WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast ion extraction

  1. Fast ion extraction in laser isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazak, G.; Gell, Y.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, S.

    1980-10-01

    An analysis of the E x B scheme for fast ion extraction in laser isotope separation is presented. Using an analytically solvable model and a numerical simulation we have found that the scheme can meet the rather severe time and space restrictions imposed by the large cross section for charge exchange.

  2. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  3. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  4. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.

    2016-12-01

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.

  5. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Andreas; Ruster, Thomas; Dawkins, Sam T; Ott, Konstantin; Hettrich, Max; Singer, Kilian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  6. Operator care and eco-concerned development of a fast, facile and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs based on simplified ion-pair mini-scale extraction using safer solvent combined with drop-based spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plianwong, Samarwadee; Sripattanaporn, Areerut; Waewsa-nga, Kwanrutai; Buacheen, Parin; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2012-08-30

    A fast, facile, and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs has been developed based on the mini-scale extraction of the drug-dye ion pair complex combined with the use of safe-for-analyst and eco-friendlier organic extractant and drop-based micro-spectrophotometry. Instead of using large volume devices, the extraction was simply carried out in typical 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tubes along with the use of micropipettes for accurate transfer of liquids, vortex mixer for efficient partitioning of solutes and benchtop centrifuge for rapid phase separation. In the last step, back-extraction was performed by using the microvolume of acidic solution in order to concentrate the colored species into a confined aqueous microdrop and to keep the analyst away from unwanted contact and inhalation of organic solvents during the quantitation step which was achieved by using cuvetteless UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry without any prior dilutions. Using chlorpheniramine maleate as a representative analyte and n-butyl acetate as a less toxic and non-ozone depleting extractant, the miniaturized method was less laborious and much faster. It was accurate, precise and insensitive to the interferences from common excipients. Notably, it gave the assay results of drug in tablets and oral solution comparable to the large-scale pharmacopeial method while the consumption of organic solvents and the release of wastes were lowered by 200-400 folds.

  7. Photochronographic registration of fast light ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Dmitri N.; Lazarchuk, Valeri P.; Murugov, Vasili M.; Petrov, Sergei I.; Senik, Alexei V.

    1999-06-01

    A possibility of registration of fast ions (protons, alpha- particles) with the help of an X-ray streak camera is demonstrated. The spatial resolution of the device is 50 micrometer, the physical time resolution with the use of a CsJ-cathode is 7 ps. From (alpha) -emission a secondary electrons yield is determined of (eta) equals 8 el../part. The device sensitivity makes it possible to register separate (alpha) -particles and protons. On the basis of the device there have been elaborated techniques of spatial-spectral registering of radiation of fast ions emitted by laser thermonuclear targets. The techniques are destined to study processes of interaction of high-intensive laser radiation with an appliance Iskra-5 target.

  8. Fast title extraction method for business documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi

    1997-04-01

    Conventional electronic document filing systems are inconvenient because the user must specify the keywords in each document for later searches. To solve this problem, automatic keyword extraction methods using natural language processing and character recognition have been developed. However, these methods are slow, especially for japanese documents. To develop a practical electronic document filing system, we focused on the extraction of keyword areas from a document by image processing. Our fast title extraction method can automatically extract titles as keywords from business documents. All character strings are evaluated for similarity by rating points associated with title similarity. We classified these points as four items: character sitting size, position of character strings, relative position among character strings, and string attribution. Finally, the character string that has the highest rating is selected as the title area. The character recognition process is carried out on the selected area. It is fast because this process must recognize a small number of patterns in the restricted area only, and not throughout the entire document. The mean performance of this method is an accuracy of about 91 percent and a 1.8 sec. processing time for an examination of 100 Japanese business documents.

  9. Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2008-01-01

    In the era of high power and burning plasma fusion experiments with significant populations of fast particles, the diagnosis of fast ion dynamics becomes an important topic. In ITER, populations of fast ions due to ICRH and NBI, as well as fusion born alphas will carry a significant fraction of t...

  10. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  11. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R

    1979-07-01

    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  12. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Shiori, E-mail: ishino@k9.dion.ne.jp [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  13. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  14. Fast extraction from SPS LSS4 for the LHC and NGS projects

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B

    1998-01-01

    The proton and lead ion beams for the anti-clockwise ring of the LHC will be extracted from the SPS in LSS4 and transferred to LHC point 8 via the transfer line TT40-TI8. A conventional single turn 'fast' extraction will be used. The same extraction channel may be used to transfer protons to a neutrino target for the proposed long baseline Neutrino to Gran Sasso (NGS) project. The planned layout for the extraction channel in LSS4 now has the extraction septum in SPS half period 418, and is outlined for both fast-pulsed and DC septum designs.

  15. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  16. Transfer ionization in collisions with a fast highly charged ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitkiv, A B

    2013-07-26

    Transfer ionization in fast collisions between a bare ion and an atom, in which one of the atomic electrons is captured by the ion whereas another one is emitted, crucially depends on dynamic electron-electron correlations. We show that in collisions with a highly charged ion a strong field of the ion has a very profound effect on the correlated channels of transfer ionization. In particular, this field weakens (strongly suppresses) electron emission into the direction opposite (perpendicular) to the motion of the ion. Instead, electron emission is redirected into those parts of the momentum space which are very weakly populated in fast collisions with low charged ions.

  17. Fast Ion Redistribution and Implications for the Hybrid Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazikian, R; Austin, M E; Budny, R V; Chu, M S; Heidbrink, W W; Makowski, M A; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Solomon, W M; Van Zeeland, M A

    2007-06-26

    Time dependent TRANSP analysis indicates that radial redistribution of fast ions is unlikely to affect the central current density in hybrid plasmas sufficient to raise q(0) above unity. The results suggest that some other mechanism other than fast ion transport must be involved in raising q(0) and preventing sawteeth in hybrid plasmas.

  18. Assessment of Potential for Ion Driven Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B. Grant; Bangerter, Roger O.; Callahan, Debra A.; Tabak,Max; Roth, Markus; Perkins, L. John; Caporaso, George

    2005-05-01

    Critical issues and ion beam requirements are explored for fast ignition using ion beams to provide fuel compression using indirect drive and to provide separate short pulse ignition heating using direct drive. Several ion species with different hohlraum geometries are considered for both accelerator-produced and laser-produced ion ignition beams. Ion-driven fast ignition targets are projected to have modestly higher gains than with conventional heavy-ion fusion, and may offer some other advantages for target fabrication and for use of advanced fuels. However, much more analysis and experiments are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the feasibility for meeting the ion beam transverse and longitudinal emittances, focal spots, pulse lengths, and target stand-off distances required for ion-driven fast ignition.

  19. Assessment of Potential for Ion Driven Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B. Grant; Bangerter, Roger O.; Callahan, Debra A.; Tabak, Max; Roth, Markus; Perkins, L. John; Caporaso, George

    2004-12-01

    Critical issues and ion beam requirements are explored for fast ignition using ion beams to provide fuel compression using indirect drive and to provide separate short pulse ignition heating using direct drive. Several ion species with different hohlraum geometries are considered for both accelerator-produced and laser-produced ion ignition beams. Ion-driven fast ignition targets are projected to have modestly higher gains than with conventional heavy-ion fusion, and may offer some other advantages for target fabrication and for use of advanced fuels. However, much more analysis and experiments are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the feasibility for meeting the ion beam transverse and longitudinal emittances, focal spots, pulse lengths, and target standoff distances required for ion-driven fast ignition.

  20. Measurement and control of the fast ion redistribution on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Turnyanskiy, M; Akers, R J; Cecconello, M; Keeling, D L; Kirk, A; Lake, R; Pinches, S D; Sangaroon, S; Wodniak, I

    2013-01-01

    Previous experiments on MAST and other tokamaks have indicated that the level of fast ion redistribution can exceed that expected from classical diffusion and that this level increases with beam power. In this paper we present a quantification of this effect in MAST plasmas using a recently commissioned scanning neutron camera. The observed fast ion diffusivity correlates with the amplitude of n=1 energetic particle modes, indicating that they are the probable cause of the non-classical fast ion diffusion in MAST. Finally, it will be shown that broadening the fast ion pressure profile by the application of neutral beam injection at an off-axis location can mitigate the growth of these modes and result in the classical fast ion behaviour

  1. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  2. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. F.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  3. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  4. Sources and detectors of fast ions for basic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Furno, Ivo; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Plyushchev, Gennady

    2009-01-01

    The physics of supra thermal test ions in turbulent plasmas can be conveniently studied in basic plasma physics devices, which allow high-resolution measurements of plasma and fast ion parameters and wave fields throughout the whole plasma cross-section. We describe recent advances in the development of an experimental setup consisting of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and drift/interchange–dr...

  5. Simulation analysis for ion assisted fast ignition using structured targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, H.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.

    2016-05-01

    As the heating efficiency by fast electrons in the fast ignition scheme is estimated to be very low due to their large divergence angle and high energy. To mitigate this problem, low-density plastic foam, which can generate not only proton (H+) but also carbon (C6+) beams, can be introduced to currently used cone-guided targets and additional core heating by ions is expected. According to 2D PIC simulations, it is found that the ion beams also diverge by the static electric field and concave surface deformation. Thus structured targets are suggested to optimize ion beam characteristics, and their improvement and core heating enhancement by ion beams are confirmed.

  6. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  7. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER: Design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    The proposed fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system for ITER provides the unique capability of measuring the temporally and spatially resolved velocity distribution of the confined fast ions and fusion alpha particles in a burning ITER plasma. The present paper describes t...... in the studies, and new HFS receiver mock-up measurements are presented as well as neutron flux calculations of the influence of the increased slot height....

  8. Existence domains of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons in two-ion space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharaj, S. K., E-mail: smaharaj@sansa.org.za [South African National Space Agency (SANSA) Space Science, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)

    2015-03-15

    A study of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons is conducted for a model composed of cool and hot ions and cool and hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential formalism, the scope of earlier studies is extended to consider why upper Mach number limitations arise for slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. Treating all plasma constituents as adiabatic fluids, slow ion-acoustic solitons are limited in the order of increasing cool ion concentrations by the number densities of the cool, and then the hot ions becoming complex valued, followed by positive and then negative potential double layer regions. Only positive potentials are found for fast ion-acoustic solitons which are limited only by the hot ion number density having to remain real valued. The effect of neglecting as opposed to including inertial effects of the hot electrons is found to induce only minor quantitative changes in the existence regions of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons.

  9. Intensified extraction of ionized natural products by ion pair centrifugal partition extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Hubert, Jane; Hadj-Salem, Jamila; Richard, Bernard; Harakat, Dominique; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Lavaud, Catherine; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2011-08-05

    The potential of centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) combined with the ion-pair (IP) extraction mode to simultaneously extract and purify natural ionized saponins from licorice is presented in this work. The design of the instrument, a new laboratory-scale Fast Centrifugal Partition Extractor (FCPE300(®)), has evolved from centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) columns, but with less cells of larger volume. Some hydrodynamic characteristics of the FCPE300(®) were highlighted by investigating the retention of the stationary phase under different flow rate conditions and for different biphasic solvent systems. A method based on the ion-pair extraction mode was developed to extract glycyrrhizin (GL), a biologically active ionic saponin naturally present in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae) roots. The extraction of GL was performed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min in the descending mode by using the biphasic solvent system ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water in the proportions 3/2/5 (v/v/v). Trioctylmethylammonium with chloride as a counter-ion (Al336(®)) was used as the anion extractant in the organic stationary phase and iodide, with potassium as counter-ion, was used as the displacer in the aqueous mobile phase. From 20 g of a crude extract of licorice roots, 2.2g of GL were recovered after 70 min, for a total process duration of 90 min. The combination of the centrifugal partition extractor with the ion-pair extraction mode (IP-CPE) offers promising perspectives for industrial applications in the field of natural product isolation or for the fractionation of natural complex mixtures.

  10. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTORa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-10-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the Dα spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion Dα spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  11. Glancing-angle scattering of fast ions at crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannami, Michihiko; Narumi, Kazumasa; Katoh, Humiya; Kimura, Kenji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Glancing angle scattering of fast ions from a single crystal surface is a novel technique to study ion-surface interaction. Results of recent studies of ion-surface interaction are reviewed for ions with velocities faster than the Fermi velocity of solid. For the ions with velocities less than the Fermi velocity of target valence electrons the ion-surface interaction shows a new aspect where only the valence electrons of target solid participate in the stopping processes. It will show that the position-dependent stopping power of a surface for these ions governed by the elastic collisions of valence electrons and the ions. A method is proposed from this position-dependent stopping power to derived the electron density distribution averaged over the plane parallel to the surface. (author)

  12. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt;

    2013-01-01

    Fast ions play an important role in heating the plasma in a magnetic confinement fusion device. Fast-ion Dα(FIDA) spectroscopy diagnoses fast ions in small measurement volumes. Spectra measured by a FIDA diagnostic can be related to the 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function. A single FIDA vi...

  13. Fast-ion Dα spectrum diagnostic in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y. M.; Wu, C. R.; Huang, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Chang, J. F.; Zhu, Y. B.; Gao, W.; Chen, Y. J.; Lyu, B.; Hu, R. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Wu, Z. W.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. Y.

    2016-11-01

    In toroidal magnetic fusion devices, fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic (FIDA) is a powerful method to study the fast-ion feature. The fast-ion characteristics can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Dα light according to charge exchange recombination process between fast ions and probe beam. Since conceptual design presented in the last HTPD conference, significant progress has been made to apply FIDA systems on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Both co-current and counter-current neutral beam injectors are available, and each can deliver 2-4 MW beam power with 50-80 keV beam energy. Presently, two sets of high throughput spectrometer systems have been installed on EAST, allowing to capture passing and trapped fast-ion characteristics simultaneously, using Kaiser HoloSpec transmission grating spectrometer and Bunkoukeiki FLP-200 volume phase holographic spectrometer coupled with Princeton Instruments ProEM 1024B eXcelon and Andor DU-888 iXon3 1024 CCD camera, respectively. This paper will present the details of the hardware descriptions and experimental spectrum.

  14. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    CERN Document Server

    Honrubia, J J

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects such as ion beam divergence not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point have been analysed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  15. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; Rome, J.A.; England, A.C.; Fowler, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aceto, S.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as wel established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing o near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator (91 and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large-aspect-ratio, moderate-shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970`s. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energeticion distributions derived from the fastion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J* surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. Beam instrumentation for fast kicker extraction at COSY-Juelich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J.; Bojowald, J.; Labus, H.; Lawin, H.; Mohos, I.

    2000-11-01

    In the cooler synchrotron COSY two kinds of beam extraction were foreseen and realized: resonant extraction and stochastic extraction. Now a fast beam extraction for the new experiment JESSICA (Jülich Experimental Spallation Target Setup in COSY Area) is of great importance for prototyping the high power target of the European Spallation Source. First experiments using the kicker, originally installed for diagnostic purposes in the COSY ring, are reported. Special emphasis is given for beam diagnostics developments in the extraction beamline for measuring intensive fast proton pulses. To measure beam current and time structure a wall current monitor was installed in the extraction beam line. For more sensitive measurements in a wide range a so called universal spill measurement device, consisting of scintillators and an ionization chamber are developed.

  17. Polarization Bremsstrahlung in collissions of fast ions with multiatomic targets

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya

    2013-01-01

    We consider the processes of polarization bremsstrahlung in collisions of fast ions with linear chains consisting of isolated atoms. We obtained intensities and angular distributions of radiation spectra for arbitrary number of atoms in the chain. It appeared that interference in the photon radiation amplitudes lead to prominent variation of spectral angular distributions of polarization bremsstrahlung as compared to these distribuitions in collisions with an isolated atom. The mean loss of energy due to radiation or the so-called rediative friction is estimated. The results obtained permit standard generalization to the case of polarization bremsstrahlung in fast ion chanelling above surfaces an and in solid body.

  18. Fast and efficient transport of large ion clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kamsap, Marius Romuald; Champenois, Caroline; Guyomarc'H, Didier; Houssin, Marie; Knoop, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of trapped charged particles by electric fields is an accurate, robust and reliable technique for many applications or experiments in high-precision spectroscopy. The transfer of the ion sample between multiple traps allows the use of a tailored environment in quantum information, cold chemistry, or frequency metrology experiments. In this article, we experimentally study the transport of ion clouds of up to 50 000 ions. The design of the trap makes ions very sensitive to any mismatch between the assumed electric potential and the actual local one. Nevertheless, we show that being fast (100 $\\mu$s to transfer over more than 20 mm) increases the transport efficiency to values higher than 90 %, even with a large number of ions. For clouds of less than 2000 ions, a 100 % transfer efficiency is observed.

  19. Distortion of He emission lines after fast-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcuni, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    After excitation by fast ions (velocity = 2 to 5 au) the emission line profiles of doubly-excited helium atoms are observed to differ significantly from the normal shape of Beutler-Fano resonances. This difference is attributed to the Coulomb interaction between the emitted electron and the ion used to excite the atom. We explain the effect quantitatively with a simple classical model combined with a post-collision-interaction theory. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzker, A [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in (Jonathan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. A 62 042307). Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in a traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  1. Faraday-cup-type lost fast ion detector on Heliotron J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kado, S.; Ohshima, S.; Weir, G. M.; Nakamura, Y.; Konoshima, S.; Kemmochi, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2016-11-01

    A Faraday-cup type lost-fast ion probe (FLIP) has been designed and installed in Heliotron J for the purpose of the studies of interaction between fast ions and MHD instabilities. The FLIP can measure the co-going fast ions whose energy is in the range of 1.7-42.5 keV (proton) and pitch angle of 90∘-140∘, especially for fast ions having the injection energy of neutral beam injection (NBI). The FLIP successfully measured the re-entering passing ions and trapped lost-fast ions caused by fast-ion-driven energetic particle modes in NBI heated plasmas.

  2. Faraday-cup-type lost fast ion detector on Heliotron J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Ogawa, K; Isobe, M; Darrow, D S; Kobayashi, S; Nagasaki, K; Okada, H; Minami, T; Kado, S; Ohshima, S; Weir, G M; Nakamura, Y; Konoshima, S; Kemmochi, N; Ohtani, Y; Mizuuchi, T

    2016-11-01

    A Faraday-cup type lost-fast ion probe (FLIP) has been designed and installed in Heliotron J for the purpose of the studies of interaction between fast ions and MHD instabilities. The FLIP can measure the co-going fast ions whose energy is in the range of 1.7-42.5 keV (proton) and pitch angle of 90(∘)-140(∘), especially for fast ions having the injection energy of neutral beam injection (NBI). The FLIP successfully measured the re-entering passing ions and trapped lost-fast ions caused by fast-ion-driven energetic particle modes in NBI heated plasmas.

  3. Fast ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The principal goal of this book is to provide state-of-the art coverage of the non-relativistic three- and four-body theories at intermediate and high energy ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. The focus is on the most frequently studied processes: electron capture, ionization, transfer excitation and transfer ionization. The content is suitable both for graduate students and experienced researchers. For these collisions, the literature has seen enormous renewal of activity in the development and applications of quantum-mechanical theories. This subject is of relevance in several branches of science and technology, like accelerator-based physics, the search for new sources of energy and high temperature fusion of light ions. Other important applications are in life sciences via medicine, where high-energy ion beams are used in radiotherapy for which a number of storage ring accelerators are in full operation, under construction or planned to be built worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to review this fiel...

  4. Fast Hough transform for automatic bridge extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang; Zhang, Huaili

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a new method to recognize bridge in the complicated background is presented. The algorithm takes full advantages of the characteristics of the bridge image. Firstly, the image is preprocessed and the object edges are extracted. Then according to the limitations of traditional Hough transform (HT), the extraction method of the image line segment characteristic of HT is improved, which eliminates spurious peaks on the basis of global and local thresholds, discriminates the position relation between two straight line segments, and merges segments with near endpoints, etc. Experiments show that this algorithm is more precise and efficient than traditional HT, moreover it can provide a complete description of the bridge in a complicated background.

  5. Polarization Studies in Fast-Ion Beam Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2001-12-20

    In a historical review, the observations and the insight gained from polarization studies of fast ions interacting with solid targets are presented. These began with J. Macek's recognition of zero-field quantum beats in beam-foil spectroscopy as indicating alignment, and D.G. Ellis' density operator analysis that suggested the observability of orientation when using tilted foils. Lastly H. Winter's studies of the ion-beam surface interaction at grazing incidence yielded the means to produce a high degree of nuclear orientation in ion beams.

  6. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three or four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  7. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three o()four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  8. Calculation Of Extraction Optics For Ion System With Plazma Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D code for simulating of ion optics system of positive ion extraction from a plasma source is described. Example calculation of 100 kV optics for the extraction ion IHEP gun is presented. The trajectories of particles and emittance plots are resulted. The aberrations influ-ence strongly on ion optics for considered geometry.

  9. Fast ion swapping for quantum-information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schulz, J.; von Lindenfels, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a swap gate between laser-cooled ions in a segmented microtrap via fast physical swapping of the ion positions. This operation is used in conjunction with qubit initialization, manipulation, and readout and with other types of shuttling operations such as linear transport and crystal separation and merging. Combining these operations, we perform quantum process tomography of the swap gate, obtaining a mean process fidelity of 99.5(5)%. The swap operation is demonstrated with motional excitations below 0.05(1) quantum for all six collective modes of a two-ion crystal for a process duration of 42 μ s . Extending these techniques to three ions, we reverse the order of a three-ion crystal and reconstruct the truth table for this operation, resulting in a mean process fidelity of 99.96(13)% in the logical basis.

  10. Magnetic Configuration Effects on Fast Ion Losses Induced by Fast Ion Driven Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K. [Nagoya University, Japan; Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Watanabe, F. [Kyoto University, Japan; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Shimizu, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Sakakibara, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan

    2012-01-01

    Beam-ion losses induced by fast-ion-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) were measured with a scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) in the large helical device (LHD). The SLIP gave simultaneously the energy E and the pitch angle chi = arccos(v(parallel to)/v) distribution of the lost fast ions. The loss fluxes were investigated for three typical magnetic configurations of R{sub ax{_}vac} = 3.60 m, 3.75 m, and 3.90 m, where R{sub ax{_}vac} is the magnetic axis position of the vacuum field. Dominant losses induced by TAEs in these three configurations were observed in the E/chi regions of 50 similar to 190 keV/40 degrees, 40 similar to 170 keV/25 degrees, and 30 similar to 190 keV/30 degrees, respectively. Lost-ion fluxes induced by TAEs depend clearly on the amplitude of TAE magnetic fluctuations, R{sub ax{_}vac} and the toroidal field strength B{sub t}. The increment of the loss fluxes has the dependence of (b{sub TAE}/B{sub t}){sup s}. The power s increases from s = 1 to 3 with the increase of the magnetic axis position in finite beta plasmas.

  11. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Roßnagel, Johannes; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion cr...

  12. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen, E-mail: wli@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  13. Dissociation of fast ions analyzed by time-of-flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponciano, C.R.; Ladeia, R.C.C.; Collado, V.M.; Silveira, E.F. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: enio@vdg.fis.puc-rio.br

    2001-09-01

    The fragmentation of metastable ions, having keV of kinetic energy, is analyzed by time-of-flight technique. Assuming isotropic distribution of fragments in a free field region, it is deduced an analytical expression to describe the corresponding peak shapes in linear TOF spectrometers. Metastable ion mean-life and the kinetic energy release (Q-value) are the quantities extracted from data fitting. As an illustration, the dissociation of C{sub 8} H{sub 10} N{sup +} metastable ions, desorbed by {sup 252} Cf fission fragment impact on organic target, is studied. (author)

  14. Shutterless ion mobility spectrometer with fast pulsed electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunert, E.; Heptner, A.; Reinecke, T.; Kirk, A. T.; Zimmermann, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are devices for fast and very sensitive trace gas analysis. The measuring principle is based on an initial ionization process of the target analyte. Most IMS employ radioactive electron sources, such as 63Ni or 3H. These radioactive materials have the disadvantage of legal restrictions and the electron emission has a predetermined intensity and cannot be controlled or disabled. In this work, we replaced the 3H source of our IMS with 100 mm drift tube length with our nonradioactive electron source, which generates comparable spectra to the 3H source. An advantage of our emission current controlled nonradioactive electron source is that it can operate in a fast pulsed mode with high electron intensities. By optimizing the geometric parameters and developing fast control electronics, we can achieve very short electron emission pulses for ionization with high intensities and an adjustable pulse width of down to a few nanoseconds. This results in small ion packets at simultaneously high ion densities, which are subsequently separated in the drift tube. Normally, the required small ion packet is generated by a complex ion shutter mechanism. By omitting the additional reaction chamber, the ion packet can be generated directly at the beginning of the drift tube by our pulsed nonradioactive electron source with only slight reduction in resolving power. Thus, the complex and costly shutter mechanism and its electronics can also be omitted, which leads to a simple low-cost IMS-system with a pulsed nonradioactive electron source and a resolving power of 90.

  15. Conceptual design of the ITER fast-ion loss detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Kocan, M.; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Bertalot, L.; Bonnet, Y.; Casal, N.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Giacomin, T.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Kiptily, V.; Pinches, S. D.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Reichle, R.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Snicker, A.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Vorpahl, Ch.; Walsh, M.; Walton, R.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual design of a reciprocating fast-ion loss detector for ITER has been developed and is presented here. Fast-ion orbit simulations in a 3D magnetic equilibrium and up-to-date first wall have been carried out to revise the measurement requirements for the lost alpha monitor in ITER. In agreement with recent observations, the simulations presented here suggest that a pitch-angle resolution of ˜5° might be necessary to identify the loss mechanisms. Synthetic measurements including realistic lost alpha-particle as well as neutron and gamma fluxes predict scintillator signal-to-noise levels measurable with standard light acquisition systems with the detector aperture at ˜11 cm outside of the diagnostic first wall. At measurement position, heat load on detector head is comparable to that in present devices.

  16. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Ye. O., E-mail: yevgen.kazakov@rma.ac.be; Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, EUROfusion Consortium Member, Brussels (Belgium); Dumont, R. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-12-10

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (∼ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  17. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (˜ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  18. FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented.

  19. Momentum imaging of photofragments and photoelectrons using fast ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domesle, Christian

    2012-07-04

    Momentum imaging of photofragments and photoelectrons using fast ion beams - Within the framework of this thesis a method for break-up channel specific detection of the photoelectrons from photon-induced dissociation processes of fast moving molecular ion has been established. For this purpose, a novel saddlepoint electron spectrometer was commissioned while investigating the photodetachment dynamics on a fast moving beam of oxygen anions. For a complete detection of all outgoing reaction products emerging from the photolysis of small water clusters (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sup +}(n≤3) in the wavelength range of 13.5-40 nm a new fragment analyzing system has been developed and in combination with the novel saddle-point spectrometer applied, to investigate the dissociative photoionization of the hydronium (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) and the Zundel ion (H{sub 5}O{sub 2}{sup +}). In case of the hydronium ion, a binary H{sub 2}O{sup +}+H{sup +} and two three-body channels OH{sup +}+2H{sup +}, OH{sup +}+H{sup +}+H have been identified to be initiated by outer valence vacancies, where the binary channel is mainly triggered by the ionization of the 3a{sub 1} orbital and the three-body channels follow ionization from the 1e orbital. The photolysis of H{sub 5}O{sub 2}{sup +} is found to proceed via five prominent pathways, where for a large number of processes the hydronium ion is split off as a stable structural unit. Also here, the investigation of the photoelectron spectra revealed the prominent dissociation pathways to be initiated by outer valence vacancies.

  20. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner;

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion device...

  1. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, S.K.; Salewski, M.; Bindslev, H.; Burger, A.; Furtula, V.; Kantor, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Stejner, M.; Westerhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillations

  2. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion devices...

  3. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  4. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal......-transverse coupling mechanisms. Laser cooling in novel bunch forms consisting of square-well buckets leads to longitudinally space-charge dominated beams. The observed longitudinal ion density distributions can be well described by a self-consistent mean-field model based on a thermodynamic Debye-Huckel approach....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  5. Slow beam-extraction method using a fast Q-magnet assisted by RF-knockout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Takuji; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Noda, Koji

    2005-11-01

    A new method for slow beam-extraction from a synchrotron ring is proposed, based on controlling a quadrupole field with a fast response (FQ), assisted by a transverse RF-field (RF-knockout). This method works as follows: (1) particles of a circulating beam are diffused by RF-knockout to just inside the boundary of a separatrix produced under a resonant condition, (2) exciting the FQ shrinks the separatrix to a certain size, and the particles outside the separatrix can be extracted, (3) the fast Q-field is turned off, and (4) the above process is repeated until all of the circulating beam is completely extracted. This method can extract prescribed particles at required timings quickly and precisely, because it is controlled with only the fast Q-field. A proof-of-principle experiment was carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) synchrotron. As a result, it was verified that the beam was extracted only with exciting the FQ, but not with turning the RF-knockout on.

  6. Neutralization principles for the Extraction and Transport of Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    2000-01-01

    The strict application of conventional extraction techniques of ion beams from a plasma source is characterized by a natural intensity limit determined by space charge.The extracted current may be enhanced far beyond this limit by neutralizing the space charge of the extracted ions in the first extraction gap of the source with electrons injected from the opposite side. The transverse and longitudinal emittances of a neutralized ion beam, hence its brightness, are preserved. Results of beam compensation experiments, which have been carried out with a laser ion source, are resumed for proposing a general scheme of neutralizing ion sources and their adjacent low-energy beam transport channels with electron beams. Many technical applications of high-mass ion beam neutralization technology may be identified: the enhancement of ion source output for injection into high-intensity, low-and high-energy accelerators, or ion thrusters in space technology, for the neutral beams needed for plasma heating of magnetic conf...

  7. Extraction mechanism of monovalent ion-pairs by polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P; Chow, A

    1992-07-01

    The extractability sequence of K(+) approximately Rb(+) > Cs(+) > Na(+) > Li(+) for the extraction with polyether foam suggests that the cation chelation mechanism might be operative. However, the same order was obtained for the extraction with 100% polypropylene oxide polyether foam which does not normally adopt a helical structure to form oxygen-rich cavities as easily or as effectively as polyethylene oxide to accommodate alkali metal ions. This result indicates that a hole-size/cation-diameter relationship may not be required for the high extraction of K(+). The extraction of alkali metal DPAs and hydroxides from methanol demonstrates the importance of the solvent effect. It indicates that the water-structure enforced ion-pairing (WSEIP) is the driving force for extraction of the ion-pairs. The extraction mechanism for ionic species can be described as an ion-pair extraction process. The overall effect of ion-pair formation in water and interaction of the extracted ions with foam appears to determine the extractability of the ions of the extractable ion-pair.

  8. Main magnetic focus ion source with the radial extraction of ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsyannikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    In the main magnetic focus ion source, atomic ions are produced in the local ion trap created by the rippled electron beam in focusing magnetic field. Here we present the novel modification of the room-temperature hand-size device, which allows the extraction of ions in the radial direction perpendicular to the electron beam across the magnetic field. The detected X-ray emission evidences the production of Ir$^{44+}$ and Ar$^{16+}$ ions. The ion source can operate as the ion trap for X-ray spectroscopy, as the ion source for the production of highly charged ions and also as the ion source of high brightness.

  9. Interplay between fast ions and turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, R. J.; Zarzoso, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Strugarek, A.; Abiteboul, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph; Girardo, J.-B.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Thomine, O.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for the impact of energetic particles (EPs) on turbulence is given in this paper. Firstly, the excitation of electrostatic instabilities in linear gyrokinetic simulations performed with the global GYSELA code by introducing distribution functions typical of fast ions in tokamak plasmas is presented. The obtained mode is unambiguously characterized as an EGAM, i.e. a geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excited by EPs. The influence of EGAMs on turbulence and associated transport is then analyzed by implementing a source adapted to the inclusion of fast particle populations in non-linear simulations. This source successfully excites EGAMs in the presence of turbulence, which leads to a drastic reduction of the turbulent transport. However, this reduction is only transient; it is followed by an increase of the turbulent activity, characterized by a complex interaction between the EGAMs and the turbulence. In the subsequent steady-state regime, turbulent transport appears to be modulated at the EGAM frequency.

  10. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.A.Soliman; M.M.Abdelrahman; A.G.Helal; F.W.Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7.This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics(accel-decel system)to generate an ion beam with low beam emittance and high brightness.The simulation process can provide a good study for optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam without any losses and transported to the required target.Also,a study of a simulation model for the extraction system of the ion source was used to describe the possible plasma boundary curvatures during the ion extraction that may be affected by the change in an extraction potential with a constant plasma density meniscus.

  11. Measurement of a 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function by tomographic inversion of fast-ion D-alpha spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2014-01-01

    We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra ...

  12. Progress on Bayesian Inference of the Fast Ion Distribution Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W.W,; Chen, X.;

    2013-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function (DF) has a complicated dependence on several phase-space variables. The standard analysis procedure in energetic particle research is to compute the DF theoretically, use that DF in forward modeling to predict diagnostic signals, then compare with measured data...... sensitivity of the measurements are incorporated into Bayesian likelihood probabilities. Prior probabilities describe physical constraints. This poster will show reconstructions of classically described, low-power, MHD-quiescent distribution functions from actual FIDA measurements. A description of the full...

  13. Trapping ions from a fast beam in a radio-frequency ion trap: The relaxation of the ion cloud and its resulting column density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Annette; Nielsen, Kristian M. E.; Pedersen, Henrik B.

    2014-06-01

    The relaxation of trapped Cl2- ions and their resulting column density in a multipole radio-frequency (RF) ion trap have been investigated after loading the trap from an initial fast-moving beam exploiting a mechanism described recently [A. Svendsen et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 043410 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043410] where the injection is mediated through the exchange of energy between ions and the oscillating RF field. The temporal relaxation of the energy distribution of the trapped ion cloud was probed by observing the evolution of the resulting time-of-flight distribution of ions after extraction and fragment mass analysis in a quadrupole mass filter. The ion energy distribution was found to be essentially stationary after ˜20 ms. The resulting column density of trapped ions after relaxation was probed by two-dimensional position-resolved photodissociation of the trapped Cl2- ions. A detailed statistical analysis of the ion column density in the ring-electrode trap is given, and by comparison to the experimental data, a value of the maximum adiabaticity parameter of ηmax≃0.28 is inferred. It is further demonstrated how the present experimental system allows for time-resolved mass spectrometry by probing explicitly the populations of both parent (Cl2-) and daughter (Cl-) ions as a function of time after closing the trap and after laser irradiation. Finally, it is discussed how the setup can be used to obtain absolute photodissociation cross sections via a tomographic method without assumptions on the decay law for the trapped ions.

  14. Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, T.; Kageyama, K.; Kanai, Y.; Kojima, T. M.; Nanai, Y.; Yoneda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2002-06-01

    To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al 2O 3), fused silica (SiO 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the wave source was estimated. The result was compared with ion ranges calculated for these materials by TRIM code.

  15. HIGH POWER FAST KICKER SYSTEM FOR SNS BEAM EXTRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; MI,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LOCKEY,R.; PAI,C.; TUOZZOLO,J.; NEHRING,T.; WARBURTON,D.

    2002-06-30

    A Blumlein topology based high peak power, high repetition rate, and low beam impedance fast extraction kicker system for ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The large magnet window size, large deflecting angle, low beam impedance termination and fast deflecting field rise time demand a very strong pulsed power source to drive the SNS extraction fast kicker magnet. This system consists of fourteen high voltage modulators and fourteen lumped kicker magnet sections. All modulators will be located in a service building outside the beam tunnel, which is a revised design requirement adopted in the mid 2000. The high current pulses generated by the high power modulators will be delivered through high voltage pulsed transmission cables to each kicker magnet sections. The designed output capacity of this system, is in multiple GVA. Its first article modulator has been constructed and is being tested. In this paper, we present the system overview, project status and the advantages of this new conceptual design.

  16. Solid-liquid solvent extraction of metal ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Peng; Haiyan Fan; Jinzhang Gao

    2003-01-01

    An overview of extraction of some trace metal ions using molten solvent (low melting substance) during last two decadesis presented. The development of this technique since its inception is briefly traced. The comparison of extraction efficiency, thermo-dynamics and kinetics mainly involving extraction of rare earth ions between molten solvent extraction at high temperature and usualliquid-liquid extraction at room temperature are discussed in detail. The various parameters obtained from the previous and presentstudies such as equilibrium extraction constant Kex, pH1/2, thermodynamic and kinetic data are displayed in tabular form. Finally, thecurrent demands, disadvantages and future prospects are also evaluated.

  17. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  18. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  19. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast...

  20. Li mobility in fast ion conductors followed by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Structural features that enhance Li mobility in fast ion conductors with perovskite (Li{sub 3}xLa{sub 2}/3-xTiO{sub 3} series) and Nasicon structure (Li{sub 1}+xTi{sub 2}-xAl{sub x} (PO{sub 4}){sub 3} series) have been investigated. From the analysis of quadrupolar interactions, the local symmetry and exchange processes between structural sites occupied by lithium have been deduced to investigate local motions of lithium in conduction paths of analyzed compounds. The study of spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) and spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times made possible the analysis of the temperature dependence of Li residence times at structural sites. The comparison of these values with those deduced from conductivity (ac and dc-measurements) allowed the study of Li-motion mechanisms. The onset of long range motions requires the analysis of low frequency measurements (T{sub 2} relaxation and dc-conductivity). The non- Arrhenius behaviour, often observed in fast ion conductors, has been ascribed to order/disorder transitions. At increasing temperatures, Li motions become less correlated, producing the decrement of activation energy. In analyzed compounds, a direct measurement of diffusion coefficients has been obtained from NMR experiments performed with the pulse field gradient (PFG) technique. Finally, it is emphasized the importance of the vacancy percolation in conductivity processes. (Author)

  1. Modeling Fast Ion Transport in TAE Avalanches in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E D; Bell, R E; Darrow, D; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G; Kubota, S; Levinton, F M; Liu, D; Medley, S S; Podesta, M; Tritz, K

    2009-08-17

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557 ] have found strong bursts of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) activity correlated with abrupt drops in the neutron rate. A fairly complete data set offers the opportunity to benchmark the NOVA [C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1-51 (1992)] and ORBIT [R. B. White and M. S. Chance, Phys. Fluids 27, 2455 (1984)] codes in the low aspect ratio tokamak (ST) geometry. The internal structure of TAE were modeled with NOVA and good agreement is found with measurements made with an array of five fixed-frequency reflectometers. The fast-ion transport resulting from these bursts of multiple TAE were then modeled with the ORBIT code. The simulations are reasonably consistent with the observed drop in neutron rate. While these results represent our best attempts to find agreement, we believe that further refinements in both the simulation of the TAE structure and in the modeling of the fast ion transport are needed. Benchmarking stability codes against present experiments is an important step in developing the predictive capability needed to plan future experiments.

  2. A cooperative fast annealing coevolutionary algorithm for protein motif extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; TIAN YuanXin; ZOU XiaoYong; CAI PeiXiang; MO JinYuan

    2007-01-01

    By integrating the cooperative approach with the fast annealing coevolutionary algorithm (FAEA), a so-called cooperative fast annealing coevolutionary algorithm (CFACA) is presented in this paper for the purpose of solving high-dimensional problems. After the partition of the search space in CFACA, each smaller one is then searched by a separate FAEA. The fitness function is evaluated by combining sub-solutions found by each of the FAEAs. It demonstrates that the CFACA outperforms the FAEA in the domain of function optimization, especially in terms of convergence rate. The current algorithm is also applied to a real optimization problem of protein motif extraction. And a satisfactory result has been obtained with the accuracy of prediction achieving 67.0%, which is in agreement with the result in the PROSITE database.

  3. Predicting ion flux uniformity at the ion extraction plate in a 3D ICP reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhra; Bhoj, Ananth

    2016-09-01

    In order to achieve better control in processing the wafer surface, the ion fluxes in a remote plasma system are often focused through one or more ion extraction plates between the main plasma chamber and the downstream wafer plane. The ion extraction plates are typically of showerhead pattern with multiple holes. The focus of this particular study is to predict the ion flux uniformity over the ion extraction plate for a full 3D inductively coupled discharge reactor model using Argon chemistry. We will use the commercial modeling tool, CFD-ACE +, which can address such a process involving gas flow, heat transfer, plasma physics, reaction chemistry and electromagnetics in a coupled fashion. The plasma characteristics in the chamber and uniformity of the ion fluxes at ion extraction plate are discussed. Parametric studies varying the geometrical dimensions and process conditions to determine the effect on ion flux uniformity are presented. The showerhead-like ion extraction plate will be modeled as a porous media with a specified porosity. Further, a spatially varying porosity of the ion extraction plate is used to simulate ion recombination in order to reduce the ion flux non-uniformity. The goal is to optimize the system maximizing the ion flux while maintaining the uniformity.

  4. A New Three-Dimensional Code for Simulation of Ion Beam Extraction: Ion Optics Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dazhi; HUANG Tao; HU Quan; YANG Zhonghai

    2008-01-01

    A new thee-dimensional code, ion optics simulator (IOS), to simulate ion beam extraction is developed in visual C++ language. The theoretical model, the flowchart of code, and the results of calculation as an example are presented.

  5. A fast feedback controlled magnetic drive for the ASDEX Upgrade fast-ion loss detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J.; Herrmann, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Leitenstern, P.; Zoletnik, S.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Dominguez, A. D.; Kocan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, D.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-11-01

    A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads. The mechanical design and real time predictive algorithm presented here may be used for other reciprocating systems.

  6. Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, T; Kanai, Y; Kojima, T M; Nanai, Y; Yoneda, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2002-01-01

    To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al sub 2 O sub 3), fused silica (SiO sub 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the...

  7. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  8. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure...... due to high heath fluxes, the controllability of the ion incidence angle, and charge accumulation when treating insulating materials. Despite of a large variety of plasma sources available for ion beam extraction, there is a clear need for new extraction mechanisms that can make available ion beams...... with high current densities that can treat surfaces placed adjacent to the extraction region. This work introduces a new phenomenology for ion beam extraction using the discrete ion-focusing effect associated with three-dimensional plasma-sheath-lenses [1, 2]. Experiments are performed in a matrix...

  9. Anomalous Flattening of the Fast-Ion Profile during Alfvén-Eigenmode Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Luo, Y.; van Zeeland, M. A.; White, R. B.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Kramer, G. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfvén-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  10. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  11. Developments of fast emittance monitors for ion sources at RCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorita, T., E-mail: yorita@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Shimada, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamura, H.; Kamakura, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Recently, several developments of low energy beam transport line and its beam diagnostic systems have been performed to improve the injection efficiency of ion beam to azimuthally varying field cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. One of those is the fast emittance monitor which can measure within several seconds for the efficient beam development and a Pepper-Pot Emittance Monitor (PPEM) has been developed. The PPEM consists of pepper-pot mask, multichannel plate, fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera. The CCD image is taken via IEEE1394b to a personal computer and analyzed immediately and frequently, and then real time measurement with about 2 Hz has been achieved.

  12. Modelling of advanced three-ion ICRF heating and fast ion generation scheme for tokamaks and stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Lanthaler, S.; Villard, L.; Pfefferlé, D.; Geiger, J.; Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.

    2017-08-01

    Absorption of ion-cyclotron range of frequencies waves at the fundamental resonance is an efficient source of plasma heating and fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. This heating method is planned to be exploited as a fast ion source in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. The work presented here assesses the possibility of using the newly developed three-ion species scheme (Kazakov et al (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55 032001) in tokamak and stellarator plasmas, which could offer the capability of generating more energetic ions than the traditional minority heating scheme with moderate input power. Using the SCENIC code, it is found that fast ions in the MeV range of energy can be produced in JET-like plasmas. The RF-induced particle pinch is seen to strongly impact the fast ion pressure profile in particular. Our results show that in typical high-density W7-X plasmas, the three-ion species scheme generates more energetic ions than the more traditional minority heating scheme, which makes three-ion scenario promising for fast-ion confinement studies in W7-X.

  13. Uniform H(-) ion beam extraction in a large negative ion source with a tent-shaped magnetic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobari, H; Hanada, M; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Umeda, N; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Sakamoto, K; Takado, N

    2008-02-01

    Based on previous studies on the spatial uniformity of the negative ion beam, the external magnetic filter was replaced to a novel tent-shaped magnetic filter in the JAEA 10 A negative ion source. The line-cusp field configuration on the source chamber was also changed to form a symmetric magnetic field like many of positive ion sources aiming at high proton yield. This magnetic field configuration allows fast electrons emitted from filament cathodes to rotate azimuthally inside the source chamber. The source configuration thus prevents localization of fast electrons due to their B x grad B drift in the filter field. As a result, the H(-) ion beam profile extracted from a wide region of 340 x 170 mm(2) showed reduction of standard deviation from 16% in the original to 7.9% with the tent filter. The negative ion source with the tent filter satisfied the requirement of the beam uniformity for a large negative ion source in the ITER neutral beam injection.

  14. Fast scheme for generating quantum-interference states and G HZ state of N trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Cai Jian-Wu; Cao Shuai

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fast scheme to generate the quantum-interference states of N trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are driven by a standing-wave laser beam whose carrier frequency is tuned such that the ion transition can take place.We also propose a simple and fast scheme to produce the GHZ state of N hot trapped ions and this scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational motion, which is important from the viewpoint of decoherence.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of wall heat loads by lost fast ions in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Junki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Seki, Ryosuke

    2016-10-01

    In fusion plasmas, fast ions are produced by neutral beam injections (NBI), ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and fusion reactions. Some of fast ions are lost from fusion plasmas because of some kinds of drift and instability. These lost fast ions may cause damages on plasma facing components such as divertors and diagnostic instruments in fusion reactors. Therefore, wall heat loads by lost fast ions in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is under investigation. For this purpose, we have been developing the Monte-Carlo code for the quantitative evaluation of wall heat loads based on following the guiding center orbits of fast ions. Using this code, we investigate wall heat loads and hitting points of lost fast ions produced by NBI in LHD. Magnetic field configurations, which depend on beta values, affect orbits of fast ions and wall heat loads. Therefore, the wall heat loads by fast ions in equilibrium magnetic fields including finite beta effect and magnetic islands are quantitatively evaluated. The differences of wall heat loads and particle deposition patterns for cases of the vacuum field and various beta equilibrium fields will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  17. Grid-controlled extraction of pulsed ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, S., Jr.; Burkhart, C.; Coffey, S.; Cooper, G.; Len, L. K.; Savage, M.; Woodall, D. M.; Rutkowski, H.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental results are presented on a method for extracting well-focused ion beams from plasma sources with time-varying properties. An electrostatic grid was used to stop the flow of plasma electrons so that only ions entered the extraction gap. In this case, ion flow in the gap was controlled by space-charge effects as it would be with a thermionic ion source. Constant extracted current was observed even with large variations of source flux. An insulator spark source and a metal-vapor vacuum arc were used to generate pulsed ion beams. With a hydrocarbon spark, current densities of 44 mA/cm2 were achieved at 20-kV extractor voltage for an 8-μs pulse. With an aluminum-vapor arc, a current density of 15 mA/cm2 (0.3 A total) was measured for a 50-μs pulse.

  18. Grid-controlled extraction of pulsed ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Burkhart, C.; Coffey, S.; Cooper, G.; Len, L.K.; Savage, M.; Woodall, D.M.; Rutkowski, H.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.

    1986-03-15

    Experimental results are presented on a method for extracting well-focused ion beams from plasma sources with time-varying properties. An electrostatic grid was used to stop the flow of plasma electrons so that only ions entered the extraction gap. In this case, ion flow in the gap was controlled by space-charge effects as it would be with a thermionic ion source. Constant extracted current was observed even with large variations of source flux. An insulator spark source and a metal-vapor vacuum arc were used to generate pulsed ion beams. With a hydrocarbon spark, current densities of 44 mA/cm/sup 2/ were achieved at 20-kV extractor voltage for an 8-..mu..s pulse. With an aluminum-vapor arc, a current density of 15 mA/cm/sup 2/ (0.3 A total) was measured for a 50-..mu..s pulse.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  20. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  1. Scattering extraction of ions at CRYRING for SEU testing

    CERN Document Server

    Novák, D; Klamra, W; Norlin, L O; Bagge, L; Kaellberg, A; Paál, A; Rensfelt, K G; Molnár, J

    1999-01-01

    A measuring station has been built at the CRYRING heavy ion accelerator to test the Single Event Upset (SEU) phenomena in working Static RAM circuits. The setup extracts the beam using Rutherford scattering and the ions are monitored with a BaF sub 2 scintillator. SEU measurements have been performed for standard bulk CMOS memory circuits.

  2. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  3. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering - present results and plans for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran;

    scattering (CTS) provides the possibility of revealing the velocity distribution of the confined fast ions along a given direction – resolved both in time and space. Recently, the ITER baseline design has been expanded to include a fast ion CTS diagnostic. The design of this diagnostic was provided...... and results, and present the expectations for the ITER CTS diagnostic....

  4. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomograp...

  5. Fast-ion transport and neutral beam current drive in ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    The neutral beam current drive efficiency has been investigated in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by replacing on-axis neutral beams with tangential off-axis beams. A clear modification of the radial fast-ion profiles is observed with a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic that measures centrally peaked profil...

  6. Tomography of fast-ion velocity-space distributions from synthetic CTS and FIDA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh;

    2012-01-01

    We compute tomographies of 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions from synthetic collective Thomson scattering (CTS) and fast-ion D (FIDA) 1D measurements using a new reconstruction prescription. Contradicting conventional wisdom we demonstrate that one single 1D CTS or FIDA view suffices to...

  7. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic proposed for ITER is designed to measure projected 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions at several spatial locations simultaneously. The frequency shift of scattered radiation and the scattering geometry place fast ions that caused the col...

  8. Combination of fast-ion diagnostics in velocity-space tomographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2013-01-01

    Fast-ion Dα (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics provide indirect measurements of fast-ion velocity distribution functions in magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present the first prescription for velocity-space tomographic inversion of CTS and FIDA measurements that can ...

  9. Fast, accurate, robust and Open Source Brain Extraction Tool (OSBET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namias, R.; Donnelly Kehoe, P.; D'Amato, J. P.; Nagel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of non-brain regions in neuroimaging is a critical task to perform a favorable preprocessing. The skull-stripping depends on different factors including the noise level in the image, the anatomy of the subject being scanned and the acquisition sequence. For these and other reasons, an ideal brain extraction method should be fast, accurate, user friendly, open-source and knowledge based (to allow for the interaction with the algorithm in case the expected outcome is not being obtained), producing stable results and making it possible to automate the process for large datasets. There are already a large number of validated tools to perform this task but none of them meets the desired characteristics. In this paper we introduced an open source brain extraction tool (OSBET), composed of four steps using simple well-known operations such as: optimal thresholding, binary morphology, labeling and geometrical analysis that aims to assemble all the desired features. We present an experiment comparing OSBET with other six state-of-the-art techniques against a publicly available dataset consisting of 40 T1-weighted 3D scans and their corresponding manually segmented images. OSBET gave both: a short duration with an excellent accuracy, getting the best Dice Coefficient metric. Further validation should be performed, for instance, in unhealthy population, to generalize its usage for clinical purposes.

  10. Investigation of fast ion pressure effects in ASDEX Upgrade by spectral MSE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, René; Dinklage, Andreas; Wolf, Robert; Dunne, Mike; Geiger, Benedikt; Hobirk, Jörg; Reich, Matthias; ASDEX Upgrade Team; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2017-04-01

    High precision measurements of fast ion effects on the magnetic equilibrium in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak have been conducted in a high-power (10 MW) neutral-beam injection discharge. An improved analysis of the spectral motional Stark effect data based on forward-modeling, including the Zeeman effect, fine-structure and non-statistical sub-level distribution, revealed changes in the order of 1% in |B| . The results were found to be consistent with results from the equilibrium solver CLISTE. The measurements allowed us to derive the fast ion pressure fraction to be Δ {{p}\\text{FI}}/{{p}\\text{mhd}}≈ 10 % and variations of the fast ion pressure are consistent with calculations of the transport code TRANSP. The results advance the understanding of fast ion confinement and magneto-hydrodynamic stability in the presence of fast ions.

  11. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. A. Soliman; M. M. Abdelrahman; A. G. Helal; F. W. Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7. This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics (accel-decel system) to generate an

  12. On the microscopic mechanism of ion-extraction of a gridded ion propulsion thruster

    CERN Document Server

    Kirmse, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The following paper includes a physical microscopic particle-description of the phenomena and mechanisms that lead to the extraction of ions with the aim to generate thrust. This theoretical treatise arose from the intention to visualize the behavior of the involved particles under effect of the involved electrical fields. By this way, an underlying basis for experimental investigations of the work of an ion thruster should be formed. So a foundation was created, which explains the ion extracting and so thrust generating function of an ion thruster. The theoretical work was related to the Radio-frequency Ion Thruster (RIT). But the model worked out can be generalized for all thruster types that use electrostatic fields to extract positively charged ions.

  13. Cyclotrons with Fast Variable and/or Multiple Energy Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, C

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the principle possibility of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate sector cyclotrons (and/or FFAGs). If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of drifts) and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the reverse bend - even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in $H_2^+$-cyclotrons, which allow to double the charge to mass ratio by stripping. However the principle could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an $H_2^+$-beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies - for instance 15 MeV, 30 MeV and 70 MeV - thus allowing to have beam on several isotope production targets. In this case it is desired ...

  14. Measurement of inelasticities for charge correlated multiple ionization of Ne by fast C/sup 6 +/ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A description of measurements of inelasticities for multiple ionization in fast-single collisions is given for the example of 10 MeV C/sup 6 +/ ions with Ne atoms. The degree of multiple ionization was determined by time-of-flight of the recoil ions, extracted by an electric field in coincidence with the projectiles. Their energy loss for a given degree of multiple ionization was measured with a position-sensitive silicon detector in the focal plane of an Elbek magnetic spectrograph with an energy resolution of about 10/sup -4/.

  15. Analysis of the H- ion emissive surface in the extraction region of negative ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, N; Fukuyama, T; Wada, S; Kuppel, S; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Hatayama, A; Miyamoto, K; Fukano, A; Bacal, M

    2012-02-01

    To understand the plasma characteristics in the extraction region of negative H(-) sources is very important for the optimization of H(-) extraction from the sources. The profile of plasma density and electrostatic potential in the extraction region with and without extraction grid voltage are analyzed with a 2D particle in cell modeling of the NIFS-RD H(-) sources. The simulation results make clear the physical process forming a double ion plasma layer (which consists only of positive H(+) and negative H(-) ions) recently observed in the Cs-seeded experiments of the NIFS-R&D source in the vicinity of the extraction hole and the plasma grid. The results also give a useful insight into the formation mechanism of the plasma meniscus and the H(-) extraction process for such double ion plasma.

  16. Fast ion confinement and stability in a neutral beam injected reversed field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Tsidulko, Y. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Lin, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, D. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15

    The behavior of energetic ions is fundamentally important in the study of fusion plasmas. While well-studied in tokamak, spherical torus, and stellarator plasmas, relatively little is known in reversed field pinch plasmas about the dynamics of fast ions and the effects they cause as a large population. These studies are now underway in the Madison Symmetric Torus with an intense 25 keV, 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector (NBI). Measurements of the time-resolved fast ion distribution via a high energy neutral particle analyzer, as well as beam-target neutron flux (when NBI fuel is doped with 3–5% D{sub 2}) both demonstrate that at low concentration the fast ion population is consistent with classical slowing of the fast ions, negligible cross-field transport, and charge exchange as the dominant ion loss mechanism. A significant population of fast ions develops; simulations predict a super-Alfvénic ion density of up to 25% of the electron density with both a significant velocity space gradient and a sharp radial density gradient. There are several effects on the background plasma including enhanced toroidal rotation, electron heating, and an altered current density profile. The abundant fast particles affect the plasma stability. Fast ions at the island of the core-most resonant tearing mode have a stabilizing effect, and up to 60% reduction in the magnetic fluctuation amplitude is observed during NBI. The sharp reduction in amplitude, however, has little effect on the underlying magnetic island structure. Simultaneously, beam driven instabilities are observed as repetitive ∼50 μs bursts which coincide with fast particle redistribution; data indicate a saturated core fast ion density well below purely classical predictions.

  17. Fast Screening of Chicken Egg Lysozyme in White Wine Products by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-quan; JIANG Jie; LI Ming; ZHAO Zhan-feng; FU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Fast detection of trace lysozyme,one of the most important food allergens in white wine samples,was achieved by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment in this study.The multiply-charged ions of m/z 1587 were chosen for the quantitative detection of lysozyme in white wine,showing linear dynamic signal responses in a range of 5-75 μg/mL with a linearity coefficient of 0.999 and an acceptable relative standard deviation(RSD)of 8.0%-15.0% for directly measuring lysozyme in the complex food samples.The limit of detection for lysozyme in white wine sample was calculated to be 5 μg/mL,which was lower than the amounts that can provoke allergic reactions(oral test with 3 mg or labial test with 1 mg/mL).A single sample analysis was completed within 1 min.The data demonstrate that extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a useful tool for fast screening lysozyme in the complex matrix,showing promising application in the rapid detection of food allergen.

  18. Fast-ion Energy Loss During TAE Avalanches in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E D; Darrow, D S; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G J; Kubota, S; Podesta, M; White, R B; Bortolon, A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M

    2012-07-11

    Strong TAE avalanches on NSTX, the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] are typically correlated with drops in the neutron rate in the range of 5% - 15%. In previous studies of avalanches in L-mode plasmas, these neutron drops were found to be consistent with modeled losses of fast ions. Here we expand the study to TAE avalanches in NSTX H-mode plasmas with improved analysis techniques. At the measured TAE mode amplitudes, simulations with the ORBIT code predict that fast ion losses are negligible. However, the simulations predict that the TAE scatter the fast ions in energy, resulting in a small (≈ 6%) drop in fast ion β. The net decrease in energy of the fast ions is sufficient to account for the bulk of the drop in neutron rate, even in the absence of fast ion losses. This loss of energy from the fast ion population is comparable to the estimated energy lost by damping from the Alfven wave during the burst. The previously studied TAE avalanches in L-mode are re-evaluated using an improved calculation of the potential fluctuations in the ORBIT code.

  19. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation......Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson...... at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based...

  20. Microwave receivers for fast-ion detection in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtula, V.

    2012-02-15

    The main objectives of this thesis are to determine fundamental properties of a millimeter wave radiometer used to detect radiation associated with dynamics of fast ions and to investigate possibilities for improvements and new designs. The detection of fast ions is based on a principle called collective Thomson scattering (CTS). The Danish CTS group has been involved in fusion plasma experiments for more than 10 years and the future plans will most probably include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current CTS systems designed by the Danish group are specified for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasi-optical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly, the radiation will encounter the RF part. This part is not yet designed for ITER, but instead the solution is addressed to the CTS receiver installed at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG).We have put effort to thoroughly examine and evaluate the performance of the receiver components and the receiver as an assembled unit. We have measured and analyzed all the receiver components starting from the two notch filters to the fifty square-law detector diodes. The receiver sensitivity is calculated from the system measurements and compared with the expected sensitivity based on the individual component measurements. Besides the system considerations we have also studied improvements of two critical components of the receiver. The first component is the notch filter, which is needed to block

  1. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Haleem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF nitrogen gas discharge (10 – 100 kHz is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ∼ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 – 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  2. Consistency between real and synthetic fast-ion measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner

    2015-01-01

    by comparing fast-ion measurements from collective Thomson scattering, fast-ion spectroscopy, and neutron rate detectors with numerical predictions from the TRANSP/NUBEAM transport code. We also study the sensitivity of the theoretical predictions to uncertainties in the plasma kinetic profiles. We find...... that theory and measurements generally agree within these uncertainties for all three diagnostics during heating phases with either one or two neutral beam injection sources. This suggests that the measurements can be described by the same model assuming classical slowing down of fast ions. Since the three...

  3. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than 50%-toget

  4. Parametric Dependence Of Fast-ion Transport Events On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Erik; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Bortolon, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Neutral-beam heated tokamak plasmas commonly have more than one third of the plasma kinetic energy in the non-thermal energetic beam ion population. This population of fast ions heats the plasma, provides some of the current drive, and can affect the stability (positively or negatively) of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. This population of energetic ions is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, thus there is free-energy available to drive instabilities, which may lead to redistribution of the fast ion population. Understanding under what conditions beam-driven instabilities arise, and the extent of the resulting perturbation to the fast ion population, is important for predicting and eventually demonstrating non-inductive current ramp-up and sustainment in NSTX-U, as well as the performance of future fusion plasma experiments such as ITER. This paper presents an empirical approach towards characterizing the stability boundaries for some common energetic-ion-driven instabilities seen on NSTX.

  5. Efficient ion beam extraction from a flowing plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.; John, P.K.

    1979-10-01

    A moving plasma with directed flow velocities v larger than the ion acoustic speed c/sub s/ is used as a source of high-current ion beams in the 10--20-keV range of energies. Current densities up to 3 A/cm/sup 2/ are obtained at the plasma boundary which is an order of magnitude larger than the limiting value of Bohm current in a stationary plasma. The observed current densities were proportional to v, unlike the Bohm current densities which are proportional to ion acoustic speed. Total ion currents up to approx.100 A were extracted from the plasma through a two electrode extraction system. Simple geometric shaping of the electrodes enabled an 8-cm-diam beam to be focused to approx.7 mm.

  6. Influence of Alfven eigenmodes and ion cyclotron heating on the fast-ion distribution in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Markus; Geiger, Benedikt; Bilato, Roberto; Schneider, Philip; Tardini, Giovanni; Lauber, Philipp; Ryter, Francois; Schneller, Mirjam [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Fast, supra-thermal ions are created in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and they are needed for plasma heating and current drive. A possibility to study them is the spectroscopic observation of line radiation (fast-ion D-alpha, FIDA), which emerges from charge exchange reactions. Here, the fast ions can be distinguished from the thermal particles through there strong Doppler-shift, and their radial density profile can be measured and compared to theoretical models. An analysis of the whole Doppler spectrum yields information about the 2D velocity distribution f(v {sub parallel}, v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}). Observation from different viewing angles allows consequently a tomographic reconstruction of f(v {sub parallel}, v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}). For this purpose, the FIDA diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade has been extended from two to five views, and the spectrometer setup was improved to allow a simultaneous measurement of blue and red Doppler shifts. These recently developed diagnostic capabilities are used to study changes in the fast-ion distribution, which are caused by Alfven eigenmodes. Moreover, the further acceleration of fast ions through 2{sup nd} harmonic ICRH is investigated and compared to theoretical predictions.

  7. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  8. Collision induced fragmentation of fast molecular ions in solids and gases. [Review, wake effects, excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, D S

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent high resolution measurements on fragments arising from the collision-induced dissociation of fast (MeV) molecular ions. For solid targets, strong wake effects are observed. For gaseous targets, excited electronic states of the projectile ions play an important role. Measurements of this type provide useful information on the charge states of fast ions traversing matter. The experimental techniques show promise as a unique method for determining the geometrical structures of the molecular-ion projectiles. 41 references.

  9. Fast ion generation and runaway through magnetic reconnection events in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Capecchi, William; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Sears, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    Fokker-Planck and full orbit modeling are used to investigate how global reconnection events in MST plasmas generate an anisotropic fast ion distribution. A multi-step process is hypothesized. First, thermal ions are heated by a perpendicular heating mechanism, possibly a stochastic process that relies on turbulent diffusion and strong radial electric fields, or ion cyclotron damping in the tearing-driven turbulent cascade. Second, a small fraction of the heated ions have sufficient speed to develop substantial guiding center drifts that are relatively immune to stochastic magnetic transport. In the RFP, these fast ion drift orbits are favorable to confinement. Finally, these fast ions are accelerated by a parallel inductive electric field (up to 80 V/m) associated with the abruptly changing magnetic equilibrium. This strong impulsive field does not include any magnetic-fluctuation-based contribution as experienced by thermal particles or electrons, which do not run away like fast ions. CQL3D, a Fokker-Planck solver, and RIO, a full orbit tracing code, are used to model this multi-step process that is responsible for anisotropy in fast ion distribution in MST. Work supported by US DOE. Supported by US DOE.

  10. Fast Ion Dynamics in ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR Measured by Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, Dmitry

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  11. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  12. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T; Welton, R F; Tarvainen, O; Han, B X; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H(-) ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H(-) currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  13. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulatora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Welton, R. F.; Tarvainen, O.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H- ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H- currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  14. Benchmark of MEGA Code on Fast Ion Pressure Profile in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryosuke; Todo, Yasushi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Osakabe, Masaki

    2016-10-01

    As the first step for the analyses of energetic particle driven instabilities in the Large Helical Device (LHD) including the collisions of fast ions and the neutral beam injection, MEGA code is benchmarked on the classical fast ion pressure profile using the temperature and density profiles measured in the LHD experiments. In this benchmark, the MHD equilibrium is calculated with HINT code, and the beam deposition profile is calculated with HFREYA code. Since the equilibrium is not axisymmetric in LHD, the accuracy of orbit tracing is important for fast ion analyses. In the slowing down process of the MEGA code, the guiding center equation is numerically solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method and the linear interpolation. MEGA code is benchmarked against the results of MORH code, in which the 6th order Runge-Kutta and the 4th order spline interpolation are used. In LHD, the position of the loss boundary of fast ion is important because there are many ``re-entering fast ions'' which re-enter in plasma after they have once passed out of plasma. The effects of the position of the loss boundary on the fast ion pressure profile will be discussed, and a preliminary result of Alfven eigenmodes will be presented.

  15. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections...... with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold...

  16. Extraction of copper ions by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complexation combined with supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract Cu2+ in this study. The effects of pressure, temperature, volume of CO2 on the efficiency of extraction were systematically investigated. At the optimum condition a 57.32% recovery was achieved. Addition of suitable amount of methanol(v/v = 5 % ) to the supercritical CO2 can increase in the extraction of Cu2+ (72.69 %, RSD = 2.12 %, n = 3). And the recovery can further increase in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 because of its function of solubilization. Surfactant was first used in the extraction of metal ions in the present study, and the results are satisfied (90.52%, RSD=2.20%, n =3).

  17. Magnetic Configuration Effects on Fast Ion Losses Induced by Fast Ion Driven Toroidal Alfv~n Eigenmodes in the Large Helical Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. OGAWA; M. ISOBE; K. TOI; F. WATANABE; D. A. SPONG; A. SHIMIZU; M. OSAKABE; D. S. DARROW; S. OHDACHI; S. SAKAKIBARA; LHD Experiment -Group

    2012-01-01

    Beam-ion losses induced by fast-ion-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) were measured with a scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) in the large helical device (LHD). The SLIP gave simultaneously the energy E and the pitch angle X=arccos(v///v) distribution of the lost fast ions. The loss fluxes were investigated for three typical magnetic configurations of Rax-vac=3.60 m, 3.75 m. and 3.90 m, where Rax-vac is the magnetic axis position of the vacuum field. Dominant losses induced by TAEs in these three configurations were observed in the E/X regions of 50-190 keV/40°, 40-170 keV/25°, and 30-190 keV/30°, respectively. Lost-ion fluxes induced by TAEs depend clearly on the amplitude of TAE magnetic fluctuations, Rax-vac and the toroidal field strength Bt. The increment of the loss fluxes has the dependence of (bTAE/Bt)s. The power s increases from s = 1 to 3 with the increase of the magnetic axis position in finite beta plasmas.

  18. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.;

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injecti...

  19. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I., E-mail: goto@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Nishioka, S.; Abe, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    To improve the H{sup −} ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H{sup −} ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H{sup −} ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H{sup −} extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H{sup −} ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H{sup −} ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H{sup −} ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  20. Calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminskij, A K

    2002-01-01

    The method of the calculations of the ionization effective cross sections d sigma/d OMEGA differential in the incident ion scattering angle is described in fast collisions of light ions and atoms. The calculated values of angular distributions of the ions Al, Mg (for the different values of charge and energy of ions) after their collisions with the Ne, Mg atoms being ionized are reported. The dependence of such angular distributions on the incident ion charge and energy and the initial state of ejected electron is investigated

  1. Massive parallel 3D PIC simulation of negative ion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Adrien; Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Montellano, Ivar Mauricio; Wünderlich, Dirk; Fantz, Ursel; Minea, Tiberiu

    2017-09-01

    The 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX is dedicated to modeling Negative hydrogen/deuterium Ion (NI) extraction and co-extraction of electrons from radio-frequency driven, low pressure plasma sources. It provides valuable insight on the complex phenomena involved in the extraction process. In previous calculations, a mesh size larger than the Debye length was used, implying numerical electron heating. Important steps have been achieved in terms of computation performance and parallelization efficiency allowing successful massive parallel calculations (4096 cores), imperative to resolve the Debye length. In addition, the numerical algorithms have been improved in terms of grid treatment, i.e., the electric field near the complex geometry boundaries (plasma grid) is calculated more accurately. The revised model preserves the full 3D treatment, but can take advantage of a highly refined mesh. ONIX was used to investigate the role of the mesh size, the re-injection scheme for lost particles (extracted or wall absorbed), and the electron thermalization process on the calculated extracted current and plasma characteristics. It is demonstrated that all numerical schemes give the same NI current distribution for extracted ions. Concerning the electrons, the pair-injection technique is found well-adapted to simulate the sheath in front of the plasma grid.

  2. Calibration techniques for fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Bortolon, A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ruskov, E. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} measurements are an application of visible charge-exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy that provide information about the energetic ion population. Like other CER diagnostics, the standard intensity calibration is obtained with an integrating sphere during a vacuum vessel opening. An alternative approach is to create plasmas where the fast-ion population is known, then calculate the expected signals with a synthetic diagnostic code. The two methods sometimes agree well but are discrepant in other cases. Different background subtraction techniques and simultaneous measurements of visible bremsstrahlung and of beam emission provide useful checks on the calibrations and calculations.

  3. Development towards a fast ion loss detector for the reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglo, P. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Kim, J.; Clark, J.; Capecchi, W.; Sears, S. H.; Egedal, J.

    2016-11-01

    A fast ion loss detector has been constructed and implemented on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to investigate energetic ion losses and transport due to energetic particle and MHD instabilities. The detector discriminates particle orbits solely on pitch and consists of two thin-foil, particle collecting plates that are symmetric with respect to the device aperture. One plate collects fast ion signal, while the second aids in the minimization of background and noise effects. Initial measurements are reported along with suggestions for the next design phase of the detector.

  4. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K. [Association Euratom-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, DTU Riso/ Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Moseev, D. [Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-08-21

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurement volume located close to the centre of the plasma. The measurements agree quantitatively with predictions of numerical simulations. Hence, CTS studies of fast-ion dynamics at ASDEX Upgrade are now feasible. The new background subtraction technique could be important for the design of CTS systems in other fusion experiments.

  5. Global anomalous transport of ICRH- and NBI-heated fast ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, G. J.; Pusztai, I.; Abel, I.; Dorland, W.; Fülöp, T.

    2017-04-01

    By taking advantage of the trace approximation, one can gain an enormous computational advantage when solving for the global turbulent transport of impurities. In particular, this makes feasible the study of non-Maxwellian transport coupled in radius and energy, allowing collisions and transport to be accounted for on similar time scales, as occurs for fast ions. In this work, we study the fully-nonlinear ITG-driven trace turbulent transport of locally heated and injected fast ions. Previous results indicated the existence of MeV-range minorities heated by cyclotron resonance, and an associated density pinch effect. Here, we build upon this result using the t3core code to solve for the distribution of these minorities, consistently including the effects of collisions, gyrokinetic turbulence, and heating. Using the same tool to study the transport of injected fast ions, we contrast the qualitative features of their transport with that of the heated minorities. Our results indicate that heated minorities are more strongly affected by microturbulence than injected fast ions. The physical interpretation of this difference provides a possible explanation for the observed synergy when neutral beam injection (NBI) heating is combined with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Furthermore, we move beyond the trace approximation to develop a model which allows one to easily account for the reduction of anomalous transport due to the presence of fast ions in electrostatic turbulence.

  6. Generation of fast highly charged ions in laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Badziak, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Boody, F P [Ion Light Technologies GmbH, Bad Abbach (Germany); Czarnecka, A [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gammino, S [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Jablonski, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Krasa, J [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Laska, L [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Parys, P [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Rohlena, K [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Rosinski, M [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Ryc, L [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Torrisi, L [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Ullschmied, J [IPALS Research Centre ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    The nonthermal and nonlinear coupling of strong laser light wave with plasma transfers a part of laser energy into hot electrons and fast ions. The efficiency of these effects depends on the characteristics of a laser pulse, target properties and irradiation geometry. The reported studies were performed with the use of a high-power and high-energy iodine PALS laser system (energy up to 1 kJ in a 0.4 ns pulse at wavelength of 1315 nm and energy up to 250 J at wavelength of 438 nm). The properties of the laser-produced ion streams were determined with the use of ion diagnostics based on the time-of-flight method. The characteristics of x-rays were measured using various semiconductor detectors. The main ion stream characteristics as well as the ion acceleration processes in plasmas of different Z numbers were studied in dependence on laser pulse parameters. The parameters of a fast ion group depend evidently on Z number of the ions. The influence of the electron density scale length on fast ion generation was investigated using a low intensity laser pre-pulses to generate preformed plasmas (pre-plasmas) with which the main laser pulse interacted. The obtained results suggest that ion acceleration processes were most effective at a specific electron density gradient scale length of pre-plasma determined by the pre-pulse parameters.

  7. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) modes with fishbone-like structures are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection into MST reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to large fast ion beta and stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of these instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport and interaction with global tearing modes. Internal magnetic field fluctuations associated with the EP modes are directly observed for the first time by Faraday-effect polarimetry (frequency ~ 90 kHz and amplitude ~ 2 G). Simultaneously measured density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving and asymmetric spatial structure that peaks near the core where fast ions reside and shifts outward as the instability evolves. Furthermore, the EP mode frequencies appear at ~k∥VA , consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growing phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop (~ 15 %) when the EP modes peak, indicating the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced (× 2) with the onset of multiple nonlinearly-interacting EP modes. The fast ions also impact global tearing modes, reducing their amplitudes by up to 65%. This mode reduction is lessened following the EP-bursts, further evidence for fast ion redistribution that weakens the suppression mechanism. Possible tearing mode suppression mechanisms will be discussed. Work supported by US DoE.

  8. An improved extraction for the multicusp-type light ion-ion source apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Liukkonen, E.; ńrje, J.

    1998-02-01

    A new ion extraction system has been developed for use with the light ion source apparatus (LIISA) of the Accelerator Laboratory. The aim of the new extraction system is to have a more intense and better quality beam. For simulation of the beam behavior at the extraction region a computer code IGUNe has been used. The simulation shows that a simple triode extraction would be efficient enough to extract total beam intensities of around 5 mA at an extraction voltage of 10-15 kV. At the same time, with the carefully designed plasma electrode, the emittance could be decreased significantly from the original design. The new extraction was installed in May 1997 and the results have been encouraging. The transport efficiency of the extracted beam to the first Faraday cup (at a distance of 1.2 m) was 100% and the maximum proton current obtained was 2.0 mA. The maximum proton current in the cyclotron inflector is 1.0 mA, which is eight times larger than the previous record.

  9. Nonlinear phenomenon in nanostructures creation by fast cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.; Sabry, R.; Shalouf, A.; El-Labany, S. K.; Bahlouli, H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of accelerators technology offers a new window for the creation of surface nanostructures in an efficient and accurate way. The use of 30 MeV C60 cluster ions enables the creation of nano-hillocks of size larger than the ones produced by GeV monoatomic ions. The physical mechanism underlying the realization of such nanostructures is elucidated using a plasma expansion approach. Numerical analysis showed that increasing the ionic temperature (number density) ratios would lead to decrease (increase) the nano-hillocks height.

  10. Nonlinear stabilization of tokamak microturbulence by fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Citrin, J; Garcia, J; Haverkort, J W; Hogeweij, G M D; Jenko, F; Johnson, T; Mantica, P; Pueschel, M J; Told, D; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization by suprathermal pressure gradients found in specific regimes is shown to be a key factor in reducing tokamak microturbulence, augmenting significantly the thermal pressure electromagnetic stabilization. Based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations investigating a set of ion heat transport experiments on the JET tokamak, described by Mantica et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 135004 (2011)], this result explains the experimentally observed ion heat flux and stiffness reduction. These findings are expected to improve the extrapolation of advanced tokamak scenarios to reactor relevant regimes.

  11. Multi-view fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, B.; Dux, R.; McDermott, R. M.; Potzel, S.; Reich, M.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Wünderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Garcia-Munoz, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2013-11-15

    A novel fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic that is based on charge exchange spectroscopy has been installed at ASDEX Upgrade. The diagnostic uses a newly developed high-photon-throughput spectrometer together with a low-noise EM-CCD camera that allow measurements with 2 ms exposure time. Absolute intensities are obtained by calibrating the system with an integrating sphere and the wavelength dependence is determined to high accuracy using a neon lamp. Additional perturbative contributions to the spectra, such as D{sub 2}-molecular lines, the Stark broadened edge D-alpha emission, and passive FIDA radiation have been identified and can be subtracted or avoided experimentally. The FIDA radiation from fast deuterium ions after charge exchange reactions can therefore be analyzed continuously without superimposed line emissions at large Doppler shifts. Radial information on the fast ions is obtained from radially distributed lines of sight. The investigation of the fast-ion velocity distribution is possible due to three different viewing geometries. The independent viewing geometries access distinct parts of the fast-ion velocity space and make tomographic reconstructions possible.

  12. Action-angle formulation of generalized, orbit-based, fast-ion diagnostic weight functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the usually complicated and anisotropic nature of the fast-ion distribution function, diagnostic velocity-space weight functions, which indicate the sensitivity of a diagnostic to different fast-ion velocities, are used to facilitate the analysis of experimental data. Additionally, when velocity-space weight functions are discretized, a linear equation relating the fast-ion density and the expected diagnostic signal is formed. In a technique known as velocity-space tomography, many measurements can be combined to create an ill-conditioned system of linear equations that can be solved using various computational methods. However, when velocity-space weight functions (which by definition ignore spatial dependencies) are used, velocity-space tomography is restricted, both by the accuracy of its forward model and also by the availability of spatially overlapping diagnostic measurements. In this work, we extend velocity-space weight functions to a full 6D generalized coordinate system and then show how to reduce them to a 3D orbit-space without loss of generality using an action-angle formulation. Furthermore, we show how diagnostic orbit-weight functions can be used to infer the full fast-ion distribution function, i.e., orbit tomography. In depth derivations of orbit weight functions for the neutron, neutral particle analyzer, and fast-ion D-α diagnostics are also shown.

  13. Fast ion mass spectrometry and charged particle spectrography investigations of transverse ion acceleration and beam-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W. C.; Tomlinson, W. M.; Marshall, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Ion acceleration transverse to the magnetic field in the topside ionosphere was investigated. Transverse acceleration is believed to be responsible for the upward-moving conical ion distributions commonly observed along auroral field lines at altitudes from several hundred to several thousand kilometers. Of primary concern in this investigation is the extent of these conic events in space and time. Theoretical predictions indicate very rapid initial heating rates, depending on the ion species. These same theories predict that the events will occur within a narrow vertical region of only a few hundred kilometers. Thus an instrument with very high spatial and temporal resolution was required; further, since different heating rates were predicted for different ions, it was necessary to obtain composition as well as velocity space distributions. The fast ion mass spectrometer (FIMS) was designed to meet these criteria. This instrument and its operation is discussed.

  14. The description of charge transfer in fast negative ions scattering on water covered Si(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Qiu, Shunli; Liu, Pinyang; Xiong, Feifei; Lu, Jianjie; Liu, Yuefeng; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yiran; Ren, Fei; Xiao, Yunqing; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Ding, Bin; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yanling; Chen, Ximeng

    2016-11-01

    Doping has significantly affected the characteristics and performance of semiconductor electronic devices. In this work, we study the charge transfer processes for 8.5-22.5 keV C- and F- ions scattering on H2O-terminated p-type Si(100) surfaces with two different doping concentrations. We find that doping has no influence on negative-ion formation for fast collisions in this relatively high energy range. Moreover, we build a model to calculate negative ion fractions including the contribution from positive ions. The calculations support the nonadiabatic feature of charge transfer.

  15. Complexation-induced supramolecular assembly drives metal-ion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ross J; Meridiano, Yannick; Muller, Julie; Berthon, Laurence; Guilbaud, Philippe; Zorz, Nicole; Antonio, Mark R; Demars, Thomas; Zemb, Thomas

    2014-09-26

    Combining experiment with theory reveals the role of self-assembly and complexation in metal-ion transfer through the water-oil interface. The coordinating metal salt Eu(NO3)3 was extracted from water into oil by a lipophilic neutral amphiphile. Molecular dynamics simulations were coupled to experimental spectroscopic and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate how local coordination interactions between the metal ion and ligands in the organic phase combine with long-range interactions to produce spontaneous changes in the solvent microstructure. Extraction of the Eu(3+)-3(NO3(-)) ion pairs involves incorporation of the "hard" metal complex into the core of "soft" aggregates. This seeds the formation of reverse micelles that draw the water and "free" amphiphile into nanoscale hydrophilic domains. The reverse micelles interact through attractive van der Waals interactions and coalesce into rod-shaped polynuclear Eu(III) -containing aggregates with metal centers bridged by nitrate. These preorganized hydrophilic domains, containing high densities of O-donor ligands and anions, provide improved Eu(III) solvation environments that help drive interfacial transfer, as is reflected by the increasing Eu(III) partitioning ratios (oil/aqueous) despite the organic phase approaching saturation. For the first time, this multiscale approach links metal-ion coordination with nanoscale structure to reveal the free-energy balance that drives the phase transfer of neutral metal salts.

  16. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krása, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D; Krouský, E; Krouský, L; Jungwirth, K; Rohlena, K; Ullschmied, J; Parys, P; Ryć, L; Wołowski, J

    2012-02-01

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 × 10(16) W∕cm(2). Above the laser intensity threshold of ∼3 × 10(14) W∕cm(2) the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV∕charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  17. Ion Extraction from a Toroidal Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source: a Numerical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, Claudia; Volpe, Francesco; Gammino, Santo; Mascali, David

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are magnetic mirror plasmas of microwave-heated electrons and cold multi-charged ions. The ions are extracted from one end of the mirror and injected in accelerators for nuclear and particle physics studies, hadrontherapy, or neutral beam injection in fusion plasmas. ECRIS devices progressed to higher and higher ion currents and charge states by adopting stronger magnetic fields (beneficial for confinement) and proportionally higher ECR frequencies. Further improvements would require the attainment of ``triple products'' comparable with major fusion experiments. For this, we propose a new, toroidal rather than linear, ECRIS geometry, which would at the same time improve confinement and make better use of the magnetic field. Ion extraction is more complicated than from a linear device, but feasible, as our modeling indicates. Possible techniques involve charge-dependent drifts, divertors, specially designed magnetic fields and associated loss-cones, electrostatic and/or magnetic deflectors, or techniques used in accelerators to transfer particles from one storage ring or accelerator to the next. Here we present single-particle tracings assessing and comparing these extraction techniques.

  18. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure ...

  19. Global anomalous transport of ICRH- and NBI-heated fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkie, George J; Abel, Ian G; Dorland, William; Fülöp, Tünde

    2016-01-01

    By taking advantage of the trace approximation, one can gain an enormous computational advantage when solving for the global turbulent transport of impurities. In particular, this makes feasible the study of non-Maxwellian transport coupled in radius and energy, allowing collisions and transport to be accounted for on similar time scales, as occurs for fast ions. In this work, we study the fully-nonlinear ITG-driven trace turbulent transport of locally heated and injected fast ions. Previous results indicated the existence of MeV-range minorities heated by cyclotron resonance, and an associated density pinch effect. Here, we build upon this result using the t3core code to solve for the distribution of these minorities, consistently including the effects of collisions, gyrokinetic turbulence, and heating. Using the same tool to study the transport of injected fast ions, we contrast the qualitative features of their transport with that of the heated minorities. Furthermore, we move beyond the trace approximatio...

  20. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography......, prior information makes up for this lack of data. We restrict the target velocity space through the measured absence of FIDA light, impose phase-space densities to be non-negative, and encode the known geometry of neutral beam injection (NBI) sources. We further use a numerical simulation as prior...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  1. Reduced Fast Ion Transport Model For The Tokamak Transport Code TRANSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podesta,, Mario; Gorelenkova, Marina; White, Roscoe

    2014-02-28

    Fast ion transport models presently implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, CEC Brussels, 1 , 19 (1980)] are not capturing important aspects of the physics associated with resonant transport caused by instabilities such as Toroidal Alfv en Eigenmodes (TAEs). This work describes the implementation of a fast ion transport model consistent with the basic mechanisms of resonant mode-particle interaction. The model is formulated in terms of a probability distribution function for the particle's steps in phase space, which is consistent with the MonteCarlo approach used in TRANSP. The proposed model is based on the analysis of fast ion response to TAE modes through the ORBIT code [R. B. White et al., Phys. Fluids 27 , 2455 (1984)], but it can be generalized to higher frequency modes (e.g. Compressional and Global Alfv en Eigenmodes) and to other numerical codes or theories.

  2. Stability properties and fast ion confinement of hybrid tokamak plasma configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. P.; Brunetti, D.; Pfefferle, D.; Faustin, J. M. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Kleiner, A.; Lanthaler, S.; Patten, H. W.; Raghunathan, M.

    2015-11-01

    In hybrid scenarios with flat q just above unity, extremely fast growing tearing modes are born from toroidal sidebands of the near resonant ideal internal kink mode. New scalings of the growth rate with the magnetic Reynolds number arise from two fluid effects and sheared toroidal flow. Non-linear saturated 1/1 dominant modes obtained from initial value stability calculation agree with the amplitude of the 1/1 component of a 3D VMEC equilibrium calculation. Viable and realistic equilibrium representation of such internal kink modes allow fast ion studies to be accurately established. Calculations of MAST neutral beam ion distributions using the VENUS-LEVIS code show very good agreement of observed impaired core fast ion confinement when long lived modes occur. The 3D ICRH code SCENIC also enables the establishment of minority RF distributions in hybrid plasmas susceptible to saturated near resonant internal kink modes.

  3. Evaluation of ion current density distribution on an extraction electrode of a radio frequency ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masherov, P.; Riaby, V.; Abgaryan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The radial distributions of ion current density on an ion extracting electrode of a radio frequency (RF) ion thruster (RIT) with an inductive plasma source were obtained using probe diagnostics of the RF xenon plasma. Measurements were carried out using a plane wall probe simulator and the VGPS-12 Probe System of Plasma Sensors Co. At xenon flow rate q  =  2 sccm plasma pressure was 2 · 10-3 Torr, incident RF generator power varied in the range P g  =  50-250 W with RF power absorbed by plasma up to P p  =  220 W. Ion current densities were determined using semi- and double-logarithmic probe characteristics by linear extrapolations of their ion branches to probe floating potentials. The same parameters were also measured in undisturbed plasma by a classic cylindrical probe. They exceeded plane probe data by more than two times, showing the effectiveness of plasma sheath reproduction of the RIT ion extracting electrode by the plane wall probe simulator. Slight non-uniformity of the resulting plasma distributions and simplified RIT model design showed that the studied device with flat antenna coil and ferrite core could be considered as a promising prospect for RITs of new generation.

  4. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  5. Investigation of Coupling during the Non-Local Fast Extraction in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekou, A; Papaphilippou, Y

    2014-01-01

    The CENF (CERN Neutrino Facility) requires a high-intensity and high-energy beam (100 GeV) to be extracted in only one machine revolution from the Long Straight Section 2 (LSS2) of the SPS. However, since LSS2 has always been used for slow extraction, no kickers are installed in this straight section. The kickers already installed in another long straight section were used for a non-local fast extraction, to extract the beam in a single turn from LSS2. This note compares the trajectories obtained during the fast extraction feasibility studies (Sept 2012) with simulations performed using MAD-X and PTC in order to evaluate the magnitude of coupling in the SPS, as in the case of strong coupling the extraction would be aected.

  6. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries.

  7. Comparison of fast ion confinement during on-axis and off-axis neutral beam experiments on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Podesta, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Medley, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    A second and more tangential neutral beam line is a major upgrade component of the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U) with the purpose of improving neutral beam current drive efficiency and providing more flexibility in current/pressure profile control. Good fast ion confinement is essential to achieve the anticipated improvements in performance. In a planed ``sanity check'' experiment, various short and long (relative to fast ion slowing-down time) neutral beam (NB) pulses with different source mixes will be injected into quiescent L-mode plasmas to characterize the fast ion confinement and distribution function produced by the new and the existing NBI lines. The neutron rate decay after the turn-off of short NB pulses will be used to estimate the fast ion confinement time and to investigate its dependence on NB source/geometry, injection energy, and plasma current. The newly installed Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) and Fast-Ion D-Alapha (FIDA) diagnostics will be described and will be used to measure fast ion slowing-down distribution function and spatial profile during the injection of relatively long NB pulses. Fast ion prompt losses will be monitored with a scintillator Fast Lost Ion Probe (sFLIP) diagnostic. The experimental techniques, measurements of fast ion confinement time and distribution function, and comparisons with classical predictions from NUBEAM modeling will be presented in detail. Work supported by US DOE.

  8. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate school of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  9. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Dylan; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and applications-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion-transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of the metal Indium on lithium. By means of Joint-Density Functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including enabling exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that utilize both alloying and plating chemistries for charge storage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J; Stejner, M; Salewski, M; Jacobsen, A S; Korsholm, S B; Leipold, F; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Schubert, M; Stober, J; Tardini, G; Wagner, D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurem...

  11. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  12. A method for fast feature extraction in threshold scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Marius C.; Ritman, James

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast, analytical method to calculate the threshold and noise parameters from a threshold scan. This is usually done by fitting a response function to the data which is computationally very intensive. The runtime can be minimized by a hardware implementation, e.g. using an FPGA, which in turn requires to minimize the mathematical complexity of the algorithm in order to fit into the available resources on the FPGA. The systematic errors of the method are analyzed and reasonable choices of the parameters for use in practice are given.

  13. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift gate

    OpenAIRE

    Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in [Jonathan etal, PRA 62, 042307]. Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  14. Investigation of fast-ion generation in a laser plasma according to X-ray line radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, N. G.; Maksimchuk, A. M.; Mikhailov, Iu. A.; Rode, A. V.; Getz, K.

    1987-04-01

    The profile of the 1s2-1s2p resonance line of the P XIV phosphorous ion is studied in order to derive the energy spectrum and indicatrix of fast ions in a laser plasma. The energetic and angular characteristics of fast ions are examined. The spectrum and indicatrix are analyzed using a model in which it is assumed that the ions are accelerated as a result of the self-focusing of laser radiation in the plasma corona.

  15. Fast SIFT design for real-time visual feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Liang-Chi; Chang, Tian-Sheuan; Chen, Jiun-Yen; Chang, Nelson Yen-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Visual feature extraction with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is widely used for object recognition. However, its real-time implementation suffers from long latency, heavy computation, and high memory storage because of its frame level computation with iterated Gaussian blur operations. Thus, this paper proposes a layer parallel SIFT (LPSIFT) with integral image, and its parallel hardware design with an on-the-fly feature extraction flow for real-time application needs. Compared with the original SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach reduces the computational amount by 90% and memory usage by 95%. The final implementation uses 580-K gate count with 90-nm CMOS technology, and offers 6000 feature points/frame for VGA images at 30 frames/s and ∼ 2000 feature points/frame for 1920 × 1080 images at 30 frames/s at the clock rate of 100 MHz.

  16. First measurements of Dα spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A.; Anikeev, A.

    2014-11-01

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  17. Blind Extraction of Chaotic Signals by Using the Fast Independent Component Analysis Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Bin; FENG Jiu-Chao; FANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of using the fast independent component analysis(FastICA)algorithm to realize blind extraction of chaotic signals.Two cases are taken into consideration:namely,the mixture is noiseless or contaminated by noise.Pre-whitening is employed to reduce the effect of noise before using the FastICA algorithm.The correlation coefficient criterion is adopted to evaluate the performance,and the success rate is defined as a new criterion to indicate the performance with respect to noise or different mixing matrices.Simulation results show that the FastICA algorithm can extract the chaotic signals effectively.The impact of noise,the length of a signal frame,the number of sources and the number of observed mixtures on the performance is investigated in detail.It is also shown that regarding a noise as an independent source is not always correct.

  18. Single electron capture in fast ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Single-electron capture cross sections in collisions between fast bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems are investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation. The prior and post transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of twodimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. The dielectronic interaction V12 = 1/r12 = 1/|r1 - r2| explicitly appears in the complete perturbation potential Vf of the post transition probability amplitude T+if. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p - He (prior and post form) and He2+, Li3+Be4+B5+C6+ - He (prior form) collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. We have also studied differential cross sections in prior and post form for single electron transfer from helium by protons. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  19. Preface: Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kövér, László

    2016-02-01

    This Special Issue contains selected papers of contributions presented in the International Workshop on Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON), held between March 24 and 26, 2015 in Debrecen, Hungary. The venue, the Aquaticum Thermal and Wellness Hotel provided a pleasant "all-under-one-roof" environment for the event.

  20. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic systems for measuring fast ions in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade are described in this article. Both systems use millimeter waves generated by gyrotrons as probing radiation and the scattered radiation is detected with heterodyne receivers having 40...

  1. On velocity-space sensitivity of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Moseev, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The velocity-space observation regions and sensitivities in fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements are often described by so-called weight functions. Here we derive expressions for FIDA weight functions accounting for the Doppler shift, Stark splitting, and the charge-exchange reaction and ...

  2. Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov re...

  3. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  4. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    of scattering locations and different resolved velocity components can be measured. The temporal resolution is 4 ms while the spatial resolution is similar to 10 cm depending on the scattering geometry. Fast-ion velocity distributions in a variety of scenarios are measured, including the evolution...

  5. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injection...

  6. Numerical studies of fast ion slowing down rates in cool magnetized plasma using LSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Kolmes, Elijah; Cohen, Samuel A.; Rognlien, Tom; Cohen, Bruce; Meier, Eric; Welch, Dale R.

    2016-10-01

    In MFE devices, rapid transport of fusion products from the core into the scrape-off layer (SOL) could perform the dual roles of energy and ash removal. The first-orbit trajectories of most fusion products from small field-reversed configuration (FRC) devices will traverse the SOL, allowing those particles to deposit their energy in the SOL and be exhausted along the open field lines. Thus, the fast ion slowing-down time should affect the energy balance of an FRC reactor and its neutron emissions. However, the dynamics of fast ion energy loss processes under the conditions expected in the FRC SOL (with ρe fast ions in a cool plasma. As we use explicit algorithms, these simulations must spatially resolve both ρe and λDe, as well as temporally resolve both Ωe and ωpe, increasing computation time. Scaling studies of the fast ion charge (Z) and background plasma density are in good agreement with unmagnetized slowing down theory. Notably, Z-scaling represents a viable way to dramatically reduce the required CPU time for each simulation. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  8. Simple and Fast Scheme for Realizing Quantum Logic Gates in an Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple and fast scheme to realize a controlled-NOT gate between two trapped ions using a resonant laser pulse. Our scheme allows the Rabi frequency of the laser field to be of the order of the vibrational frequency and thus the time required to complete the operation is greatly shortened, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  9. Measurement and simulation of passive fast-ion D-alpha emission from the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Nathan G.; Heidbrink, William W.; Pace, David; Van Zeeland, Michael; Chen, Xi

    2016-11-01

    Spectra of passive fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) light from beam ions that charge exchange with background neutrals are measured and simulated. The fast ions come from three sources: ions that pass through the diagnostic sightlines on their first full orbit, an axisymmetric confined population, and ions that are expelled into the edge region by instabilities. A passive FIDA simulation (P-FIDASIM) is developed as a forward model for the spectra of the first-orbit fast ions and consists of an experimentally-validated beam deposition model, an ion orbit-following code, a collisional-radiative model, and a synthetic spectrometer. Model validation consists of the simulation of 86 experimental spectra that are obtained using 6 different neutral beam fast-ion sources and 13 different lines of sight. Calibrated spectra are used to estimate the neutral density throughout the cross-section of the tokamak. The resulting 2D neutral density shows the expected increase toward each X-point with average neutral densities of 8× {{10}9}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} at the plasma boundary and 1× {{10}11}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} near the wall. Fast ions that are on passing orbits are expelled by the sawtooth instability more readily than trapped ions. In a sample discharge, approximately 1% of the fast-ion population is ejected into the high neutral density region per sawtooth crash.

  10. Analysis of fast ion induced instabilities in tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, László

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices like tokamaks, it is crucial to confine the high energy fusion-born helium nuclei ($\\alpha$-particles) to maintain the energy equilibrium of the plasma. However, energetic ions can excite various instabilities which can lead to their enhanced radial transport. Consequently, these instabilities may degrade the heating efficiency and they can also cause harmful power loads on the plasma-facing components of the device. Therefore, the understanding of these modes is a key issue regarding future burning plasma experiments. One of the main open questions concerning energetic particle (EP) driven instabilities is the non-linear evolution of the mode structure. In this thesis, I present my results on the investigation of $\\beta$-induced Alfv\\'{e}n eigenmodes (BAEs) and EP-driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) observed in the ramp-up phase of off-axis NBI heated plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. These modes were well visible on several line-of-sights (LOSs) of the soft X-ra...

  11. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.

    2015-01-01

    The confinement fast ions, generated by neutral beam injection (NBI), has been investigated at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. In plasmas that exhibit strong sawtooth crashes, a significant sawtooth-induced internal redistribution of mainly passing fast ions is observed, which is in very good agreemen...

  12. Experimental and simulated fast ion velocity distributions on collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in the Large Helical Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a collective Thomson scattering diagnostic system in the LHD. The CTS spectrum spread is observed in the frequency region corresponding to the bulk and fast ions during NB injection. The NB originated fast ions are evaluated by the MORH code for understanding the measured CTS sp...

  13. Fast-ion redistribution due to sawtooth crash in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Salewski, Mirko;

    2010-01-01

    Here we present collective Thomson scattering measurements of 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions in neutral beam heated TEXTOR plasmas with sawtooth oscillations. Up to 50% of the fast ions in the centre are redistributed as a consequence of a sawtooth crash. We resolve various directions...

  14. First fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) measurements and simulations on C-2U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, N. G., E-mail: nbolte@TriAlphaEnergy.com; Gupta, D.; Onofri, M.; Dettrick, S.; Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Stagner, L. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The first measurements of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) radiation have been acquired on C-2U, Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced, beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC). These measurements are also forward modeled by FIDASIM. This is the first measurement and simulation of FIDA carried out on an FRC topology. FIDA measurements are made of Doppler-shifted Balmer-alpha light from neutralized fast ions using a bandpass filter and photomultiplier tube. One adjustable line-of-sight measured signals at eight locations and eight times during the FRC lifetime over 26 discharges. Filtered signals include only the highest energy ions (>6 keV) and share some salient features with the FIDASIM result. Highly Doppler-shifted beam radiation is also measured with a high-speed camera and is spatially well-correlated with FIDASIM.

  15. First fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) measurements and simulations on C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, N. G.; Gupta, D.; Stagner, L.; Onofri, M.; Dettrick, S.; Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.

    2016-11-01

    The first measurements of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) radiation have been acquired on C-2U, Tri Alpha Energy's advanced, beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC). These measurements are also forward modeled by FIDASIM. This is the first measurement and simulation of FIDA carried out on an FRC topology. FIDA measurements are made of Doppler-shifted Balmer-alpha light from neutralized fast ions using a bandpass filter and photomultiplier tube. One adjustable line-of-sight measured signals at eight locations and eight times during the FRC lifetime over 26 discharges. Filtered signals include only the highest energy ions (>6 keV) and share some salient features with the FIDASIM result. Highly Doppler-shifted beam radiation is also measured with a high-speed camera and is spatially well-correlated with FIDASIM.

  16. Validation of fast-ion D-alpha spectrum measurements during EAST neutral-beam heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, C. R.; Hou, Y. M.; Chang, J. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Jin, Z.; Xu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wang, J. F.; Lyu, B.; Zang, Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L.; Wan, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [Diagnostic Team, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been installed on EAST. Fast ion features can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Balmer-alpha light from energetic hydrogenic atoms. This paper will focus on the validation of FIDA measurements performed using MHD-quiescent discharges in 2015 campaign. Two codes have been applied to calculate the D{sub α} spectrum: one is a Monte Carlo code, Fortran 90 version FIDASIM, and the other is an analytical code, Simulation of Spectra (SOS). The predicted SOS fast-ion spectrum agrees well with the measurement; however, the level of fast-ion part from FIDASIM is lower. The discrepancy is possibly due to the difference between FIDASIM and SOS velocity distribution function. The details will be presented in the paper to primarily address comparisons of predicted and observed spectrum shapes/amplitudes.

  17. Validation of fast-ion D-alpha spectrum measurements during EAST neutral-beam heated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Stagner, L.; Wu, C. R.; Hou, Y. M.; Chang, J. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhu, Y. B.; Jin, Z.; Xu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wang, J. F.; Lyu, B.; Zang, Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L.; Wan, B.

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been installed on EAST. Fast ion features can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Balmer-alpha light from energetic hydrogenic atoms. This paper will focus on the validation of FIDA measurements performed using MHD-quiescent discharges in 2015 campaign. Two codes have been applied to calculate the Dα spectrum: one is a Monte Carlo code, Fortran 90 version FIDASIM, and the other is an analytical code, Simulation of Spectra (SOS). The predicted SOS fast-ion spectrum agrees well with the measurement; however, the level of fast-ion part from FIDASIM is lower. The discrepancy is possibly due to the difference between FIDASIM and SOS velocity distribution function. The details will be presented in the paper to primarily address comparisons of predicted and observed spectrum shapes/amplitudes.

  18. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumori, K., E-mail: tsumori@nifs.ac.jp; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Geng, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S. [Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P. [Plasma Engineering Group, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wimmer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Bereich ITER-Technologie und -Diagnostik/N-NBI Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup −}) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H{sup −} density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H{sub 2} plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  19. A FAST AND ROBUST ALGORITHM FOR ROAD EDGES EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model and DTM (digital terrain model is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road. We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  20. a Fast and Robust Algorithm for Road Edges Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kaijin; Sun, Kai; Ding, Kou; Shu, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model) and DTM (digital terrain model) is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road). We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  1. An online peak extraction algorithm for ion mobility spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczynski, Dominik; Rahmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry (IMS), coupled with multi-capillary columns (MCCs), has been gaining importance for biotechnological and medical applications because of its ability to detect and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOC) at low concentrations in the air or in exhaled breath at ambient pressure and temperature. Ongoing miniaturization of spectrometers creates the need for reliable data analysis on-the-fly in small embedded low-power devices. We present the first fully automated online peak extraction method for MCC/IMS measurements consisting of several thousand individual spectra. Each individual spectrum is processed as it arrives, removing the need to store the measurement before starting the analysis, as is currently the state of the art. Thus the analysis device can be an inexpensive low-power system such as the Raspberry Pi. The key idea is to extract one-dimensional peak models (with four parameters) from each spectrum and then merge these into peak chains and finally two-dimensional peak models. We describe the different algorithmic steps in detail and evaluate the online method against state-of-the-art peak extraction methods.

  2. Advanced ion beam analysis of materials using ion-induced fast electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Atsushi; Ishihara, Toyoyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of high-energy shadowing effect using ion-induced electron spectroscopy is reported with emphasis on a possibility of determination of local electronic structure in solids, which has been a difficult problem to approach with other experimental techniques. We demonstrate real-space determination of covalent-bond electron distribution in Si crystal. The analysis technique may provide a new field of ion beam analysis of solids. (author)

  3. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsinki University of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes (Finland); Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D.C. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density n{sub e} decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing n{sub e} due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on n{sub e}, the threshold in n{sub e} corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population. (author)

  4. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilisation at very high fast ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density n{sub e} decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing n{sub e} due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on n{sub e}, the threshold in n{sub e} corresponds to a threshold in the fast ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55-65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes [White, Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989)], exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast ion population. (author)

  5. A new type of MHD activity in JET ICRF-only discharges with high fast-ion energy contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Sharapov, S.; Alper, B.; Gondhalekar, A.; McDonald, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    The question of sawtooth stabilization at very high fast-ion energy contents has been addressed in discharges carried out in the JET tokamak with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating and varying plasma density, controlled by deuterium gas puffs. In these experiments dramatic differences in the sawtooth behaviour have been observed. When the plasma density ne decreases below a certain threshold, the sawtooth frequency and the crash duration time increase by a factor of five. Since the fast-ion energy content increases with decreasing ne due to the inverse proportionality of the fast-ion slowing-down time on ne, the threshold in ne corresponds to a threshold in the fast-ion energy content. In the present experiments, this threshold is reached when the fast-ion energy contribution to the total plasma diamagnetic energy content becomes larger than 45%. The sawtooth activity with short sawtooth free period is accompanied by MHD activity, with a toroidal mode number n = 1 at frequencies between 55 and 65 kHz. This activity is interpreted as an energetic particle fishbone mode that is resonant with the ICRF-driven fast ions. The experimental results appear to be consistent with the stability diagram for sawtooth and fishbone modes (White 1989 Theory of Tokamak Plasmas (Amsterdam: North-Holland)), exploring the part of the diagram with a very large fast-ion population.

  6. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  7. Measurement of a 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function by tomographic inversion of fast-ion D-alpha spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Garcıa-Munoz, Manuel; Heidbrink, Bill; Korsholm, Soren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Madsen, Jens; Moseev, Dmitry; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Rasmussen, Jesper; Stejner, Morten; Tardini, Giovanni; Weiland, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function $f(v_\\parallel, v_\\perp)$. To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) light from the plasma center in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra agree very well with synthetic spectra calculated from a TRANSP/NUBEAM simulation. Based on the measured FIDA spectra alone, we infer $f(v_\\parallel, v_\\perp)$ by tomographic inversion. Salient features of our measurement of $f(v_\\parallel, v_\\perp)$ agree reasonably well with the simulation: the measured as well as the simulated $f(v_\\parallel, v_\\perp)$ are lopsided towards negative velocities parallel to the magnetic field, and they have similar shapes. Further, the peaks in the simulation of $f(v_\\parallel, v_\\perp)$ at full and half injection energies of the neutral beam also appear in the measurement at similar velocity-space locations. We expect that we can measure spectra in up to seven vi...

  8. Enabling High Fidelity Measurements of Energy and Pitch Angle for Escaping Energetic Ions with a Fast Ion Loss Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, R.; Pace, D. C.; Marcy, G. R.; Taussig, D.

    2016-10-01

    Energetic ion losses must be minimized in burning plasmas to maintain fusion power, and existing tokamaks provide access to energetic ion parameter regimes that are relevant to burning machines. A new Fast Ion Loss Detector (FILD) probe on the DIII-D tokamak has been optimized to resolve beam ion losses across a range of 30 - 90 keV in energy and 40° to 80° in pitch angle, thereby providing valuable measurements during many different experiments. The FILD is a magnetic spectrometer; once inserted into the tokamak, the magnetic field allows energetic ions to pass through a collimating aperture and strike a scintillator plate that is imaged by a wide view camera and narrow view photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The design involves calculating scintillator strike patterns while varying probe geometry. Calculated scintillator patterns are then used to design an optical system that allows adjustment of the focus regions for the 1 MS/s resolved PMTs. A synthetic diagnostic will be used to determine the energy and pitch angle resolution that can be attained in DIII-D experiments. Work supported in part by US DOE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. Observation of doubly-charged ions of francium isotopes extracted from a gas cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Ito, Y.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Kimura, S.; Koura, H.; MacCormick, M.; Miyatake, H.; Moon, J. Y.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murray, I.; Ozawa, A.; Rosenbusch, M.; Reponen, M.; Takamine, A.; Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Wollnik, H.

    2017-09-01

    Various isotopes of Ac, Ra, Fr, and Rn were produced by fusion-evaporation reactions using a 48Ca beam. The energetic ions were stopped in and extracted from a helium gas cell. The extracted ions were identified using a multi-reflection time-of-fight mass spectrograph. In all cases, it was observed that the predominant charge state for the extracted ions, including the alkali Fr, was 2+.

  10. Fast carbohydrate analysis via liquid chromatography coupled with ultra violet and electrospray ionization ion trap detection in 96-well format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Broder; Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker

    2014-07-11

    A fast carbohydrate screening platform processible in 96-well format is described. The method is suitable for the determination of various carbohydrates out of complex mixtures as obtained by acidic hydrolysis of carbohydrates polymers. The chromatographic conditions for an efficient separation (12min) and the derivatization process with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) were optimized for high resolution separation and simultaneous determination of deoxy-, amino-, anhydro-sugars as well as hexoses, pentoses, dimers, uronic acids and degradation products like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The potential to quantify with UV- and MS-detector in the same range has been demonstrated for 20 different compounds. Finally, the matrix effects of the hydrolysis were positively evaluated. The micro scale hydrolysis and PMP-derivatization without any extraction or drying steps, both in 96-well format, result in a fast and intuitive sample preparation. In combination with a fast liquid chromatography coupled to UV and electrospray ionization ion trap detection (LC-UV-ESI-MS/MS) for the qualification and quantification of various sugars, dimers and degradation products, this method shows great performance in carbohydrate analysis.

  11. Moment feature based fast feature extraction algorithm for moving object detection using aerial images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F M Saifuddin Saif

    Full Text Available Fast and computationally less complex feature extraction for moving object detection using aerial images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs remains as an elusive goal in the field of computer vision research. The types of features used in current studies concerning moving object detection are typically chosen based on improving detection rate rather than on providing fast and computationally less complex feature extraction methods. Because moving object detection using aerial images from UAVs involves motion as seen from a certain altitude, effective and fast feature extraction is a vital issue for optimum detection performance. This research proposes a two-layer bucket approach based on a new feature extraction algorithm referred to as the moment-based feature extraction algorithm (MFEA. Because a moment represents the coherent intensity of pixels and motion estimation is a motion pixel intensity measurement, this research used this relation to develop the proposed algorithm. The experimental results reveal the successful performance of the proposed MFEA algorithm and the proposed methodology.

  12. The extraction of negative carbon ions from a volume cusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stephane; Dehnel, Morgan; Potkins, Dave; McDonald, Hamish; Hollinger, Craig; Theroux, Joseph; Martin, Jeff; Stewart, Thomas; Jackle, Philip; Philpott, Chris; Jones, Tobin; Kalvas, Taneli; Tarvainen, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Acetylene and carbon dioxide gases are used in a filament-powered volume-cusp ion source to produce negative carbon ions for the purpose of carbon implantation for gettering applications. The beam was extracted to an energy of 25 keV and the composition was analyzed with a spectrometer system consisting of a 90° dipole magnet and a pair of slits. It is found that acetylene produces mostly C2- ions (up to 92 µA), while carbon dioxide produces mostly O- with only trace amounts of C-. Maximum C2- current was achieved with 400 W of arc power and, the beam current and composition were found to be highly dependent on the pressure in the source. The beam properties as a function of source settings are analyzed, and plasma properties are measured with a Langmuir probe. Finally, we describe testing of a new RF H- ion source, found to produce more than 6 mA of CW H- beam.

  13. Studies of the fast ion energy spectra in TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fontdecaba, J. M.; Arevalo, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Castejon, F.; Velasco, J. L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de los Sistemas Complejos (BIFI), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Tereshchenko, M. [Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de los Sistemas Complejos (BIFI), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    The dynamics of the neutral beam injection fast ions in the TJ-II stellarator is studied in this paper from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The code Integrator of Stochastic Differential Equations for Plasmas (ISDEP) is used to estimate the fast ion distribution function in 3D:1D in real space and 2D in velocity space, considering the 3D structure of TJ-II, the electrostatic potential, non turbulent collisional transport, and charge exchange losses. The results of ISDEP are compared with the experimental data from the compact neutral particle analyzer, which measures the outgoing neutral flux spectra in the energy range E Element-Of (1-45) keV.

  14. Reduction of the U(VI) ion. A fast conductimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broszkiewicz, R.K. (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)); Vojnovic, B.; Michael, B.D. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK). Gray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of U(VI) by e{sub aq}{sup -} was followed by means of fast conductimetry in acid and conductimetry and spectrophotometry in alkaline solutions. In alkaline solutions, the biomolecular rate constant of reaction between UO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and e{sub aq}{sup -} was determined. Analytical methods applied in this work were too fast to follow the slow disproportionation of produced U(V)-ion, but it has been observed that in alkaline solutions it probably goes via a dimeric ion (U(V)){sub 2}, which protonates with a rate {kappa}{sub 7} = 1.30 x 10{sup 5}s{sup -1}. (author).

  15. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2009-01-01

    to the alpha population in these frequency ranges. The exceptions are limited regions in space with some non-negligible signal due to beam ions or fast He-3 which give rise to about 30% and 10-20% of the CTS signal, respectively. In turn, the dominance of the alpha contribution implies that the effects...... scattering (CTS) signal for the proposed CTS diagnostic in ITER. It is of interest to determine the contributions of these fast ion populations to the CTS signal for large Doppler shifts of the scattered radiation since conclusions can mostly be drawn for the dominant contributor. In this study, distribution...... functions for fast deuterons, fast tritons, fast He-3 and the fusion born alphas are presented, revealing that fusion alphas dominate the measurable signal by an order of magnitude or more in the Doppler shift frequency ranges typical for fast ions. Hence the observable CTS signal can mostly be attributed...

  16. Germanium as a Sodium Ion Battery Material: In Situ TEM Reveals Fast Sodiation Kinetics with High Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaotang; Adkins, Emily R.; He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Luo, Langli; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2016-01-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) nanowires have great potential for application as anodes in Na-ion batteries. However, the Na-Ge reaction is much less studied and understood compared with other metal alloy anodes. Here, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the sodiation/desodiation behavior of a-Ge nanowires. Unexpectedly, our experiments revealed that a-Ge nanowires can be charged at a very fast rate and the final sodiation product, with over 300% volume expansion, is close to Na3Ge instead of NaGe which was considered as the ultimate sodiation state that Ge could achieve. Porous structure was observed in desodiation and, in contrast to delithiation, Na extraction is more likely to create pores in the nanowires due to the much larger radius of the Na ion. This porous structure has demonstrated excellent robustness upon cycling: it could recover flawlessly from the giant pores that were created during experimentation. These results show that the potential of a-Ge for Na-ion battery applications may have been previously underestimated.

  17. Analysis of plasma distribution near the extraction region in surface produced negative ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, A; Hatayama, A

    2014-02-01

    In study of a negative ion source, it is important to understand the plasma characteristics near the extraction region. A recent experiment in the NIFS-R&D ion source has suggested that a "double ion plasma layer" which is a region consisting of hydrogen positive and negative ions exists near the plasma grid (PG). Density distribution of plasma near the extraction region is studied analytically. It is shown that the density distribution depends on an amount of the surface produced negative ions and the double ion plasma layer is formed near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production.

  18. Design of fast ion conducting cathode materials for grid-scale sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lee Loong; Chen, Haomin; Adams, Stefan

    2017-03-15

    The obvious cost advantage as well as attractive electrochemical properties, including excellent cycling stability and the potential of high rate performance, make sodium-ion batteries prime candidates in the race to technically and commercially enable large-scale electrochemical energy storage. In this work, we apply our bond valence site energy modelling method to further the understanding of rate capabilities of a wide range of potential insertion-type sodium-ion battery cathode materials. We demonstrate how a stretched exponential function permits us to systematically quantify the rate performance, which in turn reveals guidelines for the design of novel sodium-ion battery chemistries suitable for high power, grid-scale applications. Starting from a diffusion relaxation model, we establish a semi-quantitative prediction of the rate-performance of half-cells from the structure of the cathode material that factors in dimensionality of Na(+) ion migration pathways, the height of the migration barriers and the crystallite size of the active material. With the help of selected examples, we also illustrate the respective roles of unoccupied low energy sites within the pathway and temperature towards the overall rate capability of insertion-type cathode materials.

  19. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant.

  20. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, M.; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Hansen, P. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nocente, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Rasmussen, J.; Stagner, L.; Stejner, M.; Weiland, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-10-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion D α (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography, prior information makes up for this lack of data. We restrict the target velocity space through the measured absence of FIDA light, impose phase-space densities to be non-negative, and encode the known geometry of neutral beam injection (NBI) sources. We further use a numerical simulation as prior information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI peaks at full, half and one-third energy by time-resolved tomographic movies.

  1. Dual Ion Spectrometers and Their Calibration for the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    The scientific target of NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is to study the fundamentally important phenomenon of magnetic reconnection. Theoretical models of this process predict a small size, on the order of hundred kilometers, for the ion diffusion region where ions are demagnetized at the dayside magnetopause. This region may typically sweep over the spacecraft at relatively high speeds of 50 km/s, requiring the fast plasma investigation (FPI) instrument suite to have an extremely high time resolution for measurements of the 3D particle distribution functions. As part of the FPI on MMS, the 16 dual ion spectrometers (DIS) will provide fast (150 ms) 3D ion velocity distributions, from 10 to 30,000 eV/q, by combining the measurements from four dual spectrometers on each of four MMS spacecraft. For any multispacecraft mission, the response uniformity among the spectrometer set assumes an enhanced importance. Due to these demanding instrument requirements and the effort of calibrating more than 32 sensors (16 × 2) within a tight schedule, a highly systematic and precise calibration was required for measurement repeatability. To illustrate how this challenge was met, a brief overview of the FPI DIS was presented with a detailed discussion of the calibration method of approach and implementation. Finally, a discussion of DIS performance results, their unit-to-unit variation, and the lessons learned from this calibration effort are presented.

  2. Fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for phosphometabolome profiling by capillary ion chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitvang, Hans F N; Bruheim, Per

    2015-08-15

    Capillary ion chromatography (capIC) is the premium separation technology for low molecular phosphometabolites and nucleotides in biological extracts. Removal of excessive amounts of salt during sample preparation stages is a prerequisite to enable high quality capIC separation in combination with reproducible and sensitive MS detection. Existing sampling protocols for mammalian cells used for GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling can therefore not be directly applied to capIC separations. Here, the development of a fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome on capIC-MS/MS is presented. The whole procedure from sampling the culture to transfer of filter to quenching and extraction solution takes less than 10s. To prevent leakage it is critical that a low vacuum pressure is applied, and satisfactorily reproducibility was only obtained by usage of a vacuum pressure controlling device. A vacuum of 60mbar was optimal for filtration of multiple myeloma Jjn-3 cell cultures through 5μm polyvinylidene (PVDF) filters. A quick deionized water (DI-water) rinse step prior to extraction was tested, and significantly higher metabolite yields were obtained during capIC-MS/MS analyses in this extract compared to extracts prepared by saline and reduced saline (25%) washing steps only. In addition, chromatographic performance was dramatically improved. Thus, it was verified that a quick DI-water rinse is tolerated by the cells and can be included as the final stage during filtration. Over 30 metabolites were quantitated in JJN-3 cell extracts by using the optimized sampling protocol with subsequent capIC-MS/MS analysis, and up to 2 million cells can be used in a single filtration step for the chosen filter and vacuum pressure. The technical set-up is also highly advantageous for microbial metabolome filtration protocols after optimization of vacuum pressure and washing solutions, and the reduced salt

  3. Fast heavy-ion radiation damage of glycine in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryosuke; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Fast heavy-ion radiolysis of biomolecules in aqueous solution is investigated for an atomistic understanding of radiation damage to normal cells during heavy-particle beam therapy. The smallest amino acid glycine was used as a model biomaterial. Microjets of aqueous glycine solutions under vacuum were irradiated with 4.0-MeV carbon ions corresponding to energies in the Bragg peak region. To understand the effects of the water environment on molecular damage, the yield of glycine dissociation was measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The yield was significantly reduced relative to gas-phase glycine targets. This implies that the numerous water molecules surrounding a single glycine molecule act as a buffer that suppresses dissociation. This is an environmental effect similar to that observed for other biomolecular cluster targets.

  4. Extraction of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions with a methimazole-based ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-González, Juan M; Torriero, Angel A J; Siriwardana, Amal I; Burgar, Iko M; Bond, Alan M

    2010-09-15

    The recently synthesized ionic liquid (IL) 2-butylthiolonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [mimSBu][NTf(2)], has been used for the extraction of copper(II) from aqueous solution. The pH of the aqueous phase decreases upon addition of [mimSBu](+), which is attributed to partial release of the hydrogen attached to the N(3) nitrogen atom of the imidazolium ring. The presence of sparingly soluble water in [mimSBu][NTf(2)] also is required in solvent extraction studies to promote the incorporation of Cu(II) into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] ionic liquid phase. The labile copper(II) system formed by interacting with both the water and the IL cation component has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry as well as UV-vis, Raman, and (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR spectroscopies. The extraction process does not require the addition of a complexing agent or pH control of the aqueous phase. [mimSBu][NTf(2)] can be recovered from the labile copper-water-IL interacting system by washing with a strong acid. High selectivity of copper(II) extraction is achieved relative to that of other divalent cobalt(II), iron(II), and nickel(II) transition-metal cations. The course of microextraction of Cu(2+) from aqueous media into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] IL phase was monitored in situ by cyclic voltammetry using a well-defined process in which specific interaction with copper is believed to switch from the ionic liquid cation component, [mimSBu], to the [NTf(2)] anion during the course of electrochemical reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I). The microextraction-voltammetry technique provides a fast and convenient method to determine whether an IL is able to extract electroactive metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  5. Analytical and simulation studies for diode and triode ion beam extraction systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Abdelrahman1; N. I. Basal; S. G. Zakhary

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with ion beam dynamics and compares the emittance to aberration ratios of two-and three-electrode extraction systems.The study is conducted with the aid of Version 7 of SIMION 3D ray-tracing software.The beam dependence on various parameters of the extraction systems is studied and the numerical results lead to qualitative conclusions.Ion beam characteristics using diode and triode extraction systems are investigated with the aid of the computer code SIMION 3 D,Version 7.0. The diode (two electrode extraction system) and triode (threeelectrode extraction,acceleration-deceleration system) extraction systems are designed and optimized with different geometric parameters of the electrode system,voltage applied to the extraction electrode,and plasma parameters inside the ion source chamber,as well as by the ion beam space charge.This work attempts to describe the importance of the acceleration-deceleration extraction system.It shows that besides an increase of the beam energy,the ion beam has lower emittance than the two-electrode extraction system.Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum value.Knowing the electron temperature of the plasma is necessary to determine plasma potential and the exact beam energy.

  6. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  7. Self-consistent multicomponent plasma sheath theory for the extraction of H- ions (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard

    2004-05-01

    A self-consistent one-dimensional plasma sheath theory is presented to provide the basis for a correct numerical simulation of the extraction of volume produced H- ions. The plasma may consist not only of electrons and H- ions, but may also contain other positive ions such as protons, molecular ions and those of heavier elements, like cesium or tantalum. For the transition from the classical plasma sheath with a falling potential to the extraction region for H- ions with an increasing potential there exists the problem of a saddle point with adverse optical properties. This is eliminated by requiring sufficient space charge of H- ions near the extraction electrode. The formation of a virtual cathode in the extraction region by reflected positive ions is also taken into account. The integration of the Poisson equation in the extraction region establishes a criterion to avoid the creation of a nonphysical periodical sequence of potential maximums and minima. This criterion is an antithesis to the Bohm sheath criterion and has a corresponding interpretation: a virtual cathode in the extraction region can only be avoided, if the space charge of positive ions rapidly decreases. The acceptable range of parameters is thus reduced considerably. The resulting axial potential function is then used to derive the shape of the plasma wall electrode in the vicinity of the ion beam edge in order to obtain an aberration free beam boundary, this information being equivalent to the Pierce angle in the case of solid electron or ion emitters.

  8. Observation of burst frequency in extracted ECR ion current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taki, G. S.; Sarma, P. R.; Drentje, A. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Ray, P. K.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    Earlier we reported an ion current jump which was observed at a fixed negative biased disc potential in the 6.4GHz ECR ion source at VECC, Kolkata. In a recent experiment with neon ions, we measured the time spectra of the ion current and observed the presence of a burst frequency in the kilohertz r

  9. The fast extraction kicker for J-PARC with a novel pulse compression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Kunio, E-mail: kunio.koseki@kek.jp; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    A fast extraction kicker magnet for the main ring of J-PARC has been developed. A lumped constant type magnet is employed for its structural simplicity and stability in high-voltage operation. A disadvantage of the lumped constant type, a slow rise time, was alleviated by the adoption of a newly developed magnetic pulse compression system. The effectiveness of the magnetic pulse compression system in sharpening the excitation current was confirmed both by a circuit simulation and experimentally. The newly developed fast extraction kicker system was operated successfully with a 30 kV charging voltage of the pulsed power supply. The required rise time of less than 1.1 μs was achieved in the measurement.

  10. Development of a fast DNA extraction method for sea food and marine species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Salamone, Monica; Biondo, Girolama; Bennici, Carmelo Daniele; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-07-15

    The authentication of food components is one of the key issues in food safety. Similarly taxonomy, population and conservation genetics as well as food web structure analysis, also rely on genetic analyses including the DNA barcoding technology. In this scenario we developed a fast DNA extraction method without any purification step from fresh and processed seafood, suitable for any PCR analysis. The protocol allows the fast DNA amplification from any sample, including fresh, stored and processed seafood and from any waste of industrial fish processing, independently of the sample storage method. Therefore, this procedure is particularly suitable for the fast processing of samples and to carry out investigations for the authentication of seafood by means of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction of Fast Changes in the Structure of a Disordered Ensemble of Photoexcited Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Poon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pump-probe experiments of varying time intervals between pump and probe, the method of time-resolved crystallography has given many insights into the fast time variations of crystallized molecules as a result of photoexcitation. We show here that quantities extractable from multiple diffraction patterns of dissolved molecules in random orientations, as measured using powerful ultrashort pulses of X-rays, also contain information about structural changes of a molecule on photoexcitation.

  12. An integrating current transformer for fast extraction from the HIRFL-CSR main ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Xia; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Mao, Rui-Shi; Yin, Yan; Yuan, You-Jin; Yang, Jian-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    For any experiment that uses the beam of an accelerator, monitoring the beam intensity is always an important concern. It is particularly useful if one can continuously measure the beam current without disturbing the beam. We report here on test experiments for an Integrating Current Transformer (ICT) used to measure fast extraction beams from the HIRFL-CSR main ring (CSRm). The laboratory tests and beam intensity measurement results are presented in this paper. The influence of the kicker noise is also analyzed.

  13. Design of triode extraction system for a dual hollow cathode ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Hui; ZHU Kun; ZHAO Wei-Jiang; LIU Ke-Xin

    2011-01-01

    A triode extraction system is designed for a dual hollow cathode ion source being developed at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics,Peking University.Basic parameters of the plasma are selected after examining the operation principle of the ion source,then the triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using software PBGUNS (for Particle Beam GUN Simulations).The physical design of the system is given in this paper.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions by the 6-membered N-containing macrocycle hexacyclen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpadjan, S; Mitewa, M; Bontchev, P R

    1987-11-01

    The nitrogen-containing analogue of 18-crown-6, 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-azaoctadecane (hexacyclen)] was studied as a reagent for complexation and extraction of some metal ions. It was found that with this reagent and methyl isobutyl ketone, metal ions such as silver(I), mercury(II), copper(II), platinum(II) and palladium(II) can be quantitatively extracted and separated from iron(III) and some other metal ions.

  15. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering, conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S.B.

    2007-08-15

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma. The fast ion CTS diagnostic consists of two separate systems. Each system has its own RF launcher and separate set of detectors. The first system measures the perpendicular component of the fast ion velocity distribution. It consists of radially directed RF launcher and receiver, both located in the equatorial port on the low field side (LFS). This system will be referred to by the acronym LFS-BS system referring to the location of the receiver and the fact that it measures backscattered radiation. The second part of the CTS diagnostic measures the parallel component of the fast ion distribution. It consists of an RF launcher located in the mid-plane port on the LFS and a receiver mounted on the inner vacuum vessel wall that views the plasma from between two blanket modules. This system will be referred to as HFS-FS referring to the location of the receivers and that they measure forward scattered radiation. The design of both LFS-BS and HFS-FS receivers is aimed at measuring at different spatial locations simultaneously with no moveable components near the plasma. This report is a preliminary study of the hardware design and engineering constraints for this frequency range. Section 2 conceptually describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result in this section is that systems can be designed inside these constraints. Section 4 outlines the technical feasibility and describes in more detail the design and the engineering

  16. LSP simulations of fast ions slowing down in cool magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Cohen, Samuel A.

    2015-11-01

    In MFE devices, rapid transport of fusion products, e.g., tritons and alpha particles, from the plasma core into the scrape-off layer (SOL) could perform the dual roles of energy and ash removal. Through these two processes in the SOL, the fast particle slowing-down time will have a major effect on the energy balance of a fusion reactor and its neutron emissions, topics of great importance. In small field-reversed configuration (FRC) devices, the first-orbit trajectories of most fusion products will traverse the SOL, potentially allowing those particles to deposit their energy in the SOL and eventually be exhausted along the open field lines. However, the dynamics of the fast-ion energy loss processes under conditions expected in the FRC SOL, where the Debye length is greater than the electron gyroradius, are not fully understood. What modifications to the classical slowing down rate are necessary? Will instabilities accelerate the energy loss? We use LSP, a 3D PIC code, to examine the effects of SOL plasma parameters (density, temperature and background magnetic field strength) on the slowing down time of fast ions in a cool plasma with parameters similar to those expected in the SOL of small FRC reactors. This work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, F; Furtula, V; Salewski, M; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Nielsen, S K; Stejner, M

    2009-09-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic using gyrotrons operated at 60 GHz will meet the requirements for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the velocity distributions of confined fast alphas in ITER by evaluating the scattered radiation (CTS signal). While a receiver antenna on the low field side of the tokamak, resolving near perpendicular (to the magnetic field) velocity components, has been enabled, an additional antenna on the high field side (HFS) would enable measurements of near parallel (to the magnetic field) velocity components. A compact design solution for the proposed mirror system on the HFS is presented. The HFS CTS antenna is located behind the blankets and views the plasma through the gap between two blanket modules. The viewing gap has been modified to dimensions 30x500 mm(2) to optimize the CTS signal. A 1:1 mock-up of the HFS mirror system was built. Measurements of the beam characteristics for millimeter-waves at 60 GHz used in the mock-up agree well with the modeling.

  18. Simulation of fast-ion-driven Alfvén eigenmodes on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjun; Todo, Y.; Pei, Youbin; Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Jinping; Xiang, Nong; Zhou, Deng; Ren, Qilong; Huang, Juan; Xu, Liqing

    2016-02-01

    Kinetic-MHD hybrid simulations are carried out to investigate possible fast-ion-driven modes on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Three typical kinds of fast-ion-driven modes, namely, toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes, reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes, and energetic-particle continuum modes, are observed simultaneously in the simulations. The simulation results are compared with the results of an ideal MHD eigenvalue code, which shows agreement with respect to the mode frequency, dominant poloidal mode numbers, and radial location. However, the modes in the hybrid simulations take a twisted structure on the poloidal plane, which is different from the results of the ideal MHD eigenvalue code. The twist is due to the radial phase variation of the eigenfunction, which may be attributed to the non-perturbative kinetic effects of the fast ions. By varying the stored energy of fast ions to change the fast ion drive in the simulations, it is demonstrated that the twist (i.e., the radial phase variation) is positively correlated with the fast ion drive.

  19. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  20. Effective Extraction Mechanism of Volume-Produced Ions in the NIPPER I Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ramos

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A mass spectrometer system is developed to extract and analyze hydrogen ions from a volume plasma hydrogen ion source. A 180° magnetic deflection-type mass analyzer is coupled to NIPPER I (National Institute of Physics Plasma Experimental Rig I, a negative ion source. Hydrogen plasma is produced from a low pressure gas (10-2 Torr with a transition of the glow discharge (254 volts, 75 mA to an arc plasma (78 volts, 14 amperes in a few seconds. The usually cylindrical plasma is converted into a sheet configuration using a pair of Sm-Co magnets. This optimizes ion current extraction by reducing (a the ion loss to the discharge anode and (b the decay of the ion current produced in the plasma. Negative hydrogen ions (H- are volume-produced by dissociative attachment of low energy electrons to highly vibrational excited hydrogen molecules.The extraction of H- ions from this volume source is optimized by the proper choice of apertures of the limiting electrodes and of the applied bias potential. A proper combination of extraction electrodes gives an optimum H- current extracted without the electrons. When one of the extraction electrodes is biased negatively near the value of the plasma floating potential, a maximum H- current is also obtained. The methods of effective extraction of H- are discussed.

  1. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G J; Ellis, R; Gorelenkova, M; Heidbrink, W W; Kurki-Suonio, T; Nazikian, R; Salmi, A; Schaffer, M J; Shinohara, K; Snipes, J A; Spong, D A; Koskela, T

    2011-06-03

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mockup of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam-ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  2. Fast-ion effects during test blanket module simulation experiments in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ellis, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Kurki-Suonio, T. [Aalto University, Finland; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Saimi, A. [Aalto University, Finland; Schaffer, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego; Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Koskela, T. [Aalto University, Finland; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics

    2011-01-01

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two test blanket modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot, predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot, which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  3. Solvent extraction, ion chromatography, and mass spectrometry of molybdenum isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphas, N; Reisberg, L; Marty, B

    2001-06-01

    A procedure was developed that allows precise determination of molybdenum isotope abundances in natural samples. Purification of molybdenum was first achieved by solvent extraction using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. Further separation of molybdenum from isobar nuclides was obtained by ion chromatography using AG1-X8 strongly basic anion exchanger. Finally, molybdenum isotopic composition was measured using a multiple collector inductively coupled plasma hexapole mass spectrometer. The abundances of molybdenum isotopes 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, and 100 are 14.8428(510), 9.2498(157), 15.9303(133), 16.6787(37), 9.5534(83), 24.1346(394), and 9.6104(312) respectively, resulting in an atomic mass of 95.9304(45). After internal normalization for mass fractionation, no variation of the molybdenum isotopic composition is observed among terrestrial samples within a relative precision on the order of 0.00001-0.0001. This demonstrates the reliability of the method, which can be applied to searching for possible isotopic anomalies and mass fractionation.

  4. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  5. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  6. Structural and fast ion transport properties of glassy and amorphous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, D.H.; Georgopoulos, P.

    1989-11-01

    This research has dealt with ionic conductivity in two classes of electrolytes. Solid inorganic, as well as polymer. In the former case, a structural characterization study of the fast Ag{sup +} ion conducting glassy electrolyte Ag{sub 0.25}Ge{sub 0.19}Se{sub 0.56} was undertaken by means of differential anomalous x-ray scattering techniques. The Ag{sup +} ion transport behavior was probed with the aid of complex impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of the Ag{sup +} ion diffusivity. We found evidence suggesting that short (3.1--3.5 A) Ag-Ag distances are present. The observed prefactor for conductivity suggests that the number of mobile Ag{sup +} ions in this glass is significantly less than expected from its stoichiometry. The transport property results were examined in the light of our structural findings and analyses were attempted in terms of some reasonable microscopic models. The other major aspect of this research, dealing with amorphous poly(ethylene glycol)-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} electrolytes, involved measurements, via the pulsed field gradient NMR method, of the diffusivity of the polymer host, the cation (Li{sup +}) and the anion (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}) in these complexes and the ionic conductivity, via complex impedance spectroscopy. Based on the conductivity prefactors, it appears that these amorphous polymer electrolytes exhibit classical Meyer-Nelder behavior; moreover, our ion transport results could be rationalized in terms of an ion association model (involving ion pairs and higher order aggregates).

  7. Ion acceleration by petawatt class laser pulses and pellet compression in a fast ignition scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, INFN sezione di Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: benedetti@bo.infn.it; Londrillo, P. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, INAF sezione di Bologna, INFN sezione di Bologna (Italy); Liseykina, T.V. [Institute for Computational Technologies, SD-RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Macchi, A. [polyLAB, CNR-INFM, Pisa (Italy); Sgattoni, A.; Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, INFN sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-11

    Ion drivers based on standard acceleration techniques have faced up to now several difficulties. We consider here a conceptual alternative to more standard schemes, such as HIDIF (Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion), which are still beyond the present state of the art of particle accelerators, even though the requirements on the total beam energy are lowered by fast ignition scenarios. The new generation of petawatt class lasers open new possibilities: acceleration of electrons or protons for the fast ignition and eventually light or heavy ions acceleration for compression. The pulses of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) lasers allow ions acceleration with very high efficiency at reachable intensities (I{approx}10{sup 21}W/cm{sup 2}), if circularly polarized light is used since we enter in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regime. We analyze the possibility of accelerating carbon ion bunches by interaction of a circularly polarized pulses with an ultra-thin target. The advantage would be compactness and modularity, due to identical accelerating units. The laser efficiency required to have an acceptable net gain in the inertial fusion process is still far from the presently achievable values both for CPA short pulses and for long pulses used for direct illumination. Conversely the energy conversion efficiency from the laser pulse to the ion bunch is high and grows with the intensity. As a consequence the energy loss is not the major concern. For a preliminary investigation of the ions bunch production we have used the PIC code ALaDyn developed to analyze the results of the INFN-CNR PLASMONX experiment at Frascati National Laboratories (Rome, Italy) where the 0.3 PW laser FLAME will accelerate electrons and protons. We present the results of some 1D simulations and parametric scan concerning the acceleration of carbon ions that we suppose to be fully ionized. Circularly polarized laser pulses of 50 J and 50-100 fs duration, illuminating a 100{mu}m{sup 2} area

  8. Simulation of H{sup -} ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at University of Jyvaeskylae, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H{sup -} ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H{sup -} currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  9. Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael Thomas

    2014-07-11

    Thermonuclear fusion is the energy conversion process which keeps the sun shining. For the last six decades, researchers have been investigating the physics involved in order to enable the usage of this energy supply on Earth. The most promising candidates for fusion power plants are based on magnetic confinement of plasma to provide the ideal conditions for efficient thermonuclear fusion in well controlled surroundings. One important aspect is the control of instabilities that occur in the edge region of the plasma and lead to an ejection of huge amounts of energy. Magnetic perturbation fields which are resonant in the plasma edge are found to modify the plasma favourably and reduce the impact of these instabilities. This dissertation focuses on the effects of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the ejected energy as well as on the drawbacks of these perturbation fields. The transient energy ejection which is triggered by the instabilities causes extreme heat loads on the wall components in fusion devices. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how resonant magnetic perturbation fields affect the heat load deposition. Furthermore, the impact of resonant magnetic perturbation fields on the confinement of fast ions is an important aspect as fast ions are still required to be well confined in order to avoid additional wall loads and increase the fusion efficiency. Recent upgrades on the Joint European Torus allow for a detailed study of the heat load deposition profiles caused by transient events. Throughout this work, the new features are used for the study of the modifications of the transient heat load depositions that occur if resonant magnetic perturbation fields are applied. This leads to a further understanding of the processes involved during the plasma edge instabilities. Additionally, an alternative method using lower hybrid waves for applying resonant magnetic perturbations is investigated. Furthermore, a new diagnostic, capable of detecting fast ion

  10. Fast dose analysis of movement effects during treatments with scanned proton and carbon-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Varasteh Anvar, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.; Attili, A.; Donetti, M.; Marchetto, F.; Mas Milian, F.; Ciocca, M.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle therapy delivered using scanned pencil beams shows the potential to produce better dose conformity than conventional radiotherapy, although the dose distributions are more sensitive to anatomical changes and patient motion. Therefore, the introduction of engines to monitor the dose as it is being delivered is highly desirable, in order to enhance the development of adaptive treatment techniques in hadrontherapy. A tool for fast dose distributions analysis is presented, which integrates on GPU a Fast Forward Planning, a Fast Image Deformation algorithm, a fast computation of Gamma-Index and Dose-Volume Histogram. The tool is being interfaced with the Dose Delivery System and the Optical Tracking System of a synchrotron-based facility to investigate the feasibility to quantify, spill by spill, the effects of organ movements on dose distributions during treatment deliveries with protons and carbon-ions. The dose calculation and comparison times for a patient treated with protons on a 61.3 cm3 planning target volume, a CT matrix of 512x512x125 voxels, and a computation matrix of 170x170x125 voxels are within 1 s per spill. In terms of accuracy, the absolute dose differences compared with benchmarked Treatment Planning System results are negligible (<10-4 Gy).

  11. Potential of ion cyclotron resonance frequency current drive via fast waves in DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.

    2015-02-01

    For the continuous operation of future tokamak-reactors like DEMO, non-inductively driven toroidal plasma current is needed. Bootstrap current, due to the pressure gradient, and current driven by auxiliary heating systems are currently considered as the two main options. This paper addresses the current drive (CD) potential of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system in DEMO-like plasmas. Fast wave CD scenarios are evaluated for both the standard midplane launch and an alternative case of exciting the waves from the top of the machine. Optimal ICRF frequencies and parallel wave numbers are identified to maximize the CD efficiency. Limitations of the high frequency ICRF CD operation are discussed. A simplified analytical method to estimate the fast wave CD efficiency is presented, complemented with the discussion of its dependencies on plasma parameters. The calculated CD efficiency for the ICRF system is shown to be similar to those for the negative neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  12. solid phase extraction of trace amounts of palladium ions using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    hydroxybenzylidene)- ... applied to the determination of palladium ion in environmental samples. KEY WORDS: ... preparation tool and provides a method that is simple and safe to use. .... and recovery of ions was investigated under optimum conditions.

  13. Phase-space dependent critical gradient behavior of fast-ion transport due to Alfvén eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Podestà, M.; White, R. B.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Stagner, L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Zhu, Y. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-08-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that many overlapping small-amplitude Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) cause fast-ion transport to sharply increase above a critical threshold in beam power, leading to fast-ion density profile resilience and reduced fusion performance. The threshold is above the AE linear stability limit and varies between diagnostics that are sensitive to different parts of fast-ion phase-space. Comparison with theoretical analysis using the nova and orbit codes shows that, for the neutral particle diagnostic, the threshold corresponds to the onset of stochastic particle orbits due to wave-particle resonances with AEs in the measured region of phase space. The bulk fast-ion distribution and instability behavior was manipulated through variations in beam deposition geometry, and no significant differences in the onset threshold outside of measurement uncertainties were found, in agreement with the theoretical stochastic threshold analysis. Simulations using the ‘kick model’ produce beam ion density gradients consistent with the empirically measured radial critical gradient and highlight the importance of including the energy and pitch dependence of the fast-ion distribution function in critical gradient models. The addition of electron cyclotron heating changes the types of AEs present in the experiment, comparatively increasing the measured fast-ion density and radial gradient. These studies provide the basis for understanding how to avoid AE transport that can undesirably redistribute current and cause fast-ion losses, and the measurements are being used to validate AE-induced transport models that use the critical gradient paradigm, giving greater confidence when applied to ITER.

  14. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering. Conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma...... describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result...

  15. Recent Experiment Results on Fast Ion Instability at 2.5 GeV PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim Eun San; Hukuma, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Hitomi; Park, Chong-Do; Park, Sung-Ju; Soo Ko In; Yun Huang Jung

    2005-01-01

    We present recent experiment results on the fast ion instability that were performed at the PLS storage ring. With higher vacuum pressures of three orders of magnitude than nominal one by He gas injection into the ring, increases of a factor of around three in the vertical beam size were observed by interferometer system. From the various measurement results, we estimated growth times for the instability as a funcion of vacuum pressure and beam current. We also compared the results with those of the computer simulations and analytical calculations.

  16. Wave packet evolution approach to ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Serov, V V; Joulakian, B B; Vinitsky, S I; Serov, Vladislav V.; Derbov, Vladimir L.; Joulakian, Boghos B.; Vinitsky, Sergue I.

    2000-01-01

    The multiply differential cross section of the ionization of hydrogen molecular ion by fast electron impact is calculated by a direct approach, which involves the reduction of the initial 6D Schr\\"{o}dinger equation to a 3D evolution problem followed by the modeling of the wave packet dynamics. This approach avoids the use of stationary Coulomb two-centre functions of the continuous spectrum of the ejected electron which demands cumbersome calculations. The results obtained, after verification of the procedure in the case atomic hydrogen, reveal interesting mechanisms in the case of small scattering angles.

  17. Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfven Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; Classen, I.G.J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands; Domier, C. W. [University of California, Davis; Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, H.K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfven eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the observations are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations using an ideal MHD code (NOVA), other characteristics distinctly reveal the influence of fast ions on the mode structures. These features are found to be well described by the nonperturbative hybrid MHD-gyrofluid model TAEFL.

  18. A Fast Feature Extraction Method Based on Integer Wavelet Transform for Hyperspectral Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUYanfeng; ZHANGYe; YUShanshan

    2004-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing provides high-resolution spectral data and the potential for remote discrimination between subtle differences in ground covers. However, the high-dimensional data space generated by the hyperspectral sensors creates a new challenge for conventional spectral data analysis techniques. A challenging problem in using hyperspectral data is to eliminate redundancy and preserve useful spectral information for applications. In this paper, a Fast feature extraction (FFE) method based on integer wavelet transform is proposed to extract useful features and reduce dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The FFE method can be directly used to extract useful features from spectral vector of each pixel resident in the hyperspectral images. The FFE method has two main merits: high computational efficiency and good ability to extract spectral features. In order to better testify the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed method, classification experiments of hyperspectral images are performed on two groups of AVIRIS (Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer) data respectively. In addition, three existing methods for feature extraction of hyperspectral images, i.e. PCA, SPCT and Wavelet Transform, are performed on the same data for comparison with the proposed method. The experimental investigation shows that the efficiency of the FFE method for feature extraction outclasses those of the other three methods mentioned above.

  19. Upgrade and Tests of the SPS Fast Extraction Kicker System for LHC and CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Gaxiola, E; Burkel, P; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Sillanoli, Y; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J

    2004-01-01

    A fast extraction kicker system has been installed in the SPS and successfully used in extraction tests in 2003. It will serve to send beam to the anticlockwise LHC ring and the CNGS neutrino facility. The magnets and pulse generators have been recuperated from an earlier installation and upgraded to fit the present application. Hardware improvements include diode stacks as replacement of the previous dump thyratron switches, a cooling system of the magnets, sensors for its ferrite temperatures and magnetic field quality assessment. In preparation of the future use for 450 GeV/c transfer to LHC and double batch extraction at 400 GeV/c for CNGS the tests comprised extractions of single bunches, twelve bunches in a single extraction and single bunches in a double extraction. The measured kick characteristics of the upgraded system are presented, along with a discussion of Pspice simulation results. Further improvements will be discussed which are intended to make the system comply with the specifications for CN...

  20. Model for collisional fast ion diffusion into Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor loss cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.S. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences]|[Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zweben, S.J.; Schivell, J.; Budny, R.; Scott, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1994-08-01

    An analytic model is developed to estimate the classical pitch angle scattering loss of energetic fusion product ions into prompt loss orbits in a tokamak geometry. The result is applied to alpha particles produced by deutrium-tritium fusion reactions in a plasma condition relevant to Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A poloidal angular distribution of collisional fast ion loss at the first wall is obtained and the numerical result from the TRANSP code is discussed. The present model includes the effect that the prompt loss boundary moves away from the slowing-down path due to reduction in banana thickness, which enables us to understand, for the first time. the dependence of the collisional loss rate on Z{sub eff}.

  1. Hole boring in a DT Pellet and Fast-Ion Ignition with Ultraintense Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, N; Schlegel, T; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G

    2009-01-16

    Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 10;{22} W/cm;{2} may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm;{2}. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

  2. Fast electron generation by Coulomb scattering on spatially correlated ions in a strong laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Bauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Electrons colliding with spatially fixed ions in strong laser fields are investigated by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. Considering first simple one-dimensional model systems, the mechanisms and energy spectra of fast electrons are analyzed, starting from collisions on a single ion. By using these electrons as projectiles for a second and third collision, the maximum possible energy obtained can be significantly increased. We then generalize the analysis to 2D systems where additional angular degrees of freedom lead to a drastic loss of efficiency. This problem can be overcome by introducing external confinements, which allow to focus the electrons and increase the intensity of high-energy electrons.

  3. Fast removal of heavy metal ions and phytic acids from water using new modified chelating fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xu; Jin Nan Wang; Ying Meng; Ai Min Li

    2012-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) fiber initiated by benzoy peroxide (BPO) was carried out in heterogeneous media.Moreover,modification of the grafted PET fiber (PET-AA) was done by changing the carboxyl group into acylamino group through the reaction with dimethylamine.The modified chelating fiber (NDWJN 1) was characterized using elementary analysis,SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy.Adsorption kinetic curves indicated that NDWJN1 could fast remove heavy metal ions and phytic acids from water effectively.Furthermore,batch kinetic studies indicated that heavy metal ions adsorbed to NDWJN1 could be fitted well by both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption equations,but the intra-particle diffusion plaved a dominant role in the adsorption of phvtic acids.

  4. An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Thomas; Varentsov, Victor; Sabourov, Amanda; Gratta, Giorgio; Dilling, Jens; DeVoe, Ralph; Sinclair, David; Fairbank, William; Albert, Joshua B; Auty, David J; Barbeau, Phil S; Beck, Douglas; Benitez-Medina, Cesar; Breidenbach, Martin; Cao, Guofu F; Chambers, Christopher; Cleveland, Bruce; Coon, Matthew; Craycraft, Adam; Daniels, Timothy; Daugherty, Sean J; Didberidze, Tamar; Dolinski, Michelle J; Dunford, Matthew; Fabris, Lorenzo; Farine, Jacques; Feldmeier, Wolfhart; Fierlinger, Peter; Gornea, Razvan; Graham, Kevin; Heffner, Mike; Hughes, Mitchell; Jewell, Michael; Jiang, Xiaoshan S; Johnson, Tessa N; Johnston, Sereres; Karelin, Alexander; Kaufman, Lisa J; Killick, Ryan; Koffas, Thomas; Kravitz, Scott; Kruecken, Reiner; Kuchenkov, Alexey; Kumar, Krishna S; Leonard, Douglas S; Leonard, Francois; Licciardi, Caio; Lin, Yi-Hsuan H; Ling, Jiajie; MacLellan, Ryan; Marino, Michael G; Mong, Brian; Moore, David; Odian, Allen; Ostrovskiy, Igor; Ouellet, Christian; Piepke, Andreas; Pocar, Andrea; Retiere, Fabrice; Rowson, Peter C; Rozo, Maria P; Schubert, Alexis; Smith, Erica; Stekhanov, Victor; Tarka, Michal; Tolba, Tamer; Tosi, Delia; Twelker, Karl; Vuilleumier, Jean-Luc L; Walton, Josiah; Walton, Timothy; Weber, Manuel; Wen, Liangjian J; Wichoski, Ubi; Yang, Liang; Yen, Yung-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

  5. Simulation of the CERN GTS-LHC ECR ion source extraction system with lead and argon ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A; Scrivens, R; Stafford-Haworth, J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of beam formation and beam transport has been initiated in order to improve the performance of the CERN heavy ion injector, Linac3. As part of this study, the ion beam extraction system of the CERN GTS-LHC 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has been modelled with the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulations predict self-consistently the triangular and hollow beam structures which are often observed experimentally with ECRIS ion beams. The model is used to investigate the performance of the current extraction system and provides a basis for possible future improvements. In addition, the extraction simulation provides a more realistic representation of the initial beam properties for the beam transport simulations, which aim to identify the performance bottle necks along the Linac3 low energy beam transport. The results of beam extraction simulations with Pb and Ar ion beams from the GTS-LHC will be presented and compared with experimental observations.

  6. On the meniscus formation and the negative hydrogen ion extraction from ITER neutral beam injection relevant ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2014-10-01

    The development of a large area (Asource,ITER = 0.9 × 2 m2) hydrogen negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in construction of the neutral beam injectors of the international fusion reactor ITER. To understand the plasma behaviour in the boundary layer close to the extraction system the 3D PIC MCC code ONIX is exploited. Direct cross checked analysis of the simulation and experimental results from the ITER-relevant BATMAN source testbed with a smaller area (Asource,BATMAN ≈ 0.32 × 0.59 m2) has been conducted for a low perveance beam, but for a full set of plasma parameters available. ONIX has been partially benchmarked by comparison to the results obtained using the commercial particle tracing code for positive ion extraction KOBRA3D. Very good agreement has been found in terms of meniscus position and its shape for simulations of different plasma densities. The influence of the initial plasma composition on the final meniscus structure was then investigated for NIs. As expected from the Child-Langmuir law, the results show that not only does the extraction potential play a crucial role on the meniscus formation, but also the initial plasma density and its electronegativity. For the given parameters, the calculated meniscus locates a few mm downstream of the plasma grid aperture provoking a direct NI extraction. Most of the surface produced NIs do not reach the plasma bulk, but move directly towards the extraction grid guided by the extraction field. Even for artificially increased electronegativity of the bulk plasma the extracted NI current from this region is low. This observation indicates a high relevance of the direct NI extraction. These calculations show that the extracted NI current from the bulk region is low even if a complete ion-ion plasma is assumed, meaning that direct extraction from surface produced ions should be present in order to obtain sufficiently high extracted NI current density. The calculated extracted currents, both ions

  7. Enhanced subject-specific resting-state network detection and extraction with fast fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Burak; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state networks have become an important tool for the study of brain function. An ultra-fast imaging technique that allows to measure brain function, called Magnetic Resonance Encephalography (MREG), achieves an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution than standard echo-planar imaging (EPI). This new sequence helps to correct physiological artifacts and improves the sensitivity of the fMRI analysis. In this study, EPI is compared with MREG in terms of capability to extract resting-state networks. Healthy controls underwent two consecutive resting-state scans, one with EPI and the other with MREG. Subject-level independent component analyses (ICA) were performed separately for each of the two datasets. Using Stanford FIND atlas parcels as network templates, the presence of ICA maps corresponding to each network was quantified in each subject. The number of detected individual networks was significantly higher in the MREG data set than for EPI. Moreover, using short time segments of MREG data, such as 50 seconds, one can still detect and track consistent networks. Fast fMRI thus results in an increased capability to extract distinct functional regions at the individual subject level for the same scan times, and also allow the extraction of consistent networks within shorter time intervals than when using EPI, which is notably relevant for the analysis of dynamic functional connectivity fluctuations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:817-830, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of β-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the β-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for β's 50% higher than the empirical β-limit of β{sub n} ≈ 2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured β's to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest β, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  9. Gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulations of fast magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaotian; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Min, Kyungguk; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional simulations using a gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme are preformed to study the excitation of fast magnetosonic waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere, which arise from the ion Bernstein instability driven by proton velocity distributions with a positive slope with respect to the perpendicular velocity. Since both ion and electron kinetics are relevant, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have often been employed to study the wave excitation. However, the full particle-in-cell scheme is computationally expensive for simulating waves in the ion scale because the electron scale must be fully resolved. Therefore, such simulations are limited to reduced proton-to-electron mass ratio ( m p / m e) and light-to-Alfvén speed ratio ( c / v A). The present study exploits the GeFi scheme that can break through these limitations to some extent, so larger m p / m e and c / v A can be used. In the simulations presented, the ion Bernstein instability is driven by a proton velocity distribution composed of 10% energetic protons with a shell distribution and 90% relatively cool, background protons with a Maxwellian distribution. The capability of the GeFi code in simulating the ion Bernstein instability is first demonstrated by comparing a GeFi simulation using reduced mass ratio ( m p / m e = 100) and speed ratio ( c / v A = 15) to a corresponding PIC simulation as well as linear dispersion analysis. A realistic speed ratio ( c / v A = 400) and a larger mass ratio ( m p / m e = 400) are then adopted in the GeFi code to explore how the results vary. It is shown that, as the increased m p / m e and c / v A lead to a larger lower hybrid frequency, ion Bernstein waves are excited at more ion cyclotron harmonics, consistent with the general prediction of linear dispersion theory. On the other hand, the GeFi simulations also revealed some interesting features after the instability saturation, which are likely related to nonlinear wave

  10. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  11. Fast and robust extraction of hippocampus from MR images for diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lötjönen, Jyrki; Wolz, Robin; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of temporal lobe atrophy from magnetic resonance images is a part of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease. As hippocampus is known to be among the first areas affected by the disease, fast and robust definition of hippocampus volume would be of great...... index, 0.87, and correlation coefficient, 0.94, with semi-automatically generated segmentations. When comparing hippocampus volumes extracted from 1.5T and 3T images, the absolute value of the difference was low: 3.2% of the volume. The correct classification rate for Alzheimer's disease and cognitively...

  12. Fast Monte Carlo inversion for extracting the optical properties of tubular tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Zhao; Xiaoqing Zhou; Julan Liang; Shunqi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of absorption coefficient μa and scattering coefficient μs is very important for applications of diffuse optical tomography and near infrared spectroscopy. Aiming at the early cancer detection of cervix and stomach, we present a fast inverse Monte-Carlo scheme for extracting μa and μs of a tubular tissue from the measurement on frequency domain. Results show that the computation time for reconstructing one set of μa and μs is less than 1 rain and the relative errors in reconstruction axe less than ±10% for the optical properties of normal cervical tissue and precancerous lesions.

  13. Energetic Particle Diagnostics for Transport Analysis 3.Escaping Fast Ion Diagnostics for the Fast Particle Transport Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Mitsutaka; Shinohara, Kouji

    Escaping energetic ion diagnostics in magnetically confined plasma experiments are described in this lecture note. Experimental results from escaping energetic ion diagnostics in TFTR, JFT-2M, CHS and W7-AS are shown. In addition to mechanism of energetic ion loss from a viewpoint of particle orbit, effect of MHD activity on energetic particle transport is reviewed.

  14. Characterization of scintillator materials for fast-ion loss detectors in nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García López, J.; García-Muñoz, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Carmona Gázquez, M.; Zurro, B.

    2014-08-01

    In fusion plasma reactors, fast ion generated by heating systems and fusion born particles must be well confined. The presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can lead to a significant loss of these ions, which may reduce drastically the heating efficiency and may cause damage to plasma facing components in the vacuum vessel. In order to understand the physics underlying the fast ion loss mechanism, scintillator based detectors have been installed in several fusion devices. In this work we present the absolute photon yield and its degradation with ion fluence in terms of the number of photons emitted per incident ion of several scintillators thin coatings: SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (TG-Green), Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (P46) and Y2O3:Eu3+ (P56) when irradiated with light ions of different masses (deuterium ions, protons and α-particles) at energies between approximately 575 keV and 3 MeV. The photon yield will be discussed in terms of the energy deposited by the particles into the scintillator. For that, the actual composition and thickness of the thin layers were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). A collimator with 1 mm of diameter, which defines the beam size for the experiments, placed at the entrance of the chamber. An electrically isolated sample holder biased to +300 V to collect the secondary electrons, connected to a digital current integrator (model 439 by Ortec) to measure the incident beam current. A home made device has been used to store the real-time evolution of the beam current in a computer file allowing the correction of the IL yields due to the current fluctuations. The target holder is a rectangle of 150 × 112 mm2 and can be tilted. The X and Y movements are controlled through stepping motors, which permits a fine control of the beam spot positioning as well as the study of several samples without venting the chamber. A silica optical fiber of 1 mm diameter fixed to the vacuum chamber, which collects the light from the scintillators

  15. Preliminary Simulation of Beam Extraction for the 28 GHz ECR Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Bum-Sik; Choi, Seokjin

    2015-01-01

    The 28 GHz ECR(Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source is under development to supply various beams from proton to uranium at RISP(Rare Isotope Science Project). The superconducting magnet system for a 28 GHz ECR ion source consists of four solenoid coils and a saddle type sextupole. To meet the design requirement of ECR ion source, a numerical simulation was accomplished by using the KOBRA3-INP to optimize the extraction system which is the three dimensional ion optics code. The influence of the three dimensional magnetic field and the space charge effect was considered to extract the highly charged ion beam. In this paper, the design results of the extraction system were reported in detail.

  16. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaskyla, Finland. An open Ra-223 alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. T

  17. Fast adaptive principal component extraction based on a generalized energy function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳缮; 保铮; 廖桂生

    2003-01-01

    By introducing an arbitrary diagonal matrix, a generalized energy function (GEF) is proposed for searching for the optimum weights of a two layer linear neural network. From the GEF, we derive a recur- sive least squares (RLS) algorithm to extract in parallel multiple principal components of the input covari-ance matrix without designing an asymmetrical circuit. The local stability of the GEF algorithm at the equilibrium is analytically verified. Simulation resultsshow that the GEF algorithm for parallel multiple principal components extraction exhibits the fast convergence and has the improved robustness resis- tance tothe eigenvalue spread of the input covariance matrix as compared to the well-known lateral inhi- bition model (APEX) and least mean square error reconstruction(LMSER) algorithms.

  18. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  19. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  20. Fast selective detection of polar brominated disinfection byproducts in drinking water using precursor ion scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangru; Talley, Jeffrey W; Boggess, Bill; Ding, Guoyu; Birdsell, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with natural organic matter and bromide in raw water, are generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. Brominated DBPs have been intensively studied over the past 35 years, yet only a fraction of the total organic bromine formed during disinfection has been identified. A significant portion of the unaccounted total organic bromine may be attributed to polar/highly polar brominated DBPs. In this work, a method for fast selective detection of polar/ highly polar brominated DBPs in drinking water was developed using negative ion electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-tqMS) by setting precursor ion scans of m/z 79 and 81. This method was conducted without liquid chromatography separation. The results demonstrate that the ESI-tqMS precursor ion scan is an effective tool for the selective detection of electrospray ionizable bromine-containing compounds in a complex mixture. Many polar/ highly polar bromine-containing DBPs were tentatively found in two drinking water samples, and some of them may be new brominated DBPs that have not been previously reported. This method was also extended for the selective detection of polar bromine-containing compounds/contaminants in groundwater, surface water and wastewater.

  1. Fast Beam-ion Instabilities in CLIC Main Linac Vacuum Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Specifications for the vacuum pressure in the CLIC electron Main Linac are determined by the onset of the fast beam-ion instability (FBII). When the electron beam is accelerated in the Main Linac, it ionizes the residual gas in the chamber through scattering ionization. If the density of ions around the beam exceeds a certain threshold, a resonant motion between the electron beam and the ions can be excited. A two-stream instability appears and as a result the beam acquires a coherent motion, which can quickly lead to beam quality degradation or even complete loss. Thus, the vacuum pressure must be kept below this threshold to prevent the excitation of FBII. The CLIC Main Linac poses an additional challenge with respect to previous FBII situations, because the gas ionization does not solely occur via scattering. The submicrometric beam sizes lead to extremely high electric fields around the beam and therefore result in field ionization beyond a certain threshold. The residual gas in the corresponding volume a...

  2. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  3. Neutron yield when fast deuterium ions collide with strongly charged tritium-saturated dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishev, Yu. S., E-mail: akishev@triniti.ru; Karal’nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Starostin, A. N.; Trushkin, N. I.; Filippov, A. V. [State Research Center of Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The ultrahigh charging of dust particles in a plasma under exposure to an electron beam with an energy up to 25 keV and the formation of a flux of fast ions coming from the plasma and accelerating in the strong field of negatively charged particles are considered. Particles containing tritium or deuterium atoms are considered as targets. The calculated rates of thermonuclear fusion reactions in strongly charged particles under exposure to accelerated plasma ions are presented. The neutron generation rate in reactions with accelerated deuterium and tritium ions has been calculated for these targets. The neutron yield has been calculated when varying the plasma-forming gas pressure, the plasma density, the target diameter, and the beam electron current density. Deuterium and tritium-containing particles are shown to be the most promising plasmaforming gas–target material pair for the creation of a compact gas-discharge neutron source based on the ultrahigh charging of dust particles by beam electrons with an energy up to 25 keV.

  4. Alfven eigenmode stability and fast ion loss in DIII-D and ITER reversed magnetic shear plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Gorelenkov, Nikolai [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Fisher, R K [General Atomics, San Diego; Munoz, M G [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; White, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2012-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed-magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). With measured equilibrium profiles as inputs, the ideal MHD code NOVA is used to calculate eigenmodes of these plasmas. The postprocessor code NOVA-K is then used to perturbatively calculate the actual stability of the modes, including finite orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects, and reasonable agreement with the spectrum of observed modes is found. Using experimentally measured mode amplitudes, fast ion orbit following simulations have been carried out in the presence of the NOVA calculated eigenmodes and are found to reproduce the dominant energy, pitch and temporal evolution of the losses measured using a large bandwidth scintillator diagnostic. The same analysis techniques applied to a DT 8 MA ITER steady-state plasma scenario with reversed-magnetic shear and both beam ion and alpha populations show Alfven eigenmode instability. Both RSAEs and TAEs are found to be unstable with maximum growth rates occurring for toroidal mode number n = 6 and the majority of the drive coming from fast ions injected by the 1MeV negative ion beams. AE instability due to beam ion drive is confirmed by the non-perturbative code TAEFL. Initial fast ion orbit following simulations using the unstable modes with a range of amplitudes (delta B/B = 10(-5)-10(-3)) have been carried out and show negligible fast ion loss. The lack of fast ion loss is a result of loss boundaries being limited to large radii and significantly removed from the actual modes themselves.

  5. Synthesis and characterisation of nano structure lead (II) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of lead ions from vegetables, rice, and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Bagheri, Akbar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Salarian, Mani; Sadeghi, Omid; Adlnasab, Laleh; Jalali, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of new Pb(II)-imprinted polymeric particles using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2'- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, diphenylcarbazone as the ligand, acetonitril as the solvent, and Pb(NO(3))(2) as the template ion, through bulk polymerisation technique. The imprinted lead ions were removed from the polymeric matrix using 5 mL of HCl (2 mol.L(-1)) as the eluting solvent. The lead ion concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was obtained at 6.0. Sorption and desorption of Pb(II) ions on the IIP particles were quite fast and achieved fully over 5 min. In the proposed method, the maximum sorbent capacity of the ion-imprinted polymer was calculated to be 75.4 mg g(-1). The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 245, 2.1%, and 0.42 ng mL(-1), respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. This ion-imprinted polymer is an efficient solid phase for extraction and preconcentration of lead ions in complex matrixes. For proving that the proposed method is reliable, a wide range of food samples with different and complex matrixes was used.

  6. Fast ion measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade and proposal for the ITER CTS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran;

    Moving towards the era of burning fusion plasmas, a better knowledge of the physics of highly energetic particles, such as fusion born alpha particles, becomes essential. Diagnosing the fast ions in a fusion plasma is a challenging task, but the technique of collective Thomson scattering (CTS......) provides the possibility of revealing the velocity distribution of the confined fast ions along a given direction – resolved both in time and space. Recently, the ITER baseline design has been expanded to include the enabling of the front end of a fast ion CTS diagnostic system resolving dynamics...... perpendicular to the magnetic field. The feasibility study and conceptual design of this diagnostic was provided by the CTS group at Risø DTU. The development of the ITER CTS diagnostic builds on the experiences and expertise gained from the construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems...

  7. [Fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Gong, Xu; Tan, Li

    2015-03-01

    A fast screening method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-IT MS). The method was based on the sonication assisted extraction of the improving sleep health food samples using methanol. The extract was then filtrated with 0.45 µm filter membrane and the filtrate was separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. A binary mobile phase was 0.05% (v/v) formic acid (solvent A)-methanol/acetonitrile (15:25, v/v, solvent B). The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode or negative ion mode was used to scan MS1-MS3 spectra for the 24 sedative hypnotics. The MS2 and MS3 spectra were used for qualitative analysis of samples. The calibration graphs were linear in their concentration ranges with the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 4.0-446.6 µg/L. The recoveries for all the drugs in the improving sleep health foods were 88.6%-110.3% with the relative standard deviations no more than 9.8% at three spiked levels. Twenty-seven batches of the improving sleep health foods were tested. Melatonin was found in eighteen batches. The method is fast, specific, sensitive, easy and suitable for fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Energy Transfer between Fast Ions and Alfven Eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Ogawa, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Fontdecaba, Josep Maria; Ascasibar, Enrique; LHD Team

    2016-10-01

    Recently, a new wave-particle analyzer was proposed to identify interaction between fast ions and Alfven eigenmodes [K. Nagaoka, 67th annual meeting of APS-DPP, savanna, 2015]. A data acquisition system for the wave-particle interaction analysis was developed for particle counting mode operation of neutral particle detectors. We recently applied the system to the Si-FNA detector signals in LHD and Heliotron J, and NPA signals in TJ-II. The first experimental results obtained in three devices are presented and the importance of the optimization of line of sight will be discussed. This research was supported by NIFS/NINS under the project of 'Promotion of International Network for Scientific Collaboration', NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS16KUHL068) and JSPS KAKENHI Grani-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 26709071.

  9. Metal Ions Extraction with Glucose Derivatives as Chelating Reagents in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chen YANG; Hai Jian YANG

    2006-01-01

    A series of glucose derivatives have been used as chelating reagents to extract metal ions in supercritical carbon dioxide. With perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid tetraethylammonium salt as additive, glucose derivatives were selective for Sr2+ and Pb2+ extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  10. Spatial distribution of {gamma} emissivity and fast ions during ({sup 3}He)D ICRF heating experiments on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, D.F.H. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Righi, E. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom); Warrick, C. [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    A model is presented that can simulate the {gamma} emissivity in the poloidal cross-section during ({sup 3}He)D ICRF heated discharges in JET plasmas, by merging information obtained from the fast ion distribution and from nuclear reactions producing the observed {gamma} emissivity (production of {gamma} photons during {sup 3}He-{sup 9}Be reactions). This technique can play an important role in the identification of plasma instabilities that affect the redistribution of the fast ions in the plasma, like the TAE modes and the ripple in the tokamak magnetic field. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Conceptual design of first toroidal electron cyclotron resonance ion source and modeling of ion extraction from it

    CERN Document Server

    Caliri, C; Volpe, F A

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) progressed to higher and higher ion currents and charge states by adopting stronger magnetic fields (beneficial for confinement) and proportionally higher ECR frequencies. Further improvements would require the attainment of "triple products" of density, temperature and confinement time comparable with major fusion experiments. For this, we propose a new, toroidal rather than linear, ECRIS geometry, which would at the same time improve confinement and make better use of the magnetic field. Ion extraction is more complicated than from a linear device, but feasible, as our modelling suggests: single-particle tracings showed successful extraction by at least two techniques, making use respectively of a magnetic extractor and of ExB drifts. Additional techniques are briefly discussed.

  12. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudin, S. V. [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova Ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rafalskyi, D. V. [Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion/electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  13. [Rapid analysis of six sweeteners in wine by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Zhu, Hao; Zhou, Lixin; Zhao, Yonggang; Jin, Micong

    2014-05-01

    To develop a rapid and simple qualitative and quantitative method for determination of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, stevioside and neotame in wine by dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (dSPE-UFLC-ESI/MS/MS). After the sample was extracted and cleaned by dispersive solid-phase extraction using novel magnetic nanomaterials as adsorbents, the separation was performed by UFLC and the cracking was used by the optimized ESI/MS/MS conditions in a negative electrospray ionization mode. Confirmatory detection was carried out by the principle of three qualitative ions and the retention time. The interference matrix could be effectively adsorbed by the novel magnetic nanomaterials. The MS/MS fragment ions were reliable and steady under the suitable conditions, the cracking ways to the parent ions and fragment ions were clear. Quantitative ion pairs were m/z 162 --> 82 for acesulfame, m/z 182 --> 42 for saccharin, m/z 178 --> 80 for cyclamate, m/z 293 --> 200 for aspartame, m/z 803 --> 641 for stevioside, m/z 377 --> 200 for neotame. The recoveries were between 83.4% and 104.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.1% - 4.0%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.1 - 5.0 microg/L. The established method was rapid, accurate and sensitive, it is suitable for confirmation for acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, stevioside and neotame in wine.

  14. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  15. Thermal Analysis of a Fast Charging Technique for a High Power Lithium-Ion Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel García Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-constant voltage (CV/fast discharge (4C in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated with cell overpotential, although evidence of the reversible component is also observed, associated with the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell-specific heats and the cell materials’ thickness. The model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.

  16. A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1 a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2 an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3 the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries.

  17. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  18. Actinide ion extraction using room temperature ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges for nuclear fuel cycle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-02-14

    Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research. By the suitable tuning of the cationic and anionic parts of the ionic liquids, their physical properties such as density, dielectric constant and viscosity can be changed which are considered key parameters in metal ion extraction. Aqueous solubility of the RTILs, which can lead to significant loss in the solvent inventory, can be avoided by appending the extractant moieties onto the ionic liquid. While the low vapour pressure and non-flammability of the ionic liquids make them appear as 'green' diluents, their aqueous solubility raises concerns of environmental hazards. The present article gives a summary of studies carried out on actinide ion extraction and presents perspectives of its applications in the nuclear fuel cycle. The article discusses various extractants used for actinide ion extraction and at many places, comparison is made vis-à-vis molecular diluents which includes the nature of the extracted species and the mechanism of extraction. Results of studies on rare earth elements are also included in view of their similarities with the trivalent minor actinides.

  19. Fast Road Network Extraction in Satellite Images Using Mathematical Morphology and Markov Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Géraud

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast method for road network extraction in satellite images. It can be seen as a transposition of the segmentation scheme “watershed transform + region adjacency graph + Markov random fields” to the extraction of curvilinear objects. Many road extractors which are composed of two stages can be found in the literature. The first one acts like a filter that can decide from a local analysis, at every image point, if there is a road or not. The second stage aims at obtaining the road network structure. In the method we propose to rely on a “potential” image, that is, unstructured image data that can be derived from any road extractor filter. In such a potential image, the value assigned to a point is a measure of its likelihood to be located in the middle of a road. A filtering step applied on the potential image relies on the area closing operator followed by the watershed transform to obtain a connected line which encloses the road network. Then a graph describing adjacency relationships between watershed lines is built. Defining Markov random fields upon this graph, associated with an energetic model of road networks, leads to the expression of road network extraction as a global energy minimization problem. This method can easily be adapted to other image processing fields, where the recognition of curvilinear structures is involved.

  20. A fast extraction instrument of a 1-GeV electron synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Chihiro; Nakata, Shuhei

    1994-08-01

    A kicker magnet and a modulator were developed as a fast extraction instrument of a 1-GeV electron synchrotron. A 1-kG pulsed magnetic field was generated by the kicker magnet with the rise time of 40 ns. The ripple of the flattop of the current wave form was less than ±1%, and the shot-to-shot fluctuation of the peak current was no more than 0.1%. The modulator consists of two Blumleins in series which operate at a quarter of the charging voltage as compared to a pulse forming network (PFN) type modulator. The damped oscillating wave form of the current could decrease the residual field to be less than 0.5 G. The effect of the residual field of the kicker magnet on the dynamic aperture of the low-energy electron beam was estimated by the tracking calculation. The result shows the dynamic aperture decreases as the residual field increases. To obtain enough accelerated current, the residual field must be less than 1 G. This restriction could be satisfied by the developed kicker magnet and the modulator. Successful extraction of eight bunches out of 15 bunches in the synchrotron were measured by a wall current monitor located in the extraction transport line.

  1. Spatially reduced image extraction from MPEG-2 video: fast algorithms and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junehwa; Yeo, Boon-Lock

    1997-12-01

    The MPEG-2 video standards are targeted for high-quality video broadcast and distribution, and are optimized for efficient storage and transmission. However, it is difficult to process MPEG-2 for video browsing and database applications without first decompressing the video. Yeo and Liu have proposed fast algorithms for the direct extraction of spatially reduced images from MPEG-1 video. Reduced images have been demonstrated to be effective for shot detection, shot browsing and editing, and temporal processing of video for video presentation and content annotation. In this paper, we develop new tools to handle the extra complexity in MPEG-2 video for extracting spatially reduced images. In particular, we propose new classes of discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain and DCT inverse motion compensation operations for handling the interlaced modes in the different frame types of MPEG-2, and design new and efficient algorithms for generating spatially reduced images of an MPEG-2 video. We also describe key video applications on the extracted reduced images.

  2. Aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash followed by ion-chromatographic determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different techniques were applied for the aqueous extraction of anions from coal and fly ash: rotary mixer- and ultrasonic-assisted extraction with different duration time, and microwave-assisted extraction at different temperatures. Validation showed that the ion-chromatographic method was suitable for the analysis of anions in coal and fly ash extracts. The variations in the amounts of anions using different extraction times during rotary-assisted extraction were minimal for all investigated anions. The efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anions from coal depended on the sonication time and was highest at 30 min. The ultrasound-assisted extraction was less efficient for the extraction of anions from fly ash than rotary-assisted extraction. Increase of temperature in the microwave-assisted extraction had a positive effect on the amounts of all anions extracted from coal and sulphate from fly ash, while the amounts of fluoride and chloride in fly ash extracts decreased. The microwave-assisted extraction of coal at 150°C was compared with standard ASTM methods, and results were in good agreement only for chloride. Changes in the pH value and conductivity during ultrasound-assisted extraction were measured in order to explain changes on the surface of coal particles in contact with water and different processes that occur under environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030, br. 176006 i br. III43009

  3. Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated.

  4. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  5. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-28

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  6. First measurements of D(α) spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A; Anikeev, A

    2014-11-01

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  7. First measurements of D{sub α} spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizunov, A.; Anikeev, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  8. Cyclotron resonances of ions with obliquely propagating waves in coronal holes and the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Markovskii, S. A.

    2002-06-01

    There is a growing consensus that cyclotron resonances play important roles in heating protons and ions in coronal holes where the fast solar wind originates and throughout interplanetary space as well. Most work on cyclotron resonant interactions has concentrated on the special, but unrealistic, case of propagation along the ambient magnetic field, B0, because of the great simplification it gives. This paper offers a physical discussion of how the cyclotron resonances behave when the waves propagate obliquely to B0. We show how resonances at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency come about, and how the physics can be different depending on whether E⊥ is in or perpendicular to the plane containing k and B0 (k is wave vector, and E⊥ is the component of the wave electric field perpendicular to B0). If E⊥ is in the k-B0 plane, the resonances are analogous to the Landau resonance and arise because the particle tends to stay in phase with the wave during the part of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. If E⊥ is perpendicular to the k-B0 plane, then the resonances depend on the fact that the particle is at different positions during the parts of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. Our main results are our refid="df10" type="formula">equations (10), refid="df11" type="formula">(11), and refid="df13" type="formula">(13) for the secular rate of energy gain (or loss) by a resonant particle and the unfamiliar result that ions can resonate with a purely right-hand circularly polarized wave if the propagation is oblique. We conclude with some speculations about the origin of highly obliquely propagating ion resonant waves in the corona and solar wind. We point out that there are a number of instabilities that may generate such waves locally in the corona and solar wind.

  9. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  10. Benchmark and combined velocity-space tomography of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy and collective Thomson scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the combination of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements to determine a common best estimate of the fastion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography. We further demonstrate a benchmark of FIDA tomography and CTS...

  11. Feasibility of inferring the full fast-ion distribution function via Orbit Tomography at the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of fast-ion diagnostics to different regions of the fast-ion distribution (FID) phase space can be calculated. These phase space sensitivities when convolved with a local FID gives the expected experimental measurement. This process can be reversed to reconstruct the local FID from many experimental measurements in a method known as Velocity-space Tomography (VST). However, VST requires many radially overlapping measurement volumes which limits its applicability since most existing diagnostics are setup as radially separated arrays. Orbit Tomography (OT), an extension of VST that allows for the inference of the full FID, has been proposed as a solution to this problem. Unlike VST which reconstructs the fast-ion density on a 2D energy-pitch grid, OT infers the number of fast-ions on a particular orbit. This naturally correlates different radial locations allowing for any viewing chord to be used in the analysis. In the present work we will give an overview of OT and demonstrate its feasibility with the current diagnostic capability of the DIII-D tokamak. Work supported by the US DOE under Award DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. High-performance rechargeable batteries with nanoparticle active materials, photochemically regenerable active materials, and fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-04-04

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  13. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclot...

  14. A Fast Multipole Algorithm with Virtual Cube Partitioning for 3-D Capacitance Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZhaozhi; WANGZeyi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a fast indirect boundaryelement method based on the multipole algorithm for capacitance extraction of three-dimensional (3-D) geometries, virtual cube multipole algorithm, is described. First,each 2-D boundary element is regarded as a set of particles with charge rather than a single particle, so the relations between the positions of elements themselves are considered instead of the relations between the center-points of the elements, and a new strategy for cube partitioning is introduced. This strategy overcomes the inadequacy of the methods that associating panels to particles, does not need to break up every panel contained in more than one cube, and has higher speed and precision. Next, a new method is proposed to accelerate the potential integration between the panels that are near to each other. Making good use of the similarity in the 2-D boundary integration,the fast potential integral approach decreases the burden of direct potential computing. Experiments confirm that the algorithm is accurate and has nearly linear computational growth as O(nm), where n is the number of panels and rn is the number of conductors. The new algorithm is implemented and the performance is compared with previous algorithms, such as Fastcap2 of MIT, for k×k bus examples.

  15. Liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples by ultra fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2013-09-30

    In this study, liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction was successfully developed for the extraction of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples. The analytes were determined by ultra fast liquid chromatography. The pyrethroids were extracted by liquid-solid extraction and then adsorbed onto magnetic adsorbent. Magnetic adsorbent, C18-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles, was synthesized by chemical coprecipitation, silanization and alkylation. The analytes adsorbed onto the magnetic adsorbent can be simply and rapidly isolated from sample solution with a strong magnet on the bottom of the extraction vessel. The extraction parameters, such as liquid-solid extraction solvent, liquid-solid extraction time, the amount of magnetic adsorbent, magnetic solid-phase extraction time and magnetic solid-phase extraction desorption solvent, were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency. The analytical performances of this method, including linear range, detection limit, precision, and recovery were evaluated. The limits of detection for pyrethroid were between 0.63 and 1.2 ng g(-1). Recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked vegetable samples were between 76.0% and 99.5%. The results showed that the present method was a simple, accurate and high efficient approach for the determination of pyrethroids in the vegetable samples.

  16. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  17. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  18. Defects in metal crystals. Progress report, May 1, 1976--April 30, 1977. [Heavy ions and fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D N

    1977-02-01

    Work performed during 1976 to investigate point defects, aggregates of point defects and their interactions with one another is described. Strong emphasis is placed on the use of different irradiating species (300 to 700 eV Xe/sup +/ ions, 300 eV and 30 keV He/sup +/ ions, 20- to 40-keV W/sup +/ ions, 20- to 40-keV Mo/sup +/ ions, 20- to 40-keV Cr/sup +/ ions and fast neutrons) to introduce both vacancies and interstitials in a number of pure metals (Mo, W, Au, Ta) and alloys (Pt-Au, W-Re, Mo-Ti, Mo-Ti-Zr, Ni/sub 4/Mo, Ni/sub 3/Fe, Ni/sub 3/Mn, low swelling 316 stainless steel and commercial 316 stainless steel). (GHT)

  19. Fast Swinnex Filtration (FSF): A fast and robust sampling and extraction method suitable for metabolomics analysis of cultures grown in complex media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Utrilla, Jose; Naviaux, Robert K.;

    2015-01-01

    of a suitable method for anaerobic cultures grown in complex media. Given that a vast majority of bacteria are facultative or obligate anaerobes that grow to low biomass density and need to be cultured in complex media, a suitable sampling and extraction strategy for anaerobic cultures is needed. In this work......Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) provides a powerful means to analyze intracellular metabolism. A prerequisite to accurate metabolomics analysis using LC–MS/MS is a robust sampling and extraction protocol. One unaddressed area in sampling is a detailed examination......, we develop a fast-filtration method using pressuredriven Swinnex filters. We show that the method is fast enough to provide an accurate snapshot of intracellular metabolism, reduces matrix interference from the media to improve the number of compounds that can be detected, and is applicable...

  20. STUDIES ON INOSINE EXTRACTION BY ION EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangXiwen; ShiFang; 等

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of inosine from fermentation solution on anion exchange resin under the condition of different pH,resin type are investigated.Besides,the desorption conditions are studied under different temperature.The adsorption and desorption mechanism are described to obtain the optimum technological condition of inosine extraction.

  1. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takuji; Noda, Koji

    2002-08-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 μs from 700 μs by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  2. Fast and Green - CO2 Based Extraction, Isolation, and Quantification of Phenolic Styrax Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuba, Johanna; Wronski, Valerie-Katharina; Rollinger, Judith M; Grienke, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    In this study the first supercritical fluid based protocol for the extraction, analysis, and isolation of six polar compounds, i.e., o-vanillin (1), styracin (2), vanillin (3), trans-cinnamic acid (4), vanillic acid (5), and shikimic acid (6), was developed. First, eight styrax resin products (R1-R8) obtained from various Liquidambar tree species, which are known to contain compounds 2-6, were extracted with a 1 : 1 mixture of supercritical CO2 and EtOH. Within 4 minutes, the compounds were successfully baseline separated on an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 2-EP (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column using a mobile phase of supercritical CO2 and MeOH with 0.1 % phosphoric acid. The compounds were quantified and the method was validated according to current ICH guidelines. Scaling up to preparative supercritical fluid chromatography using a Viridis BEH 2-EP (10 × 250 mm, 5 µm) column allowed for a fast separation and isolation of the selected constituents 2 and 4 from R6 within 7 minutes. This supercritical fluid protocol is easily adaptable to compounds of similar polarity. The increase in speed and its environmental friendliness underline its superiority over conventional set-ups. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. [Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time in cavity ring-down spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Duan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Research is conducted to accurate and efficient algorithms for extracting ring-down time (r) in cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) which is used to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time guarantees more precise and higher speed of measurement. In this research, five kinds of commonly used algorithms are selected to extract ring-down time which respectively are fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm, linear regression of the sum (LRS) algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and least squares (LS) algorithm. Simulated ring-down signals with various amplitude levels of white noises are fitted by using five kinds of the above-mentioned algorithms, and comparison and analysis is conducted to the fitting results of five kinds of algorithms from four respects: the vulnerability to noises, the accuracy and precision of the fitting, the speed of the fitting and preferable fitting ring-down signal waveform length The research results show that Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and linear regression of the sum algorithm are able to provide more precise results and prove to have higher noises immunity, and by comparison, the fitting speed of Leven- berg-Marquardt algorithm turns out to be slower. In addition, by analysis of simulated ring-down signals, five to ten times of ring-down time is selected to be the best fitting waveform length because in this case, standard deviation of fitting results of five kinds of algorithms proves to be the minimum. External modulation diode laser and cavity which consists of two high reflectivity mirrors are used to construct a cavity ring-down spectroscopy detection system. According to our experimental conditions, in which the noise level is 0.2%, linear regression of the sum algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm are selected to process experimental data. The experimental results show that the accuracy and precision of linear regression of

  4. DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

    2012-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-α upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and

  5. Double einzel lens extraction for the JYFL 14 GHz ECR ion source designed with IBSimu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) and initiate low energy beam transport (LEBT) upgrade at the University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (JYFL) accelerator laboratory, a new ion beam extraction system has been designed and installed. The development of the new extraction was performed with the ion optical code IBSimu, making it the first ECRIS extraction designed with the code. The measured performance of the new extraction is in good agreement with the simulations. Compared to the old extraction the new system provides improved beam quality, i.e. lower transverse emittance values and improved structure of beam profiles, and transmission efficiency of the LEBT and the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. For example, the transmission efficiencies of 40Ar8+ and 84Kr16+ beams have increased by 80 and 90%, respectively. The new extraction system is capable of handling higher beam currents than the old one, which has been demonstrated by extracting new 4He+ and 4He2+ record beam currents of 1.12 mA and 720 μA, exceeding the old records of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS by a factor of two.

  6. Ion channel density regulates switches between regular and fast spiking in soma but not in axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zeberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-I(stim and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking shows a discontinuous f-I(stim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model. In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane.

  7. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  8. Acid Extraction - Ion Exchange Recovery of Cinchona Alkaloids Process and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-06-08

    farther and farther into the almost impenetrable rain forests of the Andes in search of drug- bearing bark. b. Labor and Transportation. In these...a certain percentage of the ion exchanger still bearing its hydrogen ion charge. As long as this situation exists, a certain amount of COp will...extraction medium. Hence, the contact time need be no greater than that re- quired to soften and disintegrate the gummy contents of the cell, plus

  9. Fast particle-driven ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in tokamak plasmas and the case for an ICE diagnostic in ITER

    CERN Document Server

    McClements, K G; Dendy, R O; Carbajal, L; Chapman, S C; Cook, J W S; Harvey, R W; Heidbrink, W W; Pinches, S D

    2014-01-01

    Fast particle-driven waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range (ion cyclotron emission or ICE) have provided a valuable diagnostic of confined and escaping fast ions in many tokamaks. This is a passive, non-invasive diagnostic that would be compatible with the high radiation environment of deuterium-tritium plasmas in ITER, and could provide important information on fusion {\\alpha}-particles and beam ions in that device. In JET, ICE from confined fusion products scaled linearly with fusion reaction rate over six orders of magnitude and provided evidence that {\\alpha}-particle confinement was close to classical. In TFTR, ICE was observed from super-Alfv\\'enic {\\alpha}-particles in the plasma edge. The intensity of beam-driven ICE in DIII-D is more strongly correlated with drops in neutron rate during fishbone excitation than signals from more direct beam ion loss diagnostics. In ASDEX Upgrade ICE is produced by both super-Alfv\\'enic DD fusion products and sub-Alfv\\'enic deuterium beam ions.

  10. QUANTITATIVE ION-PAIR EXTRACTION OF 4(5)-METHYLIMIDAZOLE FROM CARAMEL COLOR AND ITS DETERMINATION BY REVERSED-PHASE ION-PAIR LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mohens; Willumsen, Dorthe

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative ion-pair extraction of 4(5)-methylimidazole from caramel colour using bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as ion-pairing agent has been developed. Furthermore, a reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic separation method has been established to analyse the content ...

  11. Measurements of an ion beam diameter extracted into air through a large-bore metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y.; Umigishi, M. [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    To extract an ion beam into air, the technique using a single macro-capillary has been paid attention. We have expanded the bore of the metal capillary up to 500 μm∅ inlet diameter to increase the beam intensity and have measured the intensity distributions of the extracted 3 MeV proton beam. Furthermore, we have tilted the capillary angle and measured the intensity distributions of the ion beam. In this article, we will present the experimental results together with the simulation which takes the tilt angles of the capillary into account.

  12. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law to the alternate extraction of positive and negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, T., E-mail: trevor.lafleur@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ONERA-The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combined analytical and simulation approach, we investigate positive and negative ion extraction between two electrodes from an ion-ion plasma source. With a square voltage waveform applied to the electrodes, we obtain approximate analytical solutions for the time-averaged extracted current densities, which are given simply by: J{sub p}{sup ac}=[α−fL√((M{sub p})/(q{sub p}V{sub 0}) )]J{sub p}{sup dc}, and J{sub n}{sup ac}=[(1−α)−fL√((M{sub n})/(q{sub n}V{sub 0}) )]J{sub n}{sup dc}, where J{sup ac} is the time-averaged current density, α is the square waveform duty cycle, f is the frequency, L is the electrode gap length, M is the ion mass, q is the ion charge, V{sub 0} is the applied voltage amplitude, J{sup dc} is the dc extracted current density, and the subscripts p and n refer to positive and negative ions, respectively. In particular, if J{sup dc} is the dc space-charge limited current density, then these equations describe the square waveform generalization of the Child-Langmuir law.

  13. Fast ion motion in the plasma part of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Kasilov, S. V.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of a stellarator-mirror (SM) fission-fusion hybrid concept are reviewed. The hybrid consists of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror is used. The stellarator confines deuterium plasma with moderate temperature, 1-2 keV. In the magnetic mirror, a hot component of sloshing tritium ions is trapped. There, the fusion neutrons are generated. A candidate for a combined SM system is a DRACON magnetic trap. A basic idea behind an SM device is to maintain local neutron production in a mirror part, but at the same time eliminate the end losses by using a toroidal device. A possible drawback is that the stellarator part can introduce collision-free radial drift losses, which is the main topic for this study. For high energy ions of tritium with an energy of 70 keV, comparative computations of collisionless losses in the rectilinear part of a specific design of the DRACON type trap are carried out. Two versions of the trap are considered with different lengths of the rectilinear sections. Also the total number of current-carrying rings in the magnetic system is varied. The results predict that high energy ions from neutral beam injection can be satisfactorily confined in the mirror part during 0.1-1 s. The Uragan-2M experimental device is used to check key points of the SM concept. The magnetic configuration of a stellarator with an embedded magnetic mirror is arranged in this device by switching off one toroidal coil. The motion of particles magnetically trapped in the embedded mirror is analyzed numerically with use of motional invariants. It is found that without radial electric field particles quickly drift out of the SM, even if the particles initially are located on a nested magnetic surface. We will show that a weak radial electric field, which

  14. Ion Exchange Extraction of Boron from Aqueous Fluids by Amberlite IRA 743 Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 廖步勇; 刘卫国; 肖云; SWIHART,GeorgeH.

    2003-01-01

    The ion exchange characteristics d Amherlite IRA 743 resin for extracting boron from aqueous fluids have been investigated in detail. The results show that AmherHte IRA 743 resin, a boron specific ion exchange resin, can quantitatively extract boron as the B (OH)4- spedes from weakly basle solution. Some exchangeable anions such as CI- and SO42- are present, resulting in an increase in pH value of the loeded solution within the nan, and the boron in natural aqueous fluids with low nH is also extracted by Amberlite IRA 743 resin. However, the voiume of loaded solution must be restricted. The maximum voiume of loaded solution giving quantitative extraction of boron decreases for sample soh.,tiom of lower pH value. Warm HCI solution is more effective than room temperature HCI solution for eluting boron from Amberllte IRA 743 resin.

  15. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing; Frederico Gai; Caroline Bertagnolli; Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, ad...

  16. Computer simulation of 2-D and 3-D ion beam extraction and acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ido, Shunji; Nakajima, Yuji [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The two-dimensional code and the three-dimensional code have been developed to study the physical features of the ion beams in the extraction and acceleration stages. By using the two-dimensional code, the design of first electrode(plasma grid) is examined in regard to the beam divergence. In the computational studies by using the three-dimensional code, the axis-off model of ion beam is investigated. It is found that the deflection angle of ion beam is proportional to the gap displacement of the electrodes. (author)

  17. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Fluconazole by Ion-pair Complex Formation with Bromocresol Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JALALI,Fahimeh; RAJABI,Mohammad J.

    2007-01-01

    An extraction-spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of fluconazole was described.Fluconazole was effectively extracted as a 1 : 1 ion-pair complex with bromocresole green (BCG) at pH 3.0 into chloroform, followed by spectrophotometric determination at 420 nm. Beer's law was obeyed over the range of 4-procedure was applied to the determination of fluconazole in pharmaceutical preparations as well as its recovery from a blood serum sample.

  18. Producing multicharged fullerene ion beam extracted from the second stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, Tomoki, E-mail: nagaya@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nishiokada, Takuya; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uchida, Takashi [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshikazu [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have been constructing the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Two ion sources of the tandem-type ECRIS are possible to generate plasma individually, and they also confined individual ion species by each different plasma parameter. Hence, it is considered to be suitable for new materials production. As the first step, we try to produce and extract multicharged C{sub 60} ions by supplying pure C{sub 60} vapor in the second stage plasma because our main target is producing the endohedral fullerenes. We developed a new evaporator to supply fullerene vapor, and we succeeded in observation about multicharged C{sub 60} ion beam in tandem-type ECRIS for the first time.

  19. Design of a low voltage, high current extraction system for the ITER Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Fubiani, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Petrenko, S.; Pilan, N.; Rigato, W.; Serianni, G.; Singh, M.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2009-03-01

    A Test Facility is planned to be built in Padova to assemble and test the Neutral Beam Injector for ITER. In the same Test Facility the Ion Source will be tested in a dedicated facility planned to operate in parallel to the main 1 MV facility. Purpose of the full size Ion Source is to optimize the Ion Source performance by maximizing the extracted negative ion current density and its spatial uniformity and by minimizing the ratio of co-extracted electrons. In this contribution the design of the extractor and accelerator grids for a 100 kV, 60 A system is presented. The trajectories of the negative ions, calculated with the SLACCAD code [1], have been benchmarked by a new 2D code (BYPO [2]) which solves in a self consistent way the electric fields in presence of electric charge and magnetic fields. The energy flux intercepted by the grids is estimated by using the Montecarlo code EAMCC [3] and the grids designed according to the constraints set by the permanent magnets and by the cooling channels. The interaction of backstreaming ions due to the ionization process with the grids and the Ion Source backplate is investigated and its impact on the project and performance discussed.

  20. Roles of Fast-Cyclotron and Alfven-Cyclotron Waves for the Multi-Ion Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Using linear Vlasov theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear theory of resonant wave-particle interaction, the dispersion relations and the electromagnetic field fluctuations of fast and Alfven waves are studied for a low-beta multi-ion plasma in the inner corona. Their probable roles in heating and accelerating the solar wind via Landau and cyclotron resonances are quantified. We assume that (1) low-frequency Alfven and fast waves have the same spectral shape and the same amplitude of power spectral density; (2) these waves eventually reach ion cyclotron frequencies due to a turbulence cascade; (3) kinetic wave-particle interaction powers the solar wind. The existence of alpha particles in a dominant proton/electron plasma can trigger linear mode conversion between oblique fast-whistler and hybrid alpha-proton cyclotron waves. The fast-cyclotron waves undergo both alpha and proton cyclotron resonances. The alpha cyclotron resonance in fast-cyclotron waves is much stronger than that in Alfven-cyclotron waves. ...

  1. Technical Note: Fast two-dimensional GC-MS with thermal extraction for anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC-MS) method that uses heart-cutting and thermal extraction (TE) and requires no chemical derivatization is developed for the determination of anhydro-sugars in fine aerosols. Evaluation of the TE-GC-GC-MS method shows high average rela...

  2. Assessment of the quality of dna extracted by two techniques from Mycobacterium tuberculosis for fast molecular identification and genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of two DNA extraction techniques, thermolysis and chemical lysis (CTAB, for molecular identification and genotyping of M. tuberculosis. Forty DNA samples were subjected to PCR and the results demonstrated that with thermolysis it is possible to obtain useful data that enables fast identification and genotyping.

  3. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van

    2003-01-01

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS sys

  4. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-05-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D+ extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D+ ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H+ beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements.

  5. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  6. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. It is based on treating the targets as having one active electron moving in the effective Coulomb field of the atomic core with an effective charge ' = − 5/8. This effective charge is also used in the description of the scattered and ejected electrons. The model has been tested against other available (, 2) results on helium in asymmetric geometry. The scaling law is found to work reasonably well for fast incident electrons and becomes increasingly accurate as target increases.

  7. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-04-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles

  8. Cyclotron Resonances of Ions with Obliquely-Propagating Waves in Coronal Holes and the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, J. V.; Markovskii, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    UVCS/SOHO has provided observations of protons and ions in coronal holes which suggest the operation of ion-cyclotron heating and acceleration. Many models have concentrated on the interactions of particles with parallel-propagating ion-cyclotron waves. There is of course no reason to expect parallel propagation in the corona, so we consider here some consequences of oblique propagation. Following Stix (1992), we analytically calculate the energy absorbed by an ion moving in an obliquely-propagating electromagnetic wave. Resonances occur at harmonics of the gyro frequency, though we will show that the physical interpretations are quite different for electric field polarizations in, or perpendicular to, the plane containing k and Bo (k is wavenumber and Bo is the ambient magnetic field). Surprisingly, a resonance at the fundamental frequency can occur even if the wave is right-hand circularly polarized (i.e. opposite to the sense of the gyromotion). We suggest, therefore, that resonances with the fast/whistler branch, which are often overlooked, may play a role in the heating of ions and protons in coronal holes as long as the waves are oblique. We will discuss possible sources of such waves. We will also summarize other consequences of oblique propagation for the resonant heating of coronal holes and the origin of the fast solar wind. Stix, T.H., Waves in Plasmas, AIP, New York, 1992.

  9. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems; Banco de pruebas portatil para el estudio de fuentes de iones y de la extraccion y enfoque del haz de iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Lopez, F.

    1961-07-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  10. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  11. Fast environment-friendly ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Wang, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yue; Xia, Qian; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-04-22

    A fast environment-friendly extraction method, ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction, was used for the extraction of natural products from plants. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the efficiency of the developed extraction method. Under the optimized experimental conditions, cryptotanshinone (0.176 mg/g), tanshinone I (0.181 mg/g), and tanshinone II A (0.421 mg/g) were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the developed method was found to be greener, more efficient, and faster than conventional, environmentally harmful extraction methods such as methanol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction. The analytical performances including recovery, reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation of determination (r(2)), and the limit of detection, with the ranges of 96.1-103.9%, 1.6-1.9%, 0.9973-0.9984, and 5-8 ng/mL, were respectively obtained. Application of ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction may fundamentally shape the future development of extraction methods.

  12. [Determination of ten basic dyes in meat products by ultra fast liquid chromatography-ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglei; Wang, Lina; Chen, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jin; Cao, Hui; Huang, Liying

    2012-08-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 basic dyes in meat products using ultra fast liquid chromatography-ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS). The target analytes were separated at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) column with a gradient elution. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid). The identification and quantification were achieved in positive ion mode with electro spray ionization source. The samples were extracted with a simple procedure using acetonitrile and cleaned up by weak cation exchange (Oasis WCX) solid phase extraction column. Ten basic dyes were determined by LC-IT-TOF-MS, and quantified by external standard method. The developed method showed a good linearity over the wide range of 1.0 - 100.0 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (n = 7) were less than 8.54%. The average recoveries of the ten basic dyes at three levels (2, 10 and 25 microg/kg) were ranged from 65.39% to 119.18%. Therefore, this method, owing to its simplicity, rapidity and high sensitivity, has a good applicability to the simultaneous determination of dye residues in meat products.

  13. Stream mesocosm response sensitivities to simulated ion stress in produced waters from resource extraction activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase the ecological relevance of laboratory exposures intent on determining species sensitivity to ion stress from resource extraction activities we have conducted several stream mesocosm dosing studies that pair single-species and community-level responses in-situ and all...

  14. Time-domain analysis for extracting fast-paced pupil responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The eye pupil reacts to cognitive processes, but its analysis is challenging when luminance varies or when stimulation is fast-paced. Current approaches relying on deconvolution techniques do not account for the strong low-frequency spontaneous changes in pupil size or the large interindividual variability in the shape of the responses. Here a system identification framework is proposed in which the pupil responses to different parameters are extracted by means of an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs. In an example application of this technique, pupil size was shown to respond to the luminance and arousal scores of affective pictures presented in rapid succession. This result was significant in each subject (N = 5), but the pupil response varied between individuals both in amplitude and latency, highlighting the need for determining impulse responses subjectwise. The same method was also used to account for pupil size variations caused by respiration, illustrating the possibility to model the relation between pupil size and other continuous signals. In conclusion, this new framework for the analysis of pupil size data allows us to dissociate the response of the eye pupil from intermingled sources of influence and can be used to study the relation between pupil size and other physiological signals. PMID:28134323

  15. Extracting the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate from Ion Stopping Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Frenje, Johan A.; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2016-10-01

    Direct measurement of i-e equilibration rates at ICF-relevant conditions is a big challenge, as it is difficult to differentiate from other sinks and sources of energy, such as heat conduction and pdV work. Another method is to use information from ion stopping experiments. Such experiments at the OMEGA laser have made precision energy loss measurements of fusion products at these conditions. Combined with the multimonochromatic x-ray imager technique, which gives temporally and spatially resolved electron temperature and density, we have a robust stopping experiment. We propose to use such stopping measurements to assess the i-e temperature relaxation rate, since both processes involve energy exchange between electrons and ions. We require that the fusion products are 1) much faster than the thermal ions so that i-i collisions are negligible compared to i-e collisions and 2) slower than the thermal electrons so that the stopping obeys a linear friction law. Then the Coulomb logarithms associated with ion stopping and i-e temperature relaxation rate are identical and a measurement of the former provides the latter. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Fast Ion Effects on Fishbones and n=1 Kinks in JET Simulated by a Non-perturbative NOVA-KN Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Gorelenkov; C.Z. Cheng; V.G. Kiptily; M.J. Mantsinen; S.E. Sharapov; the JET-EFDA Contributors

    2004-10-28

    New global non-perturbative hybrid code, NOVA-KN, and simulations of resonant type modes in JET [Joint European Torus] plasmas driven by energetic H-minority ions are presented. The NOVA-KN code employs the ideal-MHD description for the background plasma and treats non-perturbatively the fast particle kinetic response, which includes the fast ion finite orbit width (FOW) effect. In particular, the n = 1 fishbone mode, which is in precession drift resonance with fast ions, is studied. The NOVA-KN code is applied to model an n = 1 (f = 50-80kHz) MHD activity observed recently in JET low density plasma discharges with high fast ion (H-minority) energy content generated during the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). This n = 1 MHD activity is interpreted as the instability of the n = 1 precession drift frequency fishbone modes.

  17. Solvent extraction of trivalent lanthanoid ions with N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-diphenyl-3-oxapentanediamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, H.; Tachimori, S. [Separation Chemistry Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Ibaraki Univ., Bunkyo (Japan); Yaita, T.; Tamura, K. [Ibaraki Univ., Bunkyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanoid ions from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions by N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-diphenyl-3-oxapentanediamide, DMDPhOPDA, was investigated. The distribution ratios in the nitric acid system were much higher than those in the hydrochloric acid system. In the nitric acid system, the dependencies of the distribution ratios on nitric acid and DMDPhOPDA concentrations showed a difference between lighter and heavier lanthanoid ions. The plots of the number of DMDPhOPDA molecules in the extracted species obtained from slope analysis in 4 mol dm{sup -3} nitric acid versus the ionic radius of trivalent lanthanoid ions exhibited a significant change around the middle of the lanthanoids (S-shape). The distribution ratios in the nitric acid system increased with an increase in the atomic number, while those in the HCl system decreased. (orig.)

  18. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot (United Kingdom); Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Binda, F.; Eriksson, J. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sharapov, S. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: (EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  19. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M; Cazzaniga, C; Tardocchi, M; Binda, F; Eriksson, J; Giacomelli, L; Muraro, A; Rebai, M; Sharapov, S; Gorini, G

    2015-10-01

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  20. Aggregation and metal ion extraction properties of novel, silicon-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chiarizia, R.; Herlinger, A. W.

    2001-05-10

    In conjunction with efforts to develop novel actinide extractants exhibiting solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide, the effect of adding silicon-based functionalities to diphosphonic acids has been investigated. Specifically, a series of silyl-substituted diphosphonic acids has been prepared and characterized, and their aggregation and metal ion extraction properties compared with alkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids, reagents previously demonstrated to be effective extractants of actinides from acidic aqueous media into various organic solvents. In addition, the influence of the number of methylene groups bridging the phosphorus atoms of the diphosphonic acids on their extraction behavior has been investigated. Variations in the extraction behavior of the compounds arising from differences in the number of bridging methylene groups have been shown to be attributable to a combination of factors, in particular, the aggregation state of the ligand, the size of the chelate rings formed upon complexation, the basicity of the phosphoryl group and the relative acidities of the ligands.

  1. Optimization and numerical simulation for the extraction system of the H- multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M.; Afarideh, H.

    2014-05-01

    A new ion source has been designed and manufactured for the CYCLONE30 accelerator, which has a much advanced performance compared with the original. It is expected that the newly designed ion source extraction system will transport a very large percentage of the beam without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver an H- beam at 30 keV. The accelerator assembly consists of three circular aperture electrodes made of copper. The simulation study was focused on finding parameter sets that raise the beam perveance as large as possible and which reduce the beam divergence as low as possible. Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum, for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum values. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that it is possible to achieve this goal by decreasing the thickness of the plasma electrode, shortening the first gap, and adjusting the acceleration electrode voltage.

  2. [Determination of residual aluminium Ion in Huoxiang Zhengqi pellets by GFAAS with EDTA complexation extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Na; Ran, Cong-Cong; Li, Qing-Lian; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-06-01

    To establish an EDTA complexation extraction pretreatment combining with GFAAS method for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets without digestive treatment, systematical investigation was made on sample preparation, and EDTA was used for the complexation extraction of residual aluminium ion in samples. The pH, concentration and volume of extraction solution, the temperature and time of microwave extraction, and graphite furnace temperature program were investigated. The results were compared with the microwave digestion. It was showed that, 0.1 g of sample weight was added in 20 mL 0.05 mol x L(-1) EDTA solution (pH 3.5), followed by heating at 150 degrees C for 10 min in the microwave extraction device. The determination of GFAAS was performed at optimized detection wavelength (257.4 nm) as well as graphite furnace temperature program, the detection limits and quantification limits were 2.37 μg x L(-1) and 7.89 μg x L(-1), respectively. The precision (RSD) was less than 2.3%. The average recovery was 96.9% -101%. The present method is easy, rapid and accurate for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets.

  3. The response of a fast scintillator screen (YAP:Ce) to low energy ions (0-40 keV) and its use to detect fast-ion-loss in stellarator TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, M., E-mail: marcos.martinez@externos.ciemat.es [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain); Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Malo, M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Tribaldos, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain); Crespo, M. T.; Muñoz, D. [Laboratorio de Metrología de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    A systematic study of scintillation materials was undertaken to improve the time resolution of the fast ion diagnostic currently installed at TJ-II stellarator. It was found that YAP:Ce (formula YAlO{sub 3}:Ce, Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite doped with Cerium) ionoluminescence offers better sensitivity and time response compared to the standard detector material, SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Eu (TG-Green), currently used in TJ-II. A comparison between both materials was carried out by irradiating them with H{sup +} ions of up to 40 keV using a dedicated laboratory setup. It is found that for the low energy ions of interest at TJ-II, YAP:Ce offers 20 times higher sensitivity than TG-Green and much faster decay time, 27 ns versus 540 ns. It is expected that the use of YAP:Ce in combination with a faster data acquisition and an ion counting software as part of the TJ-II ion luminescent probe will provide 20 times faster data on ion loss.

  4. The response of a fast scintillator screen (YAP:Ce) to low energy ions (0-40 keV) and its use to detect fast-ion-loss in stellarator TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Malo, M.; Crespo, M. T.; Muñoz, D.

    2016-11-01

    A systematic study of scintillation materials was undertaken to improve the time resolution of the fast ion diagnostic currently installed at TJ-II stellarator. It was found that YAP:Ce (formula YAlO3:Ce, Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite doped with Cerium) ionoluminescence offers better sensitivity and time response compared to the standard detector material, SrGa2S4:Eu (TG-Green), currently used in TJ-II. A comparison between both materials was carried out by irradiating them with H+ ions of up to 40 keV using a dedicated laboratory setup. It is found that for the low energy ions of interest at TJ-II, YAP:Ce offers 20 times higher sensitivity than TG-Green and much faster decay time, 27 ns versus 540 ns. It is expected that the use of YAP:Ce in combination with a faster data acquisition and an ion counting software as part of the TJ-II ion luminescent probe will provide 20 times faster data on ion loss.

  5. EFDA Task TW6-TPDS-DIADEV deliverable 2: ITER fast ion collective scattering development of diagnostic components and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, S.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S.B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P.K.; Nielsen, A.H.; Tsakadze, E.

    2009-12-15

    In 2003 the Risoe CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering system. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma with particular interest in fusion alphas. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system, which can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas, is a 60 GHz system. The study showed that by using two powerful microwave sources (gyrotrons) of this frequency both on the low field side, and two antenna systems, one on the low field side and one on the high field side, it is possible to resolve the distribution function of fast ions both for perpendicular andvparallel velocities with good spatial and temporal resolution. The present workvconcerned a continuation of this work, and the following tasks were performed. 1) Optimisation of the design, considering the scattering geometries, variations in plasma profiles, magnetic equilibria etc. 2) Development of numerical codes for determination of the geometry of the antenna system on the high field side, including shapes and positions of mirrors and receiver horns. 3) A model experiment was set up in order to test and support the theoretical and numerical results. From the design studies various R and D issues critical to the viability of the CTS diagnostic on ITER were identified; the most urgent ones are addressed in the presented R and D tasks. (author)

  6. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams. Proceedings of workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, August 20-21, 1979. [Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, D.S. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The Workshop on Physics with Fast Molecular-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on August 20 and 21, 1979. The meeting brought together representatives from several groups studying the interactions of fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams with matter. By keeping the Workshop program sharply focussed on current work related to the interactions of fast molecular ions, it was made possible for the participants to engage in vigorous and detailed discussions concerning such specialized topics as molecular-ion dissociation and transmission, wake effects, ionic charge states, cluster stopping powers, beam-foil spectroscopy, electron-emissions studies with molecular-ion beams, and molecular-ion structure determinations.

  7. Diagnostics of Fast Axial Ions Produced in Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Cikhardt, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Kravarik, J.; Shishlov, A. V.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Orcikova, H.; Turek, K.; Dudkin, N.; Padalko, V. N.; GIT-12 Team

    2016-10-01

    An unexpected advantage of some Z-pinch configurations is a possibility of an acceleration of ions to high energies. One of these configurations is a deuterium gas-puff with outer plasma shell, where hydrogen ions with energies up to 40 MeV has been observed during Z-pinch experiments on the GIT-12 generator since 2013. During the recent campaign in 2016, the source of high energetic ions and also parameters of ion pulses have been studied by various in-chamber diagnostics in 24 experimental shots on the current level below 3 MA. Principal aims were (i) to find a spatial distribution of ion sources, (ii) localization of ion sources on the z-axis and (iii) determine the ion energy spectra by an unfold technique. All of these has been done with the help of a new diagnostic setup consists of an ion pinhole camera, an ion 3-pinhole camera, a multi-pinhole camera and a detector of spatial ion beam profile. The ion diagnostics contained stacks with various absorbers, CR-39 track detectors, HD-V2 and EBT-3 radio-chromic films. One more aim, (iv) the study of a difference in production time of axial ion pulses with off-axis pulses, were accomplished by LiF samples and nTOF signals. This work was supported by the projects GACR 16-07036S, MSMT LD14089, CTU. SGS16/223/OHK3/3T/13, IAEA RC17088.

  8. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  9. Exploiting 1,2,3-Triazolium Ionic Liquids for Synthesis of Tryptanthrin and Chemoselective Extraction of Copper(II Ions and Histidine-Containing Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a common structural core of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, a number of bicyclic triazolium ionic liquids 1–3 were designed and successfully prepared. In our hands, this optimized synthesis of ionic liquids 1 and 2 requires no chromatographic separation. Also in this work, ionic liquids 1, 2 were shown to be efficient ionic solvents for fast synthesis of tryptanthrin natural product. Furthermore, a new affinity ionic liquid 3 was tailor-synthesized and displayed its effectiveness in chemoselective extraction of both Cu(II ions and, for the first time, histidine-containing peptides.

  10. Exploiting 1,2,3-Triazolium Ionic Liquids for Synthesis of Tryptanthrin and Chemoselective Extraction of Copper(II) Ions and Histidine-Containing Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Cheng, Hui-Ting; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2016-10-13

    Based on a common structural core of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine, a number of bicyclic triazolium ionic liquids 1-3 were designed and successfully prepared. In our hands, this optimized synthesis of ionic liquids 1 and 2 requires no chromatographic separation. Also in this work, ionic liquids 1, 2 were shown to be efficient ionic solvents for fast synthesis of tryptanthrin natural product. Furthermore, a new affinity ionic liquid 3 was tailor-synthesized and displayed its effectiveness in chemoselective extraction of both Cu(II) ions and, for the first time, histidine-containing peptides.

  11. Negative ion extraction via particle simulation for fusion: critical assessment of recent contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, L.; Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) models have been extensively used in the last few years to describe negative ion extraction for neutral beam injection applications. We show that some of these models have been employed in conditions far from the requirements of particle simulations and that questionable conclusions about negative ion extraction, not supported by experimental evidence, have been obtained. We present a critical analysis of the method that has led to these conclusions and propose directions toward a more accurate and realistic description of negative ion extraction. We show in particular that, as expected in PIC simulations, mesh convergence is reached only if the grid spacing is on the order of or smaller than the minimum Debye length in the simulation domain, and that strong aberrations in the extracted beam are observed if this constraint is not respected. The method of injection of charged particles in the simulated plasma is also discussed, and we show that some injection methods used in the literature lead to unphysical results.

  12. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  13. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Bismuth(III in Water Using Some Ion Pairing Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Bashammakh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel and low cost liquid-liquid extraction methods for the separation of bismuth(III at trace level from aqueous medium have been developed. The two methods were based upon the formation of yellow colored ternary complex ion associates of tetraiodobismuth(III complex anion, BiI4- with the ion-pairing reagent 2,3,5-tetraphenyltetrazoliumchloride (Tz+.Cl– and 1, 10 phenanthroline (Phen in sulfuric acid medium. The effect of various parameters e.g. pH, organic solvent, shaking time, etc. on the preconcentration of bismuth(III from the aqueous media by the reagent was investigated. The developed colored complex ion associates [Tz+.BiI4-] and [Phen+.BiI4-] were extracted quantitatively into acetone-chloroform (1:1v/v and methyliso- butylketone (MIBK, respectively. The compositions of the formed complex ion associates [Tz+.BiI4-] and [Phen+.BiI4-] were determined by the Job's method at 500 and 490 nm, respectively. The plots of bismuth(III concentration (0-17 μg mL-1 versus absorbance of the associates at 500 and 490 nm were linear with good correlation coefficient (R2=0.998. The developed method of the ion associate [Tz+.BiI4-] two methods was applied successfully for the analysis of bismuth in water.

  14. Technical note: Efficiency of total demineralization and ion-exchange column for DNA extraction from bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Bum; Zhang, Aihua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Yi, Jin A; Lee, Hye Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether a combination of recently introduced methods, total demineralization and ion-exchange columns, would increase DNA recovery from old bone. Ten bone samples taken after a burial period of approximately 60 years were used in this study. Bone powder was digested using total or incomplete demineralization. DNA was extracted by the standard organic method. The DNA extract was purified with ion-exchange columns or QIAquick spin columns. The efficiency of different DNA extraction methods was compared in terms of DNA concentration, inhibitors generated by real-time PCR, and conventional STR typing results. The mean DNA concentration using the total demineralization method is approximately 3 times higher than that using the incomplete demineralization method. For DNA purification, the method using QIAquick spin columns appeared to yield approximately double the DNA than the method using ion-exchange columns. Furthermore, 2 out of 10 samples showed higher levels of inhibition with C(T) values of IPC > or =30 cycles when using only ion-exchange columns. In STR results, total demineralization yielded more locus profiles by 4.2 loci than incomplete demineralization, and QIAquick spin columns also yielded more locus profiles by 3.5 loci than ion-exchange columns. Total demineralization of bone powder significantly increased DNA yield and improved STR typing results. However, the use of ion-exchange columns was not efficient when compared with the method using QIAquick spin columns. It is suggested that the combination of total demineralization and QIAquick spin columns lead to greatly improved STR typing results.

  15. Fast determination of bioactive phytic acid and pyrophosphate in walnuts using microwave accelerated extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; He, Liu; Valiente, Manuel; López-Mesas, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Bioactive compounds phytic acid (IP6) and pyrophosphate (PPi) are minor components of walnuts with the ability of being inhibitors of urolithiasis, among others. Since simultaneous analysis of IP6 and PPi have known drawbacks, a new method to determine their content in walnuts has been developed with emphasis on their extraction from walnuts by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Acid content of extracting solvent, extraction time and temperature were optimized. After extraction, compounds were purified by selective adsorption/desorption on an anion exchange solid phase extraction and analyzed by inductive coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A mixture of H2SO4 and HCl as solvent to extract both, IP6 and PPi, provided results slightly higher than those determined by conventional extraction with no statistical difference. The possible hydrolysis of phytic acid by MAE was analyzed. Compared with the conventional acid extraction method, significant improvement is achieved by the MAE method reducing extraction time from 3h to 10min.

  16. Fast ion conductivity in strained defect-fluorite structure created by ion tracks in Gd2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and ion-conducting properties of the defect-fluorite ring structure formed around amorphous ion-tracks by swift heavy ion irradiation of Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore are investigated. High angle annular dark field imaging complemented with ion-track molecular dynamics simulations show that the atoms in the ring structure are disordered, and have relatively larger cation-cation interspacing than in the bulk pyrochlore, illustrating the presence of tensile strain in the ring region. Density functional theory calculations show that the non-equilibrium defect-fluorite structure can be stabilized by tensile strain. The pyrochlore to defect-fluorite structure transformation in the ring region is predicted to be induced by recrystallization during a melt-quench process and stabilized by tensile strain. Static pair-potential calculations show that planar tensile strain lowers oxygen vacancy migration barriers in pyrochlores, in agreement with recent studies on fluorite and perovskite materials. In view of these results, it is suggested that strain engineering could be simultaneously used to stabilize the defect-fluorite structure and gain control over its high ion-conducting properties.

  17. Extraction of Alkali Ions Investigated by Conductometric and pH Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalvoda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of alkali ions from aqueous solutions of chlorides and hydroxides into a lipophilic liquid membrane composed of tetraethyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate (TBT solution in hexane was investigated by means of measurements of changes in the electrolytic conductivity and pH-value of the aqueous solution. Hydrolysis of the TBT ionophore resulting in the release of the ethyl groups was proposed as the main reaction process, leading to disturbance of the known preference of TBT for sodium ions

  18. High extraction ability of 1,3-dialkynyl calixarene towards mercury(Ⅱ) ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bo Gong; Shu Ling Gong; Qin Zheng; Xiong Li; Yuan Yin Chen

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yloxycalix[4]arene with mercury(Ⅱ) acetate could give mercury-containing alkynyl calixarene polymer. The extraction behavior of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yl-oxycalix[4]arene towards mercury(H) ion was examined. When the mole ratio of Hg2+/calixarene was 1∶1, the extractive percent can reach to 99.1%, and the extraction capacity was up to 431 mg/g. It could also decrease the Hg2+ concentration from 5 to 0.85 mg/L, which was only 17% of the national standard of effluent and satisfied the national standard of drinking water. The extraction process included chemical reaction.

  19. Calculation Of Change-Changing Cross Sections Of IONS Or Atoms Colliding With Fast IONS Using The Classical Trajectory Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D., Shnidman, Ariel, Mebane, Harrison, Davidson, R.C.

    2008-10-10

    Evaluation of ion-atom charge-changing cross sections is needed for many accelerator applications. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation has been used to calculate ionization and charge exchange cross sections. For benchmarking purposes, an extensive study has been performed for the simple case of hydrogen and helium targets in collisions with various ions. Despite the fact that the simulation only accounts for classical mechanics, the calculations are comparable to experimental results for projectile velocities in the region corresponding to the vicinity of the maximum cross section. Shortcomings of the CTMC method for multielectron target atoms are discussed.

  20. Extraction of radioactive positive ions across the surface of superfluid helium : A new method to produce cold radioactive nuclear beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-decay recoils Rn-219 were stopped in superfluid helium and positive ions were extracted by electric field into the vapour phase. This first quantitative observation of extraction was successfully conducted using highly sensitive radioactivity detection. The efficiency for extraction across the

  1. Effect of high ionic strength on the extraction of uranium(VI ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Nazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of didodecylphosphoric acid (HDDPA as an extractant in toluene was carried. Mass spectroscopy showed that the monomer peak at 457.4 amu [M–Na+] is double that of the dimer at 891.9 amu [M–M–Na+] and the monomer molecules concentration dominate the dimer molecules in toluene. HDDPA was used as an extractant for the extraction of U(VI ion from perchlorate and nitrate media that have ionic strength (1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 7.00 M. The effect of HDDPA concentration, pcH, ionic strength of supporting electrolytes, and temperature in the range 15–45 °C on the extraction process have been studied. The stoichiometry of the extraction of U(VI ion, the free energy change (ΔG, the enthalpy change (ΔH, the entropy change (ΔS, and Kex at different ionic strength have been calculated. The formula of the complexes, which were formed has been established to be UO2(X(R2(HR2 at pcH equal 2.00 and UO2(X(R2(HR2 and UO2(X(R2 at pcH = 1.00, where (X isClO4- orNO3- and (HR2 is didodecylphosphoric acid monomer, (R2 is the deprotonated didodecylphosphoric acid, where R is the dodecyl group.

  2. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was appli

  3. Analysis of ion dynamics and peak shapes for delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, V. M.; Ponciano, C. R.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2004-06-01

    The dependence of time-of-flight (TOF) peak shapes on time-dependent extraction electric fields is studied theoretically. Conditions for time focusing are analyzed both analytically and numerically for double-acceleration-region TOF spectrometers. Expressions for the spectrometer mass resolution and for the critical delay time are deduced. Effects due to a leakage field in the first acceleration region are shown to be relevant under certain conditions. TOF peak shape simulations for the delayed extraction method are performed for emitted ions presenting a Maxwellian initial energy distribution. Calculations are compared to experimental results of Cs+ emission due to CsI laser ablation.

  4. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  5. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.aleksi.toivanen@cern.ch; Küchler, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  6. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  7. Fast determination of trace elements in organic fertilizers using a cup-horn reactor for ultrasound-assisted extraction and fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonel Silva; Vieira, Heulla Pereira; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2014-02-01

    A fast and accurate method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction in a cup-horn sonoreactor was developed to determine the total content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in organic fertilizers by fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS FAAS). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions for the extraction procedure. An aliquot containing approximately 120 mg of the sample was added to a 500 µL volume of an acid mixture (HNO3/HCl/HF, 5:3:3, v/v/v). After a few minutes, 500 µL of deionized water was added and eight samples were simultaneously sonicated for 10 min at 50% amplitude, allowing a sample throughput of 32 extractions per hour. The performance of the method was evaluated with a certified reference material of sewage sludge (CRM 029). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.58% to 5.6%. The recoveries of analytes were found to 100%, 109%, 96%, 92%, 101%, 104% and 102% for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated and the values obtained were adequate for the quality control of organic fertilizers. The method was applied to the analysis of several commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes used as fertilizers, and the results were compared with those obtained using the microwave digestion procedure. A good agreement was found between the results obtained by microwave and ultrasound procedures with recoveries ranging from 80.4% to 117%. Two organic waste samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian legislation regarding the acceptable levels of contaminants.

  8. Nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic wave interaction with 2D magnetic X-points in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Threlfall, J W; De Moortel, I; McClements, K G; Arber, T D

    2012-01-01

    Context. This paper investigates the role of the Hall term in the propagation and dissipation of waves which interact with 2D magnetic X-points and considers the effect of the Hall term on the nature of the resulting reconnection. Aims. The goal is to determine how the evolution of a nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic wave pulse, and the behaviour of the oscillatory reconnection which results from the interaction of the pulse with a line-tied 2D magnetic X-point, is affected by the Hall term in the generalised Ohm's law. Methods. A Lagrangian remap shock-capturing code (Lare2d) is used to study the evolution of an initial fast magnetoacoustic wave annulus for a range of values of the ion skin depth (di) in resistive Hall MHD. A magnetic null-point finding algorithm is also used to locate and track the evolution of the multiple null-points that are formed in the system. Results. In general, the fast wave is coupled to a shear wave and, for finite di, to whistler and ion cyclotron waves. Dispersive whistler effects...

  9. Effect of impurity ions on preparation of novel saponifier for rare earth extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 冯宗玉; 黄小卫; 黄莉; 徐旸; 侯永可; 王猛

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium bicarbonate, prepared by the carbonation of magnesium hydroxide slurry, was used as a novel saponifier to eliminate the ammonia nitrogen pollution in the rare earth extraction separation process. The effect of impurity ions introduced by system on the carbonation reaction of magnesium hydroxide was studied in the work. The results showed that the presence of Ca2+could lead to side reactions so as to reduce the conversion rate of magnesium hydroxide, and a small number of rare earth ions would have great influence on the carbonation reaction. What’s more, there was no influence on carbonation reaction with the low concen-tration of Na+or Mg2+, the conversion rate of magnesium hydroxide could reach above 96%. This paper showed a practical theory which could provide scientific guidance for the preparation of novel saponifier in rare earth extraction separation process.

  10. Extraction of high-intensity ion beams from a laser plasma by a pulsed spherical diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Oguri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-current Cu^{+} ion beams were extracted from a laser-produced plasma using a pulsed high-voltage multiaperture diode driven by an induction cavity. The amplitude and the duration of the extraction voltage were 130 kV and 450 ns, respectively. During the extraction, explosive beam divergence due to the strong space-charge force was suppressed by the focusing action of the gap between concentric hemispheres. Modulation of the extracted beam flux due to the plasma prefill in the gap has been eliminated by using a biased control grid put on the anode holes. By means of this extraction scheme we obtained a rectangular beam pulse with a rise time as short as ≈100  ns. The beam current behind the cathode was limited to ≈0.1   A, owing to space-charge effects, as well as to poor geometrical transmission through the cathode sphere. From the measurement of the extracted beam current density distribution along the beam axis and the beam profile measurement, we found a beam waist slightly downstream of the spherical center of the diode structure. The measured beam behavior was consistent with numerical results obtained via a 3D particle code. No serious degradation of the beam emittance was observed for the grid-controlled extraction scheme.

  11. Development of a normalized extraction to further aid in fast, high-throughput processing of forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Catherine C; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Benjamin, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a "normalized" extraction procedure to be used in conjunction with previously validated 3μL fast PCR reactions (42-51min utilizing KAPA2G™ Fast Multiplex PCR Kit) and alternative capillary electrophoresis (24-28min injection using POP-6™ Polymer and a 22cm array). This was the final phase of a workflow overhaul for the database unit at Cellmark Forensics to achieve a substantial reduction in processing time for forensic DNA database samples without incurring significant added costs and/or the need for new instrumentation, while still generating high quality STR profiles. Extraction normalization aimed to consistently yield a small range of DNA concentrations, thereby eliminating the need for sample quantification and dilution. This was specifically achieved using the ChargeSwitch(®) Forensic DNA Purification Kit and a reduction in extraction bead quantity, thereby forcing an increase in bead binding efficiency. Following development of this extraction procedure, an evaluation ensued to assess the combination of normalized extraction, 3μL fast PCR (with PowerPlex 16 HS, Identifiler Plus and Identifiler primer sets), and alternative CE detection - further referred to as new "first pass" procedures. These modifications resulted in a 37% reduction in processing time and were evaluated via an in depth validation, from which nearly 2000 STR profiles were generated, of which 554 profiles from 77 swab donors and 210 profiles from 35 buccal collector donors specifically arose from the new first pass procedures. This validation demonstrates the robustness of these processes for buccal swabs and Buccal DNA Collectors™ using the three primer sets evaluated and their ability to generate high quality STR profiles with 95-99% and 88-91% pass rates, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher order Larmor radius corrections to guiding-centre equations and application to fast ion equilibrium distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthaler, S.; Pfefferlé, D.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    An improved set of guiding-centre equations, expanded to one order higher in Larmor radius than usually written for guiding-centre codes, are derived for curvilinear flux coordinates and implemented into the orbit following code VENUS-LEVIS. Aside from greatly improving the correspondence between guiding-centre and full particle trajectories, the most important effect of the additional Larmor radius corrections is to modify the definition of the guiding-centre’s parallel velocity via the so-called Baños drift. The correct treatment of the guiding-centre push-forward with the Baños term leads to an anisotropic shift in the phase-space distribution of guiding-centres, consistent with the well-known magnetization term. The consequence of these higher order terms are quantified in three cases where energetic ions are usually followed with standard guiding-centre equations: (1) neutral beam injection in a MAST-like low aspect-ratio spherical equilibrium where the fast ion driven current is significantly larger with respect to previous calculations, (2) fast ion losses due to resonant magnetic perturbations where a lower lost fraction and a better confinement is confirmed, (3) alpha particles in the ripple field of the European DEMO where the effect is found to be marginal.

  13. Parameter Extraction and Characteristics Study for Manganese-Type Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Somakettarin, Natthawuth; Funaki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the battery transient response model and parameter extraction method for studying the dynamic behaviors of Manganese-type Lithium-Ion battery. The background knowledge of the battery structure and its operating principle are also concluded. Several aspects of operating conditions, such as charging and discharging operations, environments of terminal currents and temperatures, are considered through the experiments for understanding the battery behaviors.  The charact...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of novel ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles for very fast and highly selective recognition of copper(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Besharati-Seidani, Abbas; Fasihi, Javad; Sharghi, Hashem

    2010-12-15

    This work reports the preparation of new Cu(2+) ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles using 1-hydroxy-4-(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) as a vinylated chelating agent. The Cu(2+) ion found to form a stable 1:1 complex with AQ in methanol solution. The resulting Cu(2+)-AQ complex was copolymerized with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, as a cross-linking monomer, via precipitation polymerization method. The imprint copper ion was removed from the polymeric matrix using a 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) solution. The Cu(2+)-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles were characterized by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. The SEM micrographs showed colloidal nanoparticles of 60-100 nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was 7.0. Sorption and desorption of Cu(2+) ion on the IIP nanoparticles were quite fast and achieved completely over entire investigated time periods of 2-30 min. Maximum sorbent capacity and enrichment factor of the prepared IIP for Cu(2+) were 73.8 μmol g(-1) and 56.5, respectively. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection (C(LOD)=3S(b)/m) of the method were evaluated as 2.6% and 0.1 ng mL(-1), using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, respectively. It was found that the imprinting technology results in increased affinity of the prepared material toward Cu(2+) ion over other metal ions with the same charge and close ionic radius. The relative standard deviations for six and twenty replicates with the same nanoparticles were found to be 1.7% and 2.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

    2013-08-01

    This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

  16. Modeling of plasma transport and negative ion extraction in a magnetized radio-frequency plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.; Kohen, N.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Negative ion sources for fusion are high densities plasma sources in large discharge volumes. There are many challenges in the modeling of these sources, due to numerical constraints associated with the high plasma density, to the coupling between plasma and neutral transport and chemistry, the presence of a magnetic filter, and the extraction of negative ions. In this paper we present recent results concerning these different aspects. Emphasis is put on the modeling approach and on the methods and approximations. The models are not fully predictive and not complete as would be engineering codes but they are used to identify the basic principles and to better understand the physics of the negative ion sources.

  17. Decontamination of Metal Ions in Soil by Supercritical CO{sub 2} Extraction with Catecholamine Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihye; Kim, Hakwon; Park, Kwangheon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The role of fuel cladding and reactor vessels is to help prevent the leakage of radioactive materials, including the fission products. However, if these shielding materials are damaged by a severe disaster such as the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials could leak outside of a power plant site. Indeed, after the Fukushima Accident, radioactive materials have been detected in air and water samples. The air and water pollution lead to soil pollution, which is particularly difficult to decontaminate, as soil pollution has several types that vary according to the characteristics of a pollutant or its area. The existing decontamination methods generate a secondary waste owing to use of chemical toxicity solvents. It is also disadvantageous due to the additional cost of handling them. Therefore, new effective decontamination methods that reduce the use of toxicity solvents are necessary. For example, using supercritical CO{sub 2} has been studied as a new decontamination method. This study examines the method of decontaminating metallic ions inside of the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and a catecholamine compound. This study examined the effects of extracting metallic ions inside the soil using supercritical CO{sub 2} and catecholamine as the ligand. Based on these results, it is evident that when only the extraction agent was used, there was no extraction effect and that only when the ligand, co-ligand, and additive were used together was there an extraction effect. Following this, the optimal extraction-agent ratio was confirmed using varying amounts of extraction agents. The most effective extraction ratio of ligand to co-ligand was 1:2 in E-9 when 0.3 ml of H{sub 2}O were added.

  18. Beam extraction from a laser-driven multicharged ion source (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Logan, B. Grant

    1998-02-01

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source has several potential advantages over existing types and a number of useful applications. The basic principle is that multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity (Ref. Reference 1). Thus, charge state separation downstream is simplified or made unnecessary. Another advantage is that large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted. This type of source could be used for heavy-ion fusion drivers (see Ref. Reference 1) or storage rings. There are also industrial application such as materials processing. We describe conceptual design studies for several specific cases. For example, we discuss extraction and focusing of a 4.1 MV, 144 A beam of Xe16+ ions from an expanding plasma created by an intense laser. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is determined by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The initially diverging beam can be refocused to a small radius or made parallel by a combination of electrostatic and solenoid focusing. Our design studies are carried out first with an envelope code to determine the proper focusing parameters and then with a self-consistent particle code to optimize the beam quality. We present results from both codes and discuss several applications of this type of ion source.

  19. Separation and quantitation of methenamine in urine by ion-pair extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, J G; Jun, H W

    1986-04-01

    An ion-pair extraction technique is described for separating methenamine, a urinary tract antibacterial agent, from formaldehyde in human urine samples. Separation conditions are developed from extraction constants for the methenamine-bromocresol green ion-pair. The technique involves adsorption of the ion-pair onto a silica cartridge and elution with methylene chloride:1-pentanol (95:5). Methenamine is freed from the ion-pair by the addition of excess tetrabutylammonium iodide and converted to formaldehyde (determined spectrophotometrically) by reaction with ammonia and acetylacetone. Linear standard plots were obtained from urine containing methenamine which was diluted to 10-160 micrograms/mL. The lower limit of detection was 6 micrograms/mL of methenamine. Absolute recovery from urine was greater than or equal to 94.5%. The precision (CV) of detection of methenamine in the presence of formaldehyde was less than 2%, and less than or equal to 4.5% for the detection of formaldehyde in the presence of methenamine. No interferences were noted. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of human urine levels of both methenamine and formaldehyde following oral administration of a methenamine salt to a volunteer.

  20. Bach Adsorption Study for the Extraction of Silver Ions by Hydrazone Compounds from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam Salhin Mohamad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorbent materials based on a hydrazone Schiff base compound, C14H11BrN4O4, were prepared either by immobilizing the ligand into sol-gel (SG1 or bonding to silica (SG2. The sorbent materials were characterized by FT-IR, EDX, SEM, TEM, and TGA. The sorption characteristics of a matrix of eight transition metal ions (Ag+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+ using batch method were studied. Several key parameters that affected the extraction efficiency such as pH, contact time, metal ions concentration, and gel size (for SGl were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the physically immobilized hydrazone sorbent (SG1 exhibits highest selectivity towards Ag+ ions, while the chemically bonded hydrazone sorbent (SG2 exhibits high extraction for all metal ions tested. However, for practical applications such as the removal and preconcentration of Ag+, the physically immobilized sorbent (SG1 is preferred.

  1. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; Foord, Mark N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded

  2. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; Foord, Mark N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded

  3. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, J.E.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bruning, H.; Heijne, ter A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since mo

  4. Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, T; Sabourov, A; Varentsov, V L; Gratta, G; Sinclair, D

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

  5. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., PALS Centre, Prague (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Messina University (Italy); Picciotto, A.; Serra, E. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Trento (Italy); Giuffrida, L. [CELIA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (France); Mangione, A. [ITA - Istituto Tecnologie Avanzate, Trapani (Italy); Rosinski, M.; Parys, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  6. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven accelerationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Serra, E.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Limpouch, J.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 1016-1019 W/cm2. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  7. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D; Krasa, J; Prokupek, J; Velyhan, A; Torrisi, L; Picciotto, A; Giuffrida, L; Gammino, S; Cirrone, P; Cutroneo, M; Romano, F; Serra, E; Mangione, A; Rosinski, M; Parys, P; Ryc, L; Limpouch, J; Laska, L; Jungwirth, K; Ullschmied, J; Mocek, T; Korn, G; Rus, B

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10(16)-10(19) W∕cm(2). The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  8. Pulse combustion reactor as a fast and scalable synthetic method for preparation of Li-ion cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križan, Gregor; Križan, Janez; Dominko, Robert; Gaberšček, Miran

    2017-09-01

    In this work a novel pulse combustion reactor method for preparation of Li-ion cathode materials is introduced. Its advantages and potential challenges are demonstrated on two widely studied cathode materials, LiFePO4/C and Li-rich NMC. By exploiting the nature of efficiency of pulse combustion we have successfully established a slightly reductive or oxidative environment necessary for synthesis. As a whole, the proposed method is fast, environmentally friendly and easy to scale. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it preferentially yields small-sized powders (in the nanometric range) at a fast production rate of 2 s. A potential disadvantage is the relatively high degree of disorder of synthesized active material which however can be removed using a post-annealing step. This additional step allows a further tuning of materials morphology as shown and commented in some detail.

  9. EFDA Task TW6-TPDS-DIADEV deliverable 2: ITER Fast Ion Collective Scattering Development of diagnostic components and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang;

    field side and one on the high field side, it is possible to resolve the distribution function of fast ions both for perpendicular and parallel velocities with good spatial and temporal resolution. The present work concerned a continuation of this work, and the following tasks were performed. 1...... experiment was set up in order to test and support the theoretical and numerical results. From the design studies various R&D issues critical to the viability of the CTS diagnostic on ITER were identified; the most urgent ones are addressed in the presented R&D tasks....

  10. Fast ion induced shearing of 2D Alfvén eigenmodes measured by electron cyclotron emission imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, B J; Classen, I G J; Domier, C W; Heidbrink, W W; Luhmann, N C; Nazikian, R; Park, H K; Spong, D A; Van Zeeland, M A

    2011-02-18

    Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfvén eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the observations are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations using an ideal MHD code (NOVA), other characteristics distinctly reveal the influence of fast ions on the mode structures. These features are found to be well described by the nonperturbative hybrid MHD-gyrofluid model TAEFL.

  11. High-resolution X-ray study of the multiple ionization of Pd atoms by fast oxygen ions

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnota, M.; Banaś, D; Berset, Michel; Chmielewska, D; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Hoszowska, Joanna; Maillard, Yves-Patrick; Mauron, Olivier; Pajek, M.; Polasik, M.; Raboud, Pierre-Alexandre; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Słabkowska, K.; Sujkowski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple ionization of the L- and M-shells of Pd by fast oxygen ions has been studied by measuring with high-resolution the satellite structures of the Lα1,2 X-ray transitions. Relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations were used to interpret the complex X-ray spectrum, allowing to derive the number of L- and M-shell spectator vacancies at the moment of the X-ray emission. After correcting these numbers for the atomic vacancy rearrangement processes that take place pr...

  12. Proton and Pb ion beam extraction experiments with bent crystals at the CERN-SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Klem, J T; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of particle beams from the CERN-SPS using bent silicon crystals is described. A summary of the early results is given. Emphasis is on the recent experiments, in particular on the energy dependence of proton extraction at 14, 120 and 270 GeV. 'U-shaped' crystals of different thickness and with a different miscut angle have been compared at 120 GeV. Non-linear excitation of the beam was used in one experiment, with the aim to achieve larger impact parameters - the results show a particular behaviour in the tails of the beam. Finally, the first experimental result on extraction of a 22 TeV fully stripped Pb ion beam with a bent crystal is also described.

  13. Improvement of the cloud point extraction of uranyl ions by the addition of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Sun, Taoxiang; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai

    2013-12-15

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) of uranyl ions by different kinds of extractants in Triton X-114 (TX-114) micellar solution was investigated upon the addition of ionic liquids (ILs) with various anions, i.e., bromide (Br(-)), tetrafluoroborate (BF4(-)), hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)) and bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf2(-)). A significant increase of the extraction efficiency was found on the addition of NTf2(-) based ILs when using neutral extractant tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and the extraction efficiency kept high at both nearly neutral and high acidity. However, the CPE with acidic extractants, e.g., bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) which are only effective at nearly neutral condition, was not improved by ILs. The results of zeta potential and (19)F NMR measurements indicated that the anion NTf2(-) penetrated into the TX-114 micelles and was enriched in the surfactant-rich phase during the CPE process. Meanwhile, NTf2(-) may act as a counterion in the CPE of UO2(2+) by TOPO. Furthermore, the addition of IL increased the separation factor of UO2(2+) and La(3+), which implied that in the micelle TOPO, NTf2(-) and NO3(-) established a soft template for UO2(2+). Therefore, the combination of CPE and IL provided a supramolecular recognition to concentrate UO2(2+) efficiently and selectively.

  14. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions by fast electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Srivastava

    2004-11-01

    An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation $(Z'^{3} /)$ exp$[−Z' (r_{1} + r_{2})]$, $Z' = Z − (5/16)$ for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and $Z'^{2}$ scaling of energies. The scaling law is found to work very well if the lower energy electron is ejected along the momentum transfer direction and the other one is ejected in the opposite direction. It also works quite well if this electron is ejected within about 90° of the momentum transfer direction with the other electron going in the opposite direction. The scaling law becomes increasingly accurate as the target nuclear charge and the energy increase.

  15. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  16. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  17. Evaluation of observable phase space by fast ion loss detector by calculating particle orbits in consideration of plasma facing components and three dimensional magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kouji; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, Tongnyeol

    2016-11-01

    The orbits of lost ions can be calculated from the information obtained by a fast ion loss detector (FILD). The orbits suggest a source of the lost fast ions in a phase space. However, it is not obvious whether an observable set of orbits, or phase space, of a FILD appropriately covers the region of interest to be investigated since the observable phase space can be affected by plasma facing components (PFCs) and a magnetic configuration. A tool has been developed to evaluate the observable phase space of FILD diagnostic by calculating particle orbits by taking the PFCs and 3D magnetic field into account.

  18. Gyro-Kinetic Electron and Fully-Kinetic Ion Simulations of Fast Magnetosonic Waves in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Liu, K.; Wang, X.; Min, K.; Lin, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional simulations using a gyro-kinetic electron and fully-kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme are preformed to study the excitation of fast magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere, which arise from the ion Bernstein instability driven by ring-like proton velocity distributions (with a positive slope with respect to the perpendicular velocity). Since both ion and electron kinetics are relevant, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have often been employed to study the wave excitation. However, such simulations are limited to reduced ion-to-electron mass ratio (mi/me) and light-to-Alfvén speed ratio (c/VA) due to the computationally expensive nature of PIC codes. The present study exploits a GeFi scheme that can break through these limitations and use larger/more realistic mi/me and c/VA. The capability of the GeFi code in simulating the ion Bernstein instability is first demonstrated by comparing a GeFi simulation using reduced mass ratio (mi/me=100) and speed ratio (c/VA=15) to a corresponding PIC simulation. A realistic speed ratio (c/VA=400) and a larger mass ratio (mi/me=400) are then adopted in the GeFi code to explore how the results vary. It is shown that the increased mi/me and c/VA lead to a larger lower hybrid frequency and allow waves to arise at more ion cyclotron harmonics, consistent with the general prediction of linear dispersion theory.

  19. Fast- and slow-wave heating of ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    Wave-heating at the fundamental ion-cyclotron frequency was applied to a hydrogen plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) over a range of plasma densities from 0.2-8x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Substantial heating was observed for all densities. In the low-density plasma (less than 0.4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) ion-cyclotron-wave (shear Alfven wave) heating was effective. For high-density plasmas, a fast-wave should be excited, and in this case also, effective heating was observed with the presence of the NBI beam component. The wave damping mechanism may be attributed to the finite gyro-radius effect on beam ions by the right-handed polarized wave. The experimental results were compared with an analysis using the full-wave code. The heating performance was a little worse than that of the usual two-ion hybrid-heating mode. (author)

  20. Actin filaments as the fast pathways for calcium ions involved in auditory processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miljko V Sataric; Dalibor L Sekulic; Bogdan M Sataric

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the polyelectrolyte properties of actin filaments which are in interaction with myosin motors, basic participants in mechano-electrical transduction in the stereocilia of the inner ear. Here, we elaborated a model in which actin filaments play the role of guides or pathways for localized flow of calcium ions. It is well recognized that calcium ions are implicated in tuning of actin-myosin cross-bridge interaction, which controls the mechanical property of hair bundle. Actin filaments enable much more efficient delivery of calcium ions and faster mechanism for their distribution within the stereocilia. With this model we were able to semiquantitatively explain experimental evidences regarding the way of how calcium ions tune the mechanosensitivity of hair cells.

  1. Dynamics and control of fast ion crystal splitting in segmented Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, H; Schmiegelow, C T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the process of splitting two-ion crystals in segmented Paul traps, i.e. the structural transition from two ions confined in a common well to ions confined in separate wells. The precise control of this process by application of suitable voltage ramps to the trap segments is non-trivial, as the harmonic confinement transiently vanishes during the process. This makes the ions strongly susceptible to background electric field noise, and to static offset fields in the direction of the trap axis. We analyze the reasons why large energy transfers can occur, which are impulsive acceleration, the presence of residual background fields and enhanced anomalous heating. For the impulsive acceleration, we identify the diabatic and adiabatic regimes, which are characterized by different scaling behavior of the energy transfer with respect to time. We propose a suitable control scheme based on experimentally accessible parameters. Simulations are used to verify both the high sensitivity of the s...

  2. High-resolution fast ion microscopy of single whole biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Watt, Frank

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution microscopy techniques have become an essential tool in both biological and biomedical sciences, enabling the visualization of biological processes at cellular and subcellular levels. For many years, these imaging techniques utilized conventional optical microscopes including those with confocal facilities. However, the spatial resolutions achieved were largely limited to around 200 nm, as determined by the diffraction of light. To overcome this diffraction barrier, considerable scientific and technological effort has resulted in the development of super-resolution optical-based techniques, scanning probe microscopies, and also techniques utilizing charged particles (e.g., energetic electrons and ions) or high-energy photons (e.g., X-ray), which exhibit much shorter de Broglie wavelengths. Among the charged particle techniques, those utilizing mega-electron-volt (MeV) ion beams appear to have unique advantages primarily because MeV ions can penetrate through several microns of biological tissue (e.g., whole cells) with little deflection in their trajectories, and hence spatial resolutions are maintained while traversing the sample. Recently, we have witnessed the significant development of MeV ion beam focusing systems in reducing beam dimensions well below 100 nm, such that single whole cell imaging at 20 nm spatial resolutions is now possible. In this review, two super resolution imaging modalities that utilize MeV highly focused ion beams are discussed: Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM), which images the areal density of cells and gives an insight into the cellular structure, and Proton/Helium-ion Induced Fluorescence Microcopy (P/HeIFM), which images the fluorescence emission of fluorescent markers and probes used as labels within the cells. This review hopes to demonstrate the potential of MeV ion microscopy, which is still in its infancy, and describe the simultaneous use of STIM and P/HeIFM as a new and powerful multifaceted

  3. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Midttun, Ø. [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, 0316 Oslo (Norway); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A. [Departamento de Investigación en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  4. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Midttun, Ø.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN's acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H- beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H- beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm. mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H- ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H- ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H- ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H- source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  5. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  6. Fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion target by jet impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, P. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro@din.upm.es; Ogando, F. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain); Eliezer, S. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center (Israel); Martinez-Val, J.M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center (Israel)

    2005-05-21

    A new target design for HIF, based on the fast-ignition principles, is proposed. Unlike the previous designs proposed so far, in this case just one energy source is needed to drive the whole process to ignition. The ultra-fast deposition of energy onto the compressed core is produced in this case by hypervelocity jets generated during the process. The collision of jets converts their kinetic energy into thermal energy of the nuclear fuel, which is expected to produce ignition under proper design. The process is studied in this paper, describing its most relevant features like jet production and later collision.

  7. Characterization of synthetic dyes by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combining ion-exchange chromatography and fast ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Knip, Jitske; van Bommel, Maarten R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-03-04

    In the late 19th century, newly invented synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the natural dyes on the market. The characterization of mixtures of these so-called early synthetic dyes is complicated through the occurrence of many impurities and degradation products. Conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography does not suffice to obtain fingerprints with sufficient resolution and baseline integrity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) is employed in this study, with ion-exchange chromatography in the first dimension and fast ion-pair liquid chromatography in the second. Retention in the first dimension is largely determined by the number of charges, while the selection of a small ion-pair reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) in the second dimension causes retention to be largely determined by the molecular structure of the dye. As a result, there is a high degree of orthogonality of the two dimensions, similar to the values typically encountered in GC×GC. The proposed LC×LC method shows a theroretical peak capacity of about 2000 in an analysis time of about three hours. Clear, informative fingerprints are obtained that open a way to a more efficient characterization of dyes used in objects of cultural heritage.

  8. Comparison of ONIX simulation results with experimental data from the BATMAN testbed for the study of negative ion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Fantz, Ursel; Wünderlich, Dirk; Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-10-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for the ITER neutral beam injector is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code simulates the formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions and co-extracted electrons produced in caesiated sources. In this paper the 3D geometry of the BATMAN extraction system, and the source characteristics such as the extraction and bias potential, and the 3D magnetic field were integrated in the model. Calculations were performed using plasma parameters experimentally obtained on BATMAN. The comparison of the ONIX calculated extracted NI density with the experimental results suggests that predictive calculations of the extraction of NIs are possible. The results show that for an ideal status of the Cs conditioning the extracted hydrogen NI current density could reach ~30 mA cm-2 at 10 kV and ~20 mA cm-2 at 5 kV extraction potential, with an electron/NI current density ratio of about 1, as measured in the experiments under the same plasma and source conditions. The dependency of the extracted NI current on the NI density in the bulk plasma region from both the modeling and the experiment was investigated. The separate distributions composing the NI beam originating from the plasma bulk region and the PG surface are presented for different NI plasma volume densities and NI emission rates from the plasma grid (PG) wall, respectively. The extracted current from the NIs produced at the Cs covered PG surface, initially moving towards the bulk plasma and then being bent towards the extraction surfaces, is lower compared to the extracted NI current from directly extracted surface produced ions.

  9. Rice straw modified by click reaction for selective extraction of noble metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Rice straw was modified by azide-alkyne click reaction in order to realize selective extraction of noble metal ions. The ability of the modified straw to adsorb Pd(2+) and Pt(4+) was assessed using a batch adsorption technique. It was found that the sorption equilibrium could be reached within 1h and the adsorption capacity increased with temperature for both Pd(2+) and Pt(4+). The maximum sorption capacities for Pd(2+) and Pt(4+) were respectively attained in 1.0 and 0.1 mol/L HCl. The modified straw showed excellent selectivity for noble metal ions in comparison to the pristine straw. In addition, the modified straw was examined as a column packing material for extraction of noble metal ions. It was indicated that 1.0 mL/min was the best flow rate for Pd(2+) and Pt(4+). The modified straw could be repeatedly used for 10 times without any significant loss in the initial binding affinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  11. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  12. Quantitative Insights into the Fast Pyrolysis of Extracted Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Marion; Windt, Michael; Ziegler, Bernhard; Appelt, Jörn; Saake, Bodo; Meier, Dietrich; Bridgwater, Anthony

    2017-08-24

    The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into bio-based commodity chemicals is technically possible. Among thermochemical processes, fast pyrolysis, a relatively mature technology that has now reached a commercial level, produces a high yield of an organic-rich liquid stream. Despite recent efforts to elucidate the degradation paths of biomass during pyrolysis, the selectivity and recovery rates of bio-compounds remain low. In an attempt to clarify the general degradation scheme of biomass fast pyrolysis and provide a quantitative insight, the use of fast pyrolysis microreactors is combined with spectroscopic techniques (i.e., mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy) and mixtures of unlabeled and (13) C-enriched materials. The first stage of the work aimed to select the type of reactor to use to ensure control of the pyrolysis regime. A comparison of the chemical fragmentation patterns of "primary" fast pyrolysis volatiles detected by using GC-MS between two small-scale microreactors showed the inevitable occurrence of secondary reactions. In the second stage, liquid fractions that are also made of primary fast pyrolysis condensates were analyzed by using quantitative liquid-state (13) C NMR spectroscopy to provide a quantitative distribution of functional groups. The compilation of these results into a map that displays the distribution of functional groups according to the individual and main constituents of biomass (i.e., hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin) confirmed the origin of individual chemicals within the fast pyrolysis liquids. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Ion acceleration in non-equilibrium plasmas driven by fast drifting electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F., E-mail: fdibartolo@unime.it [Università di Messina, V.le F. Stagno D’Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per L’ingegneria, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F.P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Giugno, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanaia, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We hereby present results on ion acceleration mechanisms in non equilibrium plasmas generated by microwaves or high intensity laser pulses. Experiments point out that in magnetized plasmas X–B conversion takes place for under resonance values of the magnetic field, i.e. an electromagnetic mode is converted into an electrostatic wave. The strong self-generated electric field, of the order of 10{sup 7} V/m, causes a E × B drift which accelerates both ions and electrons, as it is evident by localized sputtering in the plasma chamber. These fields are similar (in magnitude) to the ones obtainable in laser generated plasmas at intensity of 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. In this latter case, we observe that the acceleration mechanism is driven by electrons drifting much faster than plasma bulk, thus generating an extremely strong electric field ∼10{sup 7} V/m. The two experiments confirm that ions acceleration at low energy is possible with table-top devices and following complementary techniques: i.e. by using microwave-driven (producing CW beams) plasmas, or non-equilibrium laser-driven plasmas (producing pulsed beams). Possible applications involve ion implantation, materials surface modifications, ion beam assisted lithography, etc.

  14. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motobayashi, Tohru

    Collaboration between France and Japan on studies with fast RI (radioactive isotope) beams and related technical developments started in 1980s, when the GANIL accelerators and RIKEN cyclotron complex started operation and RI beam production technique was developed. Several examples of collaboration on nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments including related technical development are discussed.

  15. submitter Light Extraction From Scintillating Crystals Enhanced by Photonic Crystal Structures Patterned by Focused Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Modrzynski, Pawel; Knapitsch, Arno; Kunicki, Piotr; Lecoq, Paul; Moczala, Magdalena; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Auffray, Etiennette

    2016-01-01

    “Photonic Crystals (PhC)” have been used in a variety of fields as a structure for improving the light extraction efficiency from materials with high index of refraction. In previous work we already showed the light extraction improvement of several PhC covered LYSO crystals in computer simulations and practical measurements. In this work, new samples are made using different materials and techniques which allows further efficiency improvements. For rapid prototyping of PhC patterns on scintillators we tested a new method using “Focused Ion Beam (FIB)” patterning. The FIB machine is a device similar to a “Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)”, but it uses ions (mainly gallium) instead of electrons for the imaging of the samples' surface. The additional feature of FIB devices is the option of surface patterning in nano-scale which was exploited for our samples. Three samples using FIB patterning have been produced. One of them is a direct patterning of the extraction face of a 0.8×0.8×10 $mm^3$ LYS...

  16. Classification of Jet Fuels by Fuzzy Rule-Building Expert Systems Applied to Three-Way Data by Fast Gas Chromatography-Fast Scanning Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    car - rier gas speed, and a higher head pressure, etc., fast GC separation can be realized. Compared with conventional GC, fast GC offers the...themost common, sensitive, and informativedetectors for GC, MS has promise for the composition-property correlation studyof jet fuels. Time-of-flight ( ToF ... ToF -MS [42]. However, they have the disadvantage of relatively higher costs to purchase and maintain compared to ion trap mass spectrometers. Most

  17. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  18. Fast vaporization solid phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry: A new approach for determination of creatinine in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Banitaba, Mohamma Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work a rapid and simple method for creatinine determination in urine and plasma samples based on aqueous derivatization of creatinine and complete vaporization of sample (as low as 10 µL), followed by ion mobility spectrometry analysis has been proposed. The effect of four important parameters (extraction temperature, total volume of solution, desorption temperature and extraction time) on ion mobility signal has been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative response of ion mobility spectrometry for creatinine was linear in the range of 0-500 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 mg L(-1) in urine and 0-250 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.6 mg L(-1) in plasma sample. The limit of quantitation of creatinine was 2.1 mg L(-1) and 8.7 mg L(-1) in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be 13%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of creatinine in biological samples, showing recoveries from 92% to 104% in urine and 101-110% in plasma samples.

  19. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  20. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  1. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorita, T., E-mail: yorita@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  2. Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELM mitigation coils

    CERN Document Server

    Asunta, Otto; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Koskela, Tuomas; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Garcia-Muñoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ELM mitigation coils on fast ion wall loads was studied with the fast particle following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Neutral beam injected (NBI) particles were simulated in two AUG discharges both in the presence and in the absence of the magnetic field perturbation induced by the eight newly installed in-vessel coils. In one of the discharges (#26476) beams were applied individually, making it a useful basis for investigating the effect of the coils on different beams. However, no ELM mitigation was observed in #26476, probably due to the low plasma density. Therefore, another discharge (#26895) demonstrating clear ELM mitigation was also studied. The magnetic perturbation due to the in-vessel coils has a significant effect on the fast particle confinement, but only when total magnetic field, $B_{tot}$, is low. When $B_{tot}$ was high, the perturbation did not increase the losses, but merely resulted in redistribution of the wall power loads. Hence, it seems to be possible to ac...

  3. The response of a fast phosphor screen scintillator (ZnO:Ga) to low energy ions (0-60 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rey, D. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Navarro, M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Barquero, L. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones lonizantes, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    ZnO:Ga is a promising, high time resolution candidate for use as a fast-ion-loss detector in TJ-II. We compare its ionoluminescence with that of the standard fast-ion-loss detector material, SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Eu (also known as TG-Green), when irradiated by H{sup +} ions with a range of energies E{<=}60 keV using a dedicated laboratory setup. It is found that ZnO:Ga is a reasonably good candidate for detecting low energy (E<60 keV) ions as it has excellent time resolution; however, its sensitivity is about 100 times lower than TG-Green, potentially limiting it to applications with high energy ion loss signals.

  4. Organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors by ion chromatography after solid-phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-jin; CHEN Xiao-qing; ZHANG Shu-chao; LI Yue-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors was developed by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, succinate,glutarate, fluoride, chloride and sulfate were separated and determined in 33 min. The samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction, which has high selectivity for removing a large number of metallic ions in the Bayer liquors, and filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane before being injected into the ion chromatographic system. The separation of six organic acids and three inorganic anions was achieved on an IonPac AS11-HC column with KOH as the eluent, and the detection was performed by a conductivity detection mode. No interference is found in the presence of fluorate, chlorate and sulphate when organic acids are determined. The calibration graphs of peak area for all the analytes are linear over a wide range. The relative standard derivation of the peak area of analytes is less than 2.14%. Under optimum conditions the detection ranges from 0.2 to 100.0 mg/L. The average recoveries of the added standards are between 94.3% and 102.8%.

  5. Deuterium retention after deuterium plasma implantation in tungsten pre-damaged by fast C+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, V. S.; Gasparyan, Yu M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Khripunov, B. I.; Koidan, V. S.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal desorption of deuterium from W was investigated. Virgin samples and samples damaged by 10 MeV C 3+ ions were implanted from plasma in the LENTA facility at 370 K and 773 K. In comparison with the undamaged sample, deuterium retention in the damaged sample slightly increased in the case of deuterium implantation at RT, but decreased in the case of deuterium implantation at 773 K. At 773 K, deuterium was concluded to diffuse far behind the D ion range in the virgin sample, while C implantation region was concluded to be a barrier for D diffusion in the damaged sample.

  6. Chemical Extraction Preparation of Delithiated Cathode Materials of Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shijian; ZHANG Mingang; CHAI Yuesheng; TIAN Wenhuai

    2009-01-01

    A method of conventional chemical reaction to prepare delithiated cathode materials of Li-ion battery was introduced.The cathode material of Li-ion battery was mixed with oxidizing agent Na_2S_2O_8 in water solution,and the solution was stirred continuously to make the chemical re-action proceed sufficiently,then the reaction product was filtered and finally the insoluble delithiated cathode material was obtained.A series of tests were conducted to verify the composition,crystal structure and electrochemical property of the delithiated cathode materials were all desirable.This method overcomes the shortcomings of battery charging preparation and chemical extraction prepa-ration employing other oxidizing agents.

  7. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloe, Karsten [Technischen Universität Dresden; Tasker, Peter A [ORNL; Oshima, Tatsuya [University of Miyazaki; Watarai, Hitoshi [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University; Nilsson, Mikael [University of California, Irvine

    2013-01-01

    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large

  8. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, C; Maunoury, L; Biri, S; Pacquet, J Y; Tuske, O; Delferriere, O

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  9. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  10. Characteristics of extracted beam from a synchrotron using a fast Q-magnet assisted by RF-knockout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Takuji; Noda, Koji

    2008-05-01

    Beam experiment has been carried out at the HIMAC synchrotron to study characteristics of a beam extracted with alternate operation of a fast Q-magnet (FQ) to extract and RF-knockout to diffuse a circulating beam. The FQ coil current of a chopping wave was used to find a particle density distribution after the diffusion. Two kinds of RF-knockout signal were used: a colored noise and a frequency modulation signal. The results showed that the spill structure was like an exponential wave pattern roughly and nearly constant by use of the colored noise and was varied with the frequency modulation signal. The colored noise also gave a nearly constant diffusion rate.

  11. Extraction of 22 TeV/c Lead Ions from the CERN SPS using a Bent Silicon Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, W.; Elsener, K.; Fidecaro, G.; Gyr, M.; Klem, J.; Weisse, E.

    1997-05-01

    The extraction of protons from the halo of a circulating beam has been repeatedly demonstrated at the SPS. In a recent experiment a coasting lead ion beam was available at a momentum of 270 GeV/c/Z corresponding to a total momentum of 22 TeV/c per ion and the possibility to extract ultrarelativistic lead ions with a bent crystal could be demonstrated for the first time. We present the experimental challenges, the measurements performed during this experiment and the first results.

  12. Optimized Extraction of H– by Three-Electrode Faraday Cup System in Magnetized Sheet Plasma Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Fernandez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A locally designed rectangular parallelepiped, three-electrode Faraday cup system has been developed.Its design incorporates the capability of simultaneous extraction and deposition of the H– ions on substrates.The device functions to attain prescribed selectivity conditions of extracted ions, with controlled energies,for deposition or adsorption. It has been proven to detect the ions at filter bias voltage of 13.61 V with acurrent density of 5.3 A/m2 that is relatively higher than reported (Abate & Ramos, 2000.

  13. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339461845; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959498; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  14. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjoernsson, Dadi; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Suwarno, Suwarno; Vegge, Tejs; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2015-01-01

    Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 degrees C at which a transit

  15. A New Family of Ce6MoO15 as Fast Oxide Ion Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jing; Meng Jian; Bo Qibing; Che Ping; Wang Jingping; Liu Jianfen; Lu Minfeng; Zhang Deping; Fang Daqing; Cao Xueqiang

    2004-01-01

    A novel solid solution Ce6MoO15 was achieved. Their structure and oxide ionic conductivity were studied.Based on Ce6MoO15, rare earth element substitution on cerium site shows that all resulting oxides enhance the conductivity further, and have high oxide-ion conductivity, which may be a kind of promising material for SOFCs.

  16. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Brevilato Novaes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

  17. Determination of Zinc Ions in Environmental Samples by Dispersive Liquid- Liquid Micro Extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arabi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work preconcentration of the Zn ions was investigated in water sample by Dispersive liquid- liquid micro extraction (DLLME using chloroform as an extraction solvent, methanol as a disperser solvent and 8-Hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. The determination of extracted ions was done by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of various analytical parameters including pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and volume and concentration of the chelating agent on the extraction efficiency of analyses was investigated. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 26 and the detection limit of the method was 0.0033 µg l-1 and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D for five determinations of 1 ng/ml Zn were 7.41%. 

  18. Investigation on the extraction of strontium ions from aqueous phase using crown ether-ionic liquid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of strontium ions using DCH18C6 as the extractant and various ionic liquids(ILs) as solvents has been investigated.The distribution ratio of Sr2+ can reach as high as 103 under certain conditions,much larger than that in DCH18C6/n-octanol system.The extraction capacity depends greatly on the structure of ionic liquids.In Ils-based extraction systems,the extraction efficiency of strontium ions is reduced by increasing the concentration of nitric acid and can also be influenced directly by the presence of Na+ and K+ in the aqueous phase.It is confirmed that the extraction proceeds mainly via a cation-exchange mechanism.

  19. Investigation on the extraction of strontium ions from aqueous phase using crown ether-ionic liquid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; SHEN XingHai; CHEN QingDe; GAO HongCheng

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of strontium ions using DCH18C6 as the extractant and various ionic liquids (Ils) as solvents has been investigated.The distribution ratio of Sr~(2+) can reach as high as 10~3 under certain conditions,much larger than that in DCH18C6/n-octanol system.The extraction capacity depends greatly on the structure of ionic liquids.In Ils-based extraction systems,the extraction efficiency of strontium ions is reduced by increasing the concentration of nitric acid and can also be influenced directly by the presence of Na~+ and K~+ in the aqueous phase.It is confirmed that the extraction proceeds mainly via a cation-exchange mechanism.

  20. Structure and dynamics of the fast lithium ion conductor "Li7La3Zr2O12".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Dölle, Janis; Berendts, Stefan; Kuhn, Alexander; Bottke, Patrick; Wilkening, Martin; Heitjans, Paul; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Lotnyk, Andriy; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Janek, Jürgen

    2011-11-21

    The solid lithium-ion electrolyte "Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12)" (LLZO) with a garnet-type structure has been prepared in the cubic and tetragonal modification following conventional ceramic syntheses routes. Without aluminium doping tetragonal LLZO was obtained, which shows a two orders of magnitude lower room temperature conductivity than the cubic modification. Small concentrations of Al in the order of 1 wt% were sufficient to stabilize the cubic phase, which is known as a fast lithium-ion conductor. The structure and ion dynamics of Al-doped cubic LLZO were studied by impedance spectroscopy, dc conductivity measurements, (6)Li and (7)Li NMR, XRD, neutron powder diffraction, and TEM precession electron diffraction. From the results we conclude that aluminium is incorporated in the garnet lattice on the tetrahedral 24d Li site, thus stabilizing the cubic LLZO modification. Simulations based on diffraction data show that even at the low temperature of 4 K the Li ions are blurred over various crystallographic sites. This strong Li ion disorder in cubic Al-stabilized LLZO contributes to the high conductivity observed. The Li jump rates and the activation energy probed by NMR are in very good agreement with the transport parameters obtained from electrical conductivity measurements. The activation energy E(a) characterizing long-range ion transport in the Al-stabilized cubic LLZO amounts to 0.34 eV. Total electric conductivities determined by ac impedance and a four point dc technique also agree very well and range from 1 × 10(-4) Scm(-1) to 4 × 10(-4) Scm(-1) depending on the Al content of the samples. The room temperature conductivity of Al-free tetragonal LLZO is about two orders of magnitude lower (2 × 10(-6) Scm(-1), E(a) = 0.49 eV activation energy). The electronic partial conductivity of cubic LLZO was measured using the Hebb-Wagner polarization technique. The electronic transference number t(e-) is of the order of 10(-7). Thus, cubic LLZO is an almost exclusive

  1. Novel Pb2+ ion imprinted polymers based on ionic interaction via synergy of dual functional monomers for selective solid-phase extraction of Pb2+ in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Ruichen; Chen, Lingxin

    2014-01-08

    A novel kind of Pb(2+) ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) was prepared based on ionic interactions via the synergy of dual functional monomers of methacrylic acid and vinyl pyridine for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Pb(2+) in water samples. Suspension polymerization was employed for the formation of template Pb(2+)/monomer complex by self-assembly in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linker. The resulted Pb(2+) IIPs showed fast kinetics, high binding capacity, and the adsorption processes obeyed intraparticle diffusion kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models. The IIPs displayed excellent selectivity toward Pb(2+) over other metal ions such as Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) with selective coefficients above 30, as well as high anti-interference ability for Pb(2+) confronting with common coexisting various ions. Through 10 adsorption-desorption cycles, the reusable IIPs exhibited a good recoverability with the standard error within 5%. These features suggested the IIPs were ideal candidates for extraction and removal of Pb(2+) ions. Consequently, the IIPs were utilized as SPE sorbents and related parameters were optimized. An excellent linearity was presented in the range of 0.2-50 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9998), as well as the limits of detection and quantification were achieved of 0.06 and 0.19 μg L(-1), respectively. A good repeatability was obtained with the relative standard deviation of 2.8%. Furthermore, real water samples were successfully analyzed and satisfactory recoveries varying from 95.5 to 104.6% were attained. The IIPs-SPE demonstrated potential application perspectives for rapid and high-effective cleanup and enrichment of trace Pb(2+) ions in complicated matrices.

  2. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II) ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Basak; CHARUMATHI D; NILANJANA DAS

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of zinc(II) ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II) in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II) bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc...

  3. A Simple and Fast Extraction Method for the Determination of Multiclass Antibiotics in Eggs Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Lin, Kunde; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Meng

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple, fast, and specific extraction method for the analysis of 64 antibiotics from nine classes (including sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamide, nitrofurans, β-lactams, nitromidazoles, and cloramphenicols) in chicken eggs. Briefly, egg samples were simply extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) and 0.1 mol·L(-1) Na2EDTA solution assisted with ultrasonic. The extract was centrifuged, condensed, and directly analyzed on a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with conventional cleanup methods (passing through solid phase extract cartridges), the established method demonstrated comparable efficiencies in eliminating matrix effects and higher or equivalent recoveries for most of the target compounds. Typical validation parameters including specificity, linearity, matrix effect, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), the decision limit, detection capability, trueness, and precision were evaluated. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 70.8% to 116.1% at three spiking levels (5, 20, and 50 μg·kg(-1)), with relative standard deviations less than 14%. LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.005-2.00 μg·kg(-1) and 0.015-6.00 μg·kg(-1) for all of the antibiotics, respectively. A total of five antibiotics were successfully detected in 22 commercial eggs from local markets. This work suggests that the method is suitable for the analysis of multiclass antibiotics in eggs.

  4. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dashan; Guo, Jie; Lei, Xiujun; Zhu, Changan

    2016-04-22

    The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  5. Complex-forming organic ligands in cloud-point extraction of metal ions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlakowska, K; Kozik, V; Dabioch, M

    2013-06-15

    Cloud-point extraction (CPE), an easy, safe, environmentally friendly, rapid and inexpensive methodology for preconcentration and separation of trace metals from aqueous solutions has recently become an attractive area of research and an alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. Moreover, it provides results comparable to those obtained with other separation techniques and has a greater potential to be explored in improving detection limits and other analytical characteristics over other methods. A few reviews have been published covering different aspects of the CPE procedure and its relevant applications, such as the phenomenon of clouding, the application in the extraction of trace inorganic and organic materials, as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources, or incorporation of CPE into an FIA system. This review focuses on general properties of the most frequently used organic ligands in cloud-point extraction and on literature data (from 2000 to 2012) concerning the use of modern techniques in determination of metal ions' content in various materials. The article is divided according to the class of organic ligands to be used in CPE.

  6. An image sensor with fast extraction of objects' positions - Rough vision processor

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Akira; Miyama, Masayuki; Tooyama, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Akita, Junichi

    2001-01-01

    An integration of the signal processing circuits with the image acquiring device, which is called the vision chip and can process information in parallel, is proposed for fast image processing. In applications for robot vision, not only the detailed information, such as shape or texture, but also the rough information, such as 'something is around here', are important and useful. We consider the detecting of centroids of objects in the focal plain as the rough vision processing, which is usef...

  7. Selective metal ion extraction for multiple ion liquid-liquid exchange reactions. Progress report, DE-AS02-79ER 10406. A001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first phase of selecting a model binary system to study was completed. The system selected is Cu(II), Fe(III) acid sulfate solutions extracted by ..beta..-alkenyl 8-hydroxy quinoline (Kelex 100) in xylene. Maximum copper extraction occurs in less than 5 minutes at 30 to 50/sup 0/C. Thermodynamic chemical equilibrium studies with the Fe(III) ion indicate that the ionic charge of the extracted ion is +3 over a limited pH and concentration range. A simplified equilibrium model did not fit the experimental data. A chemical equilibrium model for the aqueous phase was developed. Kinetic studies on the liquid jet recycle reactor are underway. The model proposed to analyze simultaneous extraction of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in a stirred tank extractor was reduced to a set of two nonlinear algebraic equations for idealized kinetic expressions.

  8. Single element of the matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: Measurements of the extracted currents combined with diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, D., E-mail: yordanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    Combining measurements of the extracted currents with probe and laser-photodetachment diagnostics, the study is an extension of recent tests of factors and gas-discharge conditions stimulating the extraction of volume produced negative ions. The experiment is in a single element of a rf source with the design of a matrix of small-radius inductively driven discharges. The results are for the electron and negative-ion densities, for the plasma potential and for the electronegativity in the vicinity of the plasma electrode as well as for the currents of the extracted negative ions and electrons. The plasma-electrode bias and the rf power have been varied. Necessity of a high bias to the plasma electrode and stable linear increase of the extracted currents with the rf power are the main conclusions.

  9. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions by using Calcium Carbonate Extracted from Starfish Treated by Protease and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Soo Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available CaCO3 extracted from starfish by using the commercial protein lyase having α-amylase, β-amylase, and protease is applied to remove heavy metal ions. The extracted CaCO3 shows excellent characteristics in removing heavy metal ions such as Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cr6+ compared with conventional materials such as crab shells, sawdust, and activated carbon except for removing Zn2+. SEM images reveal that the extracted CaCO33 has a good morphology and porosity. We characterize the removal efficiencies of the extracted CaCO3 for the heavy metal ions according to the concentrations, pH, temperatures, and conditions of empty bed contact times.

  10. Asparagus cochinchinensis Extract Alleviates Metal Ion-Induced Gut Injury in Drosophila: An In Silico Analysis of Potential Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions and sulfate are components of atmospheric pollutants that have diverse ways of entering the human body. We used Drosophila as a model to investigate the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (A. cochinchinensis extracts on the gut and characterized gut homeostasis following the ingestion of metal ions (copper, zinc, and aluminum. In this study, we found that the aqueous A. cochinchinensis extract increased the survival rate, decreased epithelial cell death, and attenuated metal ion-induced gut morphological changes in flies following chronic exposure to metal ions. In addition, we screened out, by network pharmacology, six natural products (NPs that could serve as putative active components of A. cochinchinensis that prevented gut injury. Altogether, the results of our study provide evidence that A. cochinchinensis might be an effective phytomedicine for the treatment of metal ion-induced gut injury.

  11. A fast stir bar sorptive extraction method for the analysis of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in source and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauld, T; Teasdale, P; Stratton, H; Uwins, H

    2007-01-01

    The presence of unpleasant taste and odour in drinking water is an ongoing aesthetic concern for water providers worldwide. The need for a sensitive and robust method capable of analysis in both natural and treated waters is essential for early detection of taste and odour events. The purpose of this study was to develop and optimise a fast stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method for the analysis of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in both natural water and drinking water. Limits of detection with the optimised fast method (45 min extraction time at 60 degrees C using 24 microL stir bars) were 1.1 ng/L for geosmin and 4.2 ng/L for MIB. Relative standard deviations at the detection limits were under 17% for both compounds. Use of multiple stir bars can be used to decrease the detection limits further. The use of 25% NaCl and 5% methanol sample modifiers decreased the experimental recoveries. Likewise, addition of 1 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L NaOCI decreased the recoveries and this effect was not reversed by addition of 10% thiosulphate. The optimised method was used to measure geosmin concentrations in treated and untreated drinking water. MIB concentrations were below the detection limits in these waters.

  12. Panofsky magnet for the beam extraction from the synchrotron using a fast Q-magnet and RF-knockout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, S.; Nakanishi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The fast control of the beam spill extracted from a synchrotron is a key function for the spot scanning irradiation in cancer therapy application. The authors propose an extraction method which uses the quadruple field of fast response, as well as the RF-knockout. A Panofsky magnet was developed as a quadruple magnet, with a frequency response of around 10 kHz. The Panofsky magnet has a rectangular beam aperture and plate coils attached to the pole face. A model magnet has been manufactured with ferrite, and static and dynamic magnetic fields were measured. From the measurement we observed that the effects of eddy current in the plate coils were large and the uniformity of the magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture was worse than ±5% with a plate thickness of 0.02 cm and a frequency of current of 10 kHz. For the future, in a detailed design the eddy current effects have to be taken into account.

  13. Panofsky magnet for the beam extraction from the synchrotron using a fast Q-magnet and RF-knockout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masubuchi, S., E-mail: cisa09016@g.nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, 1-2-1 Izumicho, Narashino, Chiba 275-8575 (Japan); Nakanishi, T., E-mail: nakanishi.tetsuya@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, 1-2-1 Izumicho, Narashino, Chiba 275-8575 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The fast control of the beam spill extracted from a synchrotron is a key function for the spot scanning irradiation in cancer therapy application. The authors propose an extraction method which uses the quadruple field of fast response, as well as the RF-knockout. A Panofsky magnet was developed as a quadruple magnet, with a frequency response of around 10 kHz. The Panofsky magnet has a rectangular beam aperture and plate coils attached to the pole face. A model magnet has been manufactured with ferrite, and static and dynamic magnetic fields were measured. From the measurement we observed that the effects of eddy current in the plate coils were large and the uniformity of the magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture was worse than {+-}5% with a plate thickness of 0.02 cm and a frequency of current of 10 kHz. For the future, in a detailed design the eddy current effects have to be taken into account.

  14. Greater hydrogen ion-induced depression of tension and velocity in skinned single fibres of rat fast than slow muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J M; Moss, R L

    1987-12-01

    .v.l., suggesting that apparent positive co-operativity of tension development had increased in soleus and decreased in d.v.l. and s.v.l. fibres. 6. These results (1) demonstrate an increased resistance to H+ ion-mediated contractile dysfunction in slow- compared to fast-twitch single fibres, and (2) support the hypothesis that muscular fatigue resulting from short-term, intense muscular contraction may in part be related to elevated H+ ion concentration.

  15. Protecting ITER walls: fast ion power loads in 3D magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki-Suonio, T.; Särkimäki, K.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Varje, J.; Liu, Y.; Sipilä, S.; Asunta, O.; Hirvijoki, E.; Snicker, A.; Terävä, J.; Cavinato, M.; Gagliardi, M.; Parail, V.; Saibene, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fusion alpha and beam ion with steady-state power loads in all four main operating scenarios of ITER have been evaluated by the ASCOT code. For this purpose, high-fidelity magnetic backgrounds were reconstructed, taking into account even the internal structure of the ferritic inserts and tritium breeding modules (TBM). The beam ions were found to be almost perfectly confined in all scenarios, and only the so-called hybrid scenario featured alpha loads reaching 0.5 MW due to its more triangular plasma. The TBMs were not found to jeopardize the alpha confinement, nor cause any hot spots. Including plasma response did not bring dramatic changes to the load. The ELM control coils (ECC) were simulated in the baseline scenario and found to seriously deteriorate even the beam confinement. However, the edge perturbation in this case is so large that the sources have to be re-evaluated with plasma profiles that take into account the ECC perturbation.

  16. Fast ion transport in silver halide solid solutions and multiphase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The incorporation of homovalent ions, e.g., I(-) in AgBr, leads to a substantial increase in ionic conductivity sigma. The charge compensation concept does not explain the enhancement. AgBr + 30 mol. % AgI exhibits sigma approximately 7/omega/cm at 380 C, which is approximately 170% larger than that of alpha-AgI, the best known superionic conductor, at its melting point. The purely elastic displacement caused by the foreign ion is suggested to be the origin of such a unique behavior. Furthermore, AgI-AgBr two-phase systems display sigma approximately 10 to the 3rd times higher than predicted by the classical theories.

  17. Design and Construction of a Fast Ion Loss Faraday Cup Array Diagnostic for JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S. Bauumel; F.E. Cecil; V. Kiptily; R. Ellis; L. Pedrick; A. Werner

    2004-04-26

    A thin foil Faraday cup array is being built to measure the loss of 3.5 MeV alpha particles and MeV ion cyclotron heating (ICH) tail ions on JET. It will consist of nine detectors spread over five different poloidal locations and three radial positions. They will measure the poloidal distribution and radial scrape off of the losses. The detectors will be comprised of four layers of thin (2.5 micron) Ni foil, giving some resolution of the lost particle energy distribution as different ranges of energies will stop in different layers of the detector. One detector will utilize eight thinner (1.0 micron) foils to obtain a better resolved energy distribution. These detectors will accept particles incident up to 45{sup o} from the normal to the foils.

  18. Measurement of time dilation by laser spectroscopy on fast stored Lithium ions

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, S.

    2005-01-01

    In der hier vorgelegten Arbeit werden Frequenzmessungen an schnellen Lithium Ionen als Test der Zeitdilatation vorgestellt. Die Messungen sind am Speicherring TSR am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik durchgeführt worden. Die Übergangsfrequenz eines Zwei-Niveau-Systems im Lithium Ion wird bestimmt, indem eine dopplerfreie Fluoreszens-Sättigungsspektroskopie verwendet wird. Die Spektroskopie wird durch zwei gegenläufige Laser verwirklicht, die kollinear zum Ionenstrahl sind. Zwei Messungen bei...

  19. Synthesis of magnetic graphene nanocomposites decorated with ionic liquids for fast lead ion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyan; Li, Leilei; Luo, Chuannan; Fan, Lulu

    2016-04-01

    Seeking highly-efficient, low-cost and robust methods to remove metal ions from aqueous solutions is very much in demand. Here, we developed a novel magnetic composite bio-adsorbent, graphene oxide and magnetic chitosan-ionic liquids (GOMCS-ILs), for removing Pb(II) from water. This was the first time to combine ionic liquids and graphene oxide and magnetic chitosan, and apply to the adsorption of metal ions. The addition of ionic liquids can not only improve the dispersivity of the adsorbent, but also increase the adsorption sites. The characteristic result of FTIR, SEM, and XRD showed that GOMCS-ILs were prepared with large surface area and good magnetic responsiveness. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Pb(II) such as pH, contact time, and initial ion concentration were studied in detail. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption was well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was to be 85mgg(-1). Moreover, the GOMCS-ILs could be repeatedly used by simple treatment without obvious structure and performance degradation. These results demonstrated the potential applications of GOMCS-ILs microspheres in efficient removal of Pb(II) from wastewater and deep-purification of polluted water.

  20. Radiolytic stability of some recently developed ion exchange and extraction chromatographic resins containing diphosphonic acid groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of {sup 60}Co irradiation on the Diphonix{trademark}, Diphosil and Diphonix-CS chelating ion exchange resins, and on two Dipex{trademark} extraction chromatographic resins containing the P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}DEH[MDP]) impregnated in the pores of a polymeric support (Dipex-1) and of silica (Dipex-2), respectively, has been investigated. The resins have been irradiated while in contact with HNO{sub 3} (Diphonix, Diphosil and Dipex resins) or NaOH (Diphonix-DS resin) up to an absorbed dose of about 200 Mrad. As a probe of the resin radiolytic degradation, metal uptake (both equilibrium and kinetics) and capacity measurements have been performed. Results show that the Diphonix-CS resin properties are practically unaffected by irradiation under the experimental conditions used in this work. The Diphonix, Diphosil, and especially the Dipex resins suffer substantial capacity losses, but their affinity for actinide ions is not seriously compromised. On the other hand, the kinetics of metal uptake by the silica based Diphosil and Dipex-2 resins becomes substantially slower indicating that, from a radiolytic degradation standpoint, polymeric materials perform better than silica as supports for H{sub 2}DEH[MDP] containing extraction chromatographic resins.

  1. Focus ion beam-induced mechanical stress switching in an ultra-fast resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The Mo/Si3N4:Pt/Pt nanometallic resistive switching devices with ultra-fast write/erase speed (meta-stable state, while LRS (detrapping state) is a stable state. Strong mechanical stress facilitates local bond distortion in dielectric films and thus lowers the energy barrier between HRS and LRS, eventually leading to a barrier-less state transition. A quantitative model based on stress-mediated parallel conduction paths were established to provide a more accurate description of the resistive switching devices.

  2. High-power production targets for the Super-FRS using a fast extraction scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Kojouharova, J; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Chishkine, V; Geissel, H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kindler, B; Landre-Pellemoine, F; Lommel, B; Mittig, W; Münzenberg, G; Shutov, A; Weick, H; Yavor, M

    2003-01-01

    The high-power production target of the Super-FRS [H. Geissel et al., these Proceedings] will be irradiated by very intense heavy-ion beams which will be delivered from the future SIS100/200 [An International Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons, GSI-Report, 2001] synchrotron facility at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. This paper presents calculations of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of such a target, considering that a uranium ion beam with an energy of 1 GeV/u and an intensity of 10 sup 1 sup 2 particles will impinge within 50 ns on a solid carbon target with a thickness of 4 g/cm sup 2. Due to the high beam intensity the target may be strongly heated and could be destroyed in a single shot. The purpose of this work is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations how one can minimize target heating and avoid target destruction.

  3. Coordination-Accelerated "Iron Extraction" Enables Fast Biodegradation of Mesoporous Silica-Based Hollow Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Huo, Minfeng; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-09-21

    Biodegradation behavior of inorganic silica-based nanoplatforms is of critical importance in their clinical translations, but still remains a great challenge in achieving this goal by composition regulation of biocompatible silica framework. In the present work, a chemical coordination-accelerated biodegradation strategy to endow hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) with unique coordination-responsive biodegradability, on-demand coordination-responsive drug releasing behavior, and significantly enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy by directly doping iron (Fe) ions into the framework of mesoporous silica is reported. A simple but versatile dissolution-regrowth strategy has been developed to enable the framework Fe doping via chemical bonding. The deferiprone-mediated biodegradation of Fe-doped HMSNs (Fe-HMSNs) has been comprehensively evaluated both in simulated body fluid and intracellular level, which have exhibited a specific coordination-accelerated biodegradation behavior. In addition to high biocompatibility of Fe-HMSNs, the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded Fe-HMSNs show enhanced tumor-suppressing effect on 4T1 mammary cancer xenograft. This work paves a new way for tuning the biodegradation performance of mesoporous silica-based nanoplatforms simply by biocompatible Fe-ion doping into silica framework based on the specific coordination property between introduced metal Fe ions with Fe-coordination proteins. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fast luminescence in vacuum ultraviolet region in heavy-ion-irradiated α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimizu, Masanori, E-mail: koshi@qpc.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kimura, Kazuie [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka; Asai, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    We analyzed the time-resolved luminescence properties of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under heavy ion irradiations in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region. A luminescence band at approximately 170 nm, at which a luminescence band was observed under VUV irradiation and was ascribed to self-shrunk excitons. The decay rate increased with the linear energy transfer (LET). The luminescence efficiency of the band increased sharply with the LET for the case of Xe irradiation, whose LET was estimated to be higher than the threshold LET for track formation. The fast decay rate and high luminescence intensity for Xe irradiation was explained according to the enhanced radiative rate caused by close interactions among excited states.

  5. Interstitial and Interlayer Ion Diffusion Geometry Extraction in Graphitic Nanosphere Battery Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, Attila; Knoll, Aaron; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Bei; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Papka, Michael E.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are commonly used for simulating the synthesis and ion diffusion of battery materials. A good battery anode material is determined by its capacity to store ion or other diffusers. However, modeling of ion diffusion dynamics and transport properties at large length and long time scales would be impossible with current MD codes. To analyze the fundamental properties of these materials, therefore, we turn to geometric and topological analysis of their structure. In this paper, we apply a novel technique inspired by discrete Morse theory to the Delaunay triangulation of the simulated geometry of a thermally annealed carbon nanosphere. We utilize our computed structures to drive further geometric analysis to extract the interstitial diffusion structure as a single mesh. Our results provide a new approach to analyze the geometry of the simulated carbon nanosphere, and new insights into the role of carbon defect size and distribution in determining the charge capacity and charge dynamics of these carbon based battery materials.

  6. Effects of hot-water extraction on the thermochemical conversion of shrub willow via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot-water extraction (TM) (HWE) is a pretreatment technology designed to facilitate the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose by removing the majority of the hemicellulose and ash content from the solid biomass. The HWE process generates salable sugars and other products as part of the process. The bio...

  7. A fast and inexpensive DNA extraction/purification protocol for brown macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, Galice; Coyer, James A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    Here we describe a rapid method for extracting DNA from dried brown algae material using a microtitre plate system in conjunction with a milling instrument. The method allows the preparation of nuclear and organelle DNA of quality suitable for polymerase chain reaction amplification. It combines

  8. A fast and inexpensive DNA extraction/purification protocol for brown macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, Galice; Coyer, James A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a rapid method for extracting DNA from dried brown algae material using a microtitre plate system in conjunction with a milling instrument. The method allows the preparation of nuclear and organelle DNA of quality suitable for polymerase chain reaction amplification. It combines hig

  9. Ability of freshwater fish to extract oxygen at different hydrogen-ion concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, A.H.; McGavock, A.M.; Fuller, A.C.; Markus, H.C.

    1934-01-01

    Pruthi's observations on the stickleback at pH 3.1 have been confirmed for the stickleback as well as several other species of fresh-water fish. Pruthi's criticism of the work of Powers is invalid within the pH range to which the fish are acclimated. The initial oxygen has either no effect on the lethal oxygen or the effect is in the opposite direction from that suggested by Pruthi. Outside of the pH range normal to the species in question the lethal oxygen is dependent in a large measure on the initial oxygen. Several species of freshwater fish--largemouth blackbass, smallmouth blackbass, white crappie, yellow perch, rainbow trout, as well as the goldfish and green sunfish--have the ability to extract oxygen from the water at low oxygen tensions equally well over a fairly wide range of hydrogen-ion concentration. The bluegill has a somewhat narrower range of toleration. The two species of minnow--steel-colored and bluntnose--tolerate a markedly narrower range of difference in hydrogen-ion concentration as shown by the lethal oxygen. The ability of fish to extract oxygen from the water at low pressure depends more or less on the hydrogen-ion concentration of water. The results obtained in this investigation confirm the studies on pH tolerance of fish previously published. These results also confirm the observations that in highly alkaline water fish require a higher concentration of oxygen to survive.

  10. Modeling the response of a fast ion loss detector using orbit tracing techniques in a neutral beam prompt-loss study on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Garcia-Munoz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Darrow, D. S.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A numerical model describing the expected measurements of neutral beam prompt-losses by a newly commissioned fast ion loss detector (FILD) in DIII-D is presented. This model incorporates the well understood neutral beam deposition profiles from all eight DIII-D beamlines to construct a prompt-loss source distribution. The full range of detectable ion orbit phase space available to the FILD is used to calculate ion trajectories that overlap with neutral beam injection footprints. Weight functions are applied to account for the level of overlap between these detectable orbits and the spatial and velocity (pitch) properties of ionized beam neutrals. An experimental comparison is performed by firing each neutral beam individually in the presence of a ramping plasma current. Fast ion losses determined from the model are in agreement with measured losses.

  11. Machine learning scheme for fast extraction of chemically interpretable interatomic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgirev, Pavel E.; Kruglov, Ivan A.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method for a fast, unbiased and accurate representation of interatomic interactions. It is a combination of an artificial neural network and our new approach for pair potential reconstruction. The potential reconstruction method is simple and computationally cheap and gives rich information about interactions in crystals. This method can be combined with structure prediction and molecular dynamics simulations, providing accuracy similar to ab initio methods, but at a small fraction of the cost. We present applications to real systems and discuss the insight provided by our method.

  12. Machine learning scheme for fast extraction of chemically interpretable interatomic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel E. Dolgirev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for a fast, unbiased and accurate representation of interatomic interactions. It is a combination of an artificial neural network and our new approach for pair potential reconstruction. The potential reconstruction method is simple and computationally cheap and gives rich information about interactions in crystals. This method can be combined with structure prediction and molecular dynamics simulations, providing accuracy similar to ab initio methods, but at a small fraction of the cost. We present applications to real systems and discuss the insight provided by our method.

  13. Benchmarking of computational approaches for fast screening of lithium ion battery electrolyte solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Guk, Hyein; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Chung, Dong Hyen

    2017-08-01

    Electrolyte solvents play an important role in lithium-ion batteries. Hence, investigation of the solvent is key to improving battery functionality. We performed benchmark calculations to suggest the best conditions for rapid screening of electrolyte candidates using semi-empirical (SEM) calculations and density functional theory (DFT). A wide selection of Hamiltonians, DFT levels, and basis sets were used for this benchmarking with typical electrolyte solvents. The most efficient condition for reducing computational costs and time is VWN/DNP+ for DFT levels and PM3 for SEM Hamiltonians.

  14. Fast timing with plastic scintillators for in-beam heavy-ion spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoischen, R., E-mail: robert.hoischen@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pietri, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Prokopowicz, W.; Schaffner, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Emde, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Operations Management, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Golubev, P. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wendt, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Kurz, N.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Gerl, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-10-21

    The design, R and D, and testing of a new plastic-scintillator detector for Time-of-Flight measurements with relativistic heavy-ion beams are presented. A design approach using 32 independent precise timing measurements of the same physical event is followed. This is different from the conventional scheme, which aims at two or four high-precision measurements. A circular, 27 cm in diameter, BC-420 plastic-scintillator sheet is read-out by 32 photomultiplier tubes in order to achieve an intrinsic detector resolution on the order of 10 ps root mean square.

  15. Extraction of negative charges from an ion source: Transition from an electron repelling to an electron attracting plasma close to the extraction surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Christian; Fantz, Ursel

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale sources for negative hydrogen ions, capable of delivering an extracted ion current of several ten amperes, are a key component of the neutral beam injection system of the upcoming ITER fusion device. Since the created heat load of the inevitably co-extracted electrons after magnetic separation from the extracted beam limits their tolerable amount, special care must be taken for the reduction of co-extracted electrons—in particular, in deuterium operation, where the larger amount of co-extracted electrons often limits the source performance. By biasing the plasma grid (PG, first grid of the extraction system) positively with respect to the source body, the plasma sheath in front of the PG can be changed from an electron repelling towards an electron attracting sheath. In this way, the flux of charged particles onto the PG can be varied, thus changing the bias current and inverse to it the amount of co-extracted electrons. The PG bias affects also the flux of surface-produced H - towards the plasma volume as well as the plasma symmetry in front of the plasma grid, strongly influenced by an E → × B → drift. The influence of varying PG sheath potential profile on the plasma drift, the negative hydrogen ion density, and the source performance at the prototype H - source is presented, comparing hydrogen and deuterium operation. The transition in the PG sheath profile takes place in both isotopes, with a minimum of co-extracted electrons formed in case of the electron attracting PG sheath. The co-extracted electron density in deuterium operation is higher than in hydrogen operation, which is accompanied by an increased plasma density in deuterium.

  16. Beam size reduction of a several hundred-keV compact ion microbeam system by improving the extraction condition in an ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Ohkubo, Takeru; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Saitoh, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    A several hundred-keV compact ion microbeam system with a three-stage acceleration lens has been developed to form an ion beam of several micrometers in diameter. In a previous study of the Ohkubo et al. (2013) and Ishii et al. (2014), a hydrogen beam of 143 keV having 17 μm diameter was experimentally formed using such a microbeam system. It was demonstrated that a three-stage acceleration lens functioned as a focusing lens and indicated that the beam diameter (hereinafter referred to as the “beam size”) depended on the extraction voltage to generate the ion beam and the vacuum pressure in the extraction space in a plasma-type ion source. In this study, the hydrogen beam sizes were experimentally measured at 130 keV as functions of the extraction voltage and vacuum pressure to form the beam size with several micrometers in diameter. These two relationships showed that beam sizes were reduced in the extraction voltage range of 400–500 V and when the vacuum pressure was lowered to a minimum value of 5.33 × 10{sup −5} Pa. In addition, the result showed that the beam size was dominantly influenced by the vacuum pressure. Consequently, a hydrogen beam 5.8 μm in diameter was formed experimentally—the smallest beam yet obtained.

  17. Amyloid β Ion Channels in a Membrane Comprising Brain Total Lipid Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Kim, Young Hun; T Arce, Fernando; Gillman, Alan L; Jang, Hyunbum; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Yang, Jerry; Lal, Ratnesh

    2017-02-20

    Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers are the predominant toxic species in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The prevailing mechanism for toxicity by Aβ oligomers includes ionic homeostasis destabilization in neuronal cells by forming ion channels. These channel structures have been previously studied in model lipid bilayers. In order to gain further insight into the interaction of Aβ oligomers with natural membrane compositions, we have examined the structures and conductivities of Aβ oligomers in a membrane composed of brain total lipid extract (BTLE). We utilized two complementary techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM) and black lipid membrane (BLM) electrical recording. Our results indicate that Aβ1-42 forms ion channel structures in BTLE membranes, accompanied by a heterogeneous population of ionic current fluctuations. Notably, the observed current events generated by Aβ1-42 peptides in BTLE membranes possess different characteristics compared to current events generated by the presence of Aβ1-42 in model membranes comprising a 1:1 mixture of DOPS and POPE lipids. Oligomers of the truncated Aβ fragment Aβ17-42 (p3) exhibited similar ion conductivity behavior as Aβ1-42 in BTLE membranes. However, the observed macroscopic ion flux across the BTLE membranes induced by Aβ1-42 pores was larger than for p3 pores. Our analysis of structure and conductance of oligomeric Aβ pores in a natural lipid membrane closely mimics the in vivo cellular environment suggesting that Aβ pores could potentially accelerate the loss of ionic homeostasis and cellular abnormalities. Hence, these pore structures may serve as a target for drug development and therapeutic strategies for AD treatment.

  18. Fast HPLC-MS/MS Method for Determining Penicillin Antibiotics in Infant Formulas Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle may suffer from different infections relatively often, but the inflammation of the mammary gland is very important to the farmer. These infections are frequently treated with penicillin antimicrobial drugs. However, their use may result in the presence of residues in animal products, such as milk powder and/or infant formulas, and it represents a potential risk for consumers. To monitor this, the EU has defined safe maximum residue limits (MRLs through Commission Regulation (EU number 37/2010. Although LC-MS is a trustful option for confirmation and quantification of antibiotics, the analysis of real samples with complex matrices frequently implies previous clean-up steps. In this work, precipitation polymerization has been used and different molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP sorbents were tested and optimized for the fast and simultaneous solid-phase extraction (MISPE of eight common penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and nafcillin. The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and the applicability of these polymers as sorbents for the extraction of penicillins at MRL levels in milk powder (infant formulas was proved. The limits of detection and quantification were below the legal tolerances, except for LOQ for oxacillin and cloxacillin.

  19. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-09-27

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories.

  20. Partial alkali-metal ion extraction from K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4 using PTFE as an extraction reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tadashi C; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-10-21

    The alkali-metal ion extraction ability of an inert material, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; empirical formula CF2), was clarified by characterizing a partially alkali-metal ion-extracted layered compound, K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4. Washing K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4 in water extracts only 44% of the interlayer K(+) and no intralayer Li(+); on the other hand, 53% of the interlayer K(+) and approximately 10% of the intralayer Li(+) ions were extracted from K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4 by the reaction with PTFE at 350 °C under flowing Ar. A systematic decrease in the lattice parameters a and c along the intralayer directions and an increase in b along the interlayer direction were observed, consistent with the alkali-metal ion deintercalation amount as a function of the reaction temperatures and the reacted PTFE amounts. After the reaction with K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4 : CF2 = 1 : 0.6 in mol, the lattice parameter b increased to 1.5607(3) nm from 1.5522(2) of the pristine K0.8(Li0.27Ti1.73)O4, and this change in the lattice parameter was approximately one order of magnitude larger than those in a and c.