WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast internal motion

  1. Infrared and Raman study of the fast internal motions of non-rigid molecules in condensed state: method of selective deuteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascombe, J.; Cavagnat, D.; Lassegues, J.C.; Rafilipomanana, C.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of non-rigid molecules in the gas state is now well known but very little information is available on these molecules in condensed state. The authors present a method of study based on the analysis of the infrared and Raman spectra of selectively deuterated molecules. It is applied to the nitromethane and cyclopentene molecules which provide respectively characteristic examples of methyl internal rotation and ring-puckering motion. In each case, an isolated -C0 or -CD oscillator is modulated by the internal motion and several γ(CH) or γ(CD) bands are observed as a result of the dependence of the vibrational frequency of the oscillator on its conformational situation. Moreover, in the case of crystalline nitromethane a detailed study of the temperature dependence of the band profiles allows the main mechanism of relaxation of the -CH oscillator to be deduced. (orig.)

  2. ROBUST MOTION SEGMENTATION FOR HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO SEQUENCES USING A FAST MULTI-RESOLUTION MOTION ESTIMATION BASED ON SPATIO-TEMPORAL TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Brouard , Olivier; Delannay , Fabrice; Ricordel , Vincent; Barba , Dominique

    2007-01-01

    4 pages; International audience; Motion segmentation methods are effective for tracking video objects. However, objects segmentation methods based on motion need to know the global motion of the video in order to back-compensate it before computing the segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method which estimates the global motion of a High Definition (HD) video shot and then segments it using the remaining motion information. First, we develop a fast method for multi-resolution motion est...

  3. Fast image interpolation for motion estimation using graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Francis; Kokaram, Anil

    2004-05-01

    Motion estimation and compensation is the key to high quality video coding. Block matching motion estimation is used in most video codecs, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.26L. Motion estimation is also a key component in the digital restoration of archived video and for post-production and special effects in the movie industry. Sub-pixel accurate motion vectors can improve the quality of the vector field and lead to more efficient video coding. However sub-pixel accuracy requires interpolation of the image data. Image interpolation is a key requirement of many image processing algorithms. Often interpolation can be a bottleneck in these applications, especially in motion estimation due to the large number pixels involved. In this paper we propose using commodity computer graphics hardware for fast image interpolation. We use the full search block matching algorithm to illustrate the problems and limitations of using graphics hardware in this way.

  4. Quantitative fuel motion determination with the CABRI fast neutron hodoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumung, K.; Augier, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope installed at the CABRI reactor in Cadarache, France, is employed to provide quantitative fuel motion data during experiments in which single liquid-metal fast breeder reactor test pins are subjected to simulated accident conditions. Instrument design and performance are reviewed, the methods for the quantitative evaluation are presented, and error sources are discussed. The most important findings are the axial expansion as a function of time, phenomena related to pin failure (such as time, location, pin failure mode, and fuel mass ejected after failure), and linear fuel mass distributions with a 2-cm axial resolution. In this paper the hodoscope results of the CABRI-1 program are summarized

  5. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc

  6. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  7. Internal Motion Estimation by Internal-external Motion Modeling for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhong, Zichun; Yang, Yiwei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhou, Linghong; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun

    2018-02-27

    The aim of this study is to develop an internal-external correlation model for internal motion estimation for lung cancer radiotherapy. Deformation vector fields that characterize the internal-external motion are obtained by respectively registering the internal organ meshes and external surface meshes from the 4DCT images via a recently developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm. A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal phasic DVFs with external phasic and directional DVFs. Principle component analysis is then applied to the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics, and generate model parameters to correlate the internal-external motion. The proposed model is evaluated on a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and 4DCT images from five lung cancer patients. For tumor tracking, the center of mass errors of the tracked tumor are 0.8(±0.5)mm/0.8(±0.4)mm for synthetic data, and 1.3(±1.0)mm/1.2(±1.2)mm for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. For lung tracking, the percent errors of the tracked contours are 0.06(±0.02)/0.07(±0.03) for synthetic data, and 0.06(±0.02)/0.06(±0.02) for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. The extensive validations have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed model in motion tracking for both the tumor and the lung in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  8. Neural mechanism for sensing fast motion in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wang, Yi

    2013-11-07

    Luminance is a fundamental property of visual scenes. A population of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) is sensitive to uniform luminance. In natural vision, however, the retinal image often changes rapidly. Consequently the luminance signals visual cells receive are transiently varying. How V1 neurons respond to such luminance changes is unknown. By applying large static uniform stimuli or grating stimuli altering at 25 Hz that resemble the rapid luminance changes in the environment, we show that approximately 40% V1 cells responded to rapid luminance changes of uniform stimuli. Most of them strongly preferred luminance decrements. Importantly, when tested with drifting gratings, the preferred speeds of these cells were significantly higher than cells responsive to static grating stimuli but not to uniform stimuli. This responsiveness can be accounted for by the preferences for low spatial frequencies and high temporal frequencies. These luminance-sensitive cells subserve the detection of fast motion under the conditions of dim illumination.

  9. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences

  10. Averaging, not internal noise, limits the development of coherent motion processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Manning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of motion processing is a critical part of visual development, allowing children to interact with moving objects and navigate within a dynamic environment. However, global motion processing, which requires pooling motion information across space, develops late, reaching adult-like levels only by mid-to-late childhood. The reasons underlying this protracted development are not yet fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine whether the development of motion coherence sensitivity is limited by internal noise (i.e., imprecision in estimating the directions of individual elements and/or global pooling across local estimates. To this end, we presented equivalent noise direction discrimination tasks and motion coherence tasks at both slow (1.5°/s and fast (6°/s speeds to children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11 years, and adults. We show that, as children get older, their levels of internal noise reduce, and they are able to average across more local motion estimates. Regression analyses indicated, however, that age-related improvements in coherent motion perception are driven solely by improvements in averaging and not by reductions in internal noise. Our results suggest that the development of coherent motion sensitivity is primarily limited by developmental changes within brain regions involved in integrating motion signals (e.g., MT/V5.

  11. Hardware architecture design of a fast global motion estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaobing; Sang, Hongshi; Shen, Xubang

    2015-12-01

    VLSI implementation of gradient-based global motion estimation (GME) faces two main challenges: irregular data access and high off-chip memory bandwidth requirement. We previously proposed a fast GME method that reduces computational complexity by choosing certain number of small patches containing corners and using them in a gradient-based framework. A hardware architecture is designed to implement this method and further reduce off-chip memory bandwidth requirement. On-chip memories are used to store coordinates of the corners and template patches, while the Gaussian pyramids of both the template and reference frame are stored in off-chip SDRAMs. By performing geometric transform only on the coordinates of the center pixel of a 3-by-3 patch in the template image, a 5-by-5 area containing the warped 3-by-3 patch in the reference image is extracted from the SDRAMs by burst read. Patched-based and burst mode data access helps to keep the off-chip memory bandwidth requirement at the minimum. Although patch size varies at different pyramid level, all patches are processed in term of 3x3 patches, so the utilization of the patch-processing circuit reaches 100%. FPGA implementation results show that the design utilizes 24,080 bits on-chip memory and for a sequence with resolution of 352x288 and frequency of 60Hz, the off-chip bandwidth requirement is only 3.96Mbyte/s, compared with 243.84Mbyte/s of the original gradient-based GME method. This design can be used in applications like video codec, video stabilization, and super-resolution, where real-time GME is a necessity and minimum memory bandwidth requirement is appreciated.

  12. Electron spin echo studies of the internal motion of radicals in crystals: Phase memory vs correlation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, L.D.; Bowman, M.K.; Norris, J.R.; Brown, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An electron spin echo (ESE) study of the internal motion of the CH 2 protons in irradiated zinc acetate dihydrate crystals shows that quantitative measurements of the motional correlation time can be obtained quite directly from pulsed measurements. In the slow motional limit, the motional correlation time is equal to the phase memory time determined by ESE. In the fast motional limit, the motional correlation time is proportional to the no motion spectral second moment divided by the ESE phase memory time. ESE offers a convenient method of studying motion, electron transfer, conductivity, etc. in a variety of systems too complicated for study by ordinary EPR. New systems for study by ESE include biological samples, organic polymers, liquid solutions of radicals with unresolved hyperfine, etc. When motion modulates large anisotropic hyperfine couplings, ESE measurements of the phase memory time are sensitive to modulation of pseudosecular hyperfine interactions

  13. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  14. Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E; Shaikh, Aasef G; Green, Andrea M; Dickman, J David

    2004-07-29

    A critical step in self-motion perception and spatial awareness is the integration of motion cues from multiple sensory organs that individually do not provide an accurate representation of the physical world. One of the best-studied sensory ambiguities is found in visual processing, and arises because of the inherent uncertainty in detecting the motion direction of an untextured contour moving within a small aperture. A similar sensory ambiguity arises in identifying the actual motion associated with linear accelerations sensed by the otolith organs in the inner ear. These internal linear accelerometers respond identically during translational motion (for example, running forward) and gravitational accelerations experienced as we reorient the head relative to gravity (that is, head tilt). Using new stimulus combinations, we identify here cerebellar and brainstem motion-sensitive neurons that compute a solution to the inertial motion detection problem. We show that the firing rates of these populations of neurons reflect the computations necessary to construct an internal model representation of the physical equations of motion.

  15. International Experience with Fast Reactor Operation & Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, John I.; Grandy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Worldwide experience with fast reactors has demonstrated the robustness of the technology and it stands ready for worldwide deployment. • The lessons learned are many and there is danger that what has been learned will be forgotten given that there is little activity in fast reactor development at the present time. • For this reason it is essential that knowledge of fast reactor technology be preserved, an activity supported in the U.S. as well as other countries

  16. Internal conversion mediated by specific nuclear motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2014-01-01

    the excitation energies, and the excitation in all cases is by a 200 nm photon, the S1 density-of-states in the Franck-Condon region will be high for the more N-alkylated amine. This, according to standard models, should lead to faster internal conversion. The experimental results are in contrast to this...

  17. Molten fuel motion during a fast-reactor overpower transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesar, D.C.; Padilla, A. Jr.; Lewis, C.H.; Waltar, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanistic models for postfailure fuel behavior during hypothetical transient overpower accidents are currently being developed for incorporation into the MELT accident analysis code. A new model for the fuel-coolant interaction and for the motion of fuel in the coolant channel has been developed and incorporated into the MELT-III code. A major limitation of the mechanistic fuel motion model is its dependence on the uniform interaction region of MELT-III. Consequently, a parallel effort is currently in progress to incorporate a non-uniform interaction region into the MELT code. Combination of the fuel motion and the nonuniform interaction region models will provide the framework for development of a mechanistic fuel plateout/blockage model for transient overpower accidents

  18. Audiovisual biofeedback improves the correlation between internal/external surrogate motion and lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B; Paganelli, Chiara; Ludbrook, Joanna Jane; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Breathing management can reduce breath-to-breath (intrafraction) and day-by-day (interfraction) variability in breathing motion while utilizing the respiratory motion of internal and external surrogates for respiratory guidance. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback, an interactive personalized breathing motion management system, has been developed to improve reproducibility of intra- and interfraction breathing motion. However, the assumption of the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is not always verified during medical imaging and radiation treatment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is the same under free breathing without guidance (FB) and with AV biofeedback guidance for voluntary motion management. For 13 lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with two breathing conditions: (a) FB and (b) AV biofeedback, totaling 88 patient measurements. Simultaneously, the external respiratory motion of the abdomen was measured. The internal respiratory motion of the diaphragm and lung tumor was retrospectively measured from 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images. The correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient for: (a) abdomen to tumor (abdomen-tumor) and (b) diaphragm to tumor (diaphragm-tumor). The correlations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback using several metrics: abdomen-tumor and diaphragm-tumor correlations with/without ≥5 mm tumor motion range and with/without adjusting for phase shifts between the signals. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 11% (p = 0.12) from 0.53 to 0.59 and diaphragm-tumor correlation by 13% (p = 0.02) from 0.55 to 0.62. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 17% (p = 0

  19. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit, E-mail: amit.sawant@utsouthwestern.edu [UT Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  20. Revealing the fast atomic motion of network glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B; Baldi, G; Chushkin, Y; Rufflé, B; Cristofolini, L; Fontana, A; Zanatta, M; Nazzani, F

    2014-05-19

    Still very little is known on the relaxation dynamics of glasses at the microscopic level due to the lack of experiments and theories. It is commonly believed that glasses are in a dynamical arrested state, with relaxation times too large to be observed on human time scales. Here we provide the experimental evidence that glasses display fast atomic rearrangements within a few minutes, even in the deep glassy state. Following the evolution of the structural relaxation in a sodium silicate glass, we find that this fast dynamics is accompanied by the absence of any detectable aging, suggesting a decoupling of the relaxation time and the viscosity in the glass. The relaxation time is strongly affected by the network structure with a marked increase at the mesoscopic scale associated with the ion-conducting pathways. Our results modify the conception of the glassy state and asks for a new microscopic theory.

  1. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  2. Fast Numerical Simulation of Focused Ultrasound Treatments During Respiratory Motion With Discontinuous Motion Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, Michael; Georgii, Joachim; Preusser, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) is rapidly gaining clinical acceptance for several target tissues in the human body. Yet, treating liver targets is not clinically applied due to a high complexity of the procedure (noninvasiveness, target motion, complex anatomy, blood cooling effects, shielding by ribs, and limited image-based monitoring). To reduce the complexity, numerical FUS simulations can be utilized for both treatment planning and execution. These use-cases demand highly accurate and computationally efficient simulations. We propose a numerical method for the simulation of abdominal FUS treatments during respiratory motion of the organs and target. Especially, a novel approach is proposed to simulate the heating during motion by solving Pennes' bioheat equation in a computational reference space, i.e., the equation is mathematically transformed to the reference. The approach allows for motion discontinuities, e.g., the sliding of the liver along the abdominal wall. Implementing the solver completely on the graphics processing unit and combining it with an atlas-based ultrasound simulation approach yields a simulation performance faster than real time (less than 50-s computing time for 100 s of treatment time) on a modern off-the-shelf laptop. The simulation method is incorporated into a treatment planning demonstration application that allows to simulate real patient cases including respiratory motion. The high performance of the presented simulation method opens the door to clinical applications. The methods bear the potential to enable the application of FUS for moving organs.

  3. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic

  4. Heart Motion Prediction in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery: A Nonlinear Fast Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG surgery outperforms traditional on-pump surgery because the assisted robotic tools can alleviate the relative motion between the beating heart and robotic tools. Therefore, it is possible for the surgeon to operate on the beating heart and thus lessens post surgery complications for the patients. Due to the highly irregular and non-stationary nature of heart motion, it is critical that the beating heart motion is predicted in the model-based track control procedures. It is technically preferable to model heart motion in a nonlinear way because the characteristic analysis of 3D heart motion data through Bi-spectral analysis and Fourier methods demonstrates the involved nonlinearity of heart motion. We propose an adaptive nonlinear heart motion model based on the Volterra Series in this paper. We also design a fast lattice structure to achieve computational-efficiency for real-time online predictions. We argue that the quadratic term of the Volterra Series can improve the prediction accuracy by covering sharp change points and including the motion with sufficient detail. The experiment results indicate that the adaptive nonlinear heart motion prediction algorithm outperforms the autoregressive (AR and the time-varying Fourier-series models in terms of the root mean square of the prediction error and the prediction error in extreme cases.

  5. Breaking cover: neural responses to slow and fast camouflage-breaking motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiapeng; Gong, Hongliang; An, Xu; Chen, Zheyuan; Lu, Yiliang; Andolina, Ian M; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

    2015-08-22

    Primates need to detect and recognize camouflaged animals in natural environments. Camouflage-breaking movements are often the only visual cue available to accomplish this. Specifically, sudden movements are often detected before full recognition of the camouflaged animal is made, suggesting that initial processing of motion precedes the recognition of motion-defined contours or shapes. What are the neuronal mechanisms underlying this initial processing of camouflaged motion in the primate visual brain? We investigated this question using intrinsic-signal optical imaging of macaque V1, V2 and V4, along with computer simulations of the neural population responses. We found that camouflaged motion at low speed was processed as a direction signal by both direction- and orientation-selective neurons, whereas at high-speed camouflaged motion was encoded as a motion-streak signal primarily by orientation-selective neurons. No population responses were found to be invariant to the camouflage contours. These results suggest that the initial processing of camouflaged motion at low and high speeds is encoded as direction and motion-streak signals in primate early visual cortices. These processes are consistent with a spatio-temporal filter mechanism that provides for fast processing of motion signals, prior to full recognition of camouflage-breaking animals. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Triangular Geometrized Sampling Heuristics for Fast Optimal Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hussain Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT-based algorithms have become increasingly popular due to their lower computational complexity as compared with other path planning algorithms. The recently presented RRT* motion planning algorithm improves upon the original RRT algorithm by providing optimal path solutions. While RRT determines an initial collision-free path fairly quickly, RRT* guarantees almost certain convergence to an optimal, obstacle-free path from the start to the goal points for any given geometrical environment. However, the main limitations of RRT* include its slow processing rate and high memory consumption, due to the large number of iterations required for calculating the optimal path. In order to overcome these limitations, we present another improvement, i.e, the Triangular Geometerized-RRT* (TG-RRT* algorithm, which utilizes triangular geometrical methods to improve the performance of the RRT* algorithm in terms of the processing time and a decreased number of iterations required for an optimal path solution. Simulations comparing the performance results of the improved TG-RRT* with RRT* are presented to demonstrate the overall improvement in performance and optimal path detection.

  7. Calibration and quantification of fast intracellular motion (FIM) in living cells using correlation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Pavel; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Boyde, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2003), s. 230-239 ISSN 0161-0457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/99/0368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : fast intracellular motion * living cell ů video rate confocal laser scanning microscopy Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2003

  8. SAD PROCESSOR FOR MULTIPLE MACROBLOCK MATCHING IN FAST SEARCH VIDEO MOTION ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal N. Shah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation is a very important but computationally complex task in video coding. Process of determining motion vectors based on the temporal correlation of consecutive frame is used for video compression. In order to reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation and maintain the quality of encoding during motion compensation, different fast search techniques are available. These block based motion estimation algorithms use the sum of absolute difference (SAD between corresponding macroblock in current frame and all the candidate macroblocks in the reference frame to identify best match. Existing implementations can perform SAD between two blocks using sequential or pipeline approach but performing multi operand SAD in single clock cycle with optimized recourses is state of art. In this paper various parallel architectures for computation of the fixed block size SAD is evaluated and fast parallel SAD architecture is proposed with optimized resources. Further SAD processor is described with 9 processing elements which can be configured for any existing fast search block matching algorithm. Proposed SAD processor consumes 7% fewer adders compared to existing implementation for one processing elements. Using nine PE it can process 84 HD frames per second in worse case which is good outcome for real time implementation. In average case architecture process 325 HD frames per second.

  9. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root...... validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder......-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose...

  10. Rectal Balloon for the Immobilization of the Prostate Internal Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Beak, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Jeon, Byong Chul; Cho, Jeong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Tae Soo; Cho, Jae Ho; Na, Soo Kyong

    2005-01-01

    The using of endo-rectal balloon has proposed as optimal method that minimized the motion of prostate and the dose of rectum wall volume for treated prostate cancer patients, so we make the customized rectal balloon device. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of the Self-customized rectal balloon in the aspects of its reproducibility. In 5 patients, for treatment planning, each patient was acquired CT slice images in state of with and without rectal balloon. Also they had CT scanning same repeated third times in during radiation treatment (IMRT). In each case, we analyzed the deviation of rectal balloon position and verified the isodose distribution of rectum wall at closed prostate. Using the rectal balloon, we minimized the planning target volume (PTV) by decreased the internal motion of prostate and overcome the dose limit of radiation therapy in prostate cancer by increased the gap between the rectum wall and high dose region. The using of rectal balloon, although, was reluctant to treat by patients. View a point of immobilization of prostate internal motion and dose escalation of GTV (gross tumor volume), its using consider large efficient for treated prostate cancer patients.

  11. International safeguards for fast critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, D.O.; Todd, J.L.

    1978-12-01

    It was concluded that practical routine inventory verification techniques can be effective in detecting protracted diversion but will not meet the seven-day timeliness criteria either for protracted or large one-time diversions. An effective international safeguards system requires a method of continuously monitoring facility activities either with instrumentation, inspectors, or a combination thereof. It was also concluded that a resident inspector is required at this type of facility because of the many nonroutine operations. However, a single inspector cannot adequately monitor all activities to assure that no diversion is taking place. The use of existing structural features and unattended monitoring at portals as well as surveillance by a resident inspector can provide an effective detection capability. A rapid special inventory verification is required following detection to verify any suspected diversion

  12. Effects of cholesterol or gramicidin on slow and fast motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Z.Y.; Simplaceanu, V.; Dowd, S.R.; Ho, C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation both in the rotating frame and in the laboratory frame is used to investigate the slow and fast molecular motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. The bilayers are prepared from a perdeuterated phospholipid labeled with a pair of 19 F atoms at the 7 position of the 2-sn acyl chain. Phospholipid-cholesterol or phospholipid-gramicidin interactions are characterized by measuring the relaxation rates as a function of the bilayer orientation, the locking field, and the temperature. These studies show that cholesterol or gramicidin can specifically enhance the relaxation due to slow motions in phospholipid bilayers with correlation times τ s longer than 10 -8 sec. The perturbations of the geometry of the slow motions induced by cholesterol are qualitatively different from those induced by gramicidin. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol or gramicidin slightly suppresses the fast motions with correlation times τ f = 10 -9 to 10 -10 sec without significantly affecting their geometry. Weak locking-field and temperature dependences are observed for both pure lipid bilayers and bilayers containing either cholesterol or gramicidin, suggesting that the motions of phospholipid acyl chains may have dispersed correlation times

  13. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...

  14. Variable disparity-motion estimation based fast three-view video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Hwang, Yong Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, variable disparity-motion estimation (VDME) based 3-view video coding is proposed. In the encoding, key-frame coding (KFC) based motion estimation and variable disparity estimation (VDE) for effectively fast three-view video encoding are processed. These proposed algorithms enhance the performance of 3-D video encoding/decoding system in terms of accuracy of disparity estimation and computational overhead. From some experiments, stereo sequences of 'Pot Plant' and 'IVO', it is shown that the proposed algorithm's PSNRs is 37.66 and 40.55 dB, and the processing time is 0.139 and 0.124 sec/frame, respectively.

  15. Field theory of the spinning electron: Internal motions

    OpenAIRE

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo

    1996-01-01

    We present here a field theory of the spinning electron, by writing down a new equation for the 4-velocity field v^mu (different from that of Dirac theory), which allows a classically intelligible description of the electron. Moreover, we make explicit the noticeable kinematical properties of such velocity field (which also result different from the ordinary ones). At last, we analyze the internal zitterbewegung (zbw) motions, for both time-like and light-like speeds. We adopt in this paper t...

  16. On connection of rotation and internal motion in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the semiphenomenological nuclear madel (SPNM) the problem of ''overestimate of Coriolis interaction'' is shown to be easily solved. The rotation and internal motion coupling operator H(rot/in) is used. Overdetermination of the operator H(rot/in) has been generalized and extended into schemes of strong and weak coupling. In this case both schemes of coupling are transformed from approximate into precise ones and become applicable for any nuclear deformation. As examples of application of the theory considered are the matrix elements of the E2-transitions and inertia parameters of a 235 U nucleus

  17. Effect of pressure on the fast motions in ordered phase phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H

    2005-07-01

    Application of hydrostatic pressure to phospholipid bilayers increases acyl chain order and raises the main transition temperature. {sup 2}H NMR spectra and quadrupole echo decay times were obtained at ambient pressure and pressures of 85 MPa and 196.1 MPa for ordered phase bilayers of a zwitterionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PC-d{sub 62} (DPPC-d{sub 62}) and an anionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PG-d{sub 62} (DPPG-d{sub 62}). The extent to which deuterium magnetization following an RF pulse is refocused in the echo after a second pulse is limited by the motions that modulate the orientation-dependent quadrupole interaction. The q-CPMG pulse sequence is used to separate the contribution of slow and fast motions to the echo decay rate. This work provides insight into how chain packing affects local motion.

  18. Precise Aperture-Dependent Motion Compensation with Frequency Domain Fast Back-Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise azimuth-variant motion compensation (MOCO is an essential and difficult task for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery. In conventional post-filtering approaches, residual azimuth-variant motion errors are generally compensated through a set of spatial post-filters, where the coarse-focused image is segmented into overlapped blocks concerning the azimuth-dependent residual errors. However, image domain post-filtering approaches, such as precise topography- and aperture-dependent motion compensation algorithm (PTA, have difficulty of robustness in declining, when strong motion errors are involved in the coarse-focused image. In this case, in order to capture the complete motion blurring function within each image block, both the block size and the overlapped part need necessary extension leading to degeneration of efficiency and robustness inevitably. Herein, a frequency domain fast back-projection algorithm (FDFBPA is introduced to deal with strong azimuth-variant motion errors. FDFBPA disposes of the azimuth-variant motion errors based on a precise azimuth spectrum expression in the azimuth wavenumber domain. First, a wavenumber domain sub-aperture processing strategy is introduced to accelerate computation. After that, the azimuth wavenumber spectrum is partitioned into a set of wavenumber blocks, and each block is formed into a sub-aperture coarse resolution image via the back-projection integral. Then, the sub-aperture images are straightforwardly fused together in azimuth wavenumber domain to obtain a full resolution image. Moreover, chirp-Z transform (CZT is also introduced to implement the sub-aperture back-projection integral, increasing the efficiency of the algorithm. By disusing the image domain post-filtering strategy, robustness of the proposed algorithm is improved. Both simulation and real-measured data experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposal.

  19. A Fast Algorithm to Simulate Droplet Motions in Oil/Water Two Phase Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-06-09

    To improve the research methods in petroleum industry, we develop a fast algorithm to simulate droplet motions in oil and water two phase flow, using phase field model to describe the phase distribution in the flow process. An efficient partial difference equation solver—Shift-Matrix method is applied here, to speed up the calculation coding in high-level language, i.e. Matlab and R. An analytical solution of order parameter is derived, to define the initial condition of phase distribution. The upwind scheme is applied in our algorithm, to make it energy decay stable, which results in the fast speed of calculation. To make it more clear and understandable, we provide the specific code for forming the coefficient matrix used in Shift-Matrix Method. Our algorithm is compared with other methods in different scales, including Front Tracking and VOSET method in macroscopic and LBM method using RK model in mesoscopic scale. In addition, we compare the result of droplet motion under gravity using our algorithm with the empirical formula common used in industry. The result proves the high efficiency and robustness of our algorithm and it’s then used to simulate the motions of multiple droplets under gravity and cross-direction forces, which is more practical in industry and can be extended to wider application.

  20. Internal models and prediction of visual gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; McIntyre, Joseph; Senot, Patrice; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2008-06-01

    Baurès et al. [Baurès, R., Benguigui, N., Amorim, M.-A., & Siegler, I. A. (2007). Intercepting free falling objects: Better use Occam's razor than internalize Newton's law. Vision Research, 47, 2982-2991] rejected the hypothesis that free-falling objects are intercepted using a predictive model of gravity. They argued instead for "a continuous guide for action timing" based on visual information updated till target capture. Here we show that their arguments are flawed, because they fail to consider the impact of sensori-motor delays on interception behaviour and the need for neural compensation of such delays. When intercepting a free-falling object, the delays can be overcome by a predictive model of the effects of gravity on target motion.

  1. Deliberate utilization of interaction torques brakes elbow extension in a fast throwing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Jon; Debicki, Derek B; Gribble, Paul L; Watts, Sherry

    2011-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in fast arm movements the CNS deliberately utilizes interaction torques to decelerate (brake) joint rotations. Twelve subjects performed fast 2-D overarm throws in which large elbow extension velocities occurred. Joint motions were computed from recordings made with search coils; joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. After ball release, a large follow-through shoulder extension acceleration occurred that was initiated by shoulder extensor muscle torque. This shoulder acceleration produced a flexor interaction torque at the elbow that initiated elbow deceleration (braking). An instantaneous mechanical interaction of passive torques then occurred between elbow and shoulder, i.e., elbow extension deceleration produced a large shoulder extensor interaction torque that contributed to the shoulder extension acceleration which, simultaneously, produced a large elbow flexor interaction torque that contributed to elbow extension deceleration, and so on. Late elbow flexor muscle torque also contributed to elbow deceleration. The interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow was braked by shoulder flexor muscle torque. In this mechanism, shoulder musculature contributed to braking elbow extension in two ways: shoulder extensors initiated the mechanical interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow and shoulder flexors dissipated kinetic energy from elbow braking. It is concluded that, in fast 2-D throws, the CNS deliberately utilizes powerful interaction torques between shoulder and elbow to brake motion at the elbow.

  2. The calculation of site-dependent earthquake motions -3. The method of fast fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.

    1976-10-01

    The method of Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to the problem of the determination of site-dependent earthquake motions, which takes account of local geological effects. A program, VELAY 1, which uses the FFT method has been written and is described in this report. The assumptions of horizontally stratified, homogeneous, isotropic, linearly viscoelastic layers and a normally incident plane seismic wave are made. Several examples are given, using VELAY 1, of modified surface acceleration-time histories obtained using a selected input acceleration-time history and a representative system of soil layers. There is a discussion concerning the soil properties that need to be measured in order to use VELAY 1 (and similar programs described in previous reports) and hence generate site-dependent ground motions suitable for aseismic design of a nuclear power plant at a given site. (author)

  3. A novel directional asymmetric sampling search algorithm for fast block-matching motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-e.; Wang, Qiang

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel directional asymmetric sampling search (DASS) algorithm for video compression. Making full use of the error information (block distortions) of the search patterns, eight different direction search patterns are designed for various situations. The strategy of local sampling search is employed for the search of big-motion vector. In order to further speed up the search, early termination strategy is adopted in procedure of DASS. Compared to conventional fast algorithms, the proposed method has the most satisfactory PSNR values for all test sequences.

  4. Fuel motion in overpower tests of metallic integral fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.A.; Bauer, T.H.; Stanford, G.S.; Regis, J.P.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper results from hodoscope data analyses are presented for transient overpower (TOP) tests M5, M6, and M7 at the Transient Reactor Test Facility, with emphasis on transient feedback mechanisms, including prefailure expansion at the tops of the fuel pins, subsequent dispersive axial fuel motion, and losses in relative worth of the fuel pins during the tests. Tests M5 and M6 were the first TOP tests of margin to cladding breach and prefailure elongation of D9-clad ternary (U-Pu-Zr) integral fast reactor-type fuel. Test M7 extended these results to high-burnup fuel and also initiated transient testing of HT-9-clad binary (U-Zr) Fast Flux Test Facility driver fuel. Results show significant prefailure negative reactivity feedback and strongly negative feedback from fuel driven to failure

  5. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  6. Probing Motion of Fast Radio Burst Sources by Timing Strongly Lensed Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liang; Lu, Wenbin

    2017-09-01

    Given the possible repetitive nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), their cosmological origin, and their high occurrence, detection of strongly lensed sources due to intervening galaxy lenses is possible with forthcoming radio surveys. We show that if multiple images of a repeating source are resolved with VLBI, using a method independent of lens modeling, accurate timing could reveal non-uniform motion, either physical or apparent, of the emission spot. This can probe the physical nature of FRBs and their surrounding environments, constraining scenarios including orbital motion around a stellar companion if FRBs require a compact star in a special system, and jet-medium interactions for which the location of the emission spot may randomly vary. The high timing precision possible for FRBs (˜ms) compared with the typical time delays between images in galaxy lensing (≳10 days) enables the measurement of tiny fractional changes in the delays (˜ {10}-9) and hence the detection of time-delay variations induced by relative motions between the source, the lens, and the Earth. We show that uniform cosmic peculiar velocities only cause the delay time to drift linearly, and that the effect from the Earth’s orbital motion can be accurately subtracted, thus enabling a search for non-trivial source motion. For a timing accuracy of ˜1 ms and a repetition rate (of detected bursts) of ˜0.05 per day of a single FRB source, non-uniform displacement ≳0.1-1 au of the emission spot perpendicular to the line of sight is detectable if repetitions are seen over a period of hundreds of days.

  7. Atypical anticlockwise internal tidal motions in the deep ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the ocean, horizontal motions associated with freely propagating semidiurnal tidal inertia-gravity waves mainly describe an ellipse that is traversed in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this article, rare observations of anticlockwise polarised semidiurnal motions are

  8. Relation of external surface to internal tumor motion studied with cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Balter, Peter; Luo Dershan; Mohan, Radhe; Pan Tinsu

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of delivering gated-radiation therapy to lung tumors using an external respiratory surrogate relies on not only interfractional and intrafractional reproducibility, but also a strong correlation between external motion and internal tumor motion. The purpose of this work was to use the cine images acquired by four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition protocol to study the relation between external surface motion and internal tumor motion. The respiratory phase information of tumor motion and chest wall motion was measured on the cine images using a proposed region-of-interest (ROI) method and compared to measurement of an external respiratory monitoring device. On eight lung patient data sets, the phase shifts were measured between (1) the signal of a real-time positioning-management (RPM) respiratory monitoring device placed in the abdominal region and four surface locations on the chest wall (2) the RPM signal in the abdominal region and tumor motions, and (3) chest wall surface motions and tumor motions. Respiratory waveforms measured at different surface locations during the same respiratory cycle often varied and had significant phase shifts. Seven of the 8 patients showed the abdominal motion leading chest wall motion. The best correlation (smallest phase shift) was found between the abdominal motion and the superior-inferior (S-I) tumor motion. A wide range of phase shifts was observed between external surface motion and tumor anterior-posterior (A-P)/lateral motion. The result supported the placement of the RPM block in the abdominal region and suggested that during a gated therapy utilizing the RPM system, it is necessary to place the RPM block at the same location as it is during treatment simulation in order to reduce potential errors introduced by the position of the RPM block. Correlations between external motions and lateral/A-P tumor motions were inconclusive due to a combination of patient selection and the limitation of the ROI

  9. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant

  10. FPSoC-Based Architecture for a Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju Ndili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for high quality video on low power, portable devices. Possible target applications range from entertainment and personal communications to security and health care. While H.264/AVC answers the need for high quality video at lower bit rates, it is significantly more complex than previous coding standards and thus results in greater power consumption in practical implementations. In particular, motion estimation (ME, in H.264/AVC consumes the largest power in an H.264/AVC encoder. It is therefore critical to speed-up integer ME in H.264/AVC via fast motion estimation (FME algorithms and hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present our hardware oriented modifications to a hybrid FME algorithm, our architecture based on the modified algorithm, and our implementation and prototype on a PowerPC-based Field Programmable System on Chip (FPSoC. Our results show that the modified hybrid FME algorithm on average, outperforms previous state-of-the-art FME algorithms, while its losses when compared with FSME, in terms of PSNR performance and computation time, are insignificant. We show that although our implementation platform is FPGA-based, our implementation results compare favourably with previous architectures implemented on ASICs. Finally we also show an improvement over some existing architectures implemented on FPGAs.

  11. Cinematic study of temporomandibular joint motion using ultra-fast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manière-Ezvan, A; Havet, T; Franconi, J M; Quémar, J C; de Certaines, J D

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are usually performed to study the opening/closing movements of the mandible and have up to now been pseudodynamic step-by-step images simulating condylar motion by post-processing reconstruction. The aim of this study was: 1. to optimize a TMJ cine-imaging method to give a better clinical result than the step-by-step methods; 2. to develop an ultra-fast MRI Gradient Echo (GE) sequence for this purpose; and 3. to analyze condylar movements in the sagittal, coronal and para-axial planes during border mandibular displacements and chewing. Both TM joints were studied in six asymptomatic volunteers. The method involved a compromise between in-plane resolution, slice thickness, signal-to-noise ratio and time resolution. Routine clinical use was found to be a GE pulse sequence providing three images per second with an isometric voxel resolution of approximately two millimeters in ridge. This did not allow visualization of the disk. Using this sequence enabled real and simultaneous condylar displacement observation in the three planes of space and therefore contributed to a better functional diagnosis of pathologic TMJ motions.

  12. Fast and Accurate Rat Head Motion Tracking With Point Sources for Awake Brain PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    To avoid the confounding effects of anesthesia and immobilization stress in rat brain positron emission tomography (PET), motion tracking-based unrestrained awake rat brain imaging is being developed. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate rat headmotion tracking method based on small PET point sources. PET point sources (3-4) attached to the rat's head are tracked in image space using 15-32-ms time frames. Our point source tracking (PST) method was validated using a manually moved microDerenzo phantom that was simultaneously tracked with an optical tracker (OT) for comparison. The PST method was further validated in three awake [ 18 F]FDG rat brain scans. Compared with the OT, the PST-based correction at the same frame rate (31.2 Hz) reduced the reconstructed FWHM by 0.39-0.66 mm for the different tested rod sizes of the microDerenzo phantom. The FWHM could be further reduced by another 0.07-0.13 mm when increasing the PST frame rate (66.7 Hz). Regional brain [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the motion corrected scan was strongly correlated ( ) with that of the anesthetized reference scan for all three cases ( ). The proposed PST method allowed excellent and reproducible motion correction in awake in vivo experiments. In addition, there is no need of specialized tracking equipment or additional calibrations to be performed, the point sources are practically imperceptible to the rat, and PST is ideally suitable for small bore scanners, where optical tracking might be challenging.

  13. DMPDS: A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Targeting High Resolution Videos and Its FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fast motion estimation (ME algorithm targeting high resolution digital videos and its efficient hardware architecture design. The new Dynamic Multipoint Diamond Search (DMPDS algorithm is a fast algorithm which increases the ME quality when compared with other fast ME algorithms. The DMPDS achieves a better digital video quality reducing the occurrence of local minima falls, especially in high definition videos. The quality results show that the DMPDS is able to reach an average PSNR gain of 1.85 dB when compared with the well-known Diamond Search (DS algorithm. When compared to the optimum results generated by the Full Search (FS algorithm the DMPDS shows a lose of only 1.03 dB in the PSNR. On the other hand, the DMPDS reached a complexity reduction higher than 45 times when compared to FS. The quality gains related to DS caused an expected increase in the DMPDS complexity which uses 6.4-times more calculations than DS. The DMPDS architecture was designed focused on high performance and low cost, targeting to process Quad Full High Definition (QFHD videos in real time (30 frames per second. The architecture was described in VHDL and synthesized to Altera Stratix 4 and Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGAs. The synthesis results show that the architecture is able to achieve processing rates higher than 53 QFHD fps, reaching the real-time requirements. The DMPDS architecture achieved the highest processing rate when compared to related works in the literature. This high processing rate was obtained designing an architecture with a high operation frequency and low numbers of cycles necessary to process each block.

  14. Technical note: Correlation of respiratory motion between external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Clément, Jean-François; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Current respiratory motion monitoring devices used for motion synchronization in medical imaging and radiotherapy provide either 1D respiratory signals over a specific region or 3D information based on few external or internal markers. On the other hand, newer technology may offer the potential to monitor the entire patient external surface in real time. The main objective of this study was to assess the motion correlation between such an external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks motion. Methods Four dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) volumes for ten patients were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks were manually selected in the thoracic region across the 4D CT datasets by two experts. The landmarks included normal structures as well as the tumour location. In addition, a distance map representing the entire external patient surface, which corresponds to surfaces acquired by a Time of Flight (ToF) camera or similar devices, was created by segmenting the skin of all 4D CT volumes using a thresholding algorithm. Finally, the correlation between the internal landmarks and external surface motion was evaluated for different regions (placement and size) throughout a patient’s surface. Results Significant variability was observed in the motion of the different parts of the external patient surface. The larger motion magnitude was consistently measured in the central regions of the abdominal and the thoracic areas for the different patient datasets considered. The highest correlation coefficients were observed between the motion of these external surface areas and internal landmarks such as the diaphragm and mediastinum structures as well as the tumour location landmarks (0.8 ± 0.18 and 0.72 ± 0.12 for the abdominal and the thoracic regions respectively). Worse correlation was observed when one considered landmarks not significantly influenced by respiratory motion such as the apex and the sternum. Discussion and conclusions There

  15. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v μ , which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs

  16. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Recami, Erasmo [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Dalmine, BG (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v{sup {mu}}, which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs.

  17. Analysis of clad motion during a loss of flow (LOF) accident in a fast sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, P.

    1985-10-01

    A new model describing clad motion during a Loss of Flow (LOF) accident in a Liquid Metal Cooled Fast (Breeder) Reactor (LMFBR) is presented. Its special features are Clad motion is treated within a fuel pin bundle. The bundle geometry is represented by an equivalent annular geometry which serves as the descriptional basis for the clad motion analysis; Several flow regimes are considered. These include a wave or film flow along the fuel pin surfaces as well as a drop flow within the coolant channels. A new entrainment criterion is successfully applied to describe the entrainment of molten cladding and the coolant flow is modelled as a two-dimensional, monstationary flow. Therefore, radial cross flows in a pin bundle can be calculated. Especially, thermal incoherency effects can be treated consistently. The analysis of clad motion in the two experiments STAR1 and STAR2 using the subsequently presented SANDCMOT model gives good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.) [de

  18. Real-Time Observation of Internal Motion within Ultrafast Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Nithyanandan, K.; Andral, Ugo; Tchofo-Dinda, Patrice; Grelu, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Real-time access to the internal ultrafast dynamics of complex dissipative optical systems opens new explorations of pulse-pulse interactions and dynamic patterns. We present the first direct experimental evidence of the internal motion of a dissipative optical soliton molecule generated in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser. We map the internal motion of a soliton pair molecule by using a dispersive Fourier-transform imaging technique, revealing different categories of internal pulsations, including vibrationlike and phase drifting dynamics. Our experiments agree well with numerical predictions and bring insights to the analogy between self-organized states of lights and states of the matter.

  19. Fast filtering algorithm based on vibration systems and neural information exchange and its application to micro motion robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wa; Zha Fu-Sheng; Li Man-Tian; Song Bao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a fast filtering algorithm based on vibration systems theory and neural information exchange approach. The characters, including the derivation process and parameter analysis, are discussed and the feasibility and the effectiveness are testified by the filtering performance compared with various filtering methods, such as the fast wavelet transform algorithm, the particle filtering method and our previously developed single degree of freedom vibration system filtering algorithm, according to simulation and practical approaches. Meanwhile, the comparisons indicate that a significant advantage of the proposed fast filtering algorithm is its extremely fast filtering speed with good filtering performance. Further, the developed fast filtering algorithm is applied to the navigation and positioning system of the micro motion robot, which is a high real-time requirement for the signals preprocessing. Then, the preprocessing data is used to estimate the heading angle error and the attitude angle error of the micro motion robot. The estimation experiments illustrate the high practicality of the proposed fast filtering algorithm. (general)

  20. Motion-based, high-yielding, and fast separation of different charged organics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Mingjun; Lin, Xiankun; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; He, Qiang

    2015-01-12

    We report a self-propelled Janus silica micromotor as a motion-based analytical method for achieving fast target separation of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, enriching different charged organics with low molecular weights in water. The self-propelled Janus silica micromotor catalytically decomposes a hydrogen peroxide fuel and moves along the direction of the catalyst face at a speed of 126.3 μm s(-1) . Biotin-functionalized Janus micromotors can specifically capture and rapidly transport streptavidin-modified polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules, which could effectively enrich and separate different charged organics in water. The interior of the polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules were filled with a strong charged polyelectrolyte, and thus a Donnan equilibrium is favorable between the inner solution within the capsules and the bulk solution to entrap oppositely charged organics in water. The integration of these self-propelled Janus silica micromotors and polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into a lab-on-chip device that enables the separation and analysis of charged organics could be attractive for a diverse range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. FAST MOTIONS OF GALAXIES IN THE COMA I CLOUD: A CASE OF DARK ATTRACTOR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Courtois, Helene M.

    2011-01-01

    We note that nearby galaxies having high negative peculiar velocities are distributed over the sky very inhomogeneously. A part of this anisotropy is caused by the 'Local Velocity Anomaly', i.e., by the bulk motion of nearby galaxies away from the Local Void. However, half of the fast-flying objects reside within a small region known as the Coma I cloud. According to Makarov and Karachentsev, this complex contains 8 groups, 5 triplets, 10 pairs, and 83 single galaxies with a total mass of 4.7 × 10 13 M ☉ . We use 122 galaxies in the Coma I region with known distances and radial velocities V LG –1 to draw the Hubble relation for them. The Hubble diagram shows a Z-shaped effect of infall with an amplitude of +200 km s –1 on the nearby side and –700 km s –1 on the back side. This phenomenon can be understood as the galaxy infall toward a dark attractor with a mass of ∼2 × 10 14 M ☉ situated at a distance of 15 Mpc from us. The existence of a large void between the Coma and Virgo clusters also probably affects the Hubble flow around the Coma I.

  2. Influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal and external organ motion: Use of fiducial markers in dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Zimmermann, Hendrik; Fink, Christian; Umathum, Reiner; Schoebinger, Max; Huber, Peter; Zuna, Ivan; Debus, Juergen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bock, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and a fiducial marker, the influence of different breathing maneuvers on internal organ and external chest wall motion. Methods and materials: Lung and chest wall motion of 16 healthy subjects (13 male, 3 female) were examined with real-time trueFISP (true fast imaging with steady-state precession) dMRI and a small inductively coupled marker coil on either the abdomen or thorax. Three different breathing maneuvers were performed (predominantly 'abdominal breathing,' 'thoracic breathing,' and unspecific 'normal breathing'). The craniocaudal (CC), anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) lung distances were correlated (linear regression coefficient) with marker coil position during forced and quiet breathing. Results: Differences of the CC distance between maximum forced inspiration and expiration were significant between abdominal and thoracic breathing (p < 0.05). The correlation between CC distance and coil position was best for forced abdominal breathing and a marker coil in the abdominal position (r 0.89 ± 0.04); for AP and ML distance, forced thoracic breathing and a coil in the thoracic position was best (r = 0.84 ± 0.03 and 0.82 ± 0.03, respectively). In quiet breathing, a lower correlation was found. Conclusion: A fiducial marker coil external to the thorax in combination with dMRI is a new technique to yield quantitative information on the correlation of internal organ and external chest wall motion. Correlations are highly dependent on the breathing maneuver

  3. Advances in fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 30. meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    Individual States were largely responsible for early developments in experimental and prototype liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). However, for development of advanced LMFRs, international co-operation plays an important role. The IAEA seeks to promote such co-operation. For R and D incorporating innovative features, international co-operation allows pooling of resources and expertise in areas of common interest. Information on experience gained from R and D, and from the operation and construction of fast reactors, has been reviewed periodically by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). These proceedings contain updated a new information on the status of LMFR development, as reported at the 30th meeting of the IWGFR, held in Beijing, China, from 13 to 16 May 1997

  4. Advances in fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 30. meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Individual States were largely responsible for early developments in experimental and prototype liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). However, for development of advanced LMFRs, international co-operation plays an important role. The IAEA seeks to promote such co-operation. For R and D incorporating innovative features, international co-operation allows pooling of resources and expertise in areas of common interest. Information on experience gained from R and D, and from the operation and construction of fast reactors, has been reviewed periodically by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). These proceedings contain updated a new information on the status of LMFR development, as reported at the 30th meeting of the IWGFR, held in Beijing, China, from 13 to 16 May 1997. Refs,figs,tabs.

  5. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6. — journal of. December 2007 physics pp. 1151–1157. Fast and precise luminosity measurement ... The fast investigation of the collision quality for intrabunch feedback and the ... consisting of the sensor, the absorber and an interconnection structure. 2. ... outer radius of BeamCal is increased to keep the angular overlap.

  6. A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A., E-mail: andrey@na.infn.it [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tioukov, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm{sup 2}/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm{sup 2}/h without any hardware modification.

  7. The internal-external respiratory motion correlation is unaffected by audiovisual biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Harry; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated if an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback causes variation in the level of external and internal correlation due to its interactive intervention in natural breathing. The internal (diaphragm) and external (abdominal wall) respiratory motion signals of 15 healthy human subjects under AV biofeedback and free breathing (FB) were analyzed and measures of correlation and regularity taken. Regularity metrics (root mean square error and spectral power dispersion metric) were obtained and the correlation between these metrics and the internal and external correlation was investigated. For FB and AV biofeedback assisted breathing the mean correlations found between internal and external respiratory motion were 0.96±0.02 and 0.96±0.03, respectively. This means there is no evidence to suggest (p-value=0.88) any difference in the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion with the use of AV biofeedback. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the internal-external correlation with AV biofeedback is the same as for free breathing. Should this correlation be maintained for patients, AV biofeedback can be implemented in the clinic with confidence as regularity improvements using AV biofeedback with an external signal will be reflected in increased internal motion regularity.

  8. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal...... electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders. The planning target volume was created by a 5-mm axial and 7-mm (n = 12) or 10-mm (n = 3...

  9. Fast neutron nuclear reactor with lightened internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, R.; Aubert, M.; Renaux, C.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an integrated type fast reactor. The inner vessel comprises two truncated shells, of which the large bases are connected either directly, or by a cylindrical shell of large diameter. The small base of the upper truncated shell is prolongated by a shell of small diameter and the small base of the lower truncated shell supports the reactor core. The invention allows the construction of simpler and less expansive fast reactors [fr

  10. Coherent Motion Reveals Non‐Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion between Excited States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2012-01-01

    for smaller molecules. Specifically, we focus on the S2→S1 internal conversion in cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, and cyclohexanone. By means of time‐resolved mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy the relative rate of this transition is determined to be 13:2:1. Remarkably, we observe coherent......We found that specific nuclear motion along low‐frequency modes is effective in coupling electronic states and that this motion prevail in some small molecules. Thus, in direct contradiction to what is expected based on the standard models, the internal conversion process can proceed faster...

  11. The use of CT density changes at internal tissue interfaces to correlate internal organ motion with an external surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaede, Stewart; Yu, Edward; Van Dyk, Jake; Battista, Jerry [Radiation Oncology Program, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Carnes, Gregory; Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-01-21

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a cine mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move due to breathing on multiple axial slices and measured the mean CT number versus respiratory phase. Tumour motion was directly correlated with external marker motion, acquired simultaneously, using the sample coefficient of determination, r{sup 2}. Only three of the ten patients showed correlation higher than r{sup 2} = 0.80 between tumour motion and external marker position. However, after taking into account time shifts (ranging between 0 s and 0.4 s) between the two data sets, all ten patients showed correlation better than r{sup 2} = 0.8. This non-invasive method for monitoring the motion of internal organs is an effective tool that can assess the use of external markers for 4D-CT imaging and respiratory-gated radiotherapy on a patient-specific basis.

  12. Molecular Diagnostics of the Internal Motions of Massive Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jorge; Velusamy, T.; Goldsmith, P.; Li, D.; Peng, R.; Langer, W.

    2009-12-01

    We present models of the internal kinematics of massive cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We use a sample of cores studied by Velusamy et al. (2008) that show red, blue, and no asymmetry in their HCO+ line profiles in equal proportion, and which therefore may represent a sample of cores in different kinematic states. We use the radiative transfer code RATRAN (Hogerheijde & van der Tak 2000) to model several transitions of HCO+ and H13CO+ as well as the dust continuum emission, of a spherical model cloud with radial density, temperature, and velocity gradients. We find that an excitation and velocity gradients are prerequisites to reproduce the observed line profiles. We use the dust continuum emission to constrain the density and temperature gradients. This allows us to narrow down the functional forms of the velocity gradient giving us the opportunity to test several theoretical predictions of velocity gradients produced by the effect of magnetic fields (e.g. Tassis et. al. 2007) and turbulence (e.g. Vasquez-Semanedi et al 2007).

  13. International business expansion through franchising : the case of fast-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Muhammad A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was threefold: 1) to establish a set of research questions , propositions and hypotheses about the nature of international fast-food franchising; 2) to identify the distinctive strategies employed by fast-food franchise firms in foreign markets and 3) to provide a set of guidelines for managers which will assist them in dealing with the challenges of initiating and expanding a fast-food franchise system in a foreign country. A multi...

  14. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Sixth Annual Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The Agenda of the Meeting was as follows: 1. Review of IWGFR Activities - 1a. Approval of the minutes of the Fifth IWGFR Meeting. 1b. Report by Scientific Secretary regarding the activities of the Group. 2. Comments on National Programmes on Fast Breeder Reactors. 3. International Coordination of the Schedule for Major Fast Reactor Meetings and other major international meetings having a predominant fast reactor interest. 4. Consideration of Conferences on Fast Reactors. 4a. IAEA Symposium on Fuel and Fuel Elements for Fast Reactors, Brussels, Belgium 2-6 July 1973. 4b. International Symposium on Physics of Fast Reactors, Tokyo, Japan, 16 to 23 October 1973. 4c. International Conference on Fast Reactor Power Stations, London, UK, 11 to 14 March 1974 . 4d. Suggestions of the IWGFR members on other conferences. 5. Consideration of a Schedule for Specialists' Meetings in 1973-74. 6. Other Business - 6a. First-aid in Sodium Burns. 6b. Principles of Good Practice for Safe Operation of Sodium Circuits. 6c. Bibliography on Fast Reactors. 7. The Date and Place of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the IWGFR

  15. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  16. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Vries, S.C. de; Emmerik, M.L. van; Groen, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between

  17. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Second Annual Meeting. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Agenda of the Meeting was as follows: Opening of the meeting. 2. Appraisal of the IWGFB's activity for the period from the first annual meeting of the Group. 3. Comments on national programmes on fast breeder reactors. 4. Presentation of general findings and conclusions of national and regional meetings on fast reactor problems held in represented countries and international organisations last year. 5. Comments on the programmes of international meetings on fast reactors to be held in 1969. 6. Consideration of a schedule for meetings on fast reactors in 1970. 7. Suggestions for the topics and location of specialists' meetings in 1969-1970. 8. Suggestions for reviews and studies in the field of fast reactors. 9. The time and place of the third annual meeting of the IWGFR. 10. Closing of the meeting

  18. Internal friction due to domain-wall motion in martensitically transformed A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice instability in A15 materials in some cases leads to a cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformation at low temperatures. The transformed material orients in lamellae with c axes alternately aligned along the directions producing domain walls between the lamellae. An internal-friction (delta) feature below T/sub m/ is attributed to stress-induced domain-wall motion. The magnitude of the friction increases as temperature is lowered below T/sub m/ as (1-c/a) increases, and behaves as (1-c/a) 2 from T/sub m/ down to the superconducting critical temperature where the increasing tetragonality is inhibited. The effect of strain in the lattice is to decrease the domain-wall internal friction, but not affect T/sub m/. Neutron-induced disorder and the addition of some third-elements in alloying decrease both delta and T/sub m/, with some elements reducing only the former. Less than 1 at. % H is seen to completely suppress both delta and T/sub m. Martensitically transformed V 2 Zr demonstrates low-temperature internal-friction and modulus behavior consists with easy β/m wall motion relative to the easy m/m motion of the A15's. For the V 2 Zr, a peak in delta is observed, qualitatively in agreement with expected β/m wall motion

  19. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-31

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a “coupling mass” effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  20. Water droplets' internal fluidity during horizontal motion on a superhydrophobic surface with an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Munetoshi; Kono, Hiroki; Nakajima, Akira; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2010-02-02

    On a superhydrophobic surface, the internal fluidity of water droplets with different volumes (15, 30 microL) and their horizontal motion in an external electric field were evaluated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). For driving of water droplets on a superhydrophobic coating between parallel electrodes, it was important to place them at appropriate positions. Droplets moved with slipping. Small droplets showed deformation that is more remarkable. Results show that the dielectrophoretic force induced the initial droplet motion and that the surface potential gradient drove the droplets after reaching the middle point between electrodes.

  1. Stopping power and polarization induced in a plasma by a fast charged particle in circular motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villo-Perez, Isidro [Departamento de Electronica, Tecnologia de las Computadoras y Proyectos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Arista, Nestor R. [Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2002-03-28

    We describe the perturbation induced in a plasma by a charged particle in circular motion, analysing in detail the evolution of the induced charge, the electrostatic potential and the energy loss of the particle. We describe the initial transitory behaviour and the different ways in which convergence to final stationary solutions may be obtained depending on the basic parameters of the problem. The results for the stopping power show a resonant behaviour which may give place to large stopping enhancement values as compared with the case of particles in straight-line motion with the same linear velocity. The results also explain a resonant effect recently obtained for particles in circular motion in magnetized plasmas. (author)

  2. Thoughts of fast beam aborts for the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, T.

    2006-01-01

    The ILC beam is potentially very destructive, and a fast beam abort system is useful as part of the machine-protection strategy. Scaling laws for kicker pulse power and length optimization are presented. Kicker reference designs for the ILC with full linac aperture, and limited aperture, are presented. Power levels are of order 10 8 W for 100 nsec filling times, and length scales are of order 100 m. Design issues for beam transport to a dump are considered. Separation of the beams at the defining obstruction and energy bandwidth force either a long drift after the septum bend or long quads with large apertures for dispersion control. (author)

  3. Motion-specific internal target volumes for FDG-avid mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, James M.; Robinson, Clifford G.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To quantify the benefit of motion-specific internal target volumes for FDG-avid mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes generated using 4D-PET, vs. conventional internal target volumes generated using non-respiratory gated PET and 4D-CT scans. Materials and methods: Five patients with FDG-avid tumors metastatic to 11 hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes were imaged with respiratory-correlated FDG-PET (4D-PET) and 4D-CT. FDG-avid nodes were contoured by a radiation oncologist in two ways. Standard-of-care volumes were contoured using conventional un-gated PET, 4D-CT, and breath-hold CT. A second, motion-specific, set of volumes were contoured using 4D-PET.Contours based on 4D-PET corresponded directly to an internal target volume (ITV 4D ), whereas contours based on un-gated PET were expanded by a series of exploratory isotropic margins (from 5 to 13 mm) based on literature recommendations on lymph node motion to form internal target volumes (ITV 3D ). Results: A 13 mm expansion of the un-gated PET nodal volume was needed to cover the ITV 4D for 10 of 11 nodes studied. The ITV 3D based on a 13 mm expansion included on average 45 cm 3 of tissue that was not included in the ITV 4D . Conclusions: Motion-specific lymph-node internal target volumes generated from 4D-PET imaging could be used to improve accuracy and/or reduce normal-tissue irradiation compared to the standard-of-care un-gated PET based internal target volumes

  4. Fast nuclear reactors. Associated international projects. State of the art and assessment of the concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azpitarte, O.; Ramilo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of the strategic importance of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable energy may be perceived in the continuous development, in many countries, of the technology of fast nuclear reactors with an associated closed fuel cycle, assuming that these Generation IV innovative systems will be required in the future. These reactors fulfill international requirements for safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, sustainability and proliferation resistance. They have the potential of using more efficiently the natural resources of Uranium and of reducing the volume and radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste by partitioning and transmutation of Minor Actinides. The national and international programs being carried out today are concentrated in the following concepts: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR), Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). This article presents a short review of the technology of the mentioned concepts and details the current state of the main national and international related projects. (author)

  5. SU-E-J-235: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves the Correlation Between Internal and External Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P; Greer, P; Ludbrook, J; Paganelli, C; Kim, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: External respiratory surrogates are often used to predict internal lung tumor motion for beam gating but the assumption of correlation between external and internal surrogates is not always verified resulting in amplitude mismatch and time shift. To test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion, in order to improve the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatments for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: In nine lung cancer patients, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback. External anterior-posterior (AP) respiratory motions of (a) chest and (b) abdomen were simultaneously acquired with physiological measurement unit (PMU, 3T Skyra, Siemens Healthcare Erlangen, Germany) and real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian, Palo Alto, USA), respectively. Internal superior-inferior (SI) respiratory motions of (c) lung tumor (i.e. centroid of auto-segmented lung tumor) and (d) diaphragm (i.e. upper liver dome) were measured from individual cine-MR images across 32 dataset. The four respiratory motions were then synchronized with the cine-MR image acquisition time. Correlation coefficients were calculated in the time variation of two nominated respiratory motions: (1) chest-abdomen, (2) abdomen-diaphragm and (3) diaphragm-lung tumor. The three combinations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback. Results: Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved chest-abdomen correlation by 17% (p=0.005) from 0.75±0.23 to 0.90±0.05 and abdomen-diaphragm correlation by 4% (p=0.058) from 0.91±0.11 to 0.95±0.05. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved diaphragm-lung tumor correlation by 12% (p=0.023) from 0.65±0.21 to 0.74±0.16. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved the correlation of internal and external respiratory motion, thus

  6. SU-E-J-235: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves the Correlation Between Internal and External Respiratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Ludbrook, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Paganelli, C [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Kim, T [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: External respiratory surrogates are often used to predict internal lung tumor motion for beam gating but the assumption of correlation between external and internal surrogates is not always verified resulting in amplitude mismatch and time shift. To test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion, in order to improve the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatments for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: In nine lung cancer patients, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback. External anterior-posterior (AP) respiratory motions of (a) chest and (b) abdomen were simultaneously acquired with physiological measurement unit (PMU, 3T Skyra, Siemens Healthcare Erlangen, Germany) and real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian, Palo Alto, USA), respectively. Internal superior-inferior (SI) respiratory motions of (c) lung tumor (i.e. centroid of auto-segmented lung tumor) and (d) diaphragm (i.e. upper liver dome) were measured from individual cine-MR images across 32 dataset. The four respiratory motions were then synchronized with the cine-MR image acquisition time. Correlation coefficients were calculated in the time variation of two nominated respiratory motions: (1) chest-abdomen, (2) abdomen-diaphragm and (3) diaphragm-lung tumor. The three combinations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback. Results: Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved chest-abdomen correlation by 17% (p=0.005) from 0.75±0.23 to 0.90±0.05 and abdomen-diaphragm correlation by 4% (p=0.058) from 0.91±0.11 to 0.95±0.05. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved diaphragm-lung tumor correlation by 12% (p=0.023) from 0.65±0.21 to 0.74±0.16. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved the correlation of internal and external respiratory motion, thus

  7. Predictive piston motion control in a free-piston internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Jones, E.; Roskilly, A.P. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU England (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    A piston motion controller for a free-piston internal combustion engine is presented. To improve dynamic performance in the control of the piston motion and engine compression ratio, the controller response is determined from a prediction of engine top dead centre error rather than the measured value from the previous cycle. The proposed control approach showed superior performance compared with that of standard PI feedback control known from the literature due to a reduced control action time delay. The manipulation of fuel injection timing to reduce in-cylinder pressure peaks and cycle-to-cycle variations was also studied, indicating that with the piston motion estimation, the injection timing is a powerful control variable for this purpose. (author)

  8. Complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC using highly adaptive fast mode decision based on macroblock motion activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Skoudarli; Mokhtar, Nibouche; Amina, Serir

    2015-11-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard is used in a wide range of applications from video conferencing to high-definition television according to its high compression efficiency. This efficiency is mainly acquired from the newly allowed prediction schemes including variable block modes. However, these schemes require a high complexity to select the optimal mode. Consequently, complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC encoder has recently become a very challenging task in the video compression domain, especially when implementing the encoder in real-time applications. Fast mode decision algorithms play an important role in reducing the overall complexity of the encoder. In this paper, we propose an adaptive fast intermode algorithm based on motion activity, temporal stationarity, and spatial homogeneity. This algorithm predicts the motion activity of the current macroblock from its neighboring blocks and identifies temporal stationary regions and spatially homogeneous regions using adaptive threshold values based on content video features. Extensive experimental work has been done in high profile, and results show that the proposed source-coding algorithm effectively reduces the computational complexity by 53.18% on average compared with the reference software encoder, while maintaining the high-coding efficiency of H.264/AVC by incurring only 0.097 dB in total peak signal-to-noise ratio and 0.228% increment on the total bit rate.

  9. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  10. Technical committee meeting on Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) developments. 33rd annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWG-FR). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 33 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in fast reactor technology. The present publication contains information on the status of fast reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1999/2000, as reported at the 33. annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. It is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFR development in IAEA Member States

  11. Processing of angular motion and gravity information through an internal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Hess, Bernhard J M

    2010-09-01

    The vestibular organs in the base of the skull provide important information about head orientation and motion in space. Previous studies have suggested that both angular velocity information from the semicircular canals and information about head orientation and translation from the otolith organs are centrally processed in an internal model of head motion, using the principles of optimal estimation. This concept has been successfully applied to model behavioral responses to classical vestibular motion paradigms. This study measured the dynamic of the vestibuloocular reflex during postrotatory tilt, tilt during the optokinetic afternystagmus, and off-vertical axis rotation. The influence of otolith signal on the VOR was systematically varied by using a series of tilt angles. We found that the time constants of responses varied almost identically as a function of gravity in these paradigms. We show that Bayesian modeling could predict the experimental results in an accurate and consistent manner. In contrast to other approaches, the Bayesian model also provides a plausible explanation of why these vestibulooculo motor responses occur as a consequence of an internal process of optimal motion estimation.

  12. Fast Computation of Ground Motion Shaking Map base on the Modified Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

    2012-12-01

    Rapidly regional MMI mapping soon after a moderate-large earthquake is crucial to loss estimation, emergency services and planning of emergency action by the government. In fact, many countries show different degrees of attention on the technology of rapid estimation of MMI , and this technology has made significant progress in earthquake-prone countries. In recent years, numerical modeling of strong ground motion has been well developed with the advances of computation technology and earthquake science. The computational simulation of strong ground motion caused by earthquake faulting has become an efficient way to estimate the regional MMI distribution soon after earthquake. In China, due to the lack of strong motion observation in network sparse or even completely missing areas, the development of strong ground motion simulation method has become an important means of quantitative estimation of strong motion intensity. In many of the simulation models, stochastic finite fault model is preferred to rapid MMI estimating for its time-effectiveness and accuracy. In finite fault model, a large fault is divided into N subfaults, and each subfault is considered as a small point source. The ground motions contributed by each subfault are calculated by the stochastic point source method which is developed by Boore, and then summed at the observation point to obtain the ground motion from the entire fault with a proper time delay. Further, Motazedian and Atkinson proposed the concept of Dynamic Corner Frequency, with the new approach, the total radiated energy from the fault and the total seismic moment are conserved independent of subfault size over a wide range of subfault sizes. In current study, the program EXSIM developed by Motazedian and Atkinson has been modified for local or regional computations of strong motion parameters such as PGA, PGV and PGD, which are essential for MMI estimating. To make the results more reasonable, we consider the impact of V30 for the

  13. Fast flexible modeling of RNA structure using internal coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Samuel Coulbourn; Sherman, Michael A; Bruns, Christopher M; Eastman, Peter; Altman, Russ Biagio

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the structure and dynamics of large macromolecules remains a critical challenge. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are expensive because they model every atom independently, and are difficult to combine with experimentally derived knowledge. Assembly of molecules using fragments from libraries relies on the database of known structures and thus may not work for novel motifs. Coarse-grained modeling methods have yielded good results on large molecules but can suffer from difficulties in creating more detailed full atomic realizations. There is therefore a need for molecular modeling algorithms that remain chemically accurate and economical for large molecules, do not rely on fragment libraries, and can incorporate experimental information. RNABuilder works in the internal coordinate space of dihedral angles and thus has time requirements proportional to the number of moving parts rather than the number of atoms. It provides accurate physics-based response to applied forces, but also allows user-specified forces for incorporating experimental information. A particular strength of RNABuilder is that all Leontis-Westhof basepairs can be specified as primitives by the user to be satisfied during model construction. We apply RNABuilder to predict the structure of an RNA molecule with 160 bases from its secondary structure, as well as experimental information. Our model matches the known structure to 10.2 Angstroms RMSD and has low computational expense.

  14. Transient feedback from fuel motion in metal IFR [Integral Fast Reactor] fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Regis, J.P.; Bauer, T.H.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Results from hodoscope data analyses are presented for TREAT transient-overpower tests M5 through M7 with emphasis on transient feedback mechanisms, including prefailure expansion at the tops of the fuel pins, subsequent dispersive axial fuel motion, and losses in relative worth of the fuel pins during the tests. Tests M5 and M6 were the first TOP tests of margin to cladding branch and prefailure elongation of D9-clad ternary (U-Pu-Zr) IFR-type fuel. Test M7 extended these results to high-burnup fuel and also initiated transient testing of HT9-clad binary (U-Zr) FFTF-driver fuel. Results show significant prefailure negative reactivity feedback and strongly negative feedback from fuel driven to failure. 4 refs., 6 figs

  15. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  16. Internal friction of flux motion in Hg-system high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, W.; Zhu, J.S.; Shao, H.M.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.N.

    1996-01-01

    The internal friction(IF) and modulus as functions of temperature were measured for several Hg-system high-Tc superconductors(Hg1201, Hg1223, Hg1223 doped with Fe and Pb), under the applied magnetic field, with vibrating reed technique. An IF peak associated with flux motion can be found below Tc for all samples. The temperature of the IF peak increases with reducing vibrating amplitude. This amplitude dependence of IF indicates that the flux motion is characterized by nonlinear behavior. No apparent shift of IF peak position can be detected by varying the frequency in the range from 10 2 Hz to 10 3 Hz. Furthermore, the IF peak height satisfies a scaling law Q -1 ∝ω -n . This may be originated from phase transition of flux line lattice(FLL) rather than a thermally activated diffusion process. (orig.)

  17. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; de Vries, Sjoerd C; van Emmerik, Martijn L; Groen, Eric L

    2010-07-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between iFOV and eFOV would lead to sickness. To that end we used a computer game environment with different iFOV and eFOV settings, and found the opposite effect. We speculate that the relative large differences between iFOV and eFOV used in this experiment caused the discrepancy, as may be explained by assuming an observer model controlling body motion. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contributions from the Second and Third Internal Gravity Modes for the Vertical Motion Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Buchmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In earlier papers of a series of real data integrations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community ClimateModel with tropical heat anomalies display regions of pronounced subsidence and drying located several thousand kilometers westwardpoleward of the heating for cases of tropical Atlantic heating and tropical east Pacifi c heating. This highly predictable sinking responseis established within the fi rst fi ve days of these integrations. The normal-modes of a set of adiabatic primitive equations linearizedabout a basic state at rest are used to partition model response into gravity-inertia and Rossby modes. The most important contributionfor the vertical motion response comes from the gravity modes added for all vertical modes. The principal emphasis is given upon thecontributions of the second and third internal vertical modes (with equivalent depths on the order of a fews hundred meters for thevertical motion response.

  19. A unified internal model theory to resolve the paradox of active versus passive self-motion sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Jean; Angelaki, Dora E

    2017-10-18

    Brainstem and cerebellar neurons implement an internal model to accurately estimate self-motion during externally generated ('passive') movements. However, these neurons show reduced responses during self-generated ('active') movements, indicating that predicted sensory consequences of motor commands cancel sensory signals. Remarkably, the computational processes underlying sensory prediction during active motion and their relationship to internal model computations during passive movements remain unknown. We construct a Kalman filter that incorporates motor commands into a previously established model of optimal passive self-motion estimation. The simulated sensory error and feedback signals match experimentally measured neuronal responses during active and passive head and trunk rotations and translations. We conclude that a single sensory internal model can combine motor commands with vestibular and proprioceptive signals optimally. Thus, although neurons carrying sensory prediction error or feedback signals show attenuated modulation, the sensory cues and internal model are both engaged and critically important for accurate self-motion estimation during active head movements.

  20. Slow speed—fast motion: time-lapse recordings in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-05-01

    Video analysis with a 30 Hz frame rate is the standard tool in physics education. The development of affordable high-speed-cameras has extended the capabilities of the tool for much smaller time scales to the 1 ms range, using frame rates of typically up to 1000 frames s-1, allowing us to study transient physics phenomena happening too fast for the naked eye. Here we want to extend the range of phenomena which may be studied by video analysis in the opposite direction by focusing on much longer time scales ranging from minutes, hours to many days or even months. We discuss this time-lapse method, needed equipment and give a few hints of how to produce respective recordings for two specific experiments.

  1. Status of national programmes on fast reactors 1997/98. 31. annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the meeting was to co-ordinate the exchange of information on the status of fast reactor development and operational experience, including experience with experimental types of reactor; to consider meeting arrangements for 1998 and 1999; and to review the IAEA co-ordinated research activities in the field of fast reactor, as well as co-ordination of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors activities with other organizations

  2. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring during stereotactic liver radiation therapy: First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Hansen, Rune; Larsen, Lars Peter; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction motion may compromise the target dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver. Respiratory gating can improve the treatment delivery, but gating based on an external surrogate signal may be inaccurate. This is the first paper reporting on respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic monitoring during liver SBRT. Two patients with solitary liver metastases were treated with respiratory-gated SBRT guided by three implanted electromagnetic transponders. The treatment was delivered in end-exhale with beam-on when the centroid of the three transponders deviated less than 3 mm [left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions] and 4mm [cranio-caudal (CC)] from the planned position. For each treatment fraction, log files were used to determine the transponder motion during beam-on in the actual gated treatments and in simulated treatments without gating. The motion was used to reconstruct the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) with and without gating. The reduction in D95 (minimum dose to 95% of the CTV) relative to the plan was calculated for both treatment courses. With gating the maximum course mean (standard deviation) geometrical error in any direction was 1.2 mm (1.8 mm). Without gating the course mean error would mainly increase for Patient 1 [to -2.8 mm (1.6 mm) (LR), 7.1 mm (5.8 mm) (CC), -2.6 mm (2.8mm) (AP)] due to a large systematic cranial baseline drift at each fraction. The errors without gating increased only slightly for Patient 2. The reduction in CTV D95 was 0.5% (gating) and 12.1% (non-gating) for Patient 1 and 0.3% (gating) and 1.7% (non-gating) for Patient 2. The mean duty cycle was 55%. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring was performed for two liver SBRT patients. The gating added robustness to the dose delivery and ensured a high CTV dose even in the presence of large intrafraction motion.

  3. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  4. Near-surface energy transfers from internal tide beams to smaller vertical scale motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.; Staquet, C.; Carter, G. S.; Luther, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical energy capable of causing diapycnal mixing in the ocean is transferred to the internal wave field when barotropic tides pass over underwater topography and generate internal tides. The resulting internal tide energy is confined in vertically limited structures, or beams. As internal tide beams (ITBs) propagate through regions of non-uniform stratification in the upper ocean, wave energy can be scattered through multiple reflections and refractions, be vertically trapped, or transferred to non-tidal frequencies through different nonlinear processes. Various observations have shown that ITBs are no longer detectable in horizontal kinetic energy beyond the first surface reflection. Importantly, this implies that some of the internal tide energy no longer propagates in to the abyssal ocean and consequently will not be available to maintain the density stratification. Using the NHM, a nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model based on the MITgcm, simulations of an ITB propagating up to the sea surface are examined in order to quantify the transformation of ITB energy to other motions. We compare and contrast the transformations enabled by idealized, smoothly-varying stratification with transformations enabled by realistic stratification containing a broad-band vertical wavenumber spectrum of variations. Preliminary two-dimensional results show that scattering due to small-scale structure in realistic stratification profiles from Hawaii can lead to energy being vertically trapped near the surface. Idealized simulations of "locally" generated internal solitary waves are analyzed in terms of energy flux transfers from the ITB to solitary waves, higher harmonics, and mean flow. The amount of internal tide energy which propagates back down after near-surface reflection of the ITB in different environments is quantified.

  5. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  6. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  7. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  8. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju” (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  9. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A D; Champneys, A R; Friswell, M I

    2016-08-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor-stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice.

  10. Autoregressive harmonic analysis of the earth's polar motion using homogeneous international latitude service data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Chao, B.

    1983-12-01

    The homogeneous set of 80-year-long (1900-1979) International Latitude Service (ILS) polar motion data is analyzed using the autoregressive method (Chao and Gilbert, 1980) which resolves and produces estimates for the complex frequency (or frequency and Q) and complex amplitude (or amplitude and phase) of each harmonic component in the data. Principal conclusion of this analysis are that (1) the ILS data support the multiple-component hypothesis of the Chandler wobble (it is found that the Chandler wobble can be adequately modeled as a linear combination of four (coherent) harmonic components, each of which represents a steady, nearly circular, prograte motion, a behavior that is inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single Chandler period excited in a temporally and/or spatially random fashion). (2) the four-component Chandler wobble model ``explains'' the apparent phase reversal during 1920-1940 and the pre-1950 empirical period-amplitude relation, (3) the annual wobble is shown to be rather stationary over the years both in amplitude and in phase and no evidence is found to support the large variations reported by earlier investigations. (4) the Markowitz wobble is found to support the large variations reported by earlier investigations. (4) the Markowitz wobble is found to be marginally retrograde and appears to have a complicated behavior which cannot be resolved because of the shortness of the data set.

  11. On the coupling of cyclotron motion to ion internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility of significant coupling between gas-phase ion cyclotron motion and two internal angular momentum terms is explored. The first case, coupling with ion spin, is treated via the relativistic Hamiltonian, and found to produce only relativistic perturbations which are entirely negligible. The second case, coupling with ion rotation, is developed via its equivalence to a Stark effect. Small shifts in the cyclotron resonances frequency , ωsub(c) and the appearance of a weak cyclotron resonance at 2ωsub(c) are predicted, but these effects are negligible in general. If the cyclotron frequency is near an ion rotational transition, however, a shift of 10 -5 in cyclotron frequency may be observed, and could provide a means of investigating low-frequency rotational transitions of ions. (Auth.)

  12. Internal motion time scales of a small, highly stable and disulfide-rich protein: A 15N, 13C NMR and molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenneugues, Marc; Gilquin, Bernard; Wolff, Nicolas; Menez, Andre; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    1999-01-01

    Motions of the backbone CαHα and threonine CβHβ bonds of toxin α were investigated using natural abundance 13C NMR and molecular dynamics. Measurement of the 13C longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates employed ACCORDION techniques together with coherence selection by pulsed field gradients and sensitivity enhancement through the use of preservation of equivalent pathway, thus allowing a considerable reduction of the required spectrometer time. 13C R1, R2, 1H → 13C NOE were obtained, as well as the variations of R1ρ(90 deg.) as a function of the rf field strength. These data were compared to those recorded by 1H and 15N NMR on a labelled sample of the toxin [Guenneugues et al. (1997) Biochemistry, 36, 16097-16108]. Both sets of data showed that picosecond to nanosecond time scale motions are well correlated to the secondary structure of the protein. This was further reinforced by the analysis of a 1 ns molecular dynamics simulation in water. Several CαHα and threonine CβHβ experimentally exhibit fast motions with a correlation time longer than 500 ps, that cannot be sampled along the simulation. In addition, the backbone exhibits motions on the microsecond to millisecond time scale on more than half of its length. Thus, toxin α, a highly stable protein (Tm=75 deg. C at acidic pH) containing 61 amino acids and 4 disulfides, shows important internal motions on time scales ranging from 0.1-0.5 ps, to 10-100 ps, 1 ns, and about 30 μs to 10 ms

  13. Impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment between the International Celestial Reference Frame and the Gaia reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.-C.; Malkin, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-03-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is currently realized by the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic sources with the zero proper motion assumption, while Gaia will observe proper motions of these distant and faint objects to an accuracy of tens of microarcseconds per year. This paper investigates the difference between VLBI and Gaia quasar proper motions and it aims to understand the impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frame. We use the latest time series data of source coordinates from the International VLBI Service analysis centres operated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSF2017) and Paris observatory (OPA2017), as well as the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution containing 2191 high-probability optical counterparts of the ICRF2 sources. The linear proper motions in right ascension and declination of VLBI sources are derived by least-squares fits while the proper motions for Gaia sources are simulated taking into account the acceleration of the Solar system barycentre and realistic uncertainties depending on the source brightness. The individual and global features of source proper motions in GSF2017 and OPA2017 VLBI data are found to be inconsistent, which may result from differences in VLBI observations, data reduction and analysis. A comparison of the VLBI and Gaia proper motions shows that the accuracies of the components of rotation and glide between the two systems are 2-4 μas yr- 1 based on about 600 common sources. For the future alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frames at different wavelengths, the proper motions of quasars must necessarily be considered.

  14. Optimization of intra-voxel incoherent motion imaging at 3.0 Tesla for fast liver examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporq, Benjamin; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Rabrait, Cecile; Pilleul, Frank; Guillaud, Olivier; Dumortier, Jérôme; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Beuf, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    Optimization of multi b-values MR protocol for fast intra-voxel incoherent motion imaging of the liver at 3.0 Tesla. A comparison of four different acquisition protocols were carried out based on estimated IVIM (DSlow , DFast , and f) and ADC-parameters in 25 healthy volunteers. The effects of respiratory gating compared with free breathing acquisition then diffusion gradient scheme (simultaneous or sequential) and finally use of weighted averaging for different b-values were assessed. An optimization study based on Cramer-Rao lower bound theory was then performed to minimize the number of b-values required for a suitable quantification. The duration-optimized protocol was evaluated on 12 patients with chronic liver diseases No significant differences of IVIM parameters were observed between the assessed protocols. Only four b-values (0, 12, 82, and 1310 s.mm(-2) ) were found mandatory to perform a suitable quantification of IVIM parameters. DSlow and DFast significantly decreased between nonadvanced and advanced fibrosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) whereas perfusion fraction and ADC variations were not found to be significant. Results showed that IVIM could be performed in free breathing, with a weighted-averaging procedure, a simultaneous diffusion gradient scheme and only four optimized b-values (0, 10, 80, and 800) reducing scan duration by a factor of nine compared with a nonoptimized protocol. Preliminary results have shown that parameters such as DSlow and DFast based on optimized IVIM protocol can be relevant biomarkers to distinguish between nonadvanced and advanced fibrosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Polarized proton beam development at COSY with EDDA as a fast internal polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberger, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarized protons in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY encounter five imperfection and nine intrinsic depolarizing resonances during the acceleration from 300 to 3300 MeV/c. When crossing imperfection resonances vertical correction dipoles are excited in order to enhance the average vertical displacement and thereby the resonance strength to result in a complete spin flip without loss of polarization. When crossing intrinsic resonances a rapid vertical tune jump is applied to minimize polarization losses. In order to find the optimum machine parameters a novel and fast method was developed to measure the internal beam polarization as a function of the beam momentum in the vicinity of a depolarizing resonance as well as in the full acceleration ramp. Using very thin internal CH 2 - and/or C-fiber targets the polarization is deduced from the left-right asymmetry of fast scaler rates. To this end the EDDA detector is used. This detector consists of two cylindrical scintillation hodoscope layers covering about 87% of 4π for pp elastic scattering. The effective analyzing power of the fast method is obtained by a special calibration procedure using a 'slow but proper' EDDA-style measurement of the elastic pp scattering asymmetries. For this calibration precise analyzing power excitation functions measured by EDDA became available in time

  16. Fast particle effects on the internal kink, fishbone and Alfven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Park, W.; Kusama, Y.; Shinokhara, K.; Ozeki, T.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D. (author)

  17. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences

  18. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  19. Fast Particle Effects on the Internal Kink, Fishbone and Alfven Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Kusama, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Nazikian, R.; Ozeki, T.; Park, W.

    2000-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D

  20. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  1. SU-E-J-79: Internal Tumor Volume Motion and Volume Size Assessment Using 4D CT Lung Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, I [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P [Cancer Therapy and Research Center University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess internal tumor volume change through breathing cycle and associated tumor motion using the 4DCT data. Methods: Respiration induced volume change through breathing cycle and associated motion was analyzed for nine patients that were scanned during the different respiratory phases. The examined datasets were the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) and the 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. The internal target volume (ITV) was delineated on each of the phases and the planning target volume (PTV) was then created by adding setup margins to the ITV. Tumor motion through the phases was assessed using the acquired 4DCT dataset, which was then used to determine if the margins used for the ITV creation successfully encompassed the tumor in three dimensions. Results: Results showed that GTV motion along the superior inferior axes was the largest in all the cases independent of the tumor location and/or size or the use of abdomen compression. The extent of the tumor motion was found to be connected with the size of the GTV. The smallest GTVs exhibited largest motion vector independent of the tumor location. The motion vector size varied through the phases depending on the tumor size and location and it was smallest for phases 20 and 30. The smaller the volume of the delineated GTV, the greater its volume difference through the different respiratory phases was. The average GTV volume change was largest for the phases 60 and 70. Conclusion: Even if GTV is delineated using both AIP and MIP datasets, its motion extent will exceed the used margins especially for the very small GTV volumes. When the GTV size is less than 10 cc it is recommended to use fusion of the GTVs through all the phases to create the planning ITV.

  2. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility for international passive safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Padilla, A.; Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    A two-phased approach has been undertaken in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to conduct passive safety testing. Phase I (1986 to 1987) was structured to obtain an initial understanding of the reactivity feedback components. The planned Phase II (1992 to 1993) international program will extend the testing to include static and dynamic feedback measurements, transient and demonstration tests, and gas expansion module (GEM) reactivity tests. The primary objective is to meet the needs for safety analysis code validation, with particular emphasis on reducing the uncertainties associated with structure reactivity feedback. Program scope and predicted FFTF responses are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  3. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Fast generation of video holograms of three-dimensional moving objects using a motion compensation-based novel look-up table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Dong, Xiao-Bin; Kwon, Min-Woo; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2013-05-06

    A novel approach for fast generation of video holograms of three-dimensional (3-D) moving objects using a motion compensation-based novel-look-up-table (MC-N-LUT) method is proposed. Motion compensation has been widely employed in compression of conventional 2-D video data because of its ability to exploit high temporal correlation between successive video frames. Here, this concept of motion-compensation is firstly applied to the N-LUT based on its inherent property of shift-invariance. That is, motion vectors of 3-D moving objects are extracted between the two consecutive video frames, and with them motions of the 3-D objects at each frame are compensated. Then, through this process, 3-D object data to be calculated for its video holograms are massively reduced, which results in a dramatic increase of the computational speed of the proposed method. Experimental results with three kinds of 3-D video scenarios reveal that the average number of calculated object points and the average calculation time for one object point of the proposed method, have found to be reduced down to 86.95%, 86.53% and 34.99%, 32.30%, respectively compared to those of the conventional N-LUT and temporal redundancy-based N-LUT (TR-N-LUT) methods.

  6. SU-C-BRF-05: Design and Geometric Validation of An Externally and Internally Deformable, Programmable Lung Motion Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Y; Sawant, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most clinically-deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating, tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are rigid-exterior+rigid-interior or rigid-exterior+deformable-interior. Neither class adequately represents the human anatomy, which is deformable internally as well as externally. We describe the construction and experimental validation of a more realistic, externally- and internally-deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available lung phantom (RS- 1500, RSD Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A 3-axis platform was programmed with sinusoidal and six patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam ‘diaphragm’ that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of mapping the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) trajectories of external and internal radioopaque markers with kV x-ray fluoroscopy and correlating these with optical surface monitoring using the in-room VisionRT system. Results: The phantom correctly reproduced the programmed motion as well as realistic effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.4 mm RMS error for internal as well as external markers. The motion trajectories of internal and external markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R=0.97). Furthermore, motion trajectories of arbitrary points on the deforming phantom surface, as recorded by the VisionRT system also showed a high correlation with respect to the fluoroscopically-measured trajectories of internal markers (R=0.92). Conclusion: We have

  7. Polar Motion Studies and NOAA's Legacy of International Scientific Cooperation: Ukiah and Gaithersburg Latitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamise, D. J., II; Stone, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1895, the International Geodetic Association invited the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) to join in an unprecedented international effort to observe and measure the earth's polar motion. This effort was in response to the American astronomer Seth C. Chandler Jr. announcing his 1891 discovery that the earth's axis of rotation—and hence the direction of true north—wobbles within the earth with a period of about 14 months, varying latitude everywhere on the globe. In 1899, two astro-geodetic observatories were built in Gaithersburg, Maryland and Ukiah, California with three others in Caloforte, Italy; Kitab, Russia (now Uzbekistan); and Mizusawa, Japan. (A sixth station was located and operated at an astronomical observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio until 1916 using instruments loaned by USC&GS). All five observatories were located along the same parallel - approximately 35 degrees - 8 minutes. The observatories were decommissioned in 1982, and subsequently, NOAA deeded the two remaining U.S. observatories to the cities of Gaithersburg and Ukiah. The observatories and adjacent property were to be used as parkland. Both cities have restored the observatories and opened public parks. Recently, Gaithersburg (Ukiah in progress) has had its latitude observatory dedicated as a National Historic Landmark. In 2014-15, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS, the present-day NOAA successor to the USC&GS) loaned the original zenith telescopes to the communities, returning the observatories to their original configuration. The contribution of NOAA observers and the data collected is still important to astronomers and geophysicists and has practical applications in spacecraft navigation and geospatial positioning. This poster will bring to fruition this multiyear effort among partners by providing examples of NOAA's mission and contribution to science, service, and stewardship at both geodetic observatories, through programs and historic exhibits for students and the

  8. Fifteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous Annual Group Meeting, in Obninsk, USSR, Vienna from 30 March to 2 April 1982. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

  9. Characterization of the internal background for thermal and fast neutron detection with CLLB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a set of experiments conducted to determine what effects, if any, the internal background in the CLLB scintillation detector has on the thermal neutron detection performance. We conducted source measurements using an unmoderated and moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron/γ-ray source and long (48-h), unshielded and shielded, background measurements to characterize the internal background with and without a source present. These measurements allowed us to determine the 2-d event selections needed to isolate the thermal neutron peak observed in pulse shape vs. energy space and apply those selections to our background measurements. Our results indicate that the thermal neutron detection capabilities of the CLLB are marginally affected by the presence of internal background. An unmoderated 113-µCi {sup 252}Cf source at 15 cm from the detector yields a thermal neutron rate of 8×10{sup −2}/s cm{sup 3}, while moderating the source with 5 cm of polyethylene yields a thermal neutron rate of 5.5×10{sup −1}/s cm{sup 3}. The measured background rate for events that fall within the selected thermal neutron region is 1.2×10{sup −3}/s cm{sup 3}. Lastly, the potential for CLLB for detecting fast neutrons was investigated.

  10. Sixteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-10-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous Annual Meeting Group, in Vienna from 12-15 April 1983. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors.

  11. Twelfth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-01

    The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous AGM,in Vienna from 27 to 30 March 1979. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors.

  12. Twelfth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous AGM,in Vienna from 27 to 30 March 1979. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

  13. Fifteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-09-01

    The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous Annual Group Meeting, in Obninsk, USSR, Vienna from 30 March to 2 April 1982. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors.

  14. Sixteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the IWGFR was held in accordance with the recommendation of the previous Annual Meeting Group, in Vienna from 12-15 April 1983. The meeting was attended by the Member States of the group: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA, as well as by representatives from CEC, IAEA and OECD and observer from the USSR. This document includes: review of the IWGFR Activities for the period since the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Group; preliminary programme of international conference on breeder reactors as a world energy resource and the breeder fuel cycle; list of meetings on atomic energy which may be of interest to the IWGFR Members; IWGFR criteria for supporting some of the international conferences; list of proposed topics for the IWGFR Specialists' Meetings; list of topics for review articles on LMFBR recommended for publication by the IAEA; list of meetings sponsored by the IWGFR; a list of members of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

  15. Three-dimensional intrafractional internal target motions in accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kimiko; Yoshimura, Michio; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Minoru; Sasaki, Makoto; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Yano, Shinsuke; Nakata, Manabu; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated three-dimensional intrafractional target motion, divided into respiratory-induced motion and baseline drift, in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Paired fluoroscopic images were acquired simultaneously using orthogonal kV X-ray imaging systems at pre- and post-treatment for 23 patients who underwent APBI with external beam radiotherapy. The internal target motion was calculated from the surgical clips placed around the tumour cavity. The peak-to-peak respiratory-induced motions ranged from 0.6 to 1.5mm in all directions. A systematic baseline drift of 1.5mm towards the posterior direction and a random baseline drift of 0.3mm in the lateral-medial and cranial-caudal directions were observed. The baseline for an outer tumour cavity drifted towards the lateral and posterior directions, and that for an upper tumour cavity drifted towards the cranial direction. Moderate correlations were observed between the posterior baseline drift and the patients' physical characteristics. The posterior margin for intrafractional uncertainties was larger than 5mm in patients with greater fat thickness due to the baseline drift. The magnitude of the intrafractional motion was not uniform according to the direction, patients' physical characteristics, or tumour cavity location due to the baseline drift. Therefore, the intrafractional systematic movement should be properly managed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast neutron fluence calculations as support for a BWR pressure vessel and internals surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucatero, Marco A.; Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier; Xolocostli-Munguia, J. Vicente; Gomez-Torres, Armando M.

    2010-01-01

    Materials surveillance programs are required to detect and prevent degradation of safety-related structures and components of a nuclear power reactor. In this work, following the directions in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, a calculational methodology is implemented as additional support for a reactor pressure vessel and internals surveillance program for a BWR. The choice of the neutronic methods employed was based on the premise of being able of performing all the expected future survey calculations in relatively short times, but without compromising accuracy. First, a geometrical model of a typical BWR was developed, from the core to the primary containment, including jet pumps and all other structures. The methodology uses the Synthesis Method to compute the three-dimensional neutron flux distribution. In the methodology, the code CORE-MASTER-PRESTO is used as the three-dimensional core simulator; SCALE is used to generate the fine-group flux spectra of the components of the model and also used to generate a 47 energy-groups job cross section library, collapsed from the 199-fine-group master library VITAMIN-B6; ORIGEN2 was used to compute the isotopic densities of uranium and plutonium; and, finally, DORT was used to calculate the two-dimensional and one-dimensional neutron flux distributions required to compute the synthesized three-dimensional neutron flux. Then, the calculation of fast neutron fluence was performed using the effective full power time periods through six operational fuel cycles of two BWR Units and until the 13th cycle for Unit 1. The results showed a maximum relative difference between the calculated-by-synthesis fast neutron fluxes and fluences and those measured by Fe, Cu and Ni dosimeters less than 7%. The dosimeters were originally located adjacent to the pressure vessel wall, as part of the surveillance program. Results from the computations of peak fast fluence on pressure vessel wall and specific weld locations on the core shroud are

  17. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden......-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger....

  18. A Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for the International Linear Collider Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furse, D.

    2005-01-01

    The following paper contains details concerning the motivation for, implementation and performance of a Java-based fast Monte Carlo simulation for a detector designed to be used in the International Linear Collider. This simulation, presently included in the SLAC ILC group's org.lcsim package, reads in standard model or SUSY events in STDHEP file format, stochastically simulates the blurring in physics measurements caused by intrinsic detector error, and writes out an LCIO format file containing a set of final particles statistically similar to those that would have found by a full Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to the reconstructed particles themselves, descriptions of the calorimeter hit clusters and tracks that these particles would have produced are also included in the LCIO output. These output files can then be put through various analysis codes in order to characterize the effectiveness of a hypothetical detector at extracting relevant physical information about an event. Such a tool is extremely useful in preliminary detector research and development, as full simulations are extremely cumbersome and taxing on processor resources; a fast, efficient Monte Carlo can facilitate and even make possible detector physics studies that would be very impractical with the full simulation by sacrificing what is in many cases inappropriate attention to detail for valuable gains in time required for results

  19. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments

  20. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  1. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  2. Neural correlates of sensory prediction errors in monkeys: evidence for internal models of voluntary self-motion in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Brooks, Jessica X

    2015-02-01

    During self-motion, the vestibular system makes essential contributions to postural stability and self-motion perception. To ensure accurate perception and motor control, it is critical to distinguish between vestibular sensory inputs that are the result of externally applied motion (exafference) and that are the result of our own actions (reafference). Indeed, although the vestibular sensors encode vestibular afference and reafference with equal fidelity, neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing selectively encode vestibular exafference. The mechanism underlying this reafferent suppression compares the brain's motor-based expectation of sensory feedback with the actual sensory consequences of voluntary self-motion, effectively computing the sensory prediction error (i.e., exafference). It is generally thought that sensory prediction errors are computed in the cerebellum, yet it has been challenging to explicitly demonstrate this. We have recently addressed this question and found that deep cerebellar nuclei neurons explicitly encode sensory prediction errors during self-motion. Importantly, in everyday life, sensory prediction errors occur in response to changes in the effector or world (muscle strength, load, etc.), as well as in response to externally applied sensory stimulation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that altering the relationship between motor commands and the actual movement parameters will result in the updating in the cerebellum-based computation of exafference. If our hypothesis is correct, under these conditions, neuronal responses should initially be increased--consistent with a sudden increase in the sensory prediction error. Then, over time, as the internal model is updated, response modulation should decrease in parallel with a reduction in sensory prediction error, until vestibular reafference is again suppressed. The finding that the internal model predicting the sensory consequences of motor commands adapts for new

  3. A study of the effects of internal organ motion on dose escalation in conformal prostate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happersett, Laura; Mageras, Gig S.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Burman, Chandra M.; Leibel, Steven A.; Chui Chen; Fuks, Zvi; Bull, Sarah; Ling, C. Clifton; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the effect of internal organ motion on the dose distributions and biological indices for the target and non-target organs for three different conformal prostate treatment techniques. Materials and methods: We examined three types of treatment plans in 20 patients: (1) a six field plan, with a prescribed dose of 75.6 Gy; (2) the same six field plan to 72 Gy followed by a boost to 81 Gy; and (3) a five field plan with intensity modulated beams delivering 81 Gy. Treatment plans were designed using an initial CT data set (planning) and applied to three subsequent CT scans (treatment). The treatment CT contours were used to represent patient specific organ displacement; in addition, the dose distribution was convolved with a Gaussian distribution to model random setup error. Dose-volume histograms were calculated using an organ deformation model in which the movement between scans of individual points interior to the organs was tracked and the dose accumulated. The tumor control probability (TCP) for the prostate and proximal half of seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, CTV), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the rectum and the percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy were calculated. Results: The patient averaged increase in the planned TCP between plan types 2 and 1 and types 3 and 1 was 9.8% (range 4.9-12.5%) for both, whereas the corresponding increases in treatment TCP were 9.0% (1.3-16%) and 8.1% (-1.3-13.8%). In all patients, plans 2 and 3 (81 Gy) exhibited equal or higher treatment TCP than plan 1 (75.6 Gy). The maximum treatment NTCP for rectum never exceeded the planning constraint and percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy was similar in the planning and treatment scans for all three plans. Conclusion: For plans that deliver a uniform prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) (plan 1), current margins are adequate. In plans that further escalate the dose to part

  4. CAMDYN: a new model to describe the axial motion of molten fuel inside the pin of a fast breeder reactor during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, G.

    1991-01-01

    The new in-pin fuel motion model CAMDYN (Cavity Material Dynamics) describes the axial motion of both partially and fully molten fuel inside the pin of a fast breeder reactor during accident conditions. The motion of the two types of molten fuel and the imbedded fission gas bubbles is treated both before and after cladding failure. The basic modelling approach consists of the treatment of two one-dimensional flows which are coupled by interaction terms. Each of these flows is treated compressively and with axially variable flow cross sections. The mass and energy equations of both fields are solved explicitly using upwind differencing on a fixed Eulerian grid. The two momentum equations are solved simultaneously, using the convective momentum fluxes of the previous timestep. Both partially and fully molten fuel can move axially into a central hole extending to the plenum in the case of certain hollow pellet designs. The fuel temperature calculation includes the determination of a radial temperature profile. A simple conduction freezing model is included. After cladding failure, ejection into the coolant channel is modeled

  5. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Twenty-fifth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At present nuclear power accounts for approximately 17% of total electricity generation worldwide. Given continuing population growth and the needs of the third world and developing countries to improve their economic performance and standard of living, energy demand is expected to continue to grow through the 21st century. The proportion of energy supplied as electricity is also expected to continue to increase. Although fossil fuelled electricity generation is the option preferred by several countries for the short term, there are rising concerns over climatic consequences caused by extended burning of fossil fuels as a result of the demands of a fast expanding world population. In this situation nuclear electricity will become more and more important and the known reserves of uranium would be consumed quite quickly by thermal reactors. It would be possible to sustain a large nuclear programme only by introducing fast reactors. One can conclude that there are strategic reasons for pursuing the development of fast breeder reactors. It will become desirable essential, to have this technology available for introduction. The experience of the various prototypes presently in operation has confirmed the operability and benign characteristics of the LMFR and has given ground for confidence in the future. Current fast reactor designs offer very large margins of safety and by virtue of redundant and diverse safety systems the potential for an energetic core disruptive accident or for fast reactor core meltdown has been essentially eliminated. Several international forums reviewed the current trends in the fast reactor development. The view was reaffirmed that fast breeder reactors still remain the most practical tool for effective utilization of uranium resources for the future energy needs. Achievement of competitiveness with LMRs is still the first priority condition for the future deployment of this type of reactor. The recycling of plutonium into LMFBRs would allow

  6. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Twenty-fifth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    At present nuclear power accounts for approximately 17% of total electricity generation worldwide. Given continuing population growth and the needs of the third world and developing countries to improve their economic performance and standard of living, energy demand is expected to continue to grow through the 21st century. The proportion of energy supplied as electricity is also expected to continue to increase. Although fossil fuelled electricity generation is the option preferred by several countries for the short term, there are rising concerns over climatic consequences caused by extended burning of fossil fuels as a result of the demands of a fast expanding world population. In this situation nuclear electricity will become more and more important and the known reserves of uranium would be consumed quite quickly by thermal reactors. It would be possible to sustain a large nuclear programme only by introducing fast reactors. One can conclude that there are strategic reasons for pursuing the development of fast breeder reactors. It will become desirable essential, to have this technology available for introduction. The experience of the various prototypes presently in operation has confirmed the operability and benign characteristics of the LMFR and has given ground for confidence in the future. Current fast reactor designs offer very large margins of safety and by virtue of redundant and diverse safety systems the potential for an energetic core disruptive accident or for fast reactor core meltdown has been essentially eliminated. Several international forums reviewed the current trends in the fast reactor development. The view was reaffirmed that fast breeder reactors still remain the most practical tool for effective utilization of uranium resources for the future energy needs. Achievement of competitiveness with LMRs is still the first priority condition for the future deployment of this type of reactor. The recycling of plutonium into LMFBRs would allow

  7. Complexity Control of Fast Motion Estimation in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with Rate-Distortion-Complexity optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the pa...... statistics and a control scheme. The algorithm also works well for scene change condition. Test results for coding interlaced video (720x576 PAL) are reported.......A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the past...

  8. Statement to International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, 7 December 2009, Kyoto, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words it can withstand enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast-spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach many important milestones: - the first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; - the restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; and - the new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, France, Japan, India, China and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes, demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to be an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. Scores of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved economics and

  9. Status of National Programmes on Fast Breeder Reactors. International Working Group on Fast Reactors, Twentieth Annual Meeting, Vienna, 24-27 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Agenda of the meeting was as follows: 1. Approval of the Agenda. 2. Approval of the minutes of the 19th meeting of the IWGFR. 3. Report of the Scientific Secretary regarding the WD activities of the Working Group. 4. Presentations and discussions on national programmes on fast breeder reactors. 5. Consideration of conferences on fast breeder reactors. a. ANS-ENS International Conference on Fast Breeder Systems Experience Gained and Path to Economical Power Generation, Richland, Washington, USA, 13-17 September 1987. b. International Conference on Liquid Metal Engineering and Technology, Avignon, France, 17-20 October 1988. c. Other meetings of interest to IWGFR members. 6. Consideration of major recommendations of some of the WD IWGFR Specialists' Meetings. 7. Consideration of arrangements for Specialists' Meetings in 1987. a. Specialists' Meeting on Fission and Corrosion Products Behaviour in Primary Circuits of LMFBRs, Karlsruhe, Fed. Rep. of Germany, May 1987. b. Specialists' Meeting on LMFBR Reactor Block Antiseismic Design and Verification, Bologna, Italy, October 1987. 8. Selection of topics for Specialists' Meetings to be held in 1988 and suggestions of the IWGFR on other Specialists' Meetings and their justifications. 9. Consideration of joint research activities: a. Coordinated Research Programme on a Comparative Assessment of Processing Techniques for Analysis of Sodium Boiling Noise Detection Data. b. Coordinated Research Programme on Intercomparison of LMFBR Core Mechanics Codes. c. New Topics of CRP. d. Other Activities. 10. Updating of ''LMFBR Plant Parameters''. 11. Informal discussion on ''Safety Criteria for Fast Reactors in IWGFR Countries''. 12. The date and place of the 21th Annual Meeting of the IWGFR

  10. International intercomparison of fluence of fast neutrons using 115In(n,γ) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiecki, H.; Cosack, M.

    1985-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has participated in an international intercomparison of fluence measurements of fast neutrons. This was organized under the auspices of the ''Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI)'', Sect. 3 (Mesures Neutronique). The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK volunteered to assume responsibility for the experimental realization and final evaluation. This report deals with the measurements performed at the PTB for the neutron fluence intercomparison at neutron energies of Esub(n) = 144 keV and 570 keV which was based on the 115 In(n,γ) 116 Insup(m) reaction. The count rate of a 4πβ-counter which had to be used to determine the activation of the In sample was to be compared with the neutron fluence by which the sample was irradiated. A description of the neutron production, the fluence determination, the 4πβ-counting, and the evaluation of the results will be given. (orig.) [de

  11. Vibration analysis of reactor assembly internals for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Jalaldeen, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Vibration analysis of the reactor assembly components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. The vibration response of primary pump as well as dynamic forces developed at its supports are predicted numerically. The stiffness properties of hydrostatic bearing are determined by formulating and solving governing fluid and structural mechanics equations. The dynamic forces exerted by pump are used as input data for the dynamic response of reactor assembly components, mainly inner vessel, thermal baffle and control plug. Dynamic response of reactor assembly components is also predicted for the pressure fluctuations caused by sodium free level oscillations. Thermal baffle (weir shell) which is subjected to fluid forces developed at the associated sodium free levels is analysed by formulating and solving a set of non-linear equations for fluids, structures and fluid structure interaction (FSI). The control rod drive mechanism is analysed for response under flow induced forces on the parts subjected to cross flow in the zone just above the core top, taking into account FSI between sheaths of control and safety rod and absorber pin bundle. Based on the analysis results, it is concluded that the reactor assembly internals are free from any risk of mechanical as well as flow induced vibrations. (author)

  12. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  13. International conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles (FR09): Challenges and opportunities. CN-176 presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Renewed interest in nuclear energy is driven by the need to develop carbon free energy sources, by demographics and development in emerging economies, as well as by security of supply concerns. It is expected that nuclear energy will deliver huge amounts of energy to both emerging and developed economies. However, acceptance of large scale contributions would depend on satisfaction of key drivers to enhance sustainability in terms of economics, safety, adequacy of natural resources, waste reduction, non-proliferation and public acceptance. Fast spectrum reactors with recycle enhance the sustainability indices significantly. This has led to the focus on fast spectrum reactors with recycle in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative of the IAEA. It is expected that 2009 will register major events in the domain of fast spectrum reactors, that is, the restart of Monju in Japan, the first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor in China, as well as new insights through end-of-life studies in Phenix, France. New fast reactors are expected to be commissioned in the near future: the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India and the BN-800 unit in the Russian Federation. Moreover, China, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and the United States of America are preparing advanced prototypes/ demonstrations and/or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 horizon. The necessary condition for successful fast reactor deployment in the near and mid-term is the understanding and assessment of innovative technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on ongoing research and technology development efforts. In this respect, the need for in-depth international information exchange is underscored by the fact that the last large international fast reactor conference was held as far back as 1991. Since then, progress in research

  14. Internal models of target motion: expected dynamics overrides measured kinematics in timing manual interceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-04-01

    Prevailing views on how we time the interception of a moving object assume that the visual inputs are informationally sufficient to estimate the time-to-contact from the object's kinematics. Here we present evidence in favor of a different view: the brain makes the best estimate about target motion based on measured kinematics and an a priori guess about the causes of motion. According to this theory, a predictive model is used to extrapolate time-to-contact from expected dynamics (kinetics). We projected a virtual target moving vertically downward on a wide screen with different randomized laws of motion. In the first series of experiments, subjects were asked to intercept this target by punching a real ball that fell hidden behind the screen and arrived in synchrony with the visual target. Subjects systematically timed their motor responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects on an object's mass, even when the visual target did not accelerate. With training, the gravity model was not switched off but adapted to nonaccelerating targets by shifting the time of motor activation. In the second series of experiments, there was no real ball falling behind the screen. Instead the subjects were required to intercept the visual target by clicking a mousebutton. In this case, subjects timed their responses consistent with the assumption of uniform motion in the absence of forces, even when the target actually accelerated. Overall, the results are in accord with the theory that motor responses evoked by visual kinematics are modulated by a prior of the target dynamics. The prior appears surprisingly resistant to modifications based on performance errors.

  15. The International conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: next generation nuclear systems for sustainable development. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The materials of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (June 26-29, 2017, Yekaterinburg) are presented. The forum was organized by the IAEA with the assistance of Rosatom State Corporation. The theme of the conference: “The New Generation of Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development”. About 700 specialists from more than 30 countries took part in the conference. The state and prospects for the development of the direction of fast reactors in countries dealing with this topic were discussed. A wide range of scientific issues covered the concepts of prospective reactors, reactor cores, fuel and fuel cycles, operation and decommissioning, safety, licensing, structural materials, industrial implementation [ru

  16. Interplay effect on a 6-MV flattening-filter-free linear accelerator with high dose rate and fast multi-leaf collimator motion treating breast and lung phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherton, Tucker; Li, Yuting; Nitsch, Paige; Shaitelman, Simona; Balter, Peter; Gao, Song; Klopp, Ann; Muruganandham, Manickam; Court, Laurence

    2018-06-01

    Using a new linear accelerator with high dose rate (800 MU/min), fast MLC motions (5.0 cm/s), fast gantry rotation (15 s/rotation), and 1 cm wide MLCs, we aimed to quantify the effects of complexity, arc number, and fractionation on interplay for breast and lung treatments under target motion. To study lung interplay, eight VMAT plans (1-6 arcs) and four-nine-field sliding-window IMRT plans varying in complexity were created. For the breast plans, four-four-field sliding-window IMRT plans were created. Using the Halcyon 1.0 linear accelerator, each plan was delivered five times each under sinusoidal breathing motion to a phantom with 20 implanted MOSFET detectors; MOSFET dose (cGy), delivery time, and MU/cGy values were recorded. Maximum and mean dose deviations were calculated from MOSFET data. The number of MOSFETs with at least 19 of 20 detectors agreeing with their expected dose within 5% per fraction was calculated across 10 6 iterations to model dose deviation as function of fraction number for all plan variants. To put interplay plans into clinical context, additional IMRT and VMAT plans were created and delivered for the sites of head and neck, prostate, whole brain, breast, pelvis, and lung. Average modulation and interplay effect were compared to those from conventional linear accelerators, as reported from previous studies. The mean beam modulation for plans created for the Halcyon 1.0 linear accelerator was 2.9 MU/cGy (two- to four-field IMRT breast plans), 6.2 MU/cGy (at least five-field IMRT), and 3.6 MU/cGy (four-arc VMAT). To achieve treatment plan objectives, Halcyon 1.0 VMAT plans require more arcs and modulation than VMAT on conventional linear accelerators. Maximum and mean dose deviations increased with increasing plan complexity under tumor motion for breast and lung treatments. Concerning VMAT plans under motion, maximum, and mean dose deviations were higher for one arc than for two arcs regardless of plan complexity. For plan variants

  17. A fast band–Krylov eigensolver for macromolecular functional motion simulation on multicore architectures and graphics processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, José I., E-mail: aliaga@uji.es [Depto. Ingeniería y Ciencia de Computadores, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain); Alonso, Pedro [Departamento de Sistemas Informáticos y Computación, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Badía, José M. [Depto. Ingeniería y Ciencia de Computadores, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain); Chacón, Pablo [Dept. Biological Chemical Physics, Rocasolano Physics and Chemistry Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Davidović, Davor [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Centar za Informatiku i Računarstvo – CIR, Zagreb (Croatia); López-Blanco, José R. [Dept. Biological Chemical Physics, Rocasolano Physics and Chemistry Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S. [Depto. Ingeniería y Ciencia de Computadores, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    We introduce a new iterative Krylov subspace-based eigensolver for the simulation of macromolecular motions on desktop multithreaded platforms equipped with multicore processors and, possibly, a graphics accelerator (GPU). The method consists of two stages, with the original problem first reduced into a simpler band-structured form by means of a high-performance compute-intensive procedure. This is followed by a memory-intensive but low-cost Krylov iteration, which is off-loaded to be computed on the GPU by means of an efficient data-parallel kernel. The experimental results reveal the performance of the new eigensolver. Concretely, when applied to the simulation of macromolecules with a few thousands degrees of freedom and the number of eigenpairs to be computed is small to moderate, the new solver outperforms other methods implemented as part of high-performance numerical linear algebra packages for multithreaded architectures.

  18. A fast band–Krylov eigensolver for macromolecular functional motion simulation on multicore architectures and graphics processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, José I.; Alonso, Pedro; Badía, José M.; Chacón, Pablo; Davidović, Davor; López-Blanco, José R.; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new iterative Krylov subspace-based eigensolver for the simulation of macromolecular motions on desktop multithreaded platforms equipped with multicore processors and, possibly, a graphics accelerator (GPU). The method consists of two stages, with the original problem first reduced into a simpler band-structured form by means of a high-performance compute-intensive procedure. This is followed by a memory-intensive but low-cost Krylov iteration, which is off-loaded to be computed on the GPU by means of an efficient data-parallel kernel. The experimental results reveal the performance of the new eigensolver. Concretely, when applied to the simulation of macromolecules with a few thousands degrees of freedom and the number of eigenpairs to be computed is small to moderate, the new solver outperforms other methods implemented as part of high-performance numerical linear algebra packages for multithreaded architectures.

  19. Chimeric β-Lactamases: Global Conservation of Parental Function and Fast Time-Scale Dynamics with Increased Slow Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Christopher M.; Morin, Sébastien; Gobeil, Sophie M. C.; Doucet, Nicolas; Blanchet, Jonathan; Nguyen, Elisabeth; Gagné, Stéphane M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme engineering has been facilitated by recombination of close homologues, followed by functional screening. In one such effort, chimeras of two class-A β-lactamases – TEM-1 and PSE-4 – were created according to structure-guided protein recombination and selected for their capacity to promote bacterial proliferation in the presence of ampicillin (Voigt et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002 9:553). To provide a more detailed assessment of the effects of protein recombination on the structure and function of the resulting chimeric enzymes, we characterized a series of functional TEM-1/PSE-4 chimeras possessing between 17 and 92 substitutions relative to TEM-1 β-lactamase. Circular dichroism and thermal scanning fluorimetry revealed that the chimeras were generally well folded. Despite harbouring important sequence variation relative to either of the two ‘parental’ β-lactamases, the chimeric β-lactamases displayed substrate recognition spectra and reactivity similar to their most closely-related parent. To gain further insight into the changes induced by chimerization, the chimera with 17 substitutions was investigated by NMR spin relaxation. While high order was conserved on the ps-ns timescale, a hallmark of class A β-lactamases, evidence of additional slow motions on the µs-ms timescale was extracted from model-free calculations. This is consistent with the greater number of resonances that could not be assigned in this chimera relative to the parental β-lactamases, and is consistent with this well-folded and functional chimeric β-lactamase displaying increased slow time-scale motions. PMID:23284969

  20. Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Rosenberg, Ethan; Baumgartner, Manuel; Beran, Lukáš; Quindeau, Andy; Gambardella, Pietro; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We report fast and efficient current-induced switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator thulium iron garnet by using spin-orbit torques (SOT) from the Pt overlayer. We first show that, with quasi-DC (10 ms) current pulses, SOT-induced switching can be achieved with an external field as low as 2 Oe, making TmIG an outstanding candidate to realize efficient switching in heterostructures that produce moderate stray fields without requiring an external field. We then demonstrate deterministic switching with fast current pulses (≤20 ns) with an amplitude of ˜1012 A/m2, similar to all-metallic structures. We reveal that, in the presence of an initially nucleated domain, the critical switching current is reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the fully saturated initial state, implying efficient current-driven domain wall motion in this system. Based on measurements with 2 ns-long pulses, we estimate the domain wall velocity of the order of ˜400 m/s per j = 1012 A/m2.

  1. Do axes of rotation change during fast and slow motions of the dominant and non-dominate arms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The velocity-dependent change in rotational axes observed in the control of unconstrained 3D arm rotations for the dominant limb seems to conform to a minimum inertia resistance (MIR principle [4]. This is an efficient biomechanical solution that allows for the reduction of torques. We tested whether the MIR principle governs rotating movement when subjects were instructed to maintain the shoulder-elbow joint axis close to horizontal for both dominant and non dominant limbs. Subjects (n=12 performed externalinternal rotations of their arms in two angular positions (90° versus 150°, two angular velocities (slow (S versus fast (F, and in two sensory conditions (kinaesthetic (K versus visuo- kinaesthetic (VK. We expected more scattered displacements of the rotation axis employed for rotating the non dominant limb compared to the dominant limb. The results showed that the rotational axis of a multiarticulated limb coincided with SH-EL at S & F velocity for both arms.

  2. International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13). Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The conference, which was held from 4 to 7 of March 2013 in Paris, provided a forum to exchange information on national and international programmes, and more generally new developments and experience, in the field of fast reactors and related fuel cycle technologies. A first goal was to identify and discuss strategic and technical options that have been proposed by individual countries or companies. Another goal was to promote the development of fast reactors and related fuel cycle technologies in a safe, proliferation resistant and economic way. A third goal was to identify gaps and key issues that need to be addressed in relation to the industrial deployment of fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle. A fourth goal was to engage young scientists and engineers in this field, in particular with sustainability, innovation, simulation, safety, economics and public acceptance

  3. Electromechanical actuator with controllable motion, fast response rate, and high-frequency resonance based on graphene and polydiacetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiajie; Huang, Lu; Li, Na; Huang, Yi; Wu, Yingpeng; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail; Ma, Yanfeng; Li, Feifei; Baughman, Ray; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-05-22

    Although widely investigated, novel electromechanical actuators with high overall actuation performance are still in urgent need for various practical and scientific applications, such as robots, prosthetic devices, sensor switches, and sonar projectors. In this work, combining the properties of unique environmental perturbations-actuated deformational isomerization of polydiacetylene (PDA) and the outstanding intrinsic features of graphene together for the first time, we design and fabricate an electromechanical bimorph actuator composed of a layer of PDA crystal and a layer of flexible graphene paper through a simple yet versatile solution approach. Under low applied direct current (dc), the graphene-PDA bimorph actuator with strong mechanical strength can generate large actuation motion (curvature is about 0.37 cm(-1) under a current density of 0.74 A/mm(2)) and produce high actuation stress (more than 160 MPa/g under an applied dc of only 0.29 A/mm(2)). When applying alternating current (ac), this actuator can display reversible swing behavior with long cycle life under high frequencies even up to 200 Hz; significantly, while the frequency and the value of applied ac and the state of the actuators reach an appropriate value, the graphene-PDA actuator can produce a strong resonance and the swing amplitude will jump to a peak value. Moreover, this stable graphene-PDA actuator also demonstrates rapidly and partially reversible electrochromatic phenomenon when applying an ac. Two mechanisms-the dominant one, electric-induced deformation, and a secondary one, thermal-induced expansion of PDA-are proposed to contribute to these interesting actuation performances of the graphene-PDA actuators. On the basis of these results, a mini-robot with controllable direction of motion based on the graphene-PDA actuator is designed to illustrate the great potential of our discoveries for practical use. Combining the unique actuation mechanism and many outstanding properties of

  4. Proceedings 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter and of the Scientific Conference Advanced Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2015-01-01

    The 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 24-26 June, 2015 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The Scientific Conference the Advanced Fast Reactors was part of the 21 st International Conference on APCOM 2015. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Advanced fast reactors; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; interdisciplinary physics of condensed matter; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Fifty seven contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  5. Dynamic analysis of electron density in the course of the internal motion of molecular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, A.; Hori, K.; Asai, Y.; Yamabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    The general dynamic aspect of electron density of a molecular system is studied on the basis of the general equation of the electron orbital which is formulated for the dynamic study of electronic motion. The newly defined electron orbital incorporates the dynamics of molecular vibration into the electronic structures. In this scheme, the change of electron distribution caused by excitation of vibrational state is defined as the ''dynamic electron transfer.'' The dynamic electron density is found to have the remarkable ''additive'' property. The time-dependent aspect of the dynamic electron redistribution is also analyzed on the basis of the ''coherent state.'' The new method relates the classical vibrational amplitude to the quantum number of the vibrational state. As a preliminary application of the present treatment, the dynamic electron densities of H 2 , HD, HT, HF, and HCl molecules are calculated by use of ab initio molecular orbital method

  6. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  7. Analysis of wave motion in one-dimensional structures through fast-Fourier-transform-based wavelet finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Shuaifang; Ou, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method that combines the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) finite element method and spectral analysis based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) to study wave propagation in One-Dimensional (1D) structures. BSWI scaling functions are utilized to approximate the theoretical wave solution in the spatial domain and construct a high-accuracy dynamic stiffness matrix. Dynamic reduction on element level is applied to eliminate the interior degrees of freedom of BSWI elements and substantially reduce the size of the system matrix. The dynamic equations of the system are then transformed and solved in the frequency domain through FFT-based spectral analysis which is especially suitable for parallel computation. A comparative analysis of four different finite element methods is conducted to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method when utilized in high-frequency wave problems. Other numerical examples are utilized to simulate the influence of crack and delamination on wave propagation in 1D rods and beams. Finally, the errors caused by FFT and their corresponding solutions are presented.

  8. Numerical Analysis on the Free Fall Motion of the Control Rod Assembly for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se-Hong; Choi, Choengryul; Son, Sung-Man [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Kyung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    On receiving the scram signal, the control rod assemblies are released to fall into the reactor core by its weight. Thus drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly must be estimated for the safety evaluation. However, because of its complex shape, it is difficult to estimate the drop time by theoretical method. In this study, numerical analysis has been carried out in order to estimate drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. Numerical analysis has been carried out to estimate the drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly for sodium-cooled fast reactor. Before performing the numerical analysis for the control rod assembly, sphere dropping experiment has been carried out for verification of the CFD methodology. The result of the numerical analysis for the method verification is almost same as the result of the experiment. Falling velocity and drag force increase rapidly in the beginning. And then it goes to the stable state. When the piston head of the control rod assembly is inserted into the damper, the drag force increases instantaneously and the falling velocity decreases quickly. The falling velocity is reduced about 14 % by damper. The total drop time of the control rod assembly is about 1.47s. In the next study, the experiment for the control rod assembly will be carried out, and its result is going to be compared with the CFD analysis result.

  9. On the roto-translatory internal motions of a three layer non-isobarycentric Earth model: a Lagrangian system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Alberto; Fukushima, Toshio

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of numerous celestial bodies are well approximated by means of a three layer model composed of a solid external layer, which encloses a fluid layer containing a solid body. An analysis of the inner dynamics of this model can provide some constrains on its rheological characteristics; an information that in many situations is only accessible through this indirect way. In addition, the understanding of this kind of motions, especially of those associated with a rigid displacement (a rotation or a relative translation) of the solid layers, is of primary importance to establish with enough accuracy the definition of the terrestrial reference frames. In the Earth case, most approaches to this formidable problem rely on the numerical solution of the respective elastic field equations, once they have been projected on a set of spherical harmonics functions of a given degree. Due to its intrinsic nature these numerical methods do not provide by themselves much insight into the internal dynamics, hence the interest to develop simpler dynamical models that reproduces the main characteristics of the motion and allows obtaining analytical approximate solutions of the problem. To this aim, and as a first stage, we have considered the internal dynamics of a simple Earth model made up of a spherical rigid mantle, an inviscid, homogeneous fluid outer core and a spherical rigid inner core. Initially the barycenters of all the constituents are located at the same point (isobarycentric model) and the whole system rotates with constant angular velocity around the figure axis. When this situation is perturbed both the motions of the fluid and of the solid layers depart from the reference uniform rotation. However, following Busse (1974) we have assumed that the motion of the mantle is the same as in the unperturbed state, and that the inner core dynamics only suffers a variation of oscillatory nature in the translational motion of its barycenter. As a consequence

  10. Proceedings of the international conference on irradiation behaviour of metallic materials for fast reactor core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Dupouy, J.M.

    Radiation effects on metals or alloys used in fast reactor core components are examined in the papers presented at this conference, the accent being put on swelling and irradiation creep of steels and nickel alloys

  11. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  12. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods.

  13. Status of National Programmes on Fast Breeder Reactors. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Twenty-First Annual Meeting, Seattle, USA, 9-12 May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The following papers on the status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors are presented in this report: Fast breeder reactor development in France during 1987; Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands; A review of the Indian fast reactor programme; A review of the Italian fast reactor programme; A review of the fast reactor programme in Japan; Status of fast reactor activities in the USSR; A review of the United Kingdom fast reactor programme; Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America; Review of activities of the Commission of European Communities relating to fast reactors in 1987; European co-operation in the field of fast reactor research and development — 1987 progress report; A review of fast reactor activities in Switzerland

  14. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  15. Bottom-pressure observations of deep-sea internal hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the ocean, sloping bottom topography is important for the generation and dissipation of internal waves. Here, the transition of such waves to turbulence is demonstrated using an accurate bottom-pressure sensor that was moored with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and high-resolution

  16. Fast lesion mapping during HIFU treatment using harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Payen, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The successful clinical application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation depends on reliable monitoring of the lesion formation. Harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) is an ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, which monitors HIFU ablation based on the stiffness change of the tissue instead of the echo intensity change in conventional B-mode monitoring, rendering it potentially more sensitive to lesion development. Our group has shown that predicting the lesion location based on the radiation force-excited region is feasible during HMIgFUS. In this study, the feasibility of a fast lesion mapping method is explored to directly monitor the lesion map during HIFU. The harmonic motion imaging (HMI) lesion map was generated by subtracting the reference HMI image from the present HMI peak-to-peak displacement map, as streamed on the computer display. The dimensions of the HMIgFUS lesions were compared against gross pathology. Excellent agreement was found between the lesion depth (r 2  =  0.81, slope  =  0.90), width (r 2  =  0.85, slope  =  1.12) and area (r 2  =  0.58, slope  =  0.75). In vivo feasibility was assessed in a mouse with a pancreatic tumor. These findings demonstrate that HMIgFUS can successfully map thermal lesions and monitor lesion development in real time in vitro and in vivo. The HMIgFUS technique may therefore constitute a novel clinical tool for HIFU treatment monitoring.

  17. Allocation of Internal Medicine Resident Time in a Swiss Hospital: A Time and Motion Study of Day and Evening Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nathalie; Méan, Marie; Castioni, Julien; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Garnier, Antoine

    2017-04-18

    Little current evidence documents how internal medicine residents spend their time at work, particularly with regard to the proportions of time spent in direct patient care versus using computers. To describe how residents allocate their time during day and evening hospital shifts. Time and motion study. Internal medicine residency at a university hospital in Switzerland, May to July 2015. 36 internal medicine residents with an average of 29 months of postgraduate training. Trained observers recorded the residents' activities using a tablet-based application. Twenty-two activities were categorized as directly related to patients, indirectly related to patients, communication, academic, nonmedical tasks, and transition. In addition, the presence of a patient or colleague and use of a computer or telephone during each activity was recorded. Residents were observed for a total of 696.7 hours. Day shifts lasted 11.6 hours (1.6 hours more than scheduled). During these shifts, activities indirectly related to patients accounted for 52.4% of the time, and activities directly related to patients accounted for 28.0%. Residents spent an average of 1.7 hours with patients, 5.2 hours using computers, and 13 minutes doing both. Time spent using a computer was scattered throughout the day, with the heaviest use after 6:00 p.m. The study involved a small sample from 1 institution. At this Swiss teaching hospital, internal medicine residents spent more time at work than scheduled. Activities indirectly related to patients predominated, and about half the workday was spent using a computer. Information Technology Department and Department of Internal Medicine of Lausanne University Hospital.

  18. A nuclear magnetic relaxation study on internal motion of polyelectrolytes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriever, J.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the significance and the amount of information which can be extracted from the study of frequency dependence of magnetic relaxation rates in solutions of a synthetic macromolecule. Solutions of poly(methacrylic acid), PMA, in water were chosen as the object of the present work. A short survey of nuclear magnetic relaxation in solutions of simple macromolecules is presented. Results obtained by continuous wave experiments on PMA solutions are shown (viz. the information about the transverse relaxation from line width analysis of 60 MHz proton spectra). Water enriched in 17 O is used in magnetic relaxation studies; the results of the determination of hydrogen lifetimes in aqueous solutions of acetic acid and poly(methacrylic acid) are given. The possibility of obtaining information about the dynamics of deuterons in the acid side groups of weak polyacids by measuring deuteron relaxation in heavy water solutions of those acids is considered. The use of deuteron relaxation rate experiments on solutions of selectively methylene deuterated poly(methacrylic acid), [-CD 2 -CCH 3 COOH-]n, is demonstrated and the backbone methylene C-atom motion is charachterized. The magne-tic relaxation of nuclei in the side groups of methylene deuterated PMA, viz. protons in the methyland deuterons in the acid side groups is presented

  19. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-12-08

    To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13-14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. 72,900 children (17 countries) and 199,135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m(2) higher than those in the infrequent group (pfast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1 which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger.

  1. Fast, accurate, and robust automatic marker detection for motion correction based on oblique kV or MV projection image pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagmolen, Pieter; Hermans, Jeroen; Maes, Frederik; Budiharto, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Heuvel, Frank van den

    2010-01-01

    takes a little less than a second where most time is spent on the image preprocessing. Conclusions: