ultra-fast synthesis of dicationic ionic liquids: From days to minutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, J.-M.; Aminuddin, N. F.; Kermanioryani, M.; Mutalib, M. I. Abdul; Lethesh, K. C.; Mazlan, F. Afzal

    2016-11-01

    Ionic liquids are no longer a curiosity since they have shown tremendous potential in several key sectors of chemical sciences proven by the exponential number of publications in recent years. However, due to its toxicity and time-consuming synthesis route, these have become a technical hurdle of their use in pilot or industrial scales. Notably their syntheses not only time and energy consuming but also rather of dirty nature with the use of molecular solvents for synthesis and purification steps, leading to high production cost and impeding the possible further industrial outcome. In this preliminary work, we have developed a neat and quick synthesis pathway of di-cationic ionic liquids, reducing not only the necessary time from days to minutes but also the overall energy consumption resulted in high purity, increasing their potential as green alternative to common molecular organic solvents.

  20. Fast diffusion in a room-temperature ionic liquid confined in mesoporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We report a quasielastic neutron scattering study in the temperature range of 290 to 350 K of a room temperature ionic liquid, [bmim+][Tf2N-], in the bulk form and confined in the 8.8 2.1 nm diameter pores of a mesoporous carbon matrix. In both bulk and confined liquids, our measurements, which are sensitive to the dynamics of the hydrogen-bearing cations, detect two distinct relaxation processes related to the diffusion of the cations. We have found that the cations that do not become immobilized near the pore walls exhibit an enhanced rather than suppressed diffusivity compared to the cation diffusivity in bulk liquid. Our results provide first experimental observation of molecular diffusion in a room temperature ionic liquid in confinement which is faster than diffusion in the bulk liquid.

  1. Thick-films of garnet-type lithium ion conductor prepared by the Aerosol Deposition Method: The role of morphology and annealing treatment on the ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, Dominik; Exner, Jörg; Moos, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated thick films of cubic garnet solid electrolyte AlyLi7-3y-zLa3Zr2-zTazO12 (ALLZTO) by the Aerosol Deposition Method (ADM). Due to the room temperature impact consolidation (RTIC) mechanism, the films become dense. A thermal post-treatment of the film revealed the morphological and process-related impact on the ionic conductivity. As-deposited films show a reduced conductivity around 2·10-7 S/cm. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and high-temperature X-ray diffraction, we found the lattice distortion and nano-crystallinity of the films to be the decisive effect for the conductivity reduction. In our case, post-deposition annealing at 400 °C lead to an increase of the ionic conductivity to 2·10-5 S/cm. With a beginning of sintering at 600 °C, the conductivity successively increased further, reaching values of 7·10-5 S/cm.

  2. Synthesis of magnetic graphene nanocomposites decorated with ionic liquids for fast lead ion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyan; Li, Leilei; Luo, Chuannan; Fan, Lulu

    2016-04-01

    Seeking highly-efficient, low-cost and robust methods to remove metal ions from aqueous solutions is very much in demand. Here, we developed a novel magnetic composite bio-adsorbent, graphene oxide and magnetic chitosan-ionic liquids (GOMCS-ILs), for removing Pb(II) from water. This was the first time to combine ionic liquids and graphene oxide and magnetic chitosan, and apply to the adsorption of metal ions. The addition of ionic liquids can not only improve the dispersivity of the adsorbent, but also increase the adsorption sites. The characteristic result of FTIR, SEM, and XRD showed that GOMCS-ILs were prepared with large surface area and good magnetic responsiveness. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Pb(II) such as pH, contact time, and initial ion concentration were studied in detail. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption was well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was to be 85mgg(-1). Moreover, the GOMCS-ILs could be repeatedly used by simple treatment without obvious structure and performance degradation. These results demonstrated the potential applications of GOMCS-ILs microspheres in efficient removal of Pb(II) from wastewater and deep-purification of polluted water.

  3. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  4. Structures and phase transitions of the A7PSe6 (A = Ag, Cu) argyrodite-type ionic conductors. II. Beta- and gamma-Cu7PSe6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin; Boucher; Petricek; Taulelle; Evain

    2000-06-01

    The crystal structures of two of the three polymorphic forms of the Cu7PSe6 argyrodite compound are determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the high-temperature form, at 353 K, i.e. 33 K above the first phase transition, gamma-Cu7PSe6 crystallizes in cubic symmetry, space group F43m. The full-matrix least-squares refinement of the structure leads to the residual factors R = 0.0201 and wR = 0.0245 for 31 parameters and 300 observed independent reflections. In the intermediate form, at room temperature, beta-Cu7PSe6 crystallizes again in cubic symmetry, but with space group P2(1)3. Taking into account a merohedric twinning, the refinement of the beta-Cu7PSe6 structure leads to the residual factors R = 0.0297 and wR = 0.0317 for 70 parameters and 874 observed, independent reflections. The combination of a Gram-Charlier development of the Debye-Waller factor and a split model for copper cations reveals the possible diffusion paths of the d10 species in the gamma-Cu7PSe6 ionic conducting phase. The partial ordering of the Cu+ d10 element at the phase transition is found in concordance with the highest probability density sites of the high-temperature phase diffusion paths. A comparison between the two Cu7PSe6 and Ag7PSe6 analogues is carried out, stressing the different mobility of Cu+ and Ag+ and their relative stability in low-coordination chalcogenide environments.

  5. The ionic mechanism of gamma resonance in rat striatal fast-spiking neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Wilson, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Striatal fast-spiking (FS) cells in slices fire in the gamma frequency range and in vivo are often phase-locked to gamma oscillations in the field potential. We studied the firing patterns of these cells in slices from rats ages 16–23 days to determine the mechanism of their gamma resonance. The resonance of striatal FS cells was manifested as a minimum frequency for repetitive firing. At rheobase, cells fired a doublet of action potentials or doublets separated by pauses, with an instantaneo...

  6. A lithium superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-07-31

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  7. Fast-ion conducting glass and glass-ceramics for the pH sensor Ionic conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Niyompan, A

    2002-01-01

    Fast-ion conducting glasses of the compositions Na sub 1 sub + sub x M sub 2 sub - sub x sub / sub 3 Si sub x P sub 3 sub - sub x O sub 1 sub 2 sub - sub 2 sub x sub / sub 3 (0<= x <=3), where M = Zr, Ti, were studied to determine their structural arrangement, physical properties and ionic conductivity. Glass samples were prepared using the conventional melt-quench method in the melting temperature range, 1550 deg C to 1650 deg C. Glass products were characterised by XRD, DTA, dilatometry and density measurement. Solid state MAS NMR experiments of three accessible nuclei, sup 2 sup 3 Na, sup 2 sup 9 Si and sup 3 sup 1 P were used to determine short-range order arrangement in the glasses. XRD confirms the amorphicity of glasses for the compositions of x in range 0-3. Glass transition temperatures, T sub g , TEC, and molar volume are controlled by glass composition. The MAS NMR results suggest that glass structure could be visualised as the silicate network modified by Na sup + and Zr sup 4 sup + or Ti su...

  8. The ionic mechanism of gamma resonance in rat striatal fast-spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Wilson, Charles J

    2011-12-01

    Striatal fast-spiking (FS) cells in slices fire in the gamma frequency range and in vivo are often phase-locked to gamma oscillations in the field potential. We studied the firing patterns of these cells in slices from rats ages 16-23 days to determine the mechanism of their gamma resonance. The resonance of striatal FS cells was manifested as a minimum frequency for repetitive firing. At rheobase, cells fired a doublet of action potentials or doublets separated by pauses, with an instantaneous firing rate averaging 44 spikes/s. The minimum rate for sustained firing was also responsible for the stuttering firing pattern. Firing rate adapted during each episode of firing, and bursts were terminated when firing was reduced to the minimum sustainable rate. Resonance and stuttering continued after blockade of Kv3 current using tetraethylammonium (0.1-1 mM). Both gamma resonance and stuttering were strongly dependent on Kv1 current. Blockade of Kv1 channels with dendrotoxin-I (100 nM) completely abolished the stuttering firing pattern, greatly lowered the minimum firing rate, abolished gamma-band subthreshold oscillations, and slowed spike frequency adaptation. The loss of resonance could be accounted for by a reduction in potassium current near spike threshold and the emergence of a fixed spike threshold. Inactivation of the Kv1 channel combined with the minimum firing rate could account for the stuttering firing pattern. The resonant properties conferred by this channel were shown to be adequate to account for their phase-locking to gamma-frequency inputs as seen in vivo.

  9. Photoconduction in CDW conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V., E-mail: serzz@cplire.ru [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Minakova, V.E.; Nasretdinova, V.F.; Zybtsev, S.G. [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    Photoconduction study of quasi-1D conductors allows to distinguish between the single-particle and collective linear conduction, investigate the effect of screening on collective transport and obtain interesting new details of the electronic energy structure of pure and doped CDW conductors. Here we present results of photoconduction study in quasi-1D conductors o-TaS{sub 3}, K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, and NbS{sub 3}(I).

  10. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, R.J.; Jewulski, J.; Osif, T.

    1989-01-01

    Work on this project is divided into three tasks. In the first, a comprehensive literature review was performed for the purpose of collecting data on solid proton conductors. The data was then analyzed with the goal of correlating physical and chemical characteristics with protonic conductivity in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. In the second task, the results of the correlation study were used to choose an electrolyte system in which to work and to aid in the formulation of new candidate proton conductors. Under the third task, a universal test stand was constructed which can measure both electronic and protonic conductivity and which can be converted to use as a solid state fuel cell test stand. Samples of doped SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} have been coated with palladium electrodes and the mechanism responsible for ionic conductivity through this material is currently under study. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  11. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar; Khan, Zia Ullah; Andreasen, Jens W; Liu, Xianjie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Yulong; Brill, Joseph W; Engquist, Isak; Fahlman, Mats; Wågberg, Lars; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    A mixed ionic-electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio-phene):-poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

  12. Doping of Semi Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Agashe

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the semi-conductors are formed by addition of foreign substances in an insulator. This is called 'Doping'. These doped semi-conductors today are widely used in many electrical devices. Some of them are rectifiers, transistors, thermistors, oxides cathodes and photo-sensitive elements. This paper reviews the fundamental concept of impurity in semi-conductors and recent work on doping of the latter. Purification methods are described in the case of group IV elements and semi-conducting intermetallic compounds. Results of different physical measurements have been discussed in order to understand the role of 'doping'.

  13. Enhanced electrochemical performance of Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 by surface modification with the fast lithium-ion conductor Li-La-Ti-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Yang, Tonghuan; Han, Yan; Song, Dawei; Shi, Xixi; Zhang, Lianqi; Bie, Lijian

    2017-10-01

    The drawbacks of Li-rich layered oxides, such as large initial irreversible capacity, phase transformation and electrochemical performance degradation, are closely related to the surface states of the Li-rich layered oxide. To overcome these problems, a new surface modification method to the Li-rich layered oxide is proposed, in which the fast lithium-ion conductor (Li-La-Ti-O composite, LLTO) is coated on the surface of Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 (LRO) particles. SEM, EDS and HRTEM analyses reveal that an entire and homogeneous coating layer is formed. Electrochemical performances display that the LLTO coated samples, especially the LRO-LLTO5 material, exhibit better cycle stability, higher rate capabilities and less voltage decay. To investigate the origins of enhanced electrochemical performances for LLTO coated samples, the electrode processes at various cycles and the structural stability of the samples are studied by EIS and DSC. The protective effect of LLTO coating layer to the bulk crystallographic structure of cathode material is revealed by HRTEM images. Our study shows that the reduced interface impedances and definitely protective effect resulting from the complete and homogeneous LLTO coating layer are responsible for the enhanced electrochemical performances of the LLTO coated samples.

  14. Polaron effects in the protonic conductor hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupu, D. (Inst. of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)); Grecu, R. (Inst. of Chemistry, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)); Biris, A.R. (Inst. of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania))

    1993-08-01

    The isotope effects on the conductivity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate reveal ionic polaron effects in this solid protonic conductor, in agreement with the small polaron theory. An absorption band is observed at 0.67 eV, which can be correlated with the conduction mechanism consisting in both tunnelling and over-barrier hopping processes. (orig.)

  15. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  16. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  17. Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultra-fast X-ray Thomson Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C; Davis, P; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-07-14

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. These laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and Plasmon scattering of a K-{alpha} x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for ionic screening.

  18. Bulk transport and oxygen surface exchange of the mixed ionic electronic conductor Ce1-xTbxO2-δ (x= 1⁄4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaguer Ramirez, M.; Yoo, C.-Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Serra, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk ionic and electronic transport properties and the rate of oxygen surface exchange of Tb-doped ceria have been evaluated as a function of Tb concentration, aiming to assess the potential use of the materials as high-temperature oxygen-transport membranes and oxygen reduction catalysts. The mater

  19. Ultra-fast catalytic reduction of dyes by ionic liquid recoverable and reusable mefenamic acid derived gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sirajuddin, E-mail: drsiraj03@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Solangi, Amber Rehana [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Agheem, Mohammad Hassan [Center for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Junejo, Yasmeen; Kalwar, Nazar Hussain; Tagar, Zulfiqar Ali [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been fabricated by a simple chemical method. {yields} AuNps were capped successfully in one step by mefenamic acid (MA). {yields} MA capped AuNps catalytically reduced the mixture of 3 dyes in just 15 s. {yields} AuNps were recovered by ionic liquid and reused for dye(s) reduction effectively. - Abstract: We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15 s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  20. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  1. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  2. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... definition of ``conductor'' is a fundamental element of the conductor certification regulation and FRA does... and 219. G. Vision and Hearing Acuity BLET/UTU commented that proposed Sec. 242.117(k) should...

  3. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of Solid State Ionic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppner, Werner

    2006-06-01

    High energy density batteries, fuel cells, electrolysis cells, electrochromic devices, chemical sensors, thermoelectric converters or photogalvanic solar cells are solid state ionic devices of large practical interest in view of our energy and environmental problems. The engineering of new or improved devices is commonly based on individual materials considerations and their interaction in galvanic cells. Conflicts exist in view of the formation of chemically stable interfaces of functionally different electrolyte and electrode materials, simultaneous high energy and power densities because of commonly low conductivities of chemically stable materials, fast chemical diffusion in electrodes which should have a wide range of non-stoichiometry, practical problems of using less expensive polycrystalline materials which have high intergranular resistances and finally reaching both ionic and electronic equilibria at the electrolyte-electrode interfaces at low temperatures. Simultaneously high ionic conductivity and chemical stability may be reached by designing structures of large poly-ions of the non-conducting components. Electrodes should not be made of metallic conductors but of electronic semi-conductors with fast enhancement of the diffusion of the electroactive ions by internal electrical fields. Device considerations are based on the development of single element arrangements (SEAs) which incorporate the electrodes into the electrolyte in the case of fuel and electrolysis cells. The same simplification may be applied for electrochromic systems which consist of a single active layer instead of the conventional three materials. A new design of active chemical sensors probing the environment by the magnitude of the applied voltage or current may overcome the limitations of cross-sensitivities and interfacial reactions, which allows simultaneous sensing of several species by a single galvanic cell.

  5. Well Conductor Strain Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...849,429; filed on June 26, 2013 by the inventor, Dr. Anthony Ruffa and entitled “ SUBSEA WELL CONDUCTOR STRAIN MONITORING”. STATEMENT OF

  6. Theory of Superionic Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOO COVERED Final Technical )THEORY OF SUPERIONIC CONDUCTORS 9/30/76 to 9/30/81 SVIERFORMI- 4G ORG REPURT NUMBER AI I 1,701 ,- S...several mathematical models of ion and electron conduction in many-particle systems. . DD AN 1473 SECURIT "-CLASSIiCAt N OF THIS PAGE 1 (Wen D E / / A

  7. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Bertrand; Curé, B; Folch, R; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Musenich, R; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Seeber, B; Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The magnetic field is achieved by means of a four-layer superconducting solenoid. The stored magnetic energy is 2.7 GJ at nominal current of 20 kA (at 4.5 K operating temperature). The coil is wound from a high purity aluminum- stabilized Rutherford type conductor. Unlike other existing Al- stabilized thin solenoids, the structural integrity of the CMS coil is ensured both by the Al-alloy reinforcement welded to the conductor and an external support cylinder. The flat NbTi cable is embedded in high purity aluminum by a continuous co-extrusion process. (7 refs).

  8. Plasmonic Graphene Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    www.MaterialsViews.com www.advopticalmat.de FU LL P A P ER Guowei Xu,* Jianwei Liu, Qian Wang , Rongqing Hui, Zhijun Chen, Victor A. Maroni, and Judy Wu Plasmonic...decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, graphene, transparent conductors Guowei Xu, Jianwei Liu, Qian

  9. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  10. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  11. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  12. Highly Elastic, Transparent, and Conductive 3D-Printed Ionic Composite Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Odent, Jérémy

    2017-07-17

    Despite extensive progress to engineer hydrogels for a broad range of technologies, practical applications have remained elusive due to their (until recently) poor mechanical properties and lack of fabrication approaches, which constrain active structures to simple geometries. This study demonstrates a family of ionic composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties that can be rapidly 3D-printed at high resolution using commercial stereolithography technology. The new material design leverages the dynamic and reversible nature of ionic interactions present in the system with the reinforcement ability of nanoparticles. The composite hydrogels combine within a single platform tunable stiffness, toughness, extensibility, and resiliency behavior not reported previously in other engineered hydrogels. In addition to their excellent mechanical performance, the ionic composites exhibit fast gelling under near-UV exposure, remarkable conductivity, and fast osmotically driven actuation. The design of such ionic composites, which combine a range of tunable properties and can be readily 3D-printed into complex architectures, provides opportunities for a variety of practical applications such as artificial tissue, soft actuators, compliant conductors, and sensors for soft robotics.

  13. Conditioning flat conductors for flat conductor cable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus can straighten, anneal, clean, and a tension to stretch a cable one percent to assure uniform cross-sectional area. A conductor passes through temperature controlled distilled water and through a toroid coil. As The conductor enters the water, steam performs the cleaning action. Quenching and annealing also take place.

  14. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  15. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  16. 77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 242 Conductor Certification AGENCY: Federal Railroad..., published on November 9, 2011, which prescribed regulations for certification of conductors as required by... Certification, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Mail Stop-25, Room...

  17. Coherency strain and its effect on ionic conductivity and diffusion in solid electrolytes--an improved model for nanocrystalline thin films and a review of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, C; Keppner, J; Peters, A; Schichtel, N; Aydin, H; Janek, J

    2014-11-28

    A phenomenological and analytical model for the influence of strain effects on atomic transport in columnar thin films is presented. A model system consisting of two types of crystalline thin films with coherent interfaces is assumed. Biaxial mechanical strain ε0 is caused by lattice misfit of the two phases. The conjoined films consist of columnar crystallites with a small diameter l. Strain relaxation by local elastic deformation, parallel to the hetero-interface, is possible along the columnar grain boundaries. The spatial extent δ0 of the strained hetero-interface regions can be calculated, assuming an exponential decay of the deformation-forces. The effect of the strain field on the local ionic transport in a thin film is then calculated by using the thermodynamic relation between (isostatic) pressure and free activation enthalpy ΔG(#). An expression describing the total ionic transport relative to bulk transport of a thin film or a multilayer as a function of the layer thickness is obtained as an integral average over strained and unstrained regions. The expression depends only on known material constants such as Young modulus Y, Poisson ratio ν and activation volume ΔV(#), which can be combined as dimensionless parameters. The model is successfully used to describe own experimental data from conductivity and diffusion studies. In the second part of the paper a comprehensive literature overview of experimental studies on (fast) ion transport in thin films and multilayers along solid-solid hetero-interfaces is presented. By comparing and reviewing the data the observed interface effects can be classified into three groups: (i) transport along interfaces between extrinsic ionic conductors (and insulator), (ii) transport along an open surface of an extrinsic ionic conductor and (iii) transport along interfaces between intrinsic ionic conductors. The observed effects in these groups differ by about five orders of magnitude in a very consistent way. The

  18. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  19. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  20. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors: General. 183.425... Conductors: General. (a) Each conductor must be insulated, stranded copper. (b) Except for intermittent surges each conductor must not carry a current greater than that specified in Table 5 for the...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56....12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient size and current-carrying... insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage shall be protected....

  2. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  3. 33 CFR 183.445 - Conductors: Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors: Protection. 183.445 Section 183.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Conductors: Protection. (a) Each conductor or group of conductors that passes through a bulkhead,...

  4. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  5. Local electron heating in nanoscopic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Sai, Na; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    The electron current density in nanoscale junctions is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding one in bulk electrodes. Consequently, the electron-electron scattering rate increases substantially in the junction. This leads to local electron heating of the underlying Fermi sea [1] in analogy to the local ionic heating that is due to the increased electron-phonon scattering rates [2]. By using a novel hydrodynamic formulation of transport [3], we predict the bias dependence of local electron heating in quasi-ballistic nanoscale conductors [1], its effect on ionic heating [1], and the consequent observable changes in the inelastic conductance [4]. [1] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, accepted in Nano Letters (2006). [2] Y.-C. Chen, M. Zwolak, and M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. 3, 1961 (2003); Nano Lett. 4, 1709 (2004); Nano Lett. 5, 621 (2005). M. J. Montgomery, T. N. Todorov, and A. P. Sutton, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 5377 (2002). [3] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. in press. [4] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, in preparation.

  6. Electromagnetism of rotating conductors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redzic, Dragan V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)]. E-mail: redzic@ff.bg.ac.yu

    2002-03-01

    The charge distribution and electromagnetic fields in a rotating, charged conductor under stationary conditions are investigated, assuming that the electrons are at rest relative to the conductor. The basic equations are found, referred to the inertial rest frame of the rotational axis, in the relativistic case, and applied to the case of a cylindrical conductor. The results obtained are compared with those of Groen and Voeyenli (Groen Oe and Voeyenli K 1982 Eur. J. Phys. 3 210-4) who considered the same problem but without taking into account the relative permittivity of the rotating conductor. It is found that the E- and B-fields do not depend on {epsilon}{sub r} and coincide with those calculated by Groen and Voeyenli; the space and surface charge densities, however, depend on {epsilon}{sub r}. (author)

  7. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wassei, Jonathan K; Kaner, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors...

  8. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Mixed conductors—single phases that conduct electronically and ionically—enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the ‘super-ionic’ conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors.

  9. Mixed protonic and electronic conductors hybrid oxide synaptic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang Ming; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wen, Juan; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Rui

    2017-05-01

    Mixed ionic and electronic conductor hybrid devices have attracted widespread attention in the field of brain-inspired neuromorphic systems. Here, mixed protonic and electronic conductor (MPEC) hybrid indium-tungsten-oxide (IWO) synaptic transistors gated by nanogranular phosphorosilicate glass (PSG) based electrolytes were obtained. Unique field-configurable proton self-modulation behaviors were observed on the MPEC hybrid transistor with extremely strong interfacial electric-double-layer effects. Temporally coupled synaptic plasticities were demonstrated on the MPEC hybrid IWO synaptic transistor, including depolarization/hyperpolarization, synaptic facilitation and depression, facilitation-stead/depression-stead behaviors, spiking rate dependent plasticity, and high-pass/low-pass synaptic filtering behaviors. MPEC hybrid synaptic transistors may find potential applications in neuron-inspired platforms.

  10. EMF measurements on mixed protonic/electronic conductors for hydrogen membrane applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Phair, John

    2010-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements are often used to estimate the transport number of conducting species in ionic and mixed conductors. In this work, the applicability of the method to systems, where both protonic, oxide-ionic and electronic conduction is significant, was examined. The effect...... large errors in the determination of the oxide-ionic transport number, but gave good estimates of the protonic transport number. The protonic transport number was estimated to around 0.80 at 600 °C, decreasing to around 0.65 at 800 °C, consistent with previous investigations on similar materials....

  11. Optimization of salt concentration in polymer based ionic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Deep Kumar; Sharma, A. L.

    2017-07-01

    Free standing polymeric films (electrolytes) have been prepared by PAN as a polymer host and Li salt (LiPF6) using the standard solution cast process. Interaction of polymer-salt complex of the host matrix has also been observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum results. The cation (Li+) coordination at nitrile (-C≡N) site of the polymer backbone along with the appearance of a shoulder suggesting strong evidence of polymer-ion interaction. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), was used to study morphological information of grain boundaries and cracks while Complex impedance spectroscopy suggests bulk electrical conduction. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically SPE's have the conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes.

  12. Plasma Waves and Jets from Moving Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E

    2016-01-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfven outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form, at the nonlinear level, for an arbitrary incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  13. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  14. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wassei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors. Standard indium tin oxide films are unlikely to satisfy future needs due to losses in conductivity on bending and the escalating cost of indium which is in limited supply. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of graphene indicate that it may be suitable for many electronic applications including as a transparent conductor. Graphene hybrids with, for example, carbon nanotubes, may prove to be especially interesting.

  15. A high conductivity oxide–sulfide composite lithium superionic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Sahu, Gayatri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Keum, Jong Kahk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Rondinone, Adam J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Dudney, Nancy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Liang, Chengdu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science

    2014-01-14

    We fabricated a hybrid superionic conductor using the space charge effect between the LLZO and LPS interfaces. This space-charge effect resulted in an improvement over the individual bulk conductivities of the two systems. Sample with higher weight fractions of LLZO are limited by the porosity and grain boundary resistance arising from non-sintered membranes. Furthermore, by combining the properties of LLZO and LPS, the high temperature sintering step has been avoided thus facilitating easier materials processing. The interfacial resistances were also measured to be minimal at ambient conditions. Our procedure thus opens a new avenue for improving the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of existing solid state electrolytes. High frequency impedance analyses could aid in resolving the ionic conductivity contributions from the space charge layer in the higher conducting composites while mechanical property investigations could illustrate an improvement in the composite electrolyte in comparison with the crystalline LPS membranes.

  16. Improving YBCO Coated Conductors for Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0123 IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) P.N. Barnes, B.C. Harrison, J.W. Kell, and G.A...SUBTITLE IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...are lighter in weight and smaller in size than their conventional counterparts. The YBCO coated conductor is expected to be the premiere HTS conductor

  17. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conductors. 111.15-20 Section 111.15-20 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  18. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  19. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Padma Kumar; S Yashonath

    2006-01-01

    Solid state ionic conductors are important from an industrial viewpoint. A variety of such conductors have been found. In order to understand the reasons for high ionic conductivity in these solids, there have been a number of experimental, theoretical and computational studies in the literature. We provide here a survey of these investigations with focus on what is known and elaborate on issues that still remain unresolved. Conductivity depends on a number of factors such as presence of interstitial sites, ion size, temperature, crystal structure etc. We discuss the recent results from atomistic computer simulations on the dependence of conductivity in NASICONs as a function of composition, temperature, phase change and cation among others. A new potential for modelling of NASICON structure that has been proposed is also discussed.

  20. Learning Ionic

    CERN Document Server

    Ravulavaru, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to build hybrid mobile applications using Ionic. It is also ideal for people who want to explore theming for Ionic apps. Prior knowledge of AngularJS is essential to complete this book successfully.

  1. 75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 242 Conductor Certification; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 217 / Wednesday, November 10, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT...

  2. Conductive Mechanism of Organic Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Organic conductor is a kind of organic compound which has special electronic and magnetic properties. The research of the organic compounds has received considerable attention because of their potential applications in many areas. The molecular conductive units are theoretically investigated as well as their energy gap and charge distribution. The relationship of conductivity and micro-mechanism is discussed.

  3. Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, Matthew L. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Hack, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Kuang, Xiaojun [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McIntyre, Garry J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Withers, Ray L. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana, E-mail: ivana.radosavljevic@durham.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625}, previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi{sub 0.88}Nb{sub 0.12}O{sub 1.62} exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M{sub 4} and octahedral □M{sub 6} vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M{sub 4} and octahedral M{sub 6} vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi

  4. Ionic conductivity of perovskite LaCoO3 measured by oxygen permeation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.H.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen permeation measurement is demonstrated, not only for a mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductor, but also as a new alternative to determine ambipolar conductivities, which can be usually reduced to be partial conductivities (either ionic or electronic). As a model system and an end member o

  5. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  6. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  7. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gao-Feng; Pei, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Yi; Sun, Dao-Heng

    2014-06-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10-7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10-7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry.

  8. Preoptimised VB: a fast method for the ground and excited states of ionic clusters I. Localised preoptimisation for (ArCO) +, (ArN 2) + and N 4+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenberg, J. H.; Bucur, I. B.; Archirel, P.

    1997-09-01

    We show that in the simple case of van der Waals ionic clusters, the optimisation of orbitals within VB can be easily simulated with the help of pseudopotentials. The procedure yields the ground and the first excited states of the cluster simultaneously. This makes the calculation of potential energy surfaces for tri- and tetraatomic clusters possible, with very acceptable computation times. We give potential curves for (ArCO) +, (ArN 2) + and N 4+. An application to the simulation of the SCF method is shown for Na +H 2O.

  9. Research status of novel La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qianfeng; WANG Xianping; CHENG Zhijun; ZHANG Guoguang

    2007-01-01

    La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors have attracted more and more attention since the high ionic con-ductivity was reported in 2000 by Lacorre et al.in this kind of material.In this paper the recent investigation on the novel La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors is reviewed.It is focused on the structure and phase transition,oxide-ion conductivity,mechanism of oxygen vacancy diffusion,chem-ical stability and thermal expansion coefficient in the pure and doped La2Mo2O9 samples.It is pointed out that the La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors could be possibly applied in the fields such as solid oxide fuel cells,oxygen sensors and oxygen permeable membranes.

  10. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  11. Method for making conductors for ferrite memory arrays. [from pre-formed metal conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, C. H.; Baba, P. D.; Bhiwandker, N. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The ferrite memory arrays are made from pre-formed metal conductors for the ferrite arrays. The conductors are made by forming a thin sheet of a metallizing paste of metal alloy powder, drying the paste layer, bisque firing the dried sheet at a first temperature, and then punching the conductors from the fired sheet. During the bisque firing, the conductor sheet shrinks to 58 percent of its pre-fired volume and the alloy particles sinter together. The conductors are embedded in ferrite sheet material and finally fired at a second higher temperature during which firing the conductors shrink approximately the same degree as the ferrite material.

  12. Silver ionic and electronic conductivity in Ag9GaS6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellstrom, E.E.; Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical measurements on the mixed ionic, electronic conductor Ag9GaS6, which undergoes a phase transition at 303 K, were performed. The silver ionic conductivity in the low-temperature α-form measured using an ionic 4-probe method, is given by σT = 4.3 × 106 exp [(-29.8kJ/mol)/ RT] S m-1 K. The e

  13. A Simple Model for the Non-Arrhenius Ionic Conductivity in Superionic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Indoh, Takaki; Aniya, Masaru; インドウ, タカキ; アニヤ, マサル; 犬童, 貴樹; 安仁屋, 勝

    2010-01-01

    Many superionic conducting glasses follow the Arrhenius type temperature dependence of ionic conductivity. However, in some superionic conductors it has been discovered that the conductivity deviate from the Arrhenius type behavior. In this paper, we present a simple model that describes the non-Arrhenius type ionic conductivity based on the Zwanzig model of diffusion. From the theory, the condition for the appearance of non-Arrhenius type ionic conductivity has been obtained.

  14. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  15. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  16. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor...

  17. Relation between the swelling and the disordering in ionic crystals irradiated by fast heavy ions; Relation entre le gonflement et la creation de defauts dans les cristaux ioniques irradies par des ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccanfuso, M

    2001-12-01

    When fast heavy ions penetrate in matter, they slow down essentially by depositing their energy on the electrons. This can lead to strong electronic excitation densities in the solid and then to structural modifications. In this work, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) was used to look further into the damage induced by irradiation with fast heavy ions in ionic crystals. Four techniques were mainly employed to characterise this damage. These techniques of analysis are wide angle X-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. The results of this work show that CaF{sub 2} answers in a multiple way to the electronic excitations. For stopping powers higher than approximately 5 keV/nm, a polygonization seems to occur. This causes a structural disorder, a swelling of 0.27 % and the formation of fractures in the material. A second damage mechanism is caused above approximately 13 keV/nm and results in a loss of the initial crystalline structure. However, optical centres appear whatever the ion stopping power, which indicates that these defects cannot be the cause of the two above mentioned damage mechanisms. According to a thermal spike model, the two thresholds can be linked to melting and sublimation energy of the material, respectively. (author)

  18. Effect of Conductor Verbalization, Dynamic Markings, Conductor Gesture, and Choir Dynamic Level on Singers' Dynamic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadsem, Julie A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effects of conductor verbalization, dynamic markings, conductor gesture, and choir dynamic level on individual singers' dynamic responses. Indicates that verbal instructions from the conductor elicited significantly stronger dynamic performance responses than did the other instructional conditions. Suggests that additional research…

  19. Responsabilidad penal del conductor ebrio

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Mosquera, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Mediante el presente artículo se busca mostrar cómo la Corte Suprema de Justicia, en aplicación de la teoría citada ut supra: determinación optativa o alternativa , ha debido aplicar por favorabilidad la condena del conductor a título de homicidio culposo, como quiera que con los mismos elementos de juicio utilizados para concluir que se actuó con dolo eventual, se ha podido arribar al delito imprudente, esto es, al comportamiento culposo.

  20. Guo Shuang, A Woman Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    BORN in a musical family in Beijing, Guo Shuang began to show her talent for music when she was nine years old and began to learn piano from her mother. At the primary and then the secondary school attached to the Central Conservatory of Music, Guo Shuang studied piano, musical theory and composing. Later, she enrolled in the Conservatory to study conducting and piano under the famous conductors Zheng Xiaoying and Xu Xin, piano professors Wu Ying and Xie Huazhen. In 1989, she went to Germany

  1. The ATLAS SemiConductorTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m /sup 2/ and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2*10 /sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degrees C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary rad-hard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminium/Kapton tapes and cooled by C/sub 3/F/sub 8/ evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected ...

  2. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Solid-state proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewulski, J. R.; Osif, T. L.; Remick, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling, and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies are described which include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells are presented which include the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms.

  4. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  5. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  6. Ionic liquid-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles: promising adsorbents for ultra-fast extraction of paraquat from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifeh, Farzad; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, ionic liquid-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL) were synthesized and applied as adsorbents for extraction and determination of paraquat (PQ) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. For assurance of the extraction efficiency, the obtained results were compared with those obtained by bared magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Experimental design and response surface methodology were used for optimization of different parameters which affect extraction efficiency of paraquat using both adsorbents. Under the optimized conditions, extraction recoveries in the range of 20-25 and 35-40 % with satisfactory repeatability values (RSDs%, n = 4) less than 5.0 % were obtained for bared MNPs and Fe3O4@SiO2@IL, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.1 and 0.25 μg/L using Fe3O4@SiO2@IL and bared MNPs, respectively. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.25 to 25 μg/L and 0.5 to 25 μg/L for Fe3O4@SiO2@IL and bared MNPs, respectively, with the coefficients of determination better than 0.9950. Finally, Fe3O4@SiO2@IL was chosen as superior adsorbent due to more dispersion ability, higher extraction recovery, lower detection limit, as well as better linearity and repeatability. Calculated errors (%) were in the range of 3 to 10 % depicting acceptable accuracy for the analysis of PQ by the proposed method. Finally, the method was successfully applied for extraction and determination of PQ in some water and countryside soil samples.

  7. A Fast Strategy for Determination of Vitamin B₉ in Food and Pharmaceutical Samples Using an Ionic Liquid-Modified Nanostructure Voltammetric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Irai, Abolfazl Elyasi; Sadeghi, Roya; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Wen, Yangping

    2016-05-24

    Vitamin B₉ or folic acid is an important food supplement with wide clinical applications. Due to its importance and its side effects in pregnant women, fast determination of this vitamin is very important. In this study we present a new fast and sensitive voltammetric sensor for the analysis of trace levels of vitamin B₉ using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide (1,3-DIBr) as a binder and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite as a mediator. The electro-oxidation signal of vitamin B₉ at the surface of the 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode appeared at 800 mV, which was about 95 mV less positive compared to the corresponding unmodified CPE. The oxidation current of vitamin B₉ by square wave voltammetry (SWV) increased linearly with its concentration in the range of 0.08-650 μM. The detection limit for vitamin B₉ was 0.05 μM. Finally, the utility of the new 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode was tested in the determination of vitamin B₉ in food and pharmaceutical samples.

  8. A Fast Strategy for Determination of Vitamin B9 in Food and Pharmaceutical Samples Using an Ionic Liquid-Modified Nanostructure Voltammetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaleghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B9 or folic acid is an important food supplement with wide clinical applications. Due to its importance and its side effects in pregnant women, fast determination of this vitamin is very important. In this study we present a new fast and sensitive voltammetric sensor for the analysis of trace levels of vitamin B9 using a carbon paste electrode (CPE modified with 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide (1,3-DIBr as a binder and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite as a mediator. The electro-oxidation signal of vitamin B9 at the surface of the 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode appeared at 800 mV, which was about 95 mV less positive compared to the corresponding unmodified CPE. The oxidation current of vitamin B9 by square wave voltammetry (SWV increased linearly with its concentration in the range of 0.08–650 μM. The detection limit for vitamin B9 was 0.05 μM. Finally, the utility of the new 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode was tested in the determination of vitamin B9 in food and pharmaceutical samples.

  9. History of crystalline organic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Keizo

    2017-05-01

    A brief view of crystalline organic conductor is presented. Since the discovery of TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane) in the mid 1970’s, pressure has been an indispensable tool to develop the physics of this field. From the aspect of charge transfer salt, TTF-TCNQ and its family was specified with partial charge transfer, two chain one-dimensional (1D) system, charge density wave (CDW) and commensurability. On the other hand, in (TMTSF)2X family (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene, X: electron acceptor such as PF6, ClO4), complete charge transfer, one chain system, spin density wave (SDW), field-induced SDW, quantum Hall effect, superconductivity were discussed. Further, together with pressure itself, cooling rate was noticed to be important for low temperature properties. Recently, coming back to TTF-TCNQ family, i.e., HMTSF-TCNQ, whether or not field-induced CDW, instead of field-induced SDW, and quantum Hall effect is present was discussed (HMTSF: hexamethylene-tetraselenafulvalene). Whether or not the Fermiology in (TMTTF)2X under pressure is similar to that of (TMTSF)2X is discussed as well. In (BEDT-TTF)2X, new aspect of macroscopic polarization of α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 related to charge order is described. At the end, in contrast to the charge transfer salts, non-charge transfer salt, that is, single component conductor is presented as a new possible example of Dirac cone, which was deeply studied by many researchers in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, together with the theoretical calculation of its magnetic susceptibility (BEDT-TTF: bisethylenedithia-tetrathiafulvalene).

  10. Preparation of a novel ionic hybrid stationary phase by non-covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with amino-derivatized silica gel for fast HPLC separation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Hayriye; Çelik, K Serdar; Aral, Tarık; Topal, Giray

    2016-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were immobilized on spherical silica gel with a 4-μm average particle size and a 60-Å average pore size. The amino-derivatized silica gel was non-covalently coated with carboxylated SWCNTs to preserve the structure of the nanotubes and their physico-chemical properties. The novel ionic hybrid stationary phase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and then, it was used to fill an empty 150×4.6mm(2) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. Chromatographic parameters, such as the theoretical plate number, retention factor and peak asymmetry factor, and analytical parameters, such as the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linear range, calibration equation, and R(2) value, and quantitative analysis parameters were calculated for all of the analytes. Using different mobile phases, five different classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were separated in a very short analysis time of 4-8min. Furthermore, a high theoretical plate number (up to 25000) and an excellent peak asymmetry factor (1.0) were obtained. The results showed that the surface of the SWNTs had very strong interactions with aromatic groups, therefore providing high selectivity for the separation of different classes of aromatic compounds. This study indicates that SWCNTs enable the extension of the application range of the newly prepared stationary phases for the fast separation of aromatic compounds by HPLC.

  11. NMR Studies on Diffusion and Molecular Motions of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids doped by Lithium Salts Related to Ionic Conductivity and Computational Interaction Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kikuko; Hayamizua; Seiji; Tsuzuki; Shiro; Seki

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Room-temperature Ionic liquids (RTILs) are special class of compounds, where a combination of cations and anions produces neutral, stable and viscous liquids with high ionic conductivity. Widely spread applications are proposed to use conductors, electrolytes, clean solvents and others. Especially, RTILs are expected to be safe electrolytes in the ion-lithium batteries. In this study, NMR methods are used to clarify the basic properties of the individual movements of the anions and cations of ...

  12. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  13. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 159.71 Section 159.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011... § 56.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  15. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  16. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at... conductors are less than 7 feet above the rail, they shall be guarded at all points where persons work...

  17. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  18. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  19. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conductor must be protected in accordance with its current carrying capacity, except a conductor for the..., Subpart 111.30. (c) Fuses and circuitbreakers. If the allowable current-carrying capacity of the conductor... current-carrying capacity of the conductor; and (2) The effect of temperature on the operation of...

  20. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its...... deuterated analogue [Gdm-D][NfO] confirms the complete formation of the protic salts. The cations in as-prepared [Gdm-D][NfO] are estimated to consist of [C(ND2)2(NHD)]+ and [C(ND2)3]+ with a molar ratio of around 1:1. The deuteration also proves that each guanidinium cation has six displaceable protons...... order in the plastic crystalline phases. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements show that its ionic conductivity reaches 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 185 °C. The proton conduction in the plastic crystalline phases of [Gdm-H][NfO] is assumed to happen via the vehicle mechanism. In the molten state, the proton...

  1. Materiales conductores mediante funcionalización de polímeros con nanomateriales conductores

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Fernández Sánchez, César; Jiménez Jorquera, Cecilia; Mendoza Gómez, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere un material conductor que comprende un polímero funcionalizado y a un nanomaterial conductor unidos mediante enlace covalente. La invención también se refiere a un procedimiento de obtención del material conductor sin modificar las propiedades ópticas del polímero y a su uso para la fabricación de sensores o electrodos.

  2. Materiales conductores mediante funcionalización de polímeros con nanomateriales conductores

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Fernández Sánchez, César; Jiménez Jorquera, Cecilia; Mendoza Gómez, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere un material conductor que comprende un polímero funcionalizado y a un nanomaterial conductor unidos mediante enlace covalente. La invención también se refiere a un procedimiento de obtención del material conductor sin modificar las propiedades ópticas del polímero y a su uso para la fabricación de sensores o electrodos.

  3. Lithium Fast-Ion Conductors: Polymer Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-30

    sealed and transferred to a dry box where 13.5 mm diameter pellets were pressed and the conductivities screened using a primitive pellet technique, i.e...basically pressing a pellet between two flat copper plates and measuring the resistance with a voltmeter, cf. Ref. 9. This screening approach was...slowly decomposed with formation of an unidentified yellow product. Attempts were made to stabilize the lithium dithiocarbamate derivative by reacting it

  4. On the Way to New Possible Na-Ion Conductors: The Voronoi-Dirichlet Approach, Data Mining and Symmetry Considerations in Ternary Na Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meutzner, Falk; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Kabanova, Natalya A; Zschornak, Matthias; Leisegang, Tilmann; Blatov, Vladislav A; Meyer, Dirk C

    2015-11-09

    With the constant growth of the lithium battery market and the introduction of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions, the low abundance and high price of lithium will greatly impact its availability in the future. Thus, a diversification of electrochemical energy storage technologies based on other source materials is of great relevance. Sodium is energetically similar to lithium but cheaper and more abundant, which results in some already established stationary concepts, such as Na-S and ZEBRA cells. The most significant bottleneck for these technologies is to find effective solid ionic conductors. Thus, the goal of this work is to identify new ionic conductors for Na ions in ternary Na oxides. For this purpose, the Voronoi-Dirichlet approach has been applied to the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database and some new procedures are introduced to the algorithm implemented in the programme package ToposPro. The main new features are the use of data mined values, which are then used for the evaluation of void spaces, and a new method of channel size calculation. 52 compounds have been identified to be high-potential candidates for solid ionic conductors. The results were analysed from a crystallographic point of view in combination with phenomenological requirements for ionic conductors and intercalation hosts. Of the most promising candidates, previously reported compounds have also been successfully identified by using the employed algorithm, which shows the reliability of the method.

  5. Failure Mechanism of Reflow Conductor Roll of Electroplating Tinning Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface roughness of reflow conductor roll was checked on membrane sample. The surface morphology of conductor roll was observed by microscope, and the composition of adhered layer on conductor roll surface was analyzed by X-ray spectroscope. The results show that tin adhesion is the main reason for failure of conductor roll, and the failure of conductor roll is accelerated by wear. The measures to decrease tin adhesion and improve wear resistance were put forward.

  6. Application of protonic conductors in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two types of disposable EMF hydrogen sensors for measurements of solute contents of liquid metals in situ in metal-refining processes and their general principles are introduced. The way to design new electrochemical sensors and the direction to develop new protonic conductors as new electrochemical sensors are discussed. The feasibility of protonic conductors worked as hydrogen pump in non-ferrous metal refining processes is discussed as well.

  7. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  8. Analysis and application of transmission line conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Orin

    Skin effect is usually a concern reserved for radio frequency design and for high current conductors used in utility power distribution. Proximity effect between adjacent conductors has traditionally been a concern for the design of magnetic windings and other applications involving wire bundles. The rise in the ubiquity of high speed bit streams and other signals of very wide bandwidth has broadened the range of applicable contexts and increased the need to account for such effects. This is especially true for transmission lines used to interconnect critical signal paths in applications ranging from microelectronic devices to the signal integrity of printed circuit traces and implementation of system cabling. Optimal conductor design is obviously fundamental to transmission line performance. Researchers have paid considerable attention to the topic but the results are scattered throughout the literature. This thesis collected information on extant conductor designs, and the theoretical considerations behind each solution. A detailed analysis of current flow in a conducting half-space was included as a foundation. The conductor types discussed were solid cylindrical, rectangular, ribbonoid, bimetallic, tubular, laminated, litz, and stranded constructions. Discussions of the performance of stranded shields and conductor roughness e¤ects were included for completeness of understanding.

  9. Impact of gate geometry on ionic liquid gated ionotronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. T.; Noh, J. H.; Pudasaini, P. R.; Wolf, B.; Balke, N.; Herklotz, A.; Sharma, Y.; Haglund, A. V.; Dai, S.; Mandrus, D.; Rack, P. D.; Ward, T. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes are gaining widespread application as a gate dielectric used to control ion transport in functional materials. This letter systematically examines the important influence that device geometry in standard "side gate" 3-terminal geometries plays in device performance of a well-known oxygen ion conductor. We show that the most influential component of device design is the ratio between the area of the gate electrode and the active channel, while the spacing between these components and their individual shapes has a negligible contribution. These findings provide much needed guidance in device design intended for ionotronic gating with ionic liquids.

  10. Heat of transport study of the superionic conductor Ag/sub 7/I/sub 4/VO/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avasthi, M.N. (Al-Fateh Univ., Tripoli (Lybia). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-16

    The heat of transport of the superionic conductor Ag/sub 7/I/sub 4/VO/sub 4/ has been investigated considering the effect of heat treatment of the material and the thermoelectric power as a function of the temperature. It was found that in the case of highly disordered solids like Ag/sub 7/I/sub 4/VO/sub 4/ the ionic heat of transport tends to be equal to its activation energy.

  11. Effects of Conductor Baton Use on Band and Choral Musicians' Perceptions of Conductor Expressivity and Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápoles, Jessica; Silvey, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' (college band and choral musicians, N = 143) perceptions of conductor clarity and expressivity after viewing band and choral directors conducting with or without a baton. One band and one choral conductor each prepared and conducted two excerpts of Guy Forbes's "O Nata Lux", a piece…

  12. Conductor fatigue-life research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, G.E.

    1981-07-01

    This is the final report of Research Project RP 1278-1 sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and carried out at the Civil Engineering Department of Auburn University (Auburn, Alabama). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing vibration amplitudes of ACSR conductors which had been minimally damaged by aeolian vibration. The aeolian vibration was simulated by mechanical means in a controlled laboratory situation and the reduction in vibration amplitudes was a simulation of the addition of amplitude limiting devices (dampers). Conductors were vibrated at high amplitudes until a predetermined number of strand breaks occurred, after which the vibration was continued at reduced amplitudes. Three different ACSB conductors were tested: 795 KCM 26/7, 795 KCM 45/7, and 397.5 KCM 26/7. These conductors were chosen to establish the effects of conductor size and stranding on the amplitude reduction tests. Two different amplitude reductions were used to establish a threshold value for a maximum reduced amplitude. Previous preliminary research by others indicated that amplitude reductions extended the working life of conductors. This research expanded the amplitude reduction values and conductor sizes and strandings tested. For each set of parameters, four duplicative tests were performed to give statistical credence to the data. The results of the investigation indicated that amplitude reductions arrested fatigue strand breakage in each case. Electric utilities can utilize the results of this EPRI project in assessing the fatigue life of minimally damaged transmisson lines and in evaluating techniques for mitigating fatigue damage.

  13. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-11

    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 °C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire.

  14. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  15. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819, Zabrze (Poland); Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Eckert, Franck [COSMOlogic GmbH & Co KG, Imbacher Weg 46, 50379 Leverkusen (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  16. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  17. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  18. Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Saleemi, Mohsin; Wang, Baoyuan; Xia, Chen; Zhang, Wei; He, Yunjuan; Jayasuriya, Jeevan; Zhu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) is synthesized via a chemical co-precipitation technique for a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) (300-600 °C) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC) in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of samarium doped ceria (SDC): BSCF (60%:40% by weight) which is rather similar to the cathode (SDC: BSCF in 50%:50% by weight) used for a three layer SOFC demonstrates peak power densities up to 655 mW/cm2, while a three layer (anode/electrolyte/cathode) SOFC has reached only 425 mW/cm2 at 550 °C. Chemical phase, crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of 3-layer SOFC and EFFC are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As-prepared BSCF has exhibited a maximum conductivity above 300 S/cm at 550 °C. High performance of the EFFC device corresponds to a balanced combination between ionic and electronic (holes) conduction characteristic. The Schottky barrier prevents the EFFC from the electronic short circuiting problem which also enhances power output. The results provide a new way to produce highly effective cathode materials for LTSOFC and semiconductor designs for EFFC functions using a semiconducting-ionic material.

  19. Impedance Spectra of Mixed Conductors: a 2D Study of Ceria

    CERN Document Server

    Ciucci, Francesco; Goodwin, David G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop an analytical framework for the study of electrochemical impedance of mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC). The framework is based on first-principles and it features the coupling of electrochemical reactions, surface transport and bulk transport processes. We utilize this work to analyze two dimensional systems relevant for fuel cell science via finite element method (FEM). Alternate current Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) of a ceria symmetric cell is simulated near equilibrium condition (zero bias) for a wide array of working conditions including variations of temperature and $H_2$ partial pressure on a two dimensional fuel cell sample with patterned metal electrodes. The model shows agreement of IS curves with the experimental literature with the relative error on the impedance being consistently below 2%. Important two-dimensional effects such the effects of thickness decrease and the influence of variable electronic and ionic diffusivities on the impedance spectra are also ex...

  20. Development and validation of a fast ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with LC-MS/MS analysis for the quantification of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marieke; Missotten, Sophie; Dehaen, Wim; Tytgat, Jan; Cuypers, Eva

    2016-12-26

    To date, thorough clean-up of complex biological samples remains an essential part of the analytical process. The solid phase extraction (SPE) technique is the well-known standard, however, its main weaknesses are the labor-intensive and time-consuming protocols. In this respect, dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions (DLLME) seem to offer less complex and more efficient extraction procedures. Furthermore, ionic liquids (ILs) - liquid salts - are emerging as new promising extraction solvents, thanks to their non-flammable nature, negligible vapor pressure and easily adaptable physiochemical properties. In this study, we investigated whether ILs can be used as an extraction solvent in a DLLME procedure for the extraction of a broad range of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in whole blood samples. 1.0mL whole blood was extracted using an optimized 30-min IL-based DLLME procedure, followed by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis in scheduled MRM scan mode. The optimized analytical method was successfully validated for 7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, diazepam, estazolam, ethyl loflazepate, etizolam, flurazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zolpidem and zopiclone. The method showed good selectivity for endogenous interferences based on 12 sources of blank whole blood. No benzodiazepine interferences were observed, except for clorazepate and nordiazepam, which were excluded from the quantitative method. Matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed covering the whole therapeutic range, including low toxic plasma concentrations. Accuracy and precision results met the proposed acceptance criteria for the vast majority of compounds, except for brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, cloxazolam, flunitrazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam and nitrazepam, which can only be determined in a semi-quantitative way. Recoveries were within the range of 24.7%-127.2% and matrix effects were within 20

  1. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 56... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles...

  2. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75.513-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  3. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... together to a common ground by a normally non-current carrying conductor. Metallic cases of instruments...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 57... MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When...

  6. 46 CFR 183.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 183.372 Section 183... conductor grounding. (a) All metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be permanently... equipment must be bonded together to a common ground by a normally non-current carrying conductor....

  7. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  8. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  9. Interfacial behaviours between lithium ion conductors and electrode materials in various battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bingbin; Wang, Shanyu; Evans IV, Willie J.; Deng, Daniel Z.; Yang, Jihui; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years room temperature Li+ ion conductors have been intensively revisited in order to develop safe lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and beyond that can be deployed in the electrical vehicles. Through careful modification on materials synthesis, promising solid Li+ conductors with high ionic conductivity, competitve with liquid electrolytes, have been demonstrated. However, the integration of those highly conductive solid electrolytes into the whole system is still very challenging mainly due to the high impedance existing in the different interfaces throughout the entire battery structure. Herein , this review paper focuses on the overview of the interfacial behaviors between Li+ conductors and cathode/anode materials. The origin, evolution and potential solutions to reuce these interfacial impedances are reviewed for various battery systems spanning from Li-ion, lithium sulfur (Li-S), lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries to lithium metal protection. The predicted gravimetric and volumetric energy densities at different scenarios are also discussed along with the prospectives for further development of solid state batteries.

  10. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  11. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J{sub c} in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2`s bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J{sub c} at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices.

  12. The Conductor as a Transformational Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Susan; Armstrong, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Identifies charisma and inspirational leadership as the most important characteristics of transformational leaders. Discusses how middle and secondary school music conductors can use the transformational leadership model. Summarizes key components of this model including positive modeling, sharing vision, and empowering others. Provides relevant…

  13. Mixed conductor anodes: Ni as electrocatalyst for hydrogen conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2002-01-01

    Five types of anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are examined on an yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy at 850 degreesC in hydrogen. The examined porous anodes are a Ni/Zr(0.92)Y(0.16)O(2.08) (Ni/YSZ) cermet, a Ni/Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) (Ni/CGI) cermet, a Ce......(0.6)Gd(0.4)O(1.8) (CG4) ceramic, a La(0.75)Sr(0.25)Cr(0.97)V(0.03)O(3) (LSCV) ceramic and a Ti(0.22) Y(0.16)Zr(0.92)O(2.52) (TiYSZ) ceramic, Addition of small amounts ( approximate to I w/o) of Ni to the electrode surface is found to improve electrode performance on mixed electronic and ionic...... conductors (MIEC's), distinctly in the low-frequency part of the impedance spectra. An effect of isotope exchange (H(2)/H(2)O to D(2)/D(2)O) is observed for all anodes. The low-frequency limitation is suggested to be hydrogen adsorption and/or dissociation on the surface of MIEC electrodes, (C) 2002 Elsevier...

  14. Organic mixed conductors for bioelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement and stimulation of electrophysiological activity is a staple of neural and cardiac health monitoring, diagnosis and/or therapy. The ability to sensitively detect these signals can be enhanced by organic electronic materials that show mixed conduction properties (both electronic and ionic transport) in order to bridge the inherent mismatch that is prevalent between biological systems and traditional microelectronic materials/devices. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are one class of devices that utilize organic mixed conductors as the transistor channel, and have shown considerable promise as amplifying transducers due to their stability in aqueous conditions and high transconductance. These devices are fabricated in flexible, conformable form factors for in vivo recordings of epileptic activity, and for cutaneous EEG and ECG recordings in human subjects. The majority of high performance devices are based on conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) :poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS. By investigating PEDOT-based materials and devices, we are able to construct design rules for new formulations/materials. Introducing glycolated side chains to carefully selected semiconducting polymer backbones has enabled a new class high performance bioelectronic materials that feature high volumetric capacitance, transconductance >10mS (device dimensions ca. 10um), and steep subthreshold switching characteristics. A sub-set of these materials outperform PEDOT:PSS and shows significant promise for low power in vitro and in vivo biosensing applications.

  15. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  16. Interconnected ionic domains enhance conductivity in microphase separated block copolymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arges, Christopher G.; Kambe, Yu; Dolejsi, Moshe; Wu, Guang-Peng; Segal-Pertz, Tamar; Ren, Jiaxing; Cao, Chi; Craig, Gordon S. W.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer electrolytes (BCEs) represent an attractive choice as solid-state ionic conductors for electrochemical technologies used in energy storage and conversion, water treatment, sensors, and data storage and processing. Unlocking the maximum ionic conductivity of BCEs requires an intimate understanding as to how the microphase separated structure influences transport properties. However, elucidating such knowledge remains elusive due to the challenging task of precisely engineering BCEs with a defined structure in bulk materials. In this work, we examined BCEs in a thin film format because it was amenable to attaining BCEs with a desired nanostructure. Specifically, we systematically investigated anion-conducting BCEs with different degrees of connectivity of the ionic domains. For the first time, we demonstrate that increasing terminal defects in the ionic domain from 1 terminal defect per mu m(2) to 20 terminal defects per mu m(2) ( a relatively small amount of defects) decreased ionic conductivity by 67% compared to the maximum value attained. Conversely, maximizing ionic domain connectivity increased the ionic conductivity by two-fold over a non-ordered BCE film. These experiments highlight that microphase separation alone was insufficient for ameliorating ionic conductivity in BCEs. Rather, microphase separation coupled with complete ionic domain connectivity realized BCEs with significantly enhanced ionic conductivity.

  17. EDITORIAL: Coated conductors and their applications Coated conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhardt, Herbert C.; Lee, Dominic; Izumi, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The attractive perspectives offered by coated conductors, known as the 2nd generation of high temperature superconductors (2G-HTS), have triggered broad and fruitful R&D efforts to make them ready for the marketplace. The anisotropic features of YBCO and its weak-link behavior require the processing of almost single crystalline thin films into flat tapes of coated conductors by basically two different methods: RABiTS—rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates; and IBAD—ion-beam assisted deposition. Reliable processing technologies are now at hand, and critical current carrying capacities can be raised to almost 10-20% of the theoretically possible limit by optimizing current transfer through grain boundaries as well as flux pinning through control and design of the microstructural landscapes. The optimization of the in-field properties of the 2G-HTS wires, as well as the manufacturing of coated conductors with low ac losses and of assembled conductors for high current application remain active development areas. Cost reduction and more economic processing are still an issue. However, coated conductors are now beginning to penetrate the market, particularly for power and electrical applications, where savings in energy are essential and where the unique features of high temperature superconducting materials can be utilized. Major international conferences have followed up the progress in this exciting realm, and important workshops and discussion meetings have been held on this topic. Nonetheless, it was felt that a concise and up-to-date issue of Superconductor Science and Technology would be most welcome to summarize and collect the latest developments in processing and characterizing coated conductors, as well as drawing attention to the most innovative applications. The Guest Editors of this focus issue owe great thanks to those colleagues who were willing to contribute with their most recent findings to this issue on 'Coated conductors and their

  18. Superconducting homopolar motor and conductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has been developing superconducting homopolar motors for ship applications since 1969; a successful at-sea demonstration of the first motor, using NbTi wire for the magnet, was achieved in the early 1980s. Recently, this same motor was used as a test bed to demonstrate progress in high-critical-temperature superconducting magnet technology using bismuth-strontium- calcium-copper-oxide (BSCCO) compounds. In the fall of 1995, this motor achieved a performance of 124 kW operating at a temperature of 4.2 K and 91 kW while operating at 28 K. Future tests are scheduled using new magnets with conductors of both the 2223 and the 2212 BSCCO phases. This article describes the advantages of superconducting propulsion and recent progress in the development of BSCCO conductors for use in Navy power systems.

  19. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  20. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  1. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  2. Local noise in a diffusive conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E S; Shovkun, D V; Ercolani, D; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Sorba, L; Roddaro, S; Khrapai, V S

    2016-07-28

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  3. Ray class fields of conductor p

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We prove that (under the assumption of the generalized Riemann hypothesis) a totally real multiquadratic number field K has a positive density of primes p for which the ray class field of conductor p has an explicit description as the Hilbert class field H of K adjoin the real number \\zeta_p + \\zeta_p^{-1} if and only if K contains a unit of norm -1.

  4. A Review of Coated Conductor Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永利; 时东陆

    2003-01-01

    The developments of coated conductor technology have been reviewed. It is shown that the critical current density of high-Tc wires can begreatly enhanced by using three-fold approaches: grain alignment, grain boundary doping, and optimization of the grain architecture. Major advances have been made in the last16 years mainly in three aspects: substrates, buffer layers and the YBCO layer. Cost is still the main concern for scale up, especially for the approach through vapor depositions, such as the PLD method. TFA-MOD or other CSD methods may be the trend to overcome cost and speed consideration during the scale up. However, high reliability and reproducibility will be the new focus for these techniques. Ni-alloy tapes seem to have advantages over pure Ni in terms of mechanicalstrength and oxidation resistance. Depositing a pure Ni layer on top of Ni-based alloys (such as Ni-Cr and Ni-W alloys) solves the problem of low strength ofNi and poor texture of Ni alloys. The RABiTS and IBAD are the two robust approaches for the texture generation. But the buffer materials and architectures being investigated remain unclear, though CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 and MgO are commonly used buffer layers for RABiTS and IBAD respectively. For the case where a buffer layer isunavoidable, a non-vacuum process would be suitable for low cost and scale up. However, none of the buffer layer fabrication processes through CSD has been demonstrated results good enough for long length coated conductor applications. While, a high Jc superconducting layer can be produced by TFA-MOD, which brings a bright future for coated conductors. Clearly, there are still many scientific and technological barriers to be overcome before any long length of high Jc coated conductor be produced commercially. But theoretical analyses and technological progress show the potential for the practical application of coatedconductor wires in the near future.

  5. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  6. Current-Induced Effects in Nanoscale Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of current-induced effects in nanoscale conductors with emphasis on their description at the atomic level. In particular, we discuss steady-state current fluctuations, current-induced forces, inelastic scattering and local heating. All of these properties are calculated in terms of single-particle wavefunctions computed using a scattering approach within the static density-functional theory of many-electron systems. Examples of current-induced effects in atomic and mole...

  7. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  8. Los conductores re-examinados: El transcurso del tiempo deteriora significativamente los conocimientos de los conductores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Martos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos mil cinco conductores, 1204 hombres y 801 mujeres, una muestra representativa de la población española de conductores, fueron nuevamente examinados utilizando un cuestionario que reproducía fielmente un examen de conducir realizado por la Dirección General de Tráfico (DGT. Las preguntas fueron clasificadas en"“muy importantes", "importantes" y "poco importantes". El 96.5 % de los conductores, suspendió el examen. Los resultados eran tanto peores cuanto más tiempo había transcurridodesde la obtención del permiso de conducir. Esto era independiente de la importancia de las preguntas, de la mayor o menor frecuencia de conducción y afectaba por igual a hombres y mujeres. Las mujeres obtienen mejores puntuaciones en señalización mientras que los hombres son mejores en las preguntas de seguridad vial. Los resultados también demostraban que los conductores profesionales y los de mayor nivel educativo sufren un menor deterioro. Tales resultados nos llevan a considerar la relación que estos datos puedan tener en los niveles de accidentalidad y la conveniencia de establecer pautas para la actualización del conocimiento de los conductores. Finalmente, se discute la relevancia que el examen que se utiliza para obtener el permiso de conducir tiene como indicador o predictor de una futura conducción segura.

  9. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  10. First-principles prediction of fast migration channels of potassium ions in KAlSi3O8 hollandite: Implications for high conductivity anomalies in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Sun, Yang; Lu, Xia; Gao, Jian; Li, Hong; Li, Heping

    2016-06-01

    Materials sharing the hollandite structure were widely reported as fast ionic conductors. However, the ionic conductivity of KAlSi3O8 hollandite (K-hollandite), which can be formed during the subduction process, has not been investigated so far. Here first-principles calculations are used to investigate the potassium ion (K+) transport properties in K-hollandite. The calculated K+ migration barrier energy is 0.44 eV at a pressure of 10 GPa, an energy quite small to block the K+ migration in K-hollandite channels. The calculated ionic conductivity of K-hollandite is highly anisotropic and depends on its concentration of K+ vacancies. About 6% K+ vacancies in K-hollandite can lead to a higher conductivity compared to the conductivity of hydrated wadsleyite and ringwoodite in the mantle. K+ vacancies being commonly found in many K-hollandite samples with maximum vacancies over 30%, the formation of K-hollandite during subduction of continental or alkali-rich oceanic crust can contribute to the high conductivity anomalies observed in subduction zones.

  11. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, E.H. [The Faculty of Liberal Arts (Chemistry), Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Lim, S.A. [Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Park, J.H. [Department of Herbal Medicine, Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Kim, D.W. [Department of Chemical Technology, Han Bat National University, Daejon 305-719 (Korea); Macfarlane, D.R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2008-04-01

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N{sub 1134}TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N{sub 1134}TCM (2.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N{sub 1134}TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species. (author)

  12. Investigation of Ionic Conductivity of Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes Based On PVDF-HFP/PVC Blend, LiClO4 and TiO2 Nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N. H.; Mohamed, N. S.

    2010-07-01

    The effects of nanosized TiO2 on the conductivity of PVDF-HFP/PVC-LiClO4 was studied by means of impedance spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of TiO2 nanofiller increases the crystalline phase fraction but slightly increases the conductivity of the PVDF-HFP/PVC-LiClO4 complex. The increase in conductivity is attributed to the formation of highly conducting layer at the electrolyte/filler interface. The temperature dependence of conductivity obeys the VTF type behaviour while the transference number confirms that the electrolyte containing 6 wt.% TiO2 is an ionic conductor are ionic conductors.

  13. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor must... 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  14. Transport AC Losses in Striated YBCO Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0124 TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N. Barnes Mechanical Energy...TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...2006. 14. ABSTRACT DC current-voltage characteristics and transport ac losses of striated and non-striated Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ ( YBCO ) coated conductors

  15. Fast Erase Method and Apparatus For Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakely, Ernest C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A non-contact fast erase method for erasing information stored on a magnetic or optical media. The magnetic media element includes a magnetic surface affixed to a toroidal conductor and stores information in a magnetic polarization pattern. The fast erase method includes applying an alternating current to a planar inductive element positioned near the toroidal conductor, inducing an alternating current in the toroidal conductor, and heating the magnetic surface to a temperature that exceeds the Curie-point so that information stored on the magnetic media element is permanently erased. The optical disc element stores information in a plurality of locations being defined by pits and lands in a toroidal conductive layer. The fast erase method includes similarly inducing a plurality of currents in the optical media element conductive layer and melting a predetermined portion of the conductive layer so that the information stored on the optical medium is destroyed.

  16. Magnetically Guiding Atoms with Current-Carrying Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 高伟建; 印建平

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel magnetic guide for cold neutral atoms using some current-carrying conductors. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from a V-shaped or U-shaped current-carrying conductor are calculated, and the relationship between the resulting magnetic field and the parameters of the current-carrying conductors is analysed in detail. The result shows that these current-carrying conductors can be used to realize a single or a controllable double magnetic guide of cold atoms in the weak-field-seeking state, and to construct various atom-optical elements, and even to realize a single-mode atomic waveguiding under certain conditions.

  17. First qualification of ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductor jacketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Kazuya, E-mail: hamada.kazuya@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Kawano, Katsumi; Oshikiri, Masayuki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Okuno, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Matsuda, Hidemitsu; Yano, Yoshitaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co. Ltd (Japan); Devred, Arnauld; Bessette, Denis [ITER Organization (France)

    2011-10-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility to procure 25% of the ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) in the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA started to produce strand, cables and jacket sections and to construct a conductor manufacturing (jacketing) facility in 2008. Following preparation in December 2009 of the jacketing facility, the dummy cable, the jacket sections and fabrication procedures, such as welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling, JAEA manufactured a 760 m long Cu dummy conductor for process qualification. Into the 760 m long Cu dummy conductor jacketing, JAEA successfully inserted the cable with a maximum force of 32 kN. The outer diameter of the cross section of the spooled conductor was 43.7 {+-} 0.15 mm, which complies with the ITER target requirement of 43.7 {+-} 0.3 mm. Following qualification of all manufacturing processes, JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils.

  18. Phase behavior of a PVAL-based polymer proton conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.A. [Univ. Popular del Cesar, Valledupar (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Vargas, R.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Mellander, B.-E. [Physics Dept., Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Solid protonic conductor gels were synthesized using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL), hypophosphorous acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 2}) and water as prime chemicals. The samples were characterized by means of impedance spectroscopy, fuel cell measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity of the samples at room temperature showed a sensitive variation between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -1} S/cm as the acid concentration was increased. Using the raw membranes as electrolytic separator in a fuel cell, voltages up to 726 mV were obtained. DSC thermograms showed a well-resolved step anomaly associated to a glass transition for samples with the highest acid concentrations: at about -130 C for the first set of samples and at about -120 C for the other sets, which indicates the amorphous character of the samples. TG traces confirmed that the membranes with higher acid concentrations have higher water contents and that the maximum rate of water removal is at about 50 C for all samples. X-ray spectra for the raw samples at room temperature show a large peak at about 2{theta} = 20 , which is smaller for the higher acid content samples and increases when the samples are annealed at 70 C, indicating that the amorphousness of PVAL complexes increases with the H{sub 3}PO{sub 2} content and drops with the water removal. The results, then, indicated the presence of a separate acid/water phase in the raw samples and an increasing polymer chain intervention in the ionic mobility as the samples are thermally treated. (orig.)

  19. Ionic solvents used in ionic polymer transducers, sensors and actuators

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Ionic liquids are incorporated into transducers, actuators or sensors which employ the ionic polymer membranes. The ionic liquids have superior electrochemical stability, low viscosity and low vapor pressure. The transducers, actuators and sensors which utilize ionic polymer membranes solvated with ionic liquids have long term air stability. Superior results are achieved when a conductive powder and ionomer mixture is applied to the ionic polymer membrane to form the electrodes during or afte...

  20. The Famous Conductor,VuZhu Dokyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    VUzhu Dokyi,now the head of the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble is a second-grade conductor of the state,a member of Chinese Musicians’Association,the vice-president of Tibetan Musicians’Association and a council member of the Chinese Chorus Artists’Association.In 1960 he was admitted to the Tianjin Conservatory of Music and followed Qiu Jianhua,the famous music educator,to learn violin.After graduation,he was first violin in the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble Orchestra.

  1. Precision gold conductors for HMCs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    Ti/Pd/Au multiple code coded switch (MCCS) networks were built and compared to Cr/Au MCCS networks. The data showed no measurable difference between the two systems. Interface resistance of both types of networks was measured as a diagnostic aid to determine if hydrogen was affecting the Ti/Pd/Au MCCS networks. The data showed that although hydrogen does affect Ti/Pd/Au, the changes are not significant with respect to MCCS environments. An evaluation of several proprietary gold electroplating solutions for use in the production of Ti/Pd/Au conductors was performed. All the testing results were comparable to the current product requirements.

  2. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  3. Different roles of ionic liquids in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Liu, Yang; Chen, Pu

    2016-12-01

    Ionic liquids are often named solvents of the future because of flexibility in design. This statement has given credence that ionic liquids should simply replace the problematic electrolytes of lithium batteries. As a result, the promising potentials of ionic liquids in electrochemical systems are somehow obscured by inappropriate expectations. We summarize recent advancements in this field, especially, ionic liquids as standalone electrolytes, additives, plasticizers in gel polymer electrolytes, and binders; and attempt to shed light on the future pathway of this area of research. Ionic liquids are not dilute media to serve as pure solvents in electrochemical systems where mobility of ions is the priority; instead, they can contribute to the ionic conductivity of various components in a battery system. Owing to the enormous possibilities of ionic liquids, it is not merely a matter of choice. Ionic liquids can be used to design novel types of electrolytes for a new generation of lithium batteries. A promising possibility, which is still at a very early stage, is supercooled ionic liquid crystals for fast ion diffusion through the guided channels of a liquid-like medium. This, of course, will be a breakthrough in the realm of electrochemistry, far beyond lithium battery field, when materialized.

  4. 30 CFR 56.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 56.12010 Section 56.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Electricity § 56.12010 Isolation or insulation of communication conductors. Telephone and low... energized power conductors or any other power source....

  5. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  6. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  7. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  8. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  9. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D. S.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Baughman, R. J.; Bourcier, R. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.; Halloran, J. W.; Neal, N. J.; Capone, D. W.

    1990-04-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. Two promising processing technologies that were utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors are reported. First, melt spun YBa2Cu3O7 fibers rapid thermal processed for 1 to 8 sec at 950 to 1075 C have (Tc)'s to 92 K, J(sub c)'s to 1100 A/sq cm and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa2Cu3O7. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting compositions give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi(1.7)Pb(0.3)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 were made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100 K and improved magnetic hysteresis above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneals near 850 C appears to significantly improve these materials.

  10. Modeling of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlipinar, Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Ionic liquids are very important entry to industry and technology. Because of their unique properties they may classified as a new class of materials. IL usually classified as a high temperature ionic liquids (HTIL) and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). HTIL are molten salts. There are many research studies on molten salts such as recycling, new energy sources, rare elements mining. RTIL recently become very important in daily life industry because of their "green chemistry" properties. As a simple view ionic liquids consist of one positively charged and one negatively charged components. Because of their Coulombic or dispersive interactions the local structure of ionic liquids emerges. In this presentation the local structural properties of the HTIL are discussed via correlation functions and integral equation theories. RTIL are much more difficult to do modeling, but still general consideration for the modeling of the HTIL is valid also for the RTIL.

  11. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  12. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  13. Beyond the Beat: Modelling Intentions in a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter Mark; Ebbers, Rob M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Anton

    2008-01-01

    We describe our research on designing and implementing a Virtual Conductor. That is, a virtual human (embodied agent) that acts like a human conductor in its interaction with a real, human orchestra. We reported previously on a first version that used a digital musical score to lead an orchestra. Th

  14. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...

  15. Solid State Materials for Hydrogen Production, Ionic Conduction and Oxygen Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    MAO, CHENGYU

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electricity with high efficiency and low pollutant emission via redox reactions at the anode and cathode. The implementation of hydrogen fuel cell depends on the large scale production of hydrogen. Though ‘’hydrogen economy” scenario looks attractive, a breakthrough in hydrogen production. An efficient fuel cell is also dependent on a good ionic conductor between the electrodes and good electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. Artificia...

  16. Stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display using printable elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Maeda, Hiroki; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo; Hata, Kenji; Someya, Takao

    2009-06-01

    Stretchability will significantly expand the applications scope of electronics, particularly for large-area electronic displays, sensors and actuators. Unlike for conventional devices, stretchable electronics can cover arbitrary surfaces and movable parts. However, a large hurdle is the manufacture of large-area highly stretchable electrical wirings with high conductivity. Here, we describe the manufacture of printable elastic conductors comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uniformly dispersed in a fluorinated rubber. Using an ionic liquid and jet-milling, we produce long and fine SWNT bundles that can form well-developed conducting networks in the rubber. Conductivity of more than 100Scm-1 and stretchability of more than 100% are obtained. Making full use of this extraordinary conductivity, we constructed a rubber-like stretchable active-matrix display comprising integrated printed elastic conductors, organic transistors and organic light-emitting diodes. The display could be stretched by 30-50% and spread over a hemisphere without any mechanical or electrical damage.

  17. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten;

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  18. Structural control of mixed ionic and electronic transport in conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-04-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole transport properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/electronic conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently transport both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and electronic mobilities are simultaneously affected by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while electronic conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and electronic transport that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. These findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.

  19. ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and

  20. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  1. Alternative fiber optic conductor for laboratory practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Ocampo, Juan F.; Jaramillo Florez, Samuel A.; Amaya Rodriguez, Juan C.

    1995-10-01

    Due to the high cost and difficulty in obtaining an optical fiber sample to be used in laboratory tests, we have given ourselves the task of looking for an adequate optical-fiber alternative for laboratory practices. We have as a result, found an object that can be used as an alternate optical conductor. This object called 'Venoclisis Hose', is a cylindrical plastic tube, hollow inside, whose main use has been in medical applications as a conveyor of liquids going in or coming out of the human body. In this document, the tests carried out and the results obtained to characterize the venoclisis as an optical fiber are described. This project was undertaken in order to propose the use of Venoclisis as an alternate optical fiber for laboratory work, due primarily to its low costs, as well as how easy it to acquire and measure its parameters as an optical fiber.

  2. Conductors and Newforms for (1,1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Lansky; A Raghuram

    2004-11-01

    Let be a non-Archimedean local field whose residue characteristic is odd. In this paper we develop a theory of newforms for (1,1)(), building on previous work on $SL_2(F)$. This theory is analogous to the results of Casselman for $GL_2(F)$ and Jacquet, Piatetski-Shapiro, and Shalika for $GL_n(F)$. To a representation π of (1,1)(), we attach an integer () called the conductor of , which depends only on the -packet containing . A newform is a vector in which is essentially fixed by a congruence subgroup of level ()$. We show that our newforms are always test vectors for some standard Whittaker functionals, and, in doing so, we give various explicit formulae for newforms.

  3. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zafar Ahmed; Sudhir R Jain

    2000-03-01

    We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, , are log-normal distributed, $\\exp[-\\log^{2}(x)]$. We show that the level density varies with energy, , as 2/(1 + ) for large , in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level correlation function is studied for the unitary family and found to be largely of the universal form despite the fact that the level density has a non-compact support. The results are based on the method of orthogonal polynomials (the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials here). An interesting random walk problem associated with the joint probability distribution of the ensuing ensemble is discussed and its connection with level dynamics is brought out. It is further proved that Dyson's Coulomb gas analogy breaks down whenever the confining potential is given by a transcendental function for which there exist orthogonal polynomials.

  4. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    Denmark is taking on the exciting project of undergrounding the electricity transmission grid. In 2009 it was decided by the Danish government to underground large parts of the 400 kV and the entire 132-150 kV transmission network before the end of 2030. For ensuring network stability...... and economical gain, such severe network changes necessitate correct estimation and optimisation of load conditions in the cable grid. Both IEC and IEEE have published standards for rating transmission cables' current carrying capacity. These standards are based on assumptions of a number of parameters...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  5. Ionic conduction in Ba_xCe_(0.8)Pr_(0.2)O_(3-α)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoyuan; QIU Ligan; SUN Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    Ba_xCe_(0.8)Pr_(0.2)O_(3-α)(X=0.98-1.03) ceramics were prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the materials were perovskite-type orthorhombic single phase. By using gas concentration cell and AC impedance spectroscopy methods, the electrical conduction behavior of the materials was investigated in different gases at 500-900 ℃. The influence of non-stoichiometry in the materials with x≠1 on conduction properties was studied and compared with that in the material with x=1. The results indicated that Ba_(1.03)Ce_(0.8)Pr_(0.2)O_(3-α) was a pure protonic conductor, and Ba_(0.98)Ce_(0.8)Pr_(0.2)O_(3-α) was a mixed conductor of protons and electrons in wet hydrogen at 500-900 ℃. BaCe_(0.8)Pr_(0.2)O_(3-α) was a pure protonic conductor in 500-600 ℃, and a mixed conductor of protons and electrons above 600℃ in wet hydrogen. In 500-900℃, they were all mixed conductors of oxide ions and electronic holes in dry air, and mixed con-ductors of protons, oxide ions and electronic holes in wet air. Both the protonic and oxide ionic conductivities increased with increasing bar-ium content in the materials in wet hydrogen, dry air and wet air, respectively.

  6. Photophysics of ionic biochromophores

    CERN Document Server

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This concise guide to studying ionic biochromophores features the first integrated overview of the photophysics of differing classes of biomolecules, from single amino acids to DNA. It includes an appraisal of the latest theories and experimental techniques.

  7. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  8. Ionic Liquids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Minami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  9. Conditions for and characteristics of nonaqueous micellar solutions and microemulsions with ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Zech, Oliver; Kunz, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Research on nonaqueous microemulsions containing ionic liquids as polar and/or apolar phase, respectively, is growing at a fast rate. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential and their diversification compared to water is their wide liquid temperature range. In this emerging-area review article we survey recent developments in the field of nonaqueous micellar solutions and microemulsions containing ionic liquids in general with a strong emphasis on the effect of tempe...

  10. Modelling the transient emission from a twin conductor cable

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using the equations of transmission line theory, a programme is developed to simulate the response of an open-circuit line to a step pulse. This is compared with the observed response of a twin-conductor cable. It is deduced that not all of the current delivered to the send conductor arrives back via the return conductor. Some of it departs in the form of radiated emission. A virtual capacitor is used to simulate this, with limited success. However, by adding a second virtual capacitor to sim...

  11. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  12. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Characterization and Modeling of the Ionomer-Conductor Interface in Ionic Polymer Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Akle, Barbar Jawad

    2005-01-01

    Ionomeric polymer transducers consist of an ion-exchange membrane plated with conductive metal layers on its outer surfaces. Such materials are known to exhibit electromechanical coupling under the application of electric fields and imposed deformation (Oguro et al., 1992; Shahinpoor et al., 1998). Compared to other types of electromechanical transducers, such as piezoelectric materials, ionomeric transducers have the advantage of high-strain output (> 9% is possible), low-voltage operatio...

  14. Internal Friction of Li7La3Zr2O12 Based Lithium Ionic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion mechanisms of lithium ions in tetragonal phase as well as in Al and Nb stabilized cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 compounds were investigated by low-frequency internal friction technique. In the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase, a remarkable relaxation-type internal friction peak PC with a peak height up to 0.12 was observed in the temperature range from 15°C to 60°C. In the tetragonal phase however, the height of the PT peak dropped to 0.01. The obvious difference of the relaxation strength between the cubic and tetragonal phases is due to the different distribution of lithium ions in lattice, ordered in the tetragonal phase and disordered in the cubic phase. Based on the crystalline structure of the cubic garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 compound, it is suggested that the high internal friction peak in the cubic phase may be attributed to two diffusion processes of lithium ions: 96h↔96h and 96h↔24d.

  15. 33 CFR 183.430 - Conductors in circuits of less than 50 volts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors in circuits of less... Requirements § 183.430 Conductors in circuits of less than 50 volts. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a...; resistance conductors that control circuit amperage; and pigtails of less than seven inches of exposed length....

  16. 33 CFR 183.435 - Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors in circuits of 50... Requirements § 183.435 Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a nominal voltage of 50 volts or more must be: (1) A conductor that has insulation listed and...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... MINES Electricity § 56.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over power conductors, unless...

  18. Vortex-assisted magnetic β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite-linked ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the fast determination of four fungicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyi; Xi, Xuefei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2015-02-13

    A novel microextraction technique combining magnetic solid-phase microextraction (MSPME) with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) to determine four fungicides is presented in this work for the first time. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized by the one-factor-at-a-time approach and the impacts of these factors were studied by an orthogonal design. Without tedious clean-up procedure, analytes were extracted from the sample to the adsorbent and organic solvent and then desorbed in acetonitrile prior to chromatographic analysis. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity and high enrichment factors were obtained for all analytes, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9998 to 1.0000 and enrichment factors ranging 135 and 159 folds. The recoveries for proposed approach were between 98% and 115%, the limits of detection were between 0.02 and 0.04 μg L(-1) and the RSDs changed from 2.96 to 4.16. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil and trifloxystrobin) in environmental water samples. The recoveries for the real water samples ranged between 81% and 109%. The procedure proved to be a time-saving, environmentally friendly, and efficient analytical technique.

  19. Morphology, Modulus, and Ionic Conductivity of a Triblock Terpolymer/Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Lucas D.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2013-03-01

    A key challenge in designing solid polymer electrolytes is increasing bulk mechanical properties such as stiffness, without sacrificing ionic conductivity. Previous work has focused on diblock copolymers, where one block is a stiff, glassy insulator and the other is a flexible ion conductor. Disadvantages of these systems include difficulty in achieving network morphologies, which minimize dead-ends for ion transport, and the necessity to operate below both the Tg of the glassy block and the order-disorder temperature. We have investigated the triblock terpolymer poly[isoprene-b-(styrene-co-norbornenylethyl styrene)-b-ethylene oxide] because it self-assembles into a triply-continuous network structure. SAXS and TEM revealed the bulk morphology of INSO to be disordered but strongly correlated after solvent casting from dichloromethane. This apparent disordered network structure was retained after chemical crosslinking and addition of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the expected conductivity for ions confined to continuous PEO channels. The mechanical response before and after crosslinking showed an increase in the material modulus.

  20. Study on detinning process of a reflow conductor roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hanguang; DAI Mingshan; FU Hanfeng

    2005-01-01

    Adhering tin is the main reason of a reflow conductor roll which works in an electroplating tin line (ETL). A detinning agent whose main composition is NaOH and KOH and assistant composition is Na2PbO2 or K2PbO2 and NaNO3 or NaNO2 has excellent detinning effects when the temperature of detinning solution is 40-80℃ and the temperature of the reflow conductor roll reaches 40-70℃. After the adhering tin layer of the reflow conductor roll is removed, the roughness of the reflow conductor roll can resume to 4.0 μm, its service life increases by 80%, and the repairing cost decreases by 90%.

  1. Casimir Free Energy at High Temperatures: Grounded vs Isolated Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the difference between the Casimir free energies corresponding to either grounded or isolated perfect conductors, at high temperatures. We show that a general and simple expression for that difference can be given, in terms of the electrostatic capacitance matrix for the system of conductors. For the case of close conductors, we provide approximate expressions for that difference, by evaluating the capacitance matrix using the proximity force approximation. Since the high-temperature limit for the Casimir free energy for a medium described by a frequency-dependent conductivity diverging at zero frequency coincides with that of an isolated conductor, our results may shed light on the corrections to the Casimir force in the presence of real materials.

  2. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  3. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-09-01

    When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  4. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  5. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  6. Electron transport in a mesoscopic superconducting ferromagnetic hybrid conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, M.; Hasselbach, K.; Courtois, H.; Pannetier, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Mailly, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    2003-01-01

    We present electrical transport experiments performed on submicron hybrid devices made of a ferromagnetic conductor (Co) and a superconducting (Al) electrode. The sample was patterned in order to separate the contributions of the Co conductor and of the Co-Al interface. We observed a strong influence of the Al electrode superconductivity on the resistance of the Co conductor. This effect is large only when the interface is highly transparent. We characterized the dependence of the observed resistance decrease on temperature, bias current and magnetic field. As the differential resistance of the ferromagnet exhibits a non-trivial asymmetry, we claim that the magnetic domain structure plays an important role in the electron transport properties of superconducting / ferromagnetic conductors. (authors)

  7. Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells. Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include: Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids Diffusion in Soli

  8. New resistivity for high-mobility quantum Hall conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceuen, P. L.; Szafer, A.; Richter, C. A.; Alphenaar, B. W.; Jain, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements showing dramatic nonlocal behavior in the four-terminal resistances of a high-mobility quantum Hall conductor are presented. These measurements illustrate that the standard definition of the resistivity tensor is inappropriate, but they are in excellent agreement with a new model of the conductor that treats the edge and bulk conducting pathways independently. This model uses a single intensive parameter, analogous to a local resistivity for the bulk channel only, to characterize the system.

  9. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  10. Modelling the transient emission from a twin conductor cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Brook Darney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the equations of transmission line theory, a programme is developed to simulate the response of an open-circuit line to a step pulse. This is compared with the observed response of a twin-conductor cable. It is deduced that not all of the current delivered to the send conductor arrives back via the return conductor. Some of it departs in the form of radiated emission. A virtual capacitor is used to simulate this, with limited success. However, by adding a second virtual capacitor to simulate transient current being delivered from the return conductor back to the send conductor, a fair correlation is achieved between theoretical and actual results. This analysis demonstrates that the return conductor plays an active role in propagating any signal along the cable. This study also demonstrates that a circuit model can be created to simulate the mechanisms involved in the radiation of interference from power supply cables. This is but one example of the use of circuit models to analyse electromagnetic interference (EMI. The key relationship between electromagnetic theory and circuit theory which enables this technique to be used to analyse any EMI problem is identified. A dramatic simplification in the mathematics can be achieved.

  11. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Federation de Physique Andre Marie Ampere, CNRS - Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2014-01-15

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Internally heated convection beneath a poor conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider convection in an internally heated layer of fluid that is bounded below by a perfect insulator and above by a poor conductor. The poorly conducting boundary is modelled by a fixed heat flux. Using solely analytical methods, we find linear and energy stability thresholds for the static state, and we construct a lower bound on the mean temperature that applies to all flows. The linear stability analysis yields a Rayleigh number above which the static state is linearly unstable ($R_L$), and the energy analysis yields a Rayleigh number below which it is globally stable ($R_E$). For various boundary conditions on the velocity, exact expressions for $R_L$ and $R_E$ are found using long-wavelength asymptotics. Each $R_E$ is strictly smaller than the corresponding $R_L$ but is within 1%. The lower bound on the mean temperature is proven for no-slip velocity boundary conditions using the background method. The bound guarantees that the mean temperature of the fluid, relative to that of the top boundary, gr...

  13. On electromagnetic induction in electric conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Korolev, Alexander I

    2013-01-01

    Experimental validation of the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction (EMI) is performed when an electromotive force is generated in thin copper turns, located inside a large magnetic coil. It has been established that the electromotive force (emf) value should be dependent not only on changes of the magnetic induction flux through a turn and on symmetry of its crossing by magnetic power lines also. The law of EMI is applicable in sufficient approximation in case of the changes of the magnetic field near the turn are symmetrical. Experimental study of the induced emf in arcs and a direct section of the conductor placed into the variable field has been carried out. Linear dependence of the induced emf on the length of the arc has been ascertained in case of the magnetic field distribution symmetry about it. Influence of the magnetic field symmetry on the induced emf in the arc has been observed. The curve of the induced emf in the direct section over period of current pulse is similar to this one for the t...

  14. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON CONDUCTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-02-18

    The morphological and electrical properties of yttrium (Y) and indium (In) doped barium cerate perovskites of the form BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} (with x=0-0.3) prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors with improved chemical stability. The sinterability increased with the increase of In-doping, and the perovskite phase was found in the BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions over the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.3. The conductivities decreased (from x to x, insert quantitative values) while the tolerance to wet CO{sub 2} improved for BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} samples with an increase of In-doping.

  15. Communication: Dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathways in glass and the mixed-alkali effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Melissa; Avila-Paredes, Hugo; Kim, Sangtae; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-12-28

    A revised empirical relationship between the power law exponent of ac conductivity dispersion and the dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathway is established on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on crystalline ionic conductors. These results imply that the "universal" ac conductivity dispersion observed in glassy solids is associated with ionic transport along fractal pathways. EIS measurements on single-alkali glasses indicate that the dimensionality of this pathway D is ∼2.5, while in mixed-alkali glasses, D is lower and goes through a minimum value of ∼2.2 when the concentrations of the two alkalis become equal. D and σ display similar variation with alkali composition, thus suggesting a topological origin of the mixed-alkali effect.

  16. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  17. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Edmondson, Dr. Philip [University of Oxford; Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Peng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Hardiman, Chris [North Carolina State University; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is

  18. Applications of functionalized ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xuehui; ZHAO; Dongbin; FEI; Zhaofu; WANG; Lefu

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of the synthesis and applications of functionalized ionic liquids(including dual-functionalized ionic liquids) have been highlighted in this review. Ionic liquids are attracting attention as alternative solvents in green chemistry, but as more functionalized ILs are prepared, a greater number of applications in increasingly diverse fields are found.

  19. Macroelectrode voltammetry in toluene using a phosphonium-phosphate ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, Noel W. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Clayton Laboratories, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Bond, Alan M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    The ability of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (aph4.cph12) to act as an ionic conductor in toluene has been investigated at platinum and glassy carbon macrodisc electrodes. Ionic liquid concentrations of 0.1-0.4M provide close to ideal conditions for transient dc cyclic and ac voltammetric techniques. A potential window of almost 5V is available at a glassy carbon electrode (the neat ionic liquid has a potential window of approximately 6V). In the presence of 0.4M ionic liquid, uncompensated solution resistances (in the range of 3-4k{omega}) are of the same order of magnitude as encountered in commonly used non-aqueous electrochemical solvents such as dichloromethane containing 0.1M Bu{sub 4}NPF{sub 6} as the electrolyte. Voltammetric data on ferrocene, the cobaltocenium cation, [Ru(bipy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and C{sub 60} in toluene containing aph4.cph12 demonstrate the advantages of using this ionic liquid as an electrolyte in highly resistive media. (author)

  20. Ionic charging by local imbalance at interfaces in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almora, Osbel; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà, E-mail: garciag@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló (Spain)

    2016-01-25

    Identification of specific operating mechanisms becomes particularly challenging when mixed ionic-electronic conductors are used in optoelectronic devices. Ionic effects in perovskite solar cells are believed to distort operation curves and possess serious doubts about their long term stability. Current hysteresis and switchable photovoltaic characteristics have been connected to the kinetics of ion migration. However, the nature of the specific ionic mechanism (or mechanisms) able to explain the operation distortions is still poorly understood. It is observed here that the local rearrangement of ions at the electrode interfaces gives rise to commonly observed capacitive effects. Charging transients in response to step voltage stimuli using thick CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} samples show two main polarization processes and reveal the structure of the ionic double-layer at the interface with the non-reacting contacts. It is observed that ionic charging, with a typical response time of 10 s, is a local effect confined in the vicinity of the electrode, which entails absence of net mobile ionic concentration (space-charge) in the material bulk.

  1. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  2. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of ionic transport number of CeO sub 2 doped Y-TZP and PSZ ceramics with alumina additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.T.; Jurado, J.R.; Duran, P. (Electroceramic Dept., Ceramic and Glass Inst., CSIC, Madrid (Spain)); Abrantes, J.C.C.; Marques, F.M.B. (Dept. of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal))

    1992-01-01

    Different zirconia-based composite materials, one TZP (3Ce-TZP) and two PSZ (1Ce-PSZ and 2Ce-PSZ) with 10 wt%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions, were studied with respect to electrical transport properties. Ionic transport number determinations and ac conductivity results as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature indicated that these compositions are ionic conductors within a large range of working conditions. The TZP composition exhibited the largest ionic conductivity and pure ionic behavior in air, from 800deg to 1100degC. In PSZ materials the presence of significant amounts of cubic phase and/or the presence of some monoclinic phase may be responsible for the observed low ionic transport numbers. (orig.).

  4. High-response hybrid quantum dots- 2D conductor phototransistors: recent progress and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablon, Kimberly A.; Sergeev, Andrei; Najmaei, Sina; Dubey, Madan

    2017-03-01

    Having been inspired by the tremendous progress in material nanoscience and device nanoengineering, hybrid phototransistors combine solution processed colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with graphene or two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials. Novel detectors demonstrate ultrahigh photoconductive gain, high and selective photoresponse, low noise, and very high responsivity in visible- and near-infrared ranges. The outstanding performance of phototransistors is primarily due to the strong, selective, and size tunable absorption of QDs and fast charge transfer in 2D high mobility conductors. However, the relatively small mobility of QD nanomaterials was a technological barrier, which limited the operating rate of devices. Very recent innovations in detector design and significant progress in QD ligand engineering provide effective tools for further qualitative improvements. This article reviews the recent progress in material science, nanophysics, and device engineering related to hybrid phototransistors. Detectors based on various QD nanomaterials and several 2D conductors are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of various nanomaterials for applications in hybrid phototransistors are identified. We also benchmark the experimental characteristics with model results that establish interrelations and tradeoffs between detector characteristics, such as responsivity, dark and noise currents, the photocarrier lifetime, response, and noise bandwidths. We have shown that the most recent phototransistors demonstrate performance limited by the fundamental generation recombination noise in high gain devices. Interrelation between the dynamic range of the detector and the detector sensitivity is discussed. The review is concluded with a brief discussion of the remaining challenges and possible significant improvements in the performance of hybrid phototransistors.

  5. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  6. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  7. The fate of sounds in conductors' brains: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Wido; Kohlmetz, Christine; Altenmüller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2003-06-01

    Professional music conductors are required to home in on a particular musician but at the same time have to monitor the entire orchestra. It was hypothesized that this unique experience should be reflected by superior auditory spatial processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained, while conductors, professional pianists, and non-musicians listened to sequences of bandpass-filtered noise-bursts presented in random order from six speakers, three located in front and three to the right of the subjects. In different runs, subjects either attended the centermost or the most peripheral speaker in order to detect slightly deviant noise-bursts. For centrally located speakers, the ERPs showed a typical Nd attention effect for the relevant location with a steep decline for the neighboring speakers in all subject groups. For peripheral speakers, only the conductors showed attentional selectivity, while the Nd effect was of similar size for all three peripheral speakers in the other two groups. These ERP effects were paralleled by an enhanced behavioral selectivity in peripheral auditory space in conductors. Moreover, the pre-attentive monitoring of the entire auditory scene indexed by the mismatch negativity was superior in musicians compared to non-musicians. In conductors, the MMN was followed by a positivity suggesting an attention shift towards the deviant stimuli in this group only.

  8. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion Conductors(NSIC) Based On Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and LithiumBis(allylmalonato)borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Kerr, John B.

    2004-07-11

    Network single ion conductors (NSICs) based on comb-branch polyepoxide ethers and lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized by means of ionic conductivity measurements, electrochemical impedance and by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The materials have been tested as battery electrolytes by cycling in symmetrical Li/Li half cells and in Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cells in which the NSIC was used as both binder and electrolyte in the cathode electrode and as the electrolyte separator membrane,. The substitution of the trimethylene oxide (TMO) unit into the side chains in place of ethylene oxide (EO) units increased the polymerion mobility (lower glass transition temperature). However, the ionic conductivity was nearly one and half orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding pure EO based single ion conductor at the same salt concentration. This effect may be ascribed to the lower dielectric constant of the TMO side chains that result in a lower concentration of free conducting lithium cations. For a highly cross-linked system (EO/Li=20), only 47 wt% plasticizing solvent (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), 1/1 by wt) could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was only increased by one order of magnitude over the dry polyelectrolyte while for a less densely crosslinked system (EO/Li=80), up to 75 wt% plasticizer could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A Li/Li symmetric cell that was cycled at 85 C at a current density of 25{micro}Acm{sup -2} showed no concentration polarization or diffusional relaxation, consistent with a lithium ion transference number of one. However, both the bulk and interfacial impedances increased after 20 cycles, apparently due to continued cross-linking reactions within the membrane and on the surface of the lithium electrodes. A Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cell constructed using a single ion conductor gel (propylene

  10. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of the layers are therefore studied theoretically. The current distribution between the superconducting layers is monitored as a function of transport current, and the results are compared with the expected current distribution given by our electrical circuit model.The AC-losses are measured as a function...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC...

  11. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2010-07-27

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMS) are organic - inorganic hybrids in which a core nanostructure is functionalized with a covalently attached corona and an ionically tethered organic canopy. NIMS are engineered to be liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and are of interest for a variety of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulse-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments to measure the canopy dynamics of NIMS prepared from 18-nm silica cores modified by an alkylsilane monolayer possessing terminal sulfonic acid functionality, paired with an amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer canopy. Carbon NMR studies show that the block copolymer canopy is mobile both in the bulk and in the NIMS and that the fast (ns) dynamics are insensitive to the presence of the silica nanoparticles. Canopy diffusion in the NIMS is slowed relative to the neat canopy, but not to the degree predicted from the diffusion of hard-sphere particles. Canopy diffusion is not restricted to the surface of the nanoparticles and shows unexpected behavior upon addition of excess canopy. Taken together, these data indicate that the liquid-like behavior in NIMS is due to rapid exchange of the block copolymer canopy between the ionically modified nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. The structure of ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This volume describes the most recent findings on the structure of ILs interpreted through cutting-edge experimental and theoretical methods. Research in the field of ionic liquids (ILs) keeps a fast and steady pace. Since these new-generation molten salts first appeared in the chemistry and physics landscape, a large number of new compounds has been synthesized. Most of them display unexpected behaviour and possess stunning properties. The coverage in this book ranges from the mesoscopic structure of ILs to their interaction with proteins. The reader will learn how diffraction techniques (small and large angle X-Ray and neutron scattering, powder methods), X-Ray absorption spectroscopies (EXAFS/XANES), optical methods (IR, RAMAN), NMR and calorimetric methods can help the study of ILs, both as neat liquids and in mixtures with other compounds. It will enable the reader to choose the best method to suit their experimental needs. A detailed survey of theoretical methods, both quantum-chemical and classical, ...

  13. Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0209 Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors Zhenan Bao LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 07/14/2015...04-2012 to 14-04-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0190 5c...2. Design rules and synthesis of high performance n-doped conducting polymers; 3. Fundamental understanding of organic semiconductors through

  14. The Joule-Thomson effect on the thermoelectric conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consiglieri, Luisa [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mathematics and CMAF

    2009-03-15

    The transmission of an electric current in a conductor is a process in which some electrical energy is converted into heat (thermal energy). We deal with a nonlinear boundary value elliptic problem which describes the electrical heating of a solid conductor and the Joule-Thomson effect is taken into account. The existence of a weak solution is proved under both space and temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities. When the coefficients are only dependent on their temperature argument, some regularity results are stated. (orig.)

  15. Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert

    2008-11-18

    Polymer nanocomposites (nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix) have been the subject of intense research for almost two decades in both academic and industrial settings. This interest has been fueled by the ability of nanocomposites to not only improve the performance of polymers, but also by their ability to introduce new properties. Yet, there are still challenges that polymer nanocomposites must overcome to reach their full potential. In this Research News article we discuss a new class of hybrids termed nanoparticle ionic materials (NIMS). NIMS are organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising a nanoparticle core functionalized with a covalently tethered ionic corona. They are facilely engineered to display flow properties that span the range from glassy solids to free flowing liquids. These new systems have unique properties that can overcome some of the challenges facing nanocomosite materials. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Wearable multifunctional sensors using printed stretchable conductors made of silver nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Here we develop highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to ~1.2 MPa) and finger touch with high sensitivity, fast response time (~40 ms) and good pressure mapping function. The reported sensors utilize the capacitive sensing mechanism, where silver nanowires are used as electrodes (conductors) and Ecoflex is used as a dielectric. The silver nanowire electrodes are screen printed. Our sensors have been demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movement, sensing the strain of the knee joint in patellar reflex (knee-jerk) and other human motions such as walking, running and jumping from squatting, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels.Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Here we develop highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to ~1.2 MPa) and finger touch with high sensitivity, fast response time (~40 ms) and good pressure mapping function. The reported sensors utilize the capacitive sensing mechanism, where silver nanowires are used as electrodes (conductors) and Ecoflex is used as a dielectric. The silver nanowire electrodes are screen printed. Our sensors have been demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movement, sensing the strain of the knee joint in patellar reflex (knee-jerk) and other human motions such as walking, running and jumping from squatting, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels. Electronic

  17. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Lall-Ramnarine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylamide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners.

  18. Humidity effect on nanoscale electrochemistry in solid silver ion conductors and the dual nature of its locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, M Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-02-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically nonlocal cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and nonlocal) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  19. Nonlinear ionic transport through microstructured solid electrolytes: homogenization estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the transport of multiple ionic species by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes in the presence of strong electric fields. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is heuristically deduced from a multi-scale convergence analysis of the relevant field equations. The resulting homogenized response involves an effective dissipation potential per species. Each potential is mathematically akin to that of a standard nonlinear heterogeneous conductor. A ‘linear-comparison’ homogenization technique is then used to generate estimates for these nonlinear potentials in terms of available estimates for corresponding linear conductors. By way of example, use is made of the Maxwell-Garnett and effective-medium linear approximations to generate estimates for two-phase systems with power-law dissipation. Explicit formulas are given for some limiting cases. In the case of threshold-type behavior, the estimates exhibit non-analytical dilute limits and seem to be consistent with fields localized in low energy paths.

  20. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  1. Study on Quench Protection of a Coil Wound of YBCO Coated Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun

    2003-01-01

    Owing to recent progress of long YBCO coated conductors, coils wound of YBCO conductors will be developed in near future.Compared with coils wound of LTS conductom, coils wound of HTS conductors operated at higher temperature are hard to be quenched. However, measures for quench protection are still necessary. Especially YBCO coated conductors that are made by deposition of thin YBCO film on Ni based alloy substrates such as Hastelloy tapes are highly resistive when they are quenched, Therefore,

  2. Ionic Conduction in Ba0.95Ce0.8Ho0.2O3-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Mao-Yuan; QIU,Li-Gan; MA,Gui-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Ba0.95Ce0.8Ho0.2O3-α was prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the material was of a single perovskite-type orthorhombic phase. Using the material as solid electrolyte and porous platinum as electrodes, the measurements of ionic transport number and conductivity of Ba0.95Ce0.8Ho0.2O3-α were performed by gas concentration cell and ac impedance spectroscopy methods in the temperature range of 600-1000 ℃ in wet hydrogen, dry and wet air respectively. Ionic conduction of the material was investigated and compared with that of BaCe0.8Ho0.2O3-α. The results indicated that Ba0.95Ce0.8Ho0.2O3-α was a pure protonic conductor with the protonic transport number of 1 during 600-700 ℃ in wet hydrogen, a mixed conductor of protons and electrons with the protonic transport number of 0.97-0.93 in 800-1000 ℃. But BaCe0.8Ho0.2O3-α was almost a pure protonic conductor with the protonic transport number of 1 in 600-900 ℃ and 0.99 at 1000 ℃ in wet hydrogen. In dry air and in the temperature range of 600-1000 ℃, they were both mixed conductors of oxide ions and electronic holes, and the oxide-ionic transport numbers were 0.24-0.33 and 0.17-0.30 respectively. In wet air and in the temperature range of 600-1000 ℃, they were both mixed conductors of protons, oxide ions and electronic holes, the protonic transport numbers were 0.11-0.00 and 0.09-0.01 respectively, and the oxide-ionic transport numbers were 0.41-0.33 and 0.27-0.30 respectively. Protonic conductivity of Ba0.95Ce0.8Ho0.2O3-α in both wet hydrogen and wet air was higher than that of BaCe0.8Ho0.2O3-α in 600-800 ℃, but lower in 900-1000 ℃. Oxide-ionic conductivity of the material was higher than that of BaCe0.8Ho0.2O3-α in both dry air and wet air in 600-1000 ℃.

  3. DFT+U study of the oxide-ion conductor pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumri-Said, Souraya, E-mail: Souraya.Goumri-Said@kaust.edu.sa [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Kanoun, Mohammed Benali, E-mail: mohammed.kanoun@kaust.edu.sa [KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    By means of first-principles calculations, the structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide (La{sub 5}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 21}) were studied in detail. No experimental or theoretical investigations of its physical properties have previously been reported in the literature. Our results reveal that La{sub 5}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 21} is metallic with high ionic character due to the oxygen composition. The bonding characterization was achieved by analysis of valence charge density and the electronic localized functions. Flexibility and ease of deformation of the tetrahedral units appears to be important for the ion conduction mechanisms. The magnetic moment was evaluated to be 8.03 {mu}{sub B}, principally induced by Mo d-orbitals and La f-orbitals and the polarization of the oxygen by molybdenum. The optical spectra were analyzed by means of the electronic structure. The future advances will depend on achieving a fundamental understanding of the structural, defect and mechanistic features of ion conducting materials. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and polyhedron view of pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide La{sub 5}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 21}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentalanthanum hexamolybdenum henicosaoxide is an oxide-ion conductor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 5}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 21} is metallic with high ionic character due to the presence of oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo d-orbitals are taking the major contribution in the magnetic moment followed by La f and then the O p-orbitals.

  4. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors. 57.12069 Section 57.12069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... ungrounded conductors. Each ungrounded conductor or telephone wire that leads underground and is...

  6. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ungrounded conductors. 56.12069 Section 56.12069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors. Each ungrounded power conductor or telephone wire that leads underground and is directly exposed...

  8. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  9. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 57.12010 Section 57.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... conductors. Telephone and low-potential signal wire shall be protected, by isolation or suitable insulation, or both, from contacting energized power conductors or any other power source....

  11. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1002 - Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors; permissibility. 75.1002 Section 75.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1002 Installation of electric equipment and conductors... equipment is located within 150 feet of pillar workings or longwall faces. (b) Electric conductors...

  13. Application Research on Drag Reduced Conductors for Electric Power Transmission Lines in Strong Wind Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeze vibration duration of conductors is long, the vibration amplitude is strong and the frequency range is wide for electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas, which seriously affects the safe and stable operation of transmission lines. There are two design schemes of conductors which can achieve the purpose of reducing wind-induced disaster. One is enhancing the structural strength of conductors to withstand wind load, but the investment is enormous and the effect is limited. The other is developing drag reduced conductors to reduce wind load by changing conductor structure. This paper started from application feasibility analysis of drag reduced conductors and designed four drag reduced conductors by structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A-630/45-45/7, denoted as DFY630/45(45°-R3.5, DFY630/45(60°-R3.5, DFY630/45(45°–R3.2 and DFY630/45(60°-R3.2, respectively. The wind tunnel test was performed and the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of five conductors were compared. Result showed that the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of four drag reduced conductors were obviously lower than that of the conventional conductor. By controlling the manufacturing process, popularization and application of drag reduced conductors for transmission lines in strong wind areas can be realized.

  14. Li10Si0.3Sn0.7P2S12 - A low-cost and low-grain-boundary-resistance lithium superionic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Philipp; Dehnen, Stefanie; Roling, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Despite remarkable recent advances in the field of solid electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, there is still considerable room for improvements with respect to ionic conductivity, cost and electrochemical stability. This study tests systematically how much Sn in the superionic conductor Li10SnP2S12 can be replaced by Si or Al, while retaining its tetragonal structure. For comparison, also the known superionic conductors Li10SnP2S12, Li10GeP2S12, and Li10SiP2S12 are synthesized and characterized with respect to their grain and grain boundary resistances. The results show that due to the negligible grain boundary resistance of the new compound Li10Si0.3Sn0.7P2S12, its total Li+ ion conductivity is only 10-20% lower than that of the expensive superionic conductor Li10GeP2S12 and about four times higher than that of Li10SiP2S12.

  15. Graphene-ionic liquid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Ilhan A.; Korkut, Sibel; Pope, Michael; Punckt, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Method of making a graphene-ionic liquid composite. The composite can be used to make elec-trodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. Dis-closed and claimed herein is method of making a graphene-ionic liquid com-posite, comprising combining a graphene source with at least one ionic liquid and heating the combination at a temperature of at least about 130 .degree. C.

  16. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  17. Solutions of Maxwell equations for hollow curved wave conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkov, V I

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper the idea is proposed to solve Maxwell equations for a curved hollow wave conductor by means of effective Riemannian space, in which the lines of motion of fotons are isotropic geodesies for a 4-dimensional space-time. The algorithm of constructing such a metric and curvature tensor components are written down explicitly. The result is in accordance with experiment.

  18. Effects of volume conductor and source configuration on simulated magnetogastrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komuro, Rie; Qiao Wenlian; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K, E-mail: l.cheng@auckland.ac.n [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-11-21

    Recordings of the magnetic fields (MFs) arising from gastric electrical activity (GEA) have been shown to be able to distinguish between normal and certain abnormal GEA. Mathematical models provide a powerful tool for revealing the relationship between the underlying GEA and the resultant magnetogastrograms (MGGs). However, it remains uncertain the relative contributions that different volume conductor and dipole source models have on the resultant MFs. In this study, four volume conductor models (free space, sphere, half space and an anatomically realistic torso) and two dipole source configurations (containing 320 moving dipole sources and a single equivalent moving dipole source) were used to simulate the external MFs. The effects of different volume conductor models and dipole source configurations on the MF simulations were examined. The half space model provided the best approximation of the MFs produced by the torso model in the direction normal to the coronal plane. This was despite the fact that the half space model does not produce secondary sources, which have been shown to contribute up to 50% of the total MFs when an anatomically realistic torso model was used. We conclude that a realistic representation of the volume conductor and a detailed dipole source model are likely to be necessary when using a model-based approach for interpreting MGGs.

  19. Conductor and Ensemble Performance Expressivity and State Festival Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Harry E.; Chang, E. Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study is the second in a series examining the relationship between conducting and ensemble performance. The purpose was to further examine the associations among conductor, ensemble performance expressivity, and festival ratings. Participants were asked to rate the expressivity of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts from a…

  20. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering

  1. Center conductor diagnostic for multipactor detection in inaccessible geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Hubble, Aimee A.; Clements, Kathryn A.; Graves, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Electron collecting current probes are the most reliable diagnostic of multipactor and radiofrequency (RF) ionization breakdown; however, stand-alone probes can only be used in test setups where the breakdown region is physically accessible. This paper describes techniques for measuring multipactor current directly on the center conductor of a coaxial RF device (or more generally, on the signal line in any two-conductor RF system) enabling global multipactor detection with improved sensitivity compared to other common diagnostics such as phase null, third harmonic, and reflected power. The center conductor diagnostic may be AC coupled for use in systems with a low DC impedance between the center conductor and ground. The effect of DC bias on the breakdown threshold was studied: in coaxial geometry, the change in threshold was positive biases satisfying VD C/VR F 0 effectively with no bias at all—this is the preferred implementation, but biases in the range VD C=0 -10 V may be applied if necessary. The polarity of the detected current signal may be positive or negative depending on whether there is net electron collection or emission globally.

  2. Elementary charge-transfer processes in mesoscopic conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanević, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Belzig, W.

    2008-01-01

    We determine charge-transfer statistics in a quantum conductor driven by a time-dependent voltage and identify the elementary transport processes. At zero temperature unidirectional and bidirectional single-charge transfers occur. The unidirectional processes involve electrons injected from the sour

  3. Low resistive trasparent conductors with metallic grids : modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H.H 't; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions an

  4. Metallic grids for low resistive transparent conductors: modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H. het; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions an

  5. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention.

  6. Fast Cycled Superconducting Magnet - Connecting hydraulically the Fast Cycled magnet to the cryogenic feed box.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Photo 1 : Connecting hydraulically the Fast Cycled magnet to the cryogenic feed box. Patrck Viret and Guy Deferne technicians of TE-MSC-TF in SM18. - Photo 2 : Installation of the Fast Cycled Superconducting Magnet (FCM) to the new cold feed box in Sm18. - Photo 3 : Connecting the powering cables of the FCM to the feed box. - Photo 5/6 : The connections of the Fast Cycled Magnet. Intermediate pieces. - Photo 7 : Hydraulic connections of the Fast Cycle Magnet cable to allow the cooling of the magnet’s conductor ( Cable in conduit type) with supercritical helium. - Photo 8 : Verification of the connection: design versus reality. Guy Deferne and Frederick Rougemont, technicians of TE-MSC-TE in SM18.

  7. Electrochemical aspects of ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The second edition is based on the original book, which has been revised, updated and expanded in order to cover the latest information on this rapidly growing field. The book begins with a description of general and electrochemical properties of ionic liquids and continues with a discussion of applications in biochemistry, ionic devices, functional design and polymeric ionic liquids. The new edition includes new chapters on Li ion Batteries and Actuators, as well as a revision of existing chapters to include a discussion on purification and the effects of impurities, adsorption of ionic liqui

  8. Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

    2015-01-01

    One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na 1 + 2 w + x - y + zMw(II) Mx(III) My(V) M2- w - x - y (IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

  9. Hybrid graphene/geopolymeric cement as a superionic conductor for structural health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saafi, M.; Piukovics, G.; Ye, J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a novel hybrid superionic long gauge sensor for structural health monitoring applications. The sensor consists of two graphene electrodes and a superionic conductor film made entirely of fly ash geopolymeric material. The sensor employs ion hopping as a conduction mechanism for high precision temperature and tensile strain sensing in structures. The design, fabrication and characterization of the sensor are presented. The temperature and strain sensing mechanisms of the sensor are also discussed. The experimental results revealed that the crystal structure of the superionic film is a 3D sodium-poly(sialate-siloxo) framework, with a room temperature ionic conductivity between 1.54 × 10-2 and 1.72 × 10-2 S m-1 and, activation energy of 0.156 eV, which supports the notion that ion hopping is the main conduction mechanism for the sensor. The sensor showed high sensitivity to both temperature and tensile strain. The sensor exhibited temperature sensitivity as high as 21.5 kΩ °C-1 and tensile strain sensitivity (i.e., gauge factor) as high as 358. The proposed sensor is relatively inexpensive and can easily be manufactured with long gauges to measure temperature and bulk strains in structures. With further development and characterization, the sensor can be retrofitted onto existing structures such as bridges, buildings, pipelines and wind turbines to monitor their structural integrity.

  10. Synthesis and structure of novel lithium-ion conductor Li7Ge3PS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Suzuki, Kota; Matsui, Naoki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-02-01

    The novel lithium-ion conductor Li7Ge3PS12 was synthesized by slow cooling from the ternary Li2S-GeS2-P2S5 system, and was shown to exhibit a cubic argyrodite-type structure. The phase composition was determined by varying the ratio of starting materials; the observed monophasic properties were close to those for the Li7Ge3PS12 composition. The lattice parameter (a =9.80192(3) Å) of Li7Ge3PS12 was slightly smaller than that of Li7PS6 (a =9.993 Å), indicating that substitution of a Li cation by the smaller Ge cation contracted the cubic lattice. In addition, the novel structure consisted of a framework composed of four isolated (Ge/P)S4 tetrahedra. Li+ ions occupied tetrahedral sites within the framework, forming a three-dimensional conduction pathway. Finally, Li7Ge3PS12 exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.1×10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and an activation energy of 25 kJ mol-1.

  11. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Because of their outstanding versatility, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are utilized in an ever increasing number of novel and fascinating applications, making them the Holy Grail of modern materials science. In this Perspective, we address the fundamental research and prospective...... applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  12. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  13. Structure Design and Service Performance Study of Low Wind-pressure Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The low wind-pressure conductor is a dedicated conductor which obtains low wind resistance coefficient by changing the sectional shape of the conductor and has extensive application prospect in electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas. Previous wind tunnel testing results showed that the wind resistance coefficient in unit length of the low wind-pressure aluminium conductor steel reinforced was obviously lower than that of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced, and the control factors of manufacturing process of the low wind-pressure conductor were proposed. In this paper, the low wind-pressure aluminium conductor steel reinforced JLX1/G1A(DFY–680/45–338 was designed based on the structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A–630/45–45/7, and the service performance study of the conductor was carried out. Results showed that the mechanical properties, electrical properties and construction properties of the low wind-pressure conductor fully satisfied service requirements, and the conductor can be popularized and applied for transmission lines in strong wind areas.

  14. A Testing Platform for Validation of Overhead Conductor Aging Models and Understanding Thermal Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Stovall, John P [ORNL; Overholt, Philip N [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)

    2014-01-01

    Power system equipment manufacturers and researchers continue to experiment with novel overhead electric conductor designs that support better conductor performance and address congestion issues. To address the technology gap in testing these novel designs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory constructed the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) facility to evaluate the performance of novel overhead conductors in an accelerated fashion in a field environment. Additionally, PCAT has the capability to test advanced sensors and measurement methods for accessing overhead conductor performance and condition. Equipped with extensive measurement and monitoring devices, PCAT provides a platform to improve/validate conductor computer models and assess the performance of novel conductors. The PCAT facility and its testing capabilities are described in this paper.

  15. Lithium ion diffusion measurements on a garnet-type solid conductor Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 by using a pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Matsui, Masaki; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The garnet-type solid conductor Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 is known to have high ionic conductivity. We synthesized a series of compositions of this conductor and found that cubic Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 (LLZO-Ta) has a high ionic conductivity of 3.7×10(-4)Scm(-1) at room temperature. The (7)Li NMR spectrum of LLZO-Ta was composed of narrow and broad components, and the linewidth of the narrow component varied from 0.69kHz (300K) to 0.32kHz (400K). We carried out lithium ion diffusion measurements using pulsed-field spin-echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy and found that echo signals were observed at T≥313K with reasonable sensitivity. The lithium diffusion behavior was measured by varying the observation time and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) strength between 313 and 384K. We found that lithium diffusion depended significantly on the observation time and strength of the PFG, which is quite different from lithium ion diffusion in liquids. It was shown that lithium ion migration in the solid conductor was distributed widely in both time and space.

  16. Electric double layer at the interface of ionic liquid-dielectric liquid under electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D W; Im, D J; Kang, I S

    2013-02-12

    The structure of the electric double layer (EDL) is analyzed in order to understand the electromechanical behavior of the interface of ionic liquid-dielectric liquid. The modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation proposed by Bazant et al. is solved to see the crowding and the overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid (Bazant, M. Z.; Storey, B. D.; Kornyshev, A. A. Double layer in ionic liquids: Overscreening versus crowding. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 046102.). From the simple one-dimensional (1-D) analysis, it is found that the changes of the composition and the material properties in the EDL are negligible except under some extreme conditions such as strong electric field over O(10(8)) V/m. From the electromechanical view points, an ionic liquid behaves like a pure conductor at the interface with a dielectric liquid. Based on these findings, three specific application problems are considered. In the first, a new method is suggested for measuring the interfacial tension of an ionic liquid-dielectric liquid system. The deformation of a charged ionic liquid droplet translating between two electrodes is used for this measurement. The second is for the Taylor cone problem, which includes an extreme electric field condition near the tip. The size of the critical region, where the EDL effect should be considered, is estimated by using the 1-D analysis result. Numerical computation is also performed to see the profiles of electric potential and the electric stress along the interface of the Taylor cone. Lastly, the electrowetting problem of the ionic liquid is considered. The discrepancies in the results of previous workers are interpreted by using the results of the present work. It is shown that all the results might be consistent if the leaking of the dielectric layer and/or the adsorption of ions is considered.

  17. Electrodiffusion kinetics of ionic transport in a simple membrane channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Ivan; Petrovič, Pavol; Neogrády, Pavel; Schreiber, Igor; Marek, Miloš

    2013-11-21

    We employ numerical techniques for solving time-dependent full Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations in 2D to analyze transient behavior of a simple ion channel subject to a sudden electric potential jump across the membrane (voltage clamp). Calculated spatiotemporal profiles of the ionic concentrations and electric potential show that two principal exponential processes can be distinguished in the electrodiffusion kinetics, in agreement with original Planck's predictions. The initial fast process corresponds to the dielectric relaxation, while the steady state is approached in a second slower exponential process attributed to the nonlinear ionic redistribution. Effects of the model parameters such as the channel length, height of the potential step, boundary concentrations, permittivity of the channel interior, and ionic mobilities on electrodiffusion kinetics are studied. Numerical solutions are used to determine spatiotemporal profiles of the electric field, ionic fluxes, and both the conductive and displacement currents. We demonstrate that the displacement current is a significant transient component of the total electric current through the channel. The presented results provide additional information about the classical voltage-clamp problem and offer further physical insights into the mechanism of electrodiffusion. The used numerical approach can be readily extended to multi-ionic models with a more structured domain geometry in 2D or 3D, and it is directly applicable to other systems, such as synthetic nanopores, nanofluidic channels, and nanopipettes.

  18. Ionic conductivity enhancement of polymer electrolytes with ceramic nanowire fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Hsu, Po-Chun; Li, Yuzhang; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-08

    Solid-state electrolytes provide substantial improvements to safety and electrochemical stability in lithium-ion batteries when compared with conventional liquid electrolytes, which makes them a promising alternative technology for next-generation high-energy batteries. Currently, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical application. The ongoing research over the past few decades on dispersing of ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix has been proved effective to enhance ionic conductivity although it is challenging to form the efficiency networks of ionic conduction with nanoparticles. In this work, we first report that ceramic nanowire fillers can facilitate formation of such ionic conduction networks in polymer-based solid electrolyte to enhance its ionic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4 incorporated with 15 wt % Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanowire composite electrolyte exhibits an unprecedented ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, which is attributed to the fast ion transport on the surfaces of ceramic nanowires acting as conductive network in the polymer matrix. In addition, the ceramic-nanowire filled composite polymer electrolyte shows an enlarged electrochemical stability window in comparison to the one without fillers. The discovery in the present work paves the way for the design of solid ion electrolytes with superior performance.

  19. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; O'Regan, Brian C.; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M. Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current–voltage hysteresis and a low-frequency giant dielectric response. Ionic transport has been suggested to be an important factor contributing to these effects; however, the chemical origin of this transport and the mobile species are unclear. Here, the activation energies for ionic migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are derived from first principles, and are compared with kinetic data extracted from the current–voltage response of a perovskite-based solar cell. We identify the microscopic transport mechanisms, and find facile vacancy-assisted migration of iodide ions with an activation energy of 0.6 eV, in good agreement with the kinetic measurements. The results of this combined computational and experimental study suggest that hybrid halide perovskites are mixed ionic–electronic conductors, a finding that has major implications for solar cell device architectures. PMID:26105623

  20. Examination of the fundamental relation between ionic transport and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Replacing traditional liquid electrolytes by polymers will significantly improve electrical energy storage technologies. Despite significant advantages for applications in electrochemical devices, the use of solid polymer electrolytes is strongly limited by their poor ionic conductivity. The classical theory predicts that the ionic transport is dictated by the segmental motion of the polymer matrix. As a result, the low mobility of polymer segments is often regarded as the limiting factor for development of polymers with sufficiently high ionic conductivity. Here, we show that the ionic conductivity in many polymers can be strongly decoupled from their segmental dynamics, in terms of both temperature dependence and relative transport rate. Based on this principle, we developed several polymers with superionic conductivity. The observed fast ion transport suggests a fundamental difference between the ionic transport mechanisms in polymers and small molecules and provides a new paradigm for design of highly conductive polymer electrolytes.

  1. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Varga, T.; Ishimaru, M.; Edmondson, P. D.; Xue, H.; Liu, P.; Moll, S.; Namavar, F.; Hardiman, C.; Shannon, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems.

  2. Exploiting 1,2,3-Triazolium Ionic Liquids for Synthesis of Tryptanthrin and Chemoselective Extraction of Copper(II Ions and Histidine-Containing Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a common structural core of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, a number of bicyclic triazolium ionic liquids 1–3 were designed and successfully prepared. In our hands, this optimized synthesis of ionic liquids 1 and 2 requires no chromatographic separation. Also in this work, ionic liquids 1, 2 were shown to be efficient ionic solvents for fast synthesis of tryptanthrin natural product. Furthermore, a new affinity ionic liquid 3 was tailor-synthesized and displayed its effectiveness in chemoselective extraction of both Cu(II ions and, for the first time, histidine-containing peptides.

  3. Exploiting 1,2,3-Triazolium Ionic Liquids for Synthesis of Tryptanthrin and Chemoselective Extraction of Copper(II) Ions and Histidine-Containing Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Cheng, Hui-Ting; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2016-10-13

    Based on a common structural core of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, a number of bicyclic triazolium ionic liquids 1-3 were designed and successfully prepared. In our hands, this optimized synthesis of ionic liquids 1 and 2 requires no chromatographic separation. Also in this work, ionic liquids 1, 2 were shown to be efficient ionic solvents for fast synthesis of tryptanthrin natural product. Furthermore, a new affinity ionic liquid 3 was tailor-synthesized and displayed its effectiveness in chemoselective extraction of both Cu(II) ions and, for the first time, histidine-containing peptides.

  4. Ionic Vapor Composition in Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-05-26

    Strong electrostatic interactions in ionic compounds make vaporization a complex process. The gas phase can contain a broad range of ionic clusters, and the cluster composition can differ greatly from that in the liquid phase. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) constitute a complicated case due to their ionic nature, asymmetric structure, and a huge versatility of ions and ionic clusters. This work reports vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor compositions of butylpyridinium (BPY) RTILs formed with hexafluorophosphate (PF6), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TF), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions. Unlike inorganic crystals, the pyridinium-based RTILs contain significant percentages of charged clusters in the vapor phase. Ion triplets and ion quadruplets each constitute up to 10% of the vapor phase composition. Triples prevail over quadruples in [BPY][PF6] due to the size difference of the cation and the anion. The percentage of charged ionic clusters in the gas phase is in inverse proportion to the mass of the anion. The largest identified vaporized ionic cluster comprises eight ions, with a formation probability below 1%. Higher temperature fosters formation of larger clusters due to an increase of the saturated vapor density.

  5. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O......-H/O-D vibration frequencies, the mobility of H+/D+ carriers, the kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation of H2/D2, the solubilities of H2O/D2O and, finally, the spontaneous electromotive force that appears across H2/D2 cells with proton conducting electrolytes. Comparable work on tritium-exchanged materials...... is also discussed. The results highlight the usefulness of isotope effects in the study of high temperature proton conductors....

  6. Critical area computation for real defects and arbitrary conductor shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Ping; Hao Yue

    2006-01-01

    In current critical area models, it is generally assumed the defect outlines are circular and the conductors to be rectangle or the merger of rectangles. However, real defects and conductors associated with optimal layout design exhibit a great variety of shapes. Based on mathematical morphology, a new critical area model is presented, which can be used to estimate the critical area of short circuit, open circuit and pinhole. Based on the new model, the efficient validity check algorithms are explored to extract critical areas of short circuit, open circuit and pinhole from layouts.The results of experiment on an approximate layout of 4 × 4 shifts register show that the new model predicts the critical areas accurately. These results suggest that the proposed model and algorithm could provide new approaches for yield prediction.

  7. Structural Parameter Optimization of Multilayer Conductors in HTS Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mao; Jie Qiu; Xin-Ying Liu; Zhi-Xuan Wang; Shu-Hong Wang; Jian-Guo Zhu; You-Guang Guo; Zhi-Wei Lin; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design optimization of the structural parameters of multilayer conductors in high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is reviewed. Various optimization methods, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO), the genetic algorithm (GA), and a robust optimization method based on design for six sigma (DFSS), have been applied to realize uniform current distribution among the multi- layer HTS conductors. The continuous and discrete variables, such as the winding angle, radius, and winding direction of each layer, are chosen as the design parameters. Under the constraints of the mechanical properties and critical current, PSO is proven to be a more powerful tool than GA for structural parameter optimization, and DFSS can not only achieve a uniform current distribution, but also improve significantly the reliability and robustness of the HTS cable quality.

  8. Wettability by Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have become particularly attractive recently because they have demonstrated themselves to be important construction units in the broad fields of chemistry and materials science, from catalysis and synthesis to analysis and electrochemistry, from functional fluids to clean energy, from nanotechnology to functional materials. One of the greatest issues that determines the performance of ILs is the wettability of correlated surfaces. In this concept article, the key developments and issues in IL wettability are surveyed, including the electrowetting of ILs in gas-liquid-solid systems and liquid-liquid-solid systems, ILs as useful probe fluids, the superwettability of Ils, and future directions in IL wettability. This should generate extensive interest in the field and encourage more scientists to engage in this area to tackle its scientific challenges.

  9. ADIDAS CONDUCTOR HI 配色美学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ADIDAS将于2010年春季推出以80年代香篮球鞋为设计灵感的CONDUCTOR HI,材质上不仅使用了皮革及魔皮想互衬托在配色上更是用出了神秘的黑色以及极富质感 的咖啡配色,质感不俗。

  10. Numerical Analysis of Conductor Galloping Limitation by Oscillation Frequency Detuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Serguey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method has been developed for calculation of conductor oscillations at the moment of galloping that takes account of pendulum  oscillation dampers in the form of eccentric loads. The method is recommended for a numerical analysis of various schemes pertaining to arrangement of horizontal pendulums in the span and their parameters including angles of their initial setting. The obtained results can be used for designing and operation of aerial power lines. 

  11. On Galateas - magnetic traps with plasma-embedded conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A I [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Savel' ev, V V [M.V. Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-11-30

    The introduction of plasma-embedded magnetically insulated current-carrying conductors into a plasma trap magnetic system radically increases the number of possible trap designs. The present review focuses on the studies of {beta} = 1 Galateas conducted in the 1990s. Both general and design-specific Galatea properties are discussed and for a number of specific schemes analytical and numerical calculations are performed. Experimental data on a number of electrical discharge Galateas are presented. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Koschny, Thomas; Tassin, Philippe; Shen, Nian-Hai; Dastmalchi, Babak

    2015-04-01

    We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  13. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukoulis Costas M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  14. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A T Oza; P C Vinodkumar; R G Patel

    2003-03-01

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed within the framework of tailing of states. Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium.

  15. Stable Delay of Microstrip Line with Side Grounded Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Gazizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of transmission lines are addressed. Wave impedance and per-unit-length delay of the microstrip structure with grounded side conductors on three layers are calculated under different parameters of the structure. A line which provides the desired value of wave impedance and constant per-unit-length delay, at the expense of correction of the gaps on different layers, is proposed.

  16. Methane oxidation over Fe-, Co-, Ni- and V-containing mixed conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharton, V.V.; Yaremchenko, A.A.; Tsipis, E.V.; Shaula, A.L.; Frade, J.R. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Valente, A.A.; Rocha, J. [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Sobyanin, V.A.; Belyaev, V.D.; Semin, G.L.; Veniaminov, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, 5 pr. Akademika Lavrentieva, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-28

    The catalytic oxidation of methane over mixed conducting ceramics, including perovskite-type SrFe{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}} and La{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}, dual-phase composite (SrCo){sub 0.5}(Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}){sub 0.5}O{sub 4.75+}/-{sub {delta}}, La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} with K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure and zircon-type CeVO{sub 4+{delta}}, is primarily governed by bonding energy between oxygen and transition metal cations, which leads to general correlations between the catalytic activity, oxygen desorption, oxygen ionic transport, thermal expansion, and, often, phase stability. The steady-state conversion of dry CH{sub 4} either by oxygen permeating through dense oxide ceramics in a membrane reactor or by atmospheric O{sub 2} (methane/air ratio of 30:70) in a fixed bed reactor with membrane material as catalyst results in high CO{sub 2} selectivity, increasing when the oxygen permeability of mixed conductors increases. The prevailing mechanism of total methane combustion makes it necessary to incorporate reforming catalysts in the membrane reactors for natural gas conversion to Synthesis gas (syngas). Dominant CO{sub 2} formation is also observed for the oxidation of CH{sub 4} pulses supplied in helium flow over the mixed conductor powders, except for SrFe{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}} yielding synthesis gas with the H{sub 2}/CO ratio close to 2, characteristic of the partial oxidation process. For a model reactor comprising one disk-shaped membrane and a catalyst both made of SrFe{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}}, the methane conversion and CO selectivity at 1223 K achieved 65% and 48%, respectively.

  17. Competing Effects Of Electronic And Nuclear Energy Loss On Microstructural Evolution In Ionic-covalent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ishimaru, Manabu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Edmondson, P. D. [Univ. of Oxford, (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Xue, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Peng [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Moll, Sandra [TN International/AREVA, Montigny Le Bretonneux (France); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Hardiman, Christopher M. [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ. (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence

  18. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339461845; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959498; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  19. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  20. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  1. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Büttiker

    2002-02-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current flow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge fluctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix.

  2. Development of an aluminium stabilized reinforced superconducting conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, D. [PTR Praezisionstechnik GmbH Maintal (Germany); Horvath, I.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Harzenmoser, M.; Neuenschwander, J. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wittgenstein, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    For high performance superconducting magnets as used in large detectors for the High Energy Physics or for magnets of magnetic storage devices (SMES) the mechanical stresses on the conductor go beyond the yield stress level of the high purity matrix stabilizer, specially if aluminium is used. Therefore, a novel method is proposed to join high strength aluminium strips to high purity aluminium stabilizer by using the electron beam (EB) welding. The proposed EB-welding, combined with roll-pressing under vacuum, provides the minimum heat input on the conductor in comparison with other welding techniques. This method provides the advantage to allow the production of very long conductor lengths and includes the potentiality of repairing without losing expensive material. As this process has to be adapted to the high purity aluminium on the one side and to the high strength material on the other, the authors started in a first step with investigation and development of the process, using standard laboratory machines together with laboratory-size tooling. In this report the development program is described and first results of the quality control measurements are presented.

  3. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  4. The winding line for the CMS reinforced conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbricatore, P; D'Urzo, C; Farinon, S; Gaddi, A; Levesy, B; Loche, L; Musenich, R; Rondeaux, F; Penco, R; Valle, N

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The use of a reinforced conductor for the CMS coil required a sustained activity of development at industrial level, to understand how to handle, to pre-bend and to wind the conductor with an inner winding technique. The winding line was designed and constructed according to this experience. The working principles of the line are under test through the winding of a prototype of a CMS coil module. The prototype has the same radius of a CMS module (6900 mm outer diameter), but a shorter axial length (670 mm against 2500 for the module). The critical operations are related to the accurate pre-bending of the conductor, the positioning of the turns into the winding, the axial compaction, and the correct handling of 50-ton windings. (9 refs).

  5. Nexans advances in all CSD route for REBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Ehrenberg, J.; Hoppe, B.; Isfort, D.; Klein, M.; Rikel, M. [Nexans SuperConductors, Chemiepark Knapsack, Huerth (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Development of REBCO coated conductors (CC) at Nexans SuperConductors (NSC) is focused on all chemical solution deposition (CSD) route that promises the best performance-to-price ratio in long lengths. The feasibility of all CSD approach is shown on the lab scale: using metalorganic deposition (MOD), NSC was able to produce YBCO/CeO{sub 2}/LZO/NiW CCs with J{sub c}(77 K,sf)=0.5 MA/cm{sup 2}. The major advance of NSC on a semi-industrial scale is the use of MOD route for production of high-quality La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) coated NiW RABITS in lengths up to 12 m. With those substrates, it is possible to produce CCs with the simplest (one-buffer) architecture by depositing REBCO using other techniques (ISD at Theva, Ismaning; MOCVD at IOT, Braunschweig; HLPE at University of Cambridge, UK). The best short sample I{sub c}=280, 120 and 100 A/cm-width for HLPE, ISD, and MOCVD, respectively First long-length conductors show transport I{sub c}=40 A (10m-long, ISD). Further work is focused on optimisation of the already established mixed (MOD+PVD) approaches, understanding optimum architecture and processing conditions for the all-CSD route and developing tools for scaling those conditions to long-length production. (orig.)

  6. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  7. Conductors for commercial MRI magnets beyond NbTi: requirements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, Michael; Lvovsky, Yuri; Sumption, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a powerful medical diagnostic tool, is the largest commercial application of superconductivity. The superconducting magnet is the largest and most expensive component of an MRI system. The magnet configuration is determined by competing requirements including optimized functional performance, patient comfort, ease of siting in a hospital environment, minimum acquisition and lifecycle cost including service. In this paper, we analyze conductor requirements for commercial MRI magnets beyond traditional NbTi conductors, while avoiding links to a particular magnet configuration or design decisions. Potential conductor candidates include MgB2, ReBCO and BSCCO options. The analysis shows that no MRI-ready non-NbTi conductor is commercially available at the moment. For some conductors, MRI specifications will be difficult to achieve in principle. For others, cost is a key barrier. In some cases, the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed. The key needs include the development of, or significant improvements in: (a) conductors specifically designed for MRI applications, with form-fit-and-function readily integratable into the present MRI magnet technology with minimum modifications. Preferably, similar conductors should be available from multiple vendors; (b) conductors with improved quench characteristics, i.e. the ability to carry significant current without damage while in the resistive state; (c) insulation which is compatible with manufacturing and refrigeration technologies; (d) dramatic increases in production and long-length quality control, including large-volume conductor manufacturing technology. In-situ MgB2 is, perhaps, the closest to meeting commercial and technical requirements to become suitable for commercial MRI. Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS/MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets. These

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    control the chemical speciation, electrochemical state, transport, and aboveground binding of mercury in order to manage this toxicant. To advance this mercury phytoremediation strategy, our planned research focuses on the following Specific Aims: (1) to increase the transport of mercury to aboveground tissue; (2) to identify small mercury binding peptides that enhance hyperaccumulation aboveground; (3) to test the ability of multiple genes acting together to enhance resistance and hyperaccumulation; (4) to construct a simple molecular system for creating male/female sterility, allowing engineered grass, shrub, and tree species to be released indefinitely at contaminated sites; (5) to test the ability of transgenic cottonwood and rice plants to detoxify ionic mercury and prevent methylmercury release from contaminated sediment; and (6) to initiate field testing with transgenic cottonwood and rice for the remediation of methylmercury and ionic mercury. The results of these experiments will enable the phytoremediation of methyl- and ionic mercury by a wide spectrum of deep-rooted, fast-growing plants adapted to diverse environments. We have made significant progress on all six of these specific aims as summarized below.

  9. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    control the chemical speciation, electrochemical state, transport, and aboveground binding of mercury in order to manage this toxicant. To advance this mercury phytoremediation strategy, our planned research focuses on the following Specific Aims: (1) to increase the transport of mercury to aboveground tissue; (2) to identify small mercury binding peptides that enhance hyperaccumulation aboveground; (3) to test the ability of multiple genes acting together to enhance resistance and hyperaccumulation; (4) to construct a simple molecular system for creating male/female sterility, allowing engineered grass, shrub, and tree species to be released indefinitely at contaminated sites; (5) to test the ability of transgenic cottonwood and rice plants to detoxify ionic mercury and prevent methylmercury release from contaminated sediment; and (6) to initiate field testing with transgenic cottonwood and rice for the remediation of methylmercury and ionic mercury. The results of these experiments will enable the phytoremediation of methyl- and ionic mercury by a wide spectrum of deep-rooted, fast-growing plants adapted to diverse environments. We have made significant progress on all six of these specific aims as summarized below.

  10. Exploring the limits of a very large Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor: the 80 kA conductor of the ITER toroidal field model coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Ciazynski, D.; Guerber, O.; Park, S.H.; Zani, L. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Fietz, W.H.; Ulbricht, A.; Zahn, G. [Association Euratom-FZK Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In Phase II experiment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC) the operation limits of its 80 kA Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor were explored. To increase the magnetic field on the conductor, the TFMC was tested in presence of another large coil: the EURATOM-LCT coil. Under these conditions the maximum field reached on the conductor, was around 10 tesla. This exploration has been performed at constant current, by progressively increasing the coil temperature and monitoring the coil voltage drop in the current sharing regime. Such an operation was made possible thanks to the very high stability of the conductor. The aim of these tests was to compare the critical properties of the conductor with expectations and assess the ITER TF conductor design. These expectations are based on the documented critical field and temperature dependent properties of the 720 superconducting strands which compose the conductor. In addition the conductor properties are highly dependent on the strain, due to the compression appearing on Nb{sub 3}Sn during the heat treatment of the pancakes and related to the differential thermal compression between Nb{sub 3}Sn and the stainless steel jacket. No precise model exists to predict this strain, which is therefore the main information, which is expected from these tests. The method to deduce this strain from the different tests is presented, including a thermalhydraulic analysis to identify the temperature of the critical point and a careful estimation of the field map across the conductor. The measured strain has been estimated in the range -0.75% to -0.79 %. This information will be taken into account for ITER design and some adjustment of the ITER conductor design is under examination. (authors)

  11. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  12. Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Fabiano, Simone; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental stimuli to record and amplify. While traditional thermoelectric materials are attractive for temperature/heat flow sensing applications, their sensitivity is limited by their low Seebeck coefficient (∼100 μV K−1). Here we take advantage of the large ionic thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient found in polymer electrolytes (∼10,000 μV K−1) to introduce the concept of ionic thermoelectric gating a low-voltage organic transistor. The temperature sensing amplification of such ionic thermoelectric-gated devices is thousands of times superior to that of a single thermoelectric leg in traditional thermopiles. This suggests that ionic thermoelectric sensors offer a way to go beyond the limitations of traditional thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. These findings pave the way for new infrared-gated electronic circuits with potential applications in photonics, thermography and electronic-skins. PMID:28139738

  13. Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Fabiano, Simone; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental stimuli to record and amplify. While traditional thermoelectric materials are attractive for temperature/heat flow sensing applications, their sensitivity is limited by their low Seebeck coefficient (~100 μV K-1). Here we take advantage of the large ionic thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient found in polymer electrolytes (~10,000 μV K-1) to introduce the concept of ionic thermoelectric gating a low-voltage organic transistor. The temperature sensing amplification of such ionic thermoelectric-gated devices is thousands of times superior to that of a single thermoelectric leg in traditional thermopiles. This suggests that ionic thermoelectric sensors offer a way to go beyond the limitations of traditional thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. These findings pave the way for new infrared-gated electronic circuits with potential applications in photonics, thermography and electronic-skins.

  14. Ionic emission from Taylor cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  15. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  16. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  17. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa;

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  18. Scattering by a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Khalid Khan, Muhammad; Rehman, Atta Ur

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we develop an analytic theory for a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium. The duality transformation introduced by Lindell and Sihvola is applied to study the electromagnetic wave scattering by a PEMC plate. Perfect electric conductor and perfect magnetic conductor are the limiting cases of PEMC media. Here, we study monoscattering by PEMC plate embedded in four different soil models. Numerical results are discussed and compared with the available literature.

  19. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows f...

  20. Critical Current in YBCO Coated Conductors in the Presence of a Macroscopic Defect (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2084 CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) Milan Polak and...CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We have studied the effects of localized defects in the YBCO coated conductors on the critical current. The

  1. Nanoconfined Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Jiaheng; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Youquan

    2016-12-29

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been widely investigated as novel solvents, electrolytes, and soft functional materials. Nevertheless, the widespread applications of ILs in most cases have been hampered by their liquid state. The confinement of ILs into nanoporous hosts is a simple but versatile strategy to overcome this problem. Nanoconfined ILs constitute a new class of composites with the intrinsic chemistries of ILs and the original functions of solid matrices. The interplay between these two components, particularly the confinement effect and the interactions between ILs and pore walls, further endows ILs with significantly distinct physicochemical properties in the restricted space compared to the corresponding bulk systems. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of nanoconfined ILs. After a brief introduction of bulk ILs, the synthetic strategies and investigation methods for nanoconfined ILs are documented. The local structure and physicochemical properties of ILs in diverse porous hosts are summarized in the next sections. The final section highlights the potential applications of nanoconfined ILs in diverse fields, including catalysis, gas capture and separation, ionogels, supercapacitors, carbonization, and lubrication. Further research directions and perspectives on this topic are also provided in the conclusion.

  2. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Carlin, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

  3. Going full circle: phase-transition thermodynamics of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Ulrich; Verevkin, Sergey P; Koslowski, Thorsten; Krossing, Ingo

    2011-05-27

    We present the full enthalpic phase transition cycle for ionic liquids (ILs) as examples of non-classical salts. The cycle was closed for the lattice, solvation, dissociation, and vaporization enthalpies of 30 different ILs, relying on as much experimental data as was available. High-quality dissociation enthalpies were calculated at the G3 MP2 level. From the cycle, we could establish, for the first time, the lattice and solvation enthalpies of ILs with imidazolium ions. For vaporization, lattice, and dissociation enthalpies, we also developed new prediction methods in the course of our investigations. Here, as only single-ion values need to be calculated and the tedious optimization of an ion pair can be circumvented, the computational time is short. For the vaporization enthalpy, a very simple approach was found, using a surface term and the calculated enthalpic correction to the total gas-phase energy. For the lattice enthalpy, the most important constituent proved to be the calculated conductor-like screening model (COSMO) solvation enthalpy in the ideal electric conductor. A similar model was developed for the dissociation enthalpy. According to our assessment, the typical error of the lattice enthalpy would be 9.4 kJ mol(-1), which is less than half the deviation we get when using the (optimized) Kapustinskii equation or the recent volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) theory. In contrast, the non-optimized VBT formula gives lattice enthalpies 20 to 140 kJ mol(-1) lower than the ones we assessed in the cycle, because of the insufficient description of dispersive interactions. Our findings show that quantum-chemical calculations can greatly improve the VBT approaches, which were parameterized for simple, inorganic salts with ideally point-shaped charges. In conclusion, we suggest the term "augmented VBT", or "aVBT", to describe this kind of theoretical approach.

  4. 特殊导线的应用比较%Application Comparison of Special Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洪林

    2012-01-01

    This article compares 500mm2 Section of ACCC,Gap type conductor and plain conductor suppose increase the capacity of the conductors. And Chose the suitable type of conductor based on the comparison.%本文假设导线达到倍容目的,针对截面是500mm2碳纤维导线、间隙型导线、普通导线进行比较,确定特殊导线的选择.

  5. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  6. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  7. Keeping an eye on the conductor: neural correlates of visuo-motor synchronization and musical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor's direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor's gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor's gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor's next action from the gestures.

  8. A Nanophase-Separated, Quasi-Solid-State Polymeric Single-Ion Conductor: Polysulfide Exclusion for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhong; Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Noh, Hyungjun; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-19

    Formation of soluble polysulfide (PS), which is a key feature of lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries, provides a fast redox kinetic based on a liquid–solid mechanism; however, it imposes the critical problem of PS shuttle. Here, we address the dilemma by exploiting a solvent-swollen polymeric single-ion conductor (SPSIC) as the electrolyte medium of the Li–S battery. The SPSIC consisting of a polymeric single-ion conductor and lithium salt-free organic solvents provides Li ion hopping by forming a nanoscale conducting channel and suppresses PS shuttle according to the Donnan exclusion principle when being employed for Li–S batteries. The organic solvents at the interface of the sulfur/carbon composite and SPSIC eliminate the poor interfacial contact and function as a soluble PS reservoir for maintaining the liquid–solid mechanism. Furthermore, the quasi-solid-state SPSIC allows the fabrication of a bipolar-type stack, which promises the realization of a high-voltage and energy-dense Li–S battery.

  9. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Conductors and Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bilak, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We examine the difficulties that introductory physics students, undergraduate physics majors, and physics graduate students have with concepts related to conductors and insulators covered in introductory physics by giving written tests and interviewing a subset of students. We find that even graduate students have serious difficulties with these concepts. We develop tutorials related to these topics and evaluate their effectiveness by comparing the performance on written pre-/post-tests and interviews of students who received traditional instruction vs. those who learned using tutorials.

  10. Structural and Ionic Transport Properties of Protonic Conducting Solid Biopolymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Ammonium Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlli, M A; Isa, M I N

    2016-11-10

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transference number measurement (TNM) techniques were applied to investigate the complexation, structural, and ionic transport properties of and the dominant charge-carrier species in a solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) system based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with ammonium fluoride (NH4F), which was prepared via a solution casting technique. The SBEs were partially opaque in appearance, with no phase separation. The presence of interactions between the host polymer (CMC) and the ionic dopant (NH4F) was proven by FT-IR analysis at the C-O band. XRD spectra analyzed using Origin 8 software disclose that the degree of crystallinity (χc%) of the SBEs decreased with the addition of NH4F, indicating an increase in the amorphous nature of the SBEs. Analysis of the ionic transport properties reveals that the ionic conductivity of the SBEs is dependent on the ionic mobility (μ) and diffusion of ions (D). TNM analysis confirms that the SBEs are proton conductors.

  11. The magnetic lead field theorem in the quasi-static approximation and its use for magnetoencephalography forward calculation in realistic volume conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, Guido [Human Motor Control Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2003-11-21

    The equation for the magnetic lead field for a given magnetoencephalography (MEG) channel is well known for arbitrary frequencies but is not directly applicable to MEG in the quasi-static approximation. In this paper we derive an equationstarting from the very definition of the lead field instead of using Helmholtz's reciprocity theorems. The results are (a) the transpose of the conductivity times the lead field is divergence-free, and (b) the lead field differs from the one in any other volume conductor by a gradient of a scalar function. Consequently, for a piecewise homogeneous and isotropic volume conductor, the lead field is always tangential at the outermost surface. Based on this theoretical result, we formulated a simple and fast method for the MEG forward calculation for one shell of arbitrary shape: we correct the corresponding lead field for a spherical volume conductor by a superposition of basis functions, gradients of harmonic functions constructed here from spherical harmonics, with coefficients fitted to the boundary conditions. The algorithm was tested for a prolate spheroid of realistic shape for which the analytical solution is known. For high order in the expansion, we found the solutions to be essentially exact and for reasonable accuracies much fewer multiplications are needed than in typical implementations of the boundary element methods. The generalization to more shells is straightforward.

  12. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  13. Recrystallized quinolinium ionic liquids for electrochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Gowri; Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Eang, Neo Kian

    2016-11-01

    Ionic liquids have received a lot of attention due to their unique properties. In this work the prospect of quinolinium based ionic liquids as electrolyte for dye sensitised solar cell were tested using cyclic voltammetry. The results have shown electron transfer in the ionic liquid without undergoing any permanent chemical changes. Prior to testing, the ionic liquids were purified through recrystallization as electrochemical properties of ionic liquids are highly dependent on the purity of the ionic liquids. This results have shone new light for this work.

  14. Ionic Graphitization of Ultrathin Films of Ionic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashnin, A G; Pashkin, E Y; Yakobson, B I; Sorokin, P B

    2016-07-21

    On the basis of ab initio density functional calculations, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the general graphitization tendency in rocksalt-type structures. In this paper, we determine the critical slab thickness for a range of ionic cubic crystal systems, below which a spontaneous conversion from a cubic to a layered graphitic-like structure occurs. This conversion is driven by surface energy reduction. Using only fundamental parameters of the compounds such as the Allen electronegativity and ionic radius of the metal atom, we also develop an analytical relation to estimate the critical number of layers.

  15. FEM-calculations on the frequency dependence of hysteretic losses in coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, M; Grilli, F, E-mail: michael.sander@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    Calculations based on two different finite-element models have been carried out to investigate the flux flow behaviour of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), in particular of Coated Conductors (CC) based on 123-HTS. The models allow the simulation of the response of the CC to various experimental operating conditions: e.g. a fast ramping of the transport current typically done in measurements of the critical current I{sub c} or sinusoidal changes of an external magnetic field typically used in AC loss measurements. The models also allow calculating the response to arbitrary combinations of current and field changes. The superconductor is modelled by using either a simple power-law E(J) characteristic or one which also accounts for field and temperature dependences. The obtained results go beyond Bean's approximation, which is mostly employed for interpreting such flux penetration effects. One consequence is that hysteretic losses, which in Bean's model are frequency independent, show a dependence on the time scales of current or field changes. The field and frequency ranges where such deviations from Bean's model should be taken into account are discussed.

  16. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-10-20

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a 'terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit 'sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions.

  17. Perovskite solar cells with CuI inorganic hole conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Suzuki, Yoshikazu

    2017-08-01

    An organic material, 2,2‧,7,7‧-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9‧-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), is generally used as a hole conductor of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but spiro-OMeTAD is much more expensive than other materials used in PSCs. In this study, we have prepared PSCs with a cost-effective CuI hole transport layer by spin coating. The merit of using spin coating for CuI is good compatibility with other steps, such as spin coating of a TiO2 electron transport layer and a perovskite active layer. The CuI-based PSC recorded power conversion efficiencies of η = 2.22% (max) on the day of production and η = 6.52% (max) after the 20 days of production. Moreover, the CuI-based PSC had a smaller hysteresis than the spiro-based PSC, suggesting that CuI is a highly promising alternative hole conductor for PSCs.

  18. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (˜40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  19. Strong light-field effects in correlated oraganic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yohei; Naitoh, Yota; Itoh, Hirotake; Ishihara, Sumio; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    Optical responses of organic conductors have attracted much attentions, because they exhibit ultrafast solid-state phase transitions in the conducting and/or dielectric natures upon photo-excitations. In this decade, photoinduced melting of correlated insulators with clear charge gap have been extensively investigated. On the other hand, optical rsponses of correlated metal has not been studied well. Here, we describe a charge localization induced by the 9.3 MV/cm instantaneous electric field of a 1.5 cycle (7 fs) infrared pulse in an organic conductor alpha- (bis[ethylenedithio]-tetrathiafulvelene)2I3. A large reflectivity change of 30 percent and a coherent charge oscillation along the time axis reflect the opening of the charge ordering gap in the metallic phase. This optical freezing of charges, which is the reverse of the photoinduced melting of electronic orders, is attributed to the 10 percent reduction of t driven by the strong, high-frequency electric field. Furthermore, the contribution of Coulomb repulsion will be discussed on the basis of the polarization dependence of the pump light and the theory.

  20. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  1. IBAD-MgO technology for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, William [Dept. of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology has been successfully applied to high-temperature superconductor coated conductors (CC) as textured substrates. Since the coated conductors were proposed as a potential framework for utilizing the superior transport characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 and related cuprate oxides, several methods including rolling-assisted bi-axial textured substrates (RABiTS) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD), as well as IBAD, have been attempted. As of 2016, most companies that are trying to commercialize CC adapt IBAD technology except for American Superconductors who use RABiTS predominantly. For the materials in the IBAD process, initial efforts to use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or related fluorites in Fujikura in Japan have quickly given way to MgO which technique was developed by Stanford University in the USA. In this review, we present a historical overview of IBAD technology, in particular, for the application of CC. We describe the key scientific understanding of nucleation, the texturing mechanism, and the growth of large bi-axial grains and discuss some potential new IBAD materials and systems for large-scale production.

  2. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite weak conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzelt, J.; Nuzhnyy, D.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss broadband dielectric spectroscopy from mHz up to the infrared range mainly for materials with inhomogeneous weak conductivity, including conductor-dielectric nanocomposites. Our discussion is based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) and experiments modeled by this approach are reviewed. We discuss core-shell composites modeled by coated-spheres (Hashin-Shtrikman model) and normal composites with a possible percolation of the conductor component resulting in sharp or smeared percolation threshold of the DC conductivity and diverging static permittivity in the former case. The sharp percolation threshold is modeled by the Bruggeman EMA or by general EMA with arbitrary percolation threshold and arbitrary critical exponents of the DC conductivity and static permittivity. For the case of smeared percolation threshold in the case of complex topologies, we use the Lichtenecker model allowing for partial percolation of both the components. Finally, numerous papers reporting negative permittivity in weakly conducting materials are criticized and concluded to be due to spurious effects.

  3. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  4. Amorphous carbon interlayers for gold on elastomer stretchable conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Tuinea-Bobe, C. L.; McKavanagh, F.; Byrne, C. P.; Dixon, D.; Maguire, P. D.; Lemoine, P.

    2011-06-01

    Gold on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stretchable conductors were prepared using a novel approach by interlacing an hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C : H) layer between the deposited metal layer and the elastomer. AFM analysis of the a-C : H film surface before gold deposition shows nanoscale buckling, the corresponding increase in specific surface area corresponds to a strain compensation for the first 4-6% of bi-axial tensile loading. Without this interlayer, the deposited gold films show much smaller and uni-directional ripples as well as more cracks and delaminations. With a-C : H interlayer, the initial electrical resistivity of the metal film decreases markedly (280-fold decrease to 8 × 10-6 Ω cm). This is not due to conduction within the carbon interlayer; both a-C : H/PDMS and PDMS substrates are electrically insulating. Upon cyclic tensile loading, both films become more resistive, but return to their initial state after 20 tensile cycles up to 60% strain. Profiling experiments using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the a-C : H layer intermixes with the PDMS, resulting in a graded layer of decreasing stiffness. We believe that both this graded layer and the surface buckling contribute to the observed improvement in the electrical performance of these stretchable conductors.

  5. The Optical Links of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Apsimon, R; Band, C; Barr, C; Batchelor, L; Bates, R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Bizzell, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C; Carter, J; Charlton, D; Cheplakov, A; Chilingarov, A; Chu, M-L; Colijn, A-P; Dawson, I; Demirkõz, B; de Jong, P; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dowell, J; Escobar, P; Spencer, E; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Ferrere, D; Fraser, T; French, M; French, R; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hartjes, F; Hessey, N; Hill, J C; Homer, J; Hou, L; Hughes, G; Ikegami, Y; Issever, C; Jackson, J; Jones, M; Jones, T J; Jovanovic, P; Koffeman, E; Kodys, P; Kohriki, T; Lee, S-C; Lester, C; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; Lozano, M; Macwaters, C; Magrath, C; Mahout, G; Mandic, I; Matheson, J; McMahon, T; Mikulec, B; Muijs, A; Morrissey, M; Nichols, A; Nickerson, R; O'Shea, V; Pagenis, S; Parker, M; Pater, J; Perrin, E; Pernegger, H; Peeters, S; Phillips, P; Postranecky, M; Robinson, D; Robson, A; Rudge, A; Sandaker, H; Sedlak, K; Smith, N A; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Tricoli, A; Tyndel, M; Ujiie, N; Ullán, M; Unno, Y; van der Kraaij, E; Van Vulpen, I; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M; Wastie, R; Weidberg, A; Wells, P; White, D; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical link requirements are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the very demanding environment at the LHC. The on-detector components have to operate in high radiation levels for 10 years, with no maintenance, and there are very strict requirements on power consumption, material and space. A novel concept for the packaging of the on-detector optoelectronics has been developed to meet these requirements. The system architecture, including its redundancy features, is explained and the critical on-detector components are described. The results of the extensive Quality Assurance performed during all steps of the assembly are discussed. Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical ...

  6. High-voltage transmission conductor motion research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, C.B.

    1976-06-01

    Research on wake-induced oscillation of bundled conductors performed to develop the technoogy required for design of bundle lines and for alteration of existing lines to prevent the oscillations is described. The investigation to date has encompassed a program of measurements of oscillation behavior of existing lines, measurements of turbulence of natural winds to which the lines are exposed, wind tunnel measurements of aerodynamic characteristics of conductors in bundles, and development of theoretical and computer analyses for predicting conditions under which actual spans may oscillate. The computer analyses used with the wind tunnel data developed in the program, provide a useful tool for predicting the effectiveness of devices and procedures intended to prevent oscillation. The influence of local terrain is taken into account. Comparison of predictions based on the computer analyses with measured behavior of actual field spans is satisfactory in the cases where comparison is possible. The number of such cases is limited by the range of the wind tunnel data that must be used with the computer analyses. Continuation of the program to expand the range of wind tunnel data, and to broaden the array of field test data to permit more thorough validation of the analyses, is recommended.

  7. Nb3Sn Conductor Development and Characterization for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; Devred, A; Fabbricatore, P; Greco, M; Leroy, D; Oberli, L; Pedrini, D; Volpini, G

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 µm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  8. Quenched microemulsions: a new route to proton conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Jestin, Jacques; Taché, Olivier; Dejugnat, Christophe; Carriere, David

    2014-08-28

    Solid-state proton conductors operating under mild temperature conditions (T < 150 °C) would promote the use of electrochemical devices as fuel cells. Alternatives to the water-sensitive membranes made of perfluorinated sulfonated polymers require the use of protogenic moieties bearing phosphates/phosphonates or imidazole groups. Here, we formulate microemulsions using water, a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) and a fatty acid (myristic acid, MA). The fatty acid acts both as an oil phase above its melting point (52 °C) and as a protogenic moiety. We demonstrate that the mixed MA-CTA film presents significant proton conductivity. Furthermore, bicontinuous microemulsions are found in the water-CTAB-MA phase diagram above 52 °C, where molten MA plays both the role of the oil phase and the co-surfactant. This indicates that the hydrogen-bond rich MA-CTA film can be formulated in the molten phase. The microemulsion converts into a lamellar phase upon solidification at room temperature. Our results demonstrate the potential of such self-assembled materials for the design of bulk proton conductors, but also highlight the necessity to control the evolution of the nanostructure upon solidification of the oil phase.

  9. One-volt-driven superfast polymer actuators based on single-ion conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Onnuri; Kim, Hoon; Choi, U. Hyeok; Park, Moon Jeong

    2016-11-01

    The key challenges in the advancement of actuator technologies related to artificial muscles include fast-response time, low operation voltages and durability. Although several researchers have tackled these challenges over the last few decades, no breakthrough has been made. Here we describe a platform for the development of soft actuators that moves a few millimetres under 1 V in air, with a superfast response time of tens of milliseconds. An essential component of this actuator is the single-ion-conducting polymers that contain well-defined ionic domains through the introduction of zwitterions; this achieved an exceptionally high dielectric constant of 76 and a 300-fold enhancement in ionic conductivity. Moreover, the actuator demonstrated long-term durability, with negligible changes in the actuator stroke over 20,000 cycles in air. Owing to its low-power consumption (only 4 mW), we believe that this actuator could pave the way for cutting-edge biomimetic technologies in the future.

  10. Effective Installations Technique of Grounding Conductors for Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H.; Kang, S.M. [Inha University, Inchon (Korea); Ryu, I.S. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with the effects of grounding conductors for metal oxide surge arresters. When surge arresters are improperly installed, the results can cause costly damage of electrical equipments. In particular, the route of surge arrester connection is very important because bends and links of leads increase the impedances to lightning surges and tend to nullify the effectiveness of a grounding conductor. Therefore, there is a need to know how effective installation of lightning surge arresters is made in order to control voltage and to absorb energy at high lightning currents. The effectiveness of a grounding conductor and 18 [kV] metal oxide distribution line arresters was experimentally investigated under the lightning and oscillatory impulse voltages. Thus, the results are as follows; (1) The induced voltage of a grounding conductor is drastically not affected by length of a connecting line, but it is very sensitive to types of grounding conductor. (2) The coaxial cable having a low characteristic impedance is suitable as a grounding conductor. (3) It is also clear from these results that bonding the metal raceway enclosing the grounding conductor to the grounding electrode is very effective because of skin effect. (4) The induced voltages of grounding conductors for the oscillatory impulse voltages are approximately twice as large as those for the lightning impulse voltages. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment o

  12. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger;

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  13. Current Density Distribution on the Perimeter of Waveguide Exciter Cylindrical Vibrator Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Yosyp

    2010-01-01

    On ground of electrodynamic analysis the surface current distribution nonuniformity on the perimeter of waveguide-exciter cylindrical conductor is found. Considerable influence of current distribution nonuniformity on exciter input reactance is established. It is also showed, that the current distribution on the vibrator perimeter, for conductor radius no greater then 0,07 of waveguide cross section breadth, approximately uniform is.

  14. Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

  15. Theoretical Investigation on Skin Effect Factor of Conductor in Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanaoka, Mamoru

    This paper describes a newly-derived theoretical equation on the skin effect factor of power cables, and its application to large-size OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors, including insulated wires. The skin effect factors calculated with the new equation were fit very well to measurements in wide range conductor sizes. In the new equation, the important factor which characterizes the skin effect of segmental conductors is the `equivalent conductivity ratio' ν defined by the ratio of longitudinal conductivity in axial direction of conductor to conductivity of conductor wires. Since the obtained ratio ν in XLPE cable was three times greater than that in OF cable, the larger longitudinal eddy current passing from a wire to another increased the eddy current loss in conductor, which increased the conductor loss of XLPE cable. The new equation enables us to investigate quantitatively the dominant loss component affecting the skin effect factor. Then, the skin effect factors and coefficients for OF and XLPE cables were investigated with the new equation. It was revealed that the best number of separation, in which the skin effect became minimum, existed in OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors. In addition, it was confirmed that the skin effect coefficients ks1 calculated with the new equation were consistent well with those used in JCS.

  16. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  17. Transport current dependence of the hysteresis loss in silver sheathed BSCOO-2212 conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, Herman K.; Woudstra, Martin J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Tenbrink, Johannes

    1994-01-01

    A technique is described to study the critical current density and penetration fieldassociated with the transport current in a silver sheathed BSCCO conductor. A transport current flowing in a conductor in a varying magnetic field will only influence magnetisation currents that are in competition

  18. Modelling and simulation of the ice melting process on a current-carrying conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Z.

    2006-07-01

    Mathematical models were developed to determine the current and energy requirements for thermal de-icing and ice prevention on overhead power transmission lines. The models were based on the Joule effect under various meteorological and current transmission conditions. The minimum current intensity required to inhibit ice formation on a single power line conductor was determined. Correction factors were then introduced for 3 specific aluminum conductors with steel reinforcement (ACSRs). Water runback on the conductor surface was considered as well as deviation of the water layer from the thermal equilibrium state. Model results were in good agreement with measurements taken in an icing research wind tunnel. The overall heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for stranded conductors was then assessed to complete the model. A computational model using finite differences was also developed to calculate the current and energy requirements for de-icing partially ice covered conductors. Joule heating by AC current and impulse current were the 2 heating techniques analyzed. Thermal conductivity of the ACSR conductor was also estimated. Experimentally validated analytical approaches were proposed to determine the shedding time and corresponding energy required to de-ice a completely ice covered conductor by heating with increased nominal AC current. It was concluded that ice accretion on a single power line can be prevented using the experimentally validated mathematical models that calculate the current and energy requirements of de-icing conductors.

  19. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study tha...

  20. Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

    2011-09-01

    An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

  1. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS: PART Ⅱ. STRUCTURE-IONIC CONDUCTION RELATION IN LI-COMPLEX BASED ON MALEIC ANHYDRIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kang; ZHOU Tong; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Ringlike polar monomer maleic anhydride (MAn) was copolymerized with oligo (oxyethylene)methacrylate (MEOn), and its effect on ion conduction property of the corresponding polymer-salt complexes was studied. As a consequence the introduction of MAn onto polymer chain retards crystallization of the ether pendants considerably, and improves the ion conductivity to a larger degree compared with other polar groups once investigated (σmax,25 ℃ = 8.5 × 10-5 S/cm). The structure-ion conduction relation in the polymer- salt matrix is also analyzed macroscopically through the correspondence between composition-dependences of polymerization conversion and isothermal ion conductivity, and microscopically through the measurements of cross polarized light and electron transmission.

  2. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    in the temperature region of 176-186 °C while the reason for partial melting of ionic plastic crystals is not clear yet. Variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction tests confirm the related solid-solid phase transitions and demonstrate that [Gdm-H][NfO] exhibits short-range disorder and long-range positional...

  3. A first truly all-solid state organic electrochromic device based on polymeric ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaplov, Alexander S; Ponkratov, Denis O; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Lozinskaya, Elena I; Plesse, Cédric; Vidal, Frédéric; Vygodskii, Yakov S

    2014-03-25

    Using polymeric ionic liquids and PEDOT as ion conducting separators and electrodes, respectively, an all-polymer-based organic electrochromic device (ECD) has been constructed. The advantages of such an ECD are: fast switching time (3 s), high coloration efficiency (390 cm(2) C(-1) at 620 nm), optical contrast up to ΔT = 22% and the possibility of working under vacuum.

  4. A new strategy for designing high-performance sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membranes using inorganic proton conductor-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Zheng, Xuan; Liu, Hai; Wang, Guangjin; Cheng, Fan; Zheng, Genwen; Wen, Sheng; Law, Wing-Cheung; Tsui, Chi-Pong; Tang, Chak-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Remarkable progress has been made on the use of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for renewable-energy-related research. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as versatile nanomaterials to modify PEMs. However, the inert ionic conduction ability and possible short-circuiting risk are the two major obstacles to their further development. In this work, CNTs are firstly functionalized with an inorganic proton conductor, boron phosphate (BPO4), using a facile polydopamine-assisted sol-gel method to yield BPO4@CNTs. This new additive is then used to modify sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). Polydopamine coating layer can act as an extraordinary glue to homogeneously adhere BPO4 nanoparticles on CNTs, thereby not only reducing the risk of short-circuiting, but also fabricating new proton-conducting pathways in the composite membranes. A comprehensive characterization reveals that the thermal stability, tensile properties, and dimensional stability of PEMs are significantly improved. Compared with pure SPEEK, the proton conductivity of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 is improved by 45% and 150% at 20 °C and at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 membrane exhibits a peak power density of 340.7 mW cm-2 at 70 °C, which is significantly better than that of pure SPEEK (254.2 mW cm-2), demonstrating the great potential of proton conductors-functionalized CNTs in PEMs.

  5. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolei; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo; Weng, Peide

    2011-10-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  6. Current distribution and stability of LTS/HTS hybrid superconducting conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current distribution and stability of a hybrid LTS/HTS superconductor, consisting of multifilamentary NbTi/Cu and Bi2223/Ag tapes, were numerically analyzed according to power-law models. The results showed that most of current passed through the LTS and the current increased in the HTS with temperature rise when the transport current was below the critical current of the hybrid conductor. The quench propagation velocity of the hybrid conductor was smaller but its minimum quench energy was larger than those of LTS conductors, indicating that the stability of the hybrid superconducting conductor was effectively improved and a high engineering current density was simultaneously achieved. Finally, a hybrid sample, made by soldering Bi2223/Ag tape onto NbTi/Cu conductor, was prepared and tested successfully at helium temperature. The experimental results qualitatively agreed with the simulated ones.

  7. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  8. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  9. Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.

  10. Surface tension of ionic liquids and ionic liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Freire, Mara G; Saramago, Benilde; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

    2012-01-21

    Some of the most active scientific research fronts of the past decade are centered on ionic liquids. These fluids present characteristic surface behavior and distinctive trends of their surface tension versus temperature. One way to explore and understand their unique nature is to study their surface properties. This critical review analyses most of the surface tension data reported between 2001 and 2010 (187 references).

  11. Selective Extraction of Bioproducts by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王键吉; 裴渊超; 赵扬; 张锁江

    2005-01-01

    Imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids have been used to extract selectively L-tryptophan from fermentation broth. BF4 anion was found to enhance dramatically the partitioning of L-tryptophan into ionic liquid phase from aqueous solutions.

  12. Cellulose acetate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolyte: ATR-FTIR and ionic conductivity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Razalli, Siti Masyitah; Sheikh Mohd Saaid, Siti Irma Yuana; Marwan Ali, Ab Malik; Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on cellulose acetate (CA) doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt are prepared by solution cast technique. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the polymer salt complexes are recorded in the frequency range between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. The shifting of carbonyl band (C=O) at 1737 cm-1 to a lower wavenumber confirms the occurrence of complexation between the polymer and the salt. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis discovered that the film with 25 wt.% of salt shows the highest ionic conductivity at room temperature. The change in real dielectric permittivity (ɛr) as a function of frequency at different salt concentrations which exhibits a dispersive behavior at low frequencies and decays at higher frequencies, shows the electrode polarization and space charge effect. The real modulus formalism (Mr) analysis shows that the polymer electrolytes in this work are ionic conductors.

  13. Nb3Sn conductor development and characterization for NED+ Nb3Sn conductor development and characterization for NED+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutboul, T.; den Ouden, A.; Devred, A.; Fabbricatore, P.; Greco, M.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.; Pedrini, D.; Volpini, G.

    2008-02-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 μm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  14. VR-SCOSMO: A smooth conductor-like screening model with charge-dependent radii for modeling chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Erich R; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2016-04-28

    To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state.

  15. VR-SCOSMO: A smooth conductor-like screening model with charge-dependent radii for modeling chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Erich R.; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-04-01

    To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state.

  16. Correlation between Quantumchemically Calculated LUMO Energies and the Electrochemical Window of Ionic Liquids with Reduction-Resistant Anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Buijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical calculations showed to be an excellent method to predict the electrochemical window of ionic liquids with reduction-resistant anions. A good correlation between the LUMO energy and the electrochemical window is observed. Surprisingly simple but very fast semiempirical calculations are in full record with density functional theory calculations and are a very attractive tool in the design and optimization of ionic liquids for specific purposes.

  17. "Practical" Electrospinning of Biopolymers in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshina, Julia L; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Bonner, Jonathan R; Gurau, Gabriela; Di Nardo, Thomas; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-01-10

    To address the need to scale up technologies for electrospinning of biopolymers from ionic liquids to practical volumes, a setup for the multi-needle electrospinning of chitin using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2 mim]-[OAc], was designed, built, and demonstrated. Materials with controllable and high surface area were prepared at the nanoscale using ionic-liquid solutions of high-molecular-weight chitin extracted with the same ionic liquid directly from shrimp shells.

  18. Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Benjamin Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers Benjamin R. Martin Abstract The purpose of this thesis is the development and analysis of applications for ionic polymers as energy harvesting devices. The specific need is a self-contained energy harvester to supply renewable power harvested from ambient vibrations to a wireless sensor. Ionic polymers were investigated as mechanical to electrical energy transducers. An ionic polymer device was designed to harvest energy from vi...

  19. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  20. Gaseous Hydrocarbon Separations Using Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of the side chains on the cation or the anion of an ionic liquid is a common approach to tailor its properties for different processes including the separation of gases. In this paper, we present the current state of the art concerning the usage of ionic liquids for hydrocarbon separations. We also show how the functionalization of ionic liquids or the appropriate anion/cation combinations can contribute to the increase of the performance of the ionic liquids for the sep...

  1. Complex Formation Between Polyelectrolytes and Ionic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between polyelectrolyte and ionic surfactant is of great importance in different areas of chemistry and biology. In this paper we present a theory of polyelectrolyte ionic-surfactant solutions. The new theory successfully explains the cooperative transition observed experimentally, in which the condensed counterions are replaced by ionic-surfactants. The transition is found to occur at surfactant densities much lower than those for a similar transition in non-ionic polymer-sur...

  2. Field dependence of the critical current and its relation to the anisotropy of BSCCO conductors and coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, H.W.; Haken, ten B.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Schwartz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of HTS magnets is often based on the properties of a number of short samples that are presumed to be representative of the conductor to be used. Variability in conductor properties and inhomogeneity in the magnetic field distribution within the magnets, coupled with conductor anisotropy,

  3. 矿物钠快离子导体Na1+3x+yAlxNdyTi2-x-ySi2xP3-2xO12合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of Na1+3x+yAlxNdyTi2-x-ySi2xP3-2xO12 mineral sodium fast ionic conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾飞; 蔡增良; 王文继

    2006-01-01

    Na1+3x+yAlxNdyTi2-x-ySi2xP3-2xO12钠快离子导体(以下简称Al-Nd-Nasicon)可以用精选的天然叶腊石A12[Si4O10](OH)2为起始原料与其它化合物,经过高温(900~1100℃)固相反应约15h制得.在y=0.3,x≤0.3和y=0.5,x≤0.2的组成范围内可得到具有Nasicon的三方结构空间群属于R3C的固溶体.该相具有较高的电导率,其中起始组成y=0.3,x=0.1的合成物在350℃时电导率为1.80×10-2S/cm.

  4. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2016-04-07

    A microfluidic ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated using polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (>100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems.

  5. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.

    2010-10-22

    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  6. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  7. Copper and silver selenide crystal growth rate measurements as a method for determination of ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić, Zlatko; Lovrić, Davorin; Gladić, Jadranko; Etlinger, Božidar

    2004-03-01

    The motivation behind this work is the discrepancy between the measured and calculated growth rates of copper selenide spherical single crystals between 740 and 800 K. The growth of cylindrical polycrystalline samples of copper selenide at high temperatures was monitored in experiments that enabled full control of the geometry of growth. Together with the calculations based on Yokota's transport equation, these measurements eliminated ionic conductivity data as a possible reason behind too high values of the calculated growth rates. The equivalent growth experiments on polycrystalline silver selenide samples were performed as a test of the method, yielding excellent agreement with the results obtained by extrapolation of existing data. On the basis of these measurements and associated analysis, this method is proposed as a method for determination of ionic conductivity of mixed superionic conductors on temperatures up to the temperatures of melting, i.e. in the range in which other methods of ionic conductivity measurements either do not work or are not accurate enough.

  8. Amino acid anions in organic ionic compounds. An ab initio study of selected ion pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, A; Bodo, E; Gontrani, L; Ballone, P; Caminiti, R

    2014-03-06

    The combination of amino acids in their deprotonated and thus anionic form with a choline cation gives origin to a new and potentially important class of organic ionic compounds. A series of such neutral ion pairs has been investigated by first principle methods. The results reveal intriguing structural motives as well as regular patterns in the charge distribution and predict a number of vibrational and optical properties that could guide the experimental investigation of these compounds. The replacement of choline with its phosphocholine analogue causes the spontaneous reciprocal neutralization of cations and anions, taking place through the transfer of a proton between the two ions. Systems of this kind, therefore, provide a wide and easily accessible playground to probe the ionic/polar transition in organic systems, while the easy transfer of H(+) among neutral and ionic species points to their potential application as proton conductors. The analysis of the ab initio data highlights similarities as well as discrepancies from the rigid-ions force-field picture and suggests directions for the improvement of empirical models.

  9. Retarded ionic motion in flourites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Metals halides with the fluorite structure attain conductivity values typical of ionic melts far below their melting points, and also go through a second-order transition. Conductivity data for the fluorites are reviewed, and it is shown that the anion vacancies have a large and unique mobility valu

  10. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power...

  11. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Wickham, Logan; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau-Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids.

  12. Fast water exchange on a Pt(II) center: variable temperature and pressure 17O NMR study at 14.1 tesla of the ionic arylplatinum species [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(OH2)]+(OSO2CF3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Frey, U.; Grove, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The water-soluble ionic aryl platinum species [Pt{C{6}H{3}(CH{2}NMe{2})-2, 6} (OH{2})]}+{ undergoes water exchange at a rate 10}7{ times faster than the coordination complex [Pt(OH{2}){4}]}2{}+{; a clear-cut example of the trans effect of the C-bonded organic group. Lineshape analysis of high pressu

  13. A dense transparent polymeric single ion conductor for lithium ion batteries with remarkable long-term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiyun; Chen, Yazhou; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zeng, Danli; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-12-01

    We report an outstanding electrochemical performance of a gel type lithium ion battery with long cycle life enabled by a dense transparent polymeric single ion conductor. The polymer electrolyte was synthesized by a side chain grafting method with 4-amino-4'-trifluoromethyl bis(benzene sulfonyl)imide grafted on side chains of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with a grafting ratio of 50%. Blending lithiated iononmers with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) via a solution cast method results in a dense transparent film. The fabricated blend polymer electrolyte film has an ionic conductivity of 0.104 mS cm-1 at room temperature, a tensile strength of 15.5 MPa and percent elongation at break of 5%. A gel type single ion conductive polymeric lithium ion battery was assembled using the blend film as the separator as well as the electrolyte, LiFePO4/C mixed with ionomers as the cathode and a lithium foil as the anode. The battery delivers a reversible discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 1 C under room temperature for 1000 cycles without obvious decay. The stable cyclic imide and comb-like structure of the polymer is largely responsible for the excellent battery performance. The side chain grafted single ion conducting polymer electrolyte is well suited for large-scale production.

  14. Real-time study of fast-electron transport inside dense hot plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A S; Ravindra Kumar, G; Sengupta, S; Das, A; Kaw, P K

    2006-03-01

    We offer a method to study transport of fast electrons in dense hot media. The technique relies on temporal profiling of the laser induced magnetic fields and offers a unique capability to map the hot electron currents and their neutralization (or lack of it) by the return currents in the plasma. We report direct quantitative measurements of strong electric inhibition in insulators and turbulence induced anomalous stopping of hot electrons in conductors. The present technique can prove extremely important from the point of view of fast ignition scheme, which relies on the penetration of fast electrons into the fusion core.

  15. Non-classical radiation emission by a coherent conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Gasse, Gabriel; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that the microwave electromagnetic field generated by a normal conductor, here a tunnel junction placed at ultra-low temperature, can be non-classical. By measuring the quadratures of the electromagnetic field at one or two frequencies in the GHz range, we demonstrate the existence of squeezing as well as entanglement in such radiation. In one experiment, we observe that the variance of one quadrature of the photo-assisted noise generated by the junction goes below its vacuum level. In the second experiment, we demonstrate the existence of correlations between the quadratures taken at two frequencies, which can be stronger than allowed by classical mechanics, proving that the radiation at those two frequencies are entangled. xml:lang="fr"

  16. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic stirrer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhavan; V Ramanarayanan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder. Experimental and numerical simulations are performed for a 2-pole in house built 15 kW linear electromagnetic stirrer (EMS). It is observed for a supply current of 200 A at 30 Hz the force densities in the hollow annular ring is 67% higher than the equivalent solid cylinder. The same values are 33% for annular ring with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are validated with experimental results.

  17. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  18. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  19. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  20. Dynamic corona characteristics of water droplets on charged conductor surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zezhong; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    The formation of the Taylor cone of a water droplet on the surface of the conductor in a line-ground electrode system is captured using a high-speed camera, while the corona current is synchronously measured using a current measurement system. Repeated Taylor cone deformation is observed, yielding regular groupings of corona current pulses. The underlying mechanism of this deformation is studied and the correlation between corona discharge characteristics and cone deformation is investigated. Depending on the applied voltage and rate of water supply, the Taylor cone may be stable or unstable and has a significant influence on the characteristics of the corona currents. If the rate of water supply is large enough, the Taylor cone tends to be unstable and generates corona-current pulses of numerous induced current pulses with low amplitudes. In consequence, this difference suggests that large rainfall results in simultaneously lower radio interference and higher corona loss.

  1. Actitudes hacia comportamientos protectores y de riesgo en conductores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Moreno Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se exploraron las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al conducir vehículos particulares en una muestra de 590 conductores de entre 20 y 60 años (M = 38,57, DE =11,69 residentes del área metropolitana costarricense. Se realizó una investigación exploratoria, desarrollada mediante un diseño transversal con un cuestionario autoaplicado. Los principales resultados fueron que: A mayor cantidad de hijos e hijas dependientes, menores comportamientos y actitudes hacia el riesgo y mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor cantidad de años de tener licencia, menores actitudes hacia el exceso de velocidad y menores comportamientos de riesgo asociados con la alta velocidad. Entre más días de manejo, mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor reporte de actitudes y comportamientos favorables hacia el riesgo, menor edad de los participantes. A manera de conclusión, las actitudes y los comportamientos de riesgo se vinculan negativamente. Además, variables sociodemográficas como el número de hijos y la edad de los conductores modula la respuesta en cuanto a las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al manejar. Los resultados del estudio forman un primer aporte a la investigación nacional en el tema, en tanto, se cuenta con un instrumento susceptible de ser aplicado en otros estudios y múltiples datos empíricos en la temática.

  2. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.

  3. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  4. Toward crystal design in organic conductors and superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, U.

    1999-04-23

    We have seen that many different types of intermolecular interactions in organic conducting cation radical salts. Hydrogen bonding between the donor molecules and the anions is weak but not negligible. The ionic Madelung energy is insufficient to completely intersperse anions and cations, thus the layers favored by the van der Waals interactions remain intact. The search for new conducting and superconducting salts has been mainly by trial-and-error methods, even though simple substitutions have been employed in order to obtain isostructural analogs of successful (e.g., superconducting) salts. However, even seemingly minor substitutions sometimes destroy the packing type, and different crystal structures result. Simulations with the aim at predicting crystal structures have not succeeded, mainly because the different interaction types are of comparable energy, and the delocalized and partial charges render the calculations of the ionic terms extremely unreliable. Clearly, the development of suitable crystal modeling techniques with predictive capabilities is one of the great needs of the field.

  5. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  6. Performance analysis of the Nb-Ti conductor qualification samples for the ITER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, M.; Carati, D.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.; Zhou, C.

    2015-11-01

    The ITER machine will require approximately 275 tons of Nb-Ti strands that will be used in poloidal field (PF) coils, correction coils (CC) and feeder busbars. The performance of all these conductors for the ITER machine is qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (T cs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, at the design operating current and peak field. Three ITER domestic agencies participated in PF conductor fabrication (China, the European Union, Russia) while the conductors for feeder busbars and correction coils are entirely produced by the Chinese domestic agency. Each conductor type was qualified by the ITER International Organization after reaching T cs values in excess of ITER specifications. This qualification enabled the launch of procurement and industrial production of the Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductors in each domestic agency. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified Nb-Ti samples of the ITER Project, comparing strand performance with conductor performance. The details of the test results will be discussed in terms of dc performance, ac losses and minimum quench energies of each conductor type.

  7. A Novel Method for Detection and Classification of Covered Conductor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Voltage (MV overhead lines with Covered Conductors (CCs are increasingly being used around the world primarily in forested or dissected terrain areas or in urban areas where it is not possible to utilize MV cable lines. The CC is specific in high operational reliability provided by the conductor core insulation compared to Aluminium-Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR overhead lines. The only disadvantage of the CC is rather the problematic detection of faults compared to the ACSR. In this work, we consider the following faults: the contact of a tree branch with a CC and the fall of a conductor on the ground. The standard protection relays are unable to detect the faults and so the faults pose a risk for individuals in the vicinity of the conductor as well as it compromises the overall safety and reliability of the MV distribution system. In this article, we continue with our previous work aimed at the method enabling detection of the faults and we introduce a method enabling a classification of the fault type. Such a classification is especially important for an operator of an MV distribution system to plan the optimal maintenance or repair the faulty conductors since the fall of a tree branch can be solved later whereas the breakdown of a conductor means an immediate action of the operator.

  8. Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 ionic glass dispersed with [Bmim] [PF6] ionic liquid: Electrical transport and thermal stability investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Munesh; Dalvi, Anshuman; Kumar, Anil

    2014-04-01

    A fast ionic composite is prepared by dispersion of Ionic liquid [Bmim][PF6] in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 glass matrix by mixing and through grinding. Amorphous/glassy nature of the samples is confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Surprisingly, the electrical conductivity of the samples is found to be increasing by ˜ 2 orders of magnitude and exhibits typical Arrhenius behavior with low activation energy. DC polarization and impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that samples are essentially ionic in nature. The conductivity isotherms were also obtained at different temperatures (T < 100 °C) and found to be appreciably stable at least for ˜ 10 days.

  9. The dependence of AC loss characteristics on the space in stacked YBCO conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhenan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Amemiya, Naoyuki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kakimoto, Kazuomi [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Saitoh, Takashi [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Shiohara, Yuh [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Four 5 mm wide YBCO conductors were assembled face to face to obtain a stacked YBCO conductor (YBCO stack). The space between the conductors composing the YBCO stack was set at 1.0 mm to investigate the influence of the space on AC loss characteristics. The magnetization losses without transport current, the transport losses without external magnetic field, and total AC losses of the YBCO stack carrying various transport currents in transverse magnetic fields with various orientations were measured. The measured AC losses in the YBCO stack were compared with those in a 0.2 mm space YBCO stack composed of the same conductors used in the 1.0 mm space YBCO stack as well as a single YBCO conductor. Magnetization loss without transport current in a YBCO stack decreases with decreasing space between the conductors in low and intermediate magnetic field. Transport loss without external magnetic field in a YBCO stack increases with decreasing space between conductors. There are three characterized regions, when comparing the total AC losses in the two YBCO stacks with different space between the conductors composing the stacks: (a) in the low magnetic field region, the total AC losses in the YBCO stack with smaller space are larger than those in the YBCO stack with larger space, (b) in the intermediate magnetic field region, the total AC losses in the YBCO stack with smaller space are larger than those in the YBCO stack with larger space, (c) in the high magnetic field region, the total AC losses in both YBCO stacks agree well with those in the single YBCO conductor as well as Brandt and Indembom's analytical values.

  10. Assessment of the noise annoyance among subway train conductors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mansoureh; Kavousi, Amir; Zaheri, Somayeh; Hamadani, Abolfazl; Mirkazemi, Roksana

    2014-01-01

    Subway transportation system is a new phenomenon in Iran. Noise annoyance interferes with the individual's task performance, and the required alertness in the driving of subway trains. This is the first study conducted to measure the level of noise and noise annoyance among conductors of subway organization in Tehran, Iran. This cross sectional study was conducted among 167 randomly selected train conductors. Information related to noise annoyance was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The dosimetry and sound metering was done for the conductors and inside the cabins. There were 41 sound metering measuring samples inside the conductors' cabin, and there were 12 samples of conductors' noise exposure. The results of sound level meter showed that the mean Leq was 73.0 dBA ± 8.7 dBA and the dosimetry mean measured Leq was 82.1 dBA ± 6.8 dBA. 80% of conductors were very annoyed/annoyed by noise in their work place. 53.9% of conductors reported that noise affected their work performance and 63.5% reported that noise causes that they lose their concentration. The noise related to movement of train wheels on rail was reported as the worst by 83.2% followed by the noise of brakes (74.3%) and the ventilation noise (71.9%). 56.9% of conductors reported that they are suffering from sleeplessness, 40.1% from tinnitus and 80.2% feeling fatigue and sleepy. The study results showed the high level of noise and noise annoyance among train conductors and the poor health outcome of their exposure to this level of noise.

  11. Investigation of the pre-service science teachers' opinions about the concept of "Semi-conductor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz Muştu, Özlem

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, the purpose was to determine the pre-service science teachers' opinions about the concept of semi-conductor. The participants of the current study carried out in 2015-2016 academic year were 55 third year pre-service science teachers. In the study, open-ended questions were used to determine the pre-service teachers' opinions about semi-conductors. After the administration of the open-ended questions, the students were taught the topic of semi-conductors within the lesson of special issues in physics. Then the open-ended questions were directed to the pre-service teachers again. The pre-service teachers' responses to these questions were categorized by using qualitative analysis method and their frequency values were obtained. The findings of the study revealed that the pre-service teachers had difficulties, before and after the administration of the questions, in defining semi-conductors. At the end of the study, the pre-service teachers were found to have some misconceptions; for example, they think that semi-conductors conduct the half of the electricity conducted by conductors. In the study, it was found that the pre-service teachers cannot define the concept of semi-conductor and this might indicate that they will not be able to teach this concept when they become teachers. In this connection, it can be suggested that studies and activities performed for teaching of abstract concepts such as conductor, semi-conductor, and insulator should be increased.

  12. Nanoparticles in ionic liquids: interactions and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2015-07-28

    Ionic liquids (ILs), defined as low-melting organic salts, are a novel class of compounds with unique properties and a combinatorially great chemical diversity. Ionic liquids are utilized as synthesis and dispersion media for nanoparticles as well as for surface functionalization. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems are governed by a combined effect of several intermolecular interactions between their constituents. For each interaction, including van der Waals, electrostatic, structural, solvophobic, steric, and hydrogen bonding, the characterization and quantitative calculation methods together with factors affecting these interactions are reviewed here. Various self-organized structures based on nanoparticles in ionic liquids are generated as a result of a balance of these intermolecular interactions. These structures, including colloidal glasses and gels, lyotropic liquid crystals, nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-containing emulsions, ionic liquid surface-functionalized nanoparticles, and nanoscale ionic materials, possess properties of both ionic liquids and nanoparticles, which render them useful as novel materials especially in electrochemical and catalysis applications. This review of the interactions within nanoparticle dispersions in ionic liquids and of the structure of nanoparticle and ionic liquid hybrids provides guidance on the rational design of novel ionic liquid-based materials, enabling applications in broad areas.

  13. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1964-01-01

    The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures. Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur in slow type striated muscle fibers: (a) a calcium deprivation type which develops maximally at full physiological concentration of external sodium, shows a flow rate dependency for the calcium-depriving fluid, and is lessened when the sodium concentration is decreased by replacement with sucrose; (b) a sodium deprivation type which occurs maximally without external sodium, is lessened by increasing the sodium concentration, and has no flow rate dependency for ion deprivation. Both types of contracture are largely prevented by the presence of sufficient calcium. There thus seem to be calcium- and sodium-linked processes at work in the ionic contracture coupling of slow striated muscle. PMID:14127603

  14. Development of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Wittmayer, F.J.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1976-08-17

    A program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors suitable for use in constructing fusion research magnets has resulted in the commercial production of conductors having cross-sectional areas in the range 0.06 cm/sup 2/ to 0.84 cm/sup 2/. Critical current densities near the goal of 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 12 T and 4.2 K have been obtained in conductors produced by two different techniques. The latest results of this program are presented and discussed.

  15. AFM multilayered Bi-2223 conductors for 13,000 A current leads for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, L; Berti, R; Volpini, G; Bigoni, L; Curcio, F

    2000-01-01

    Large current carrying capacity multilayered Bi-2223 conductors are reproducibly prepared by means of the "Accordion-Folding Method" and suitably used to manufacture the low temperature stage of 13,000 A hybrid metal-HTS current lead prototypes for CERN. In this work, we report on the electrical characterisation of AFM multilayered Bi-2223 conductors having critical current as high as 400 A at 77 K and on a specific experimental set-up that has been developed to study the thermo-electrical performances of the AFM Bi-2223 composite conductors during the sudden resistive transition of the HTS: quench event. (4 refs).

  16. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu

    2009-12-01

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  17. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu, E-mail: tominaka@mext.go.j, E-mail: tominaka@riken.j [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan); RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  18. Criticality in charge-asymmetric hard-sphere ionic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqua, Jean-Noël; Banerjee, Shubho; Fisher, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    Phase separation and criticality are analyzed in z:1 charge-asymmetric ionic fluids of equisized hard spheres by generalizing the Debye-Hückel approach combined with ionic association, cluster solvation by charged ions, and hard-core interactions, following lines developed by Fisher and Levin for the 1:1 case (i.e., the restricted primitive model). Explicit analytical calculations for 2:1 and 3:1 systems account for ionic association into dimers, trimers, and tetramers and subsequent multipolar cluster solvation. The reduced critical temperatures, Tc* (normalized by z), decrease with charge asymmetry, while the critical densities increase rapidly with . The results compare favorably with simulations and represent a distinct improvement over all current theories such as the mean spherical approximation, symmetric Poisson-Boltzmann theory, etc. For z not equal to 1, the interphase Galvani (or absolute electrostatic) potential difference, Deltaphi(T), between coexisting liquid and vapor phases is calculated and found to vanish as absolute value (T-Tc) beta when T-->Tc-with, since our approximations are classical, beta = (1/2). Above Tc, the compressibility maxima and so-called k-inflection loci (which aid the fast and accurate determination of the critical parameters) are found to exhibit a strong z dependence.

  19. Fabrication and modeling of stretchable conductors for traumatic brain injury research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe

    Stretchable electronics are an emergent class of electronics that can retain their electric functionality under large mechanical deformation, such as stretching, bending and compression. Like traditional electric circuits, stretchable electronics rely on electrical conductors, but in this specific instance the conductors must also be stretchable. This thesis research had three goals: (1) fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that retain their electrical conductance when stretched by tens of percent of strain; (2) understand the underlying stretching mechanism of gold conductors on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates; (3) produce a special device---a stretchable microelectrode array, which contains a matrix of stretchable conductors that enables a new approach to studying traumatic brain injury. We first developed and optimized the micro-fabrication process to make elastically stretchable thin gold film conductors on PDMS substrates. The conductors can retain electrical conduction while being stretched reversibly to 140% uniaxially and 16% radially. We further developed a fabrication process to encapsulate the conductors with either a commercially available photopatternable silicone (PPS) or with PDMS. 100 microm by 100 microm vias were patterned in the encapsulation layer to expose electrical contacts. PPS encapsulated conductors can be stretched uniaxially to 80%, and the PDMS encapsulated conductor can be stretched to ˜15%, without losing electrical conduction. We also introduced acrylate-based shape memory polymers (SMPs) as a new type of substrate for stretchable conductors. Their stiffness can be tuned by varying the monomer composition or by changing the ambient temperature. Thin gold film conductors deposited on pre-strained SMPs remain conductive when first stretched and then relaxed to their pre-strain value. Moreover, an SMP can also serve as a stretchable carrier to make pre-strained conductors on an overlying PDMS membrane. The resistance of

  20. Microsiemens or Milligrams: Measures of Ionic Mixtures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In December of 2016, EPA released the Draft Field-Based Methods for Developing Aquatic Life Criteria for Specific Conductivity for public comment. Once final, states and authorized tribes may use these methods to derive field-based ecoregional ambient Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for specific conductivity (SC) in flowing waters. The methods provide flexible approaches for developing science-based SC criteria that reflect ecoregional or state specific factors. The concentration of a dissolved salt mixture can be measured in a number of ways including measurement of total dissolved solids, freezing point depression, refractive index, density, or the sum of the concentrations of individually measured ions. For the draft method, SC was selected as the measure because SC is a measure of all ions in the mixture; the measurement technology is fast, inexpensive, and accurate, and it measures only dissolved ions. When developing water quality criteria for major ions, some stakeholders may prefer to identify the ionic constituents as a measure of exposure instead of SC. A field-based method was used to derive example chronic and acute water quality criteria for SC and two anions a common mixture of ions (bicarbonate plus sulfate, [HCO3−] + [SO42−] in mg/L) that represent common mixtures in streams. These two anions are sufficient to model the ion mixture and SC (R2 = 0.94). Using [HCO3−] + [SO42−] does not imply that these two anions are the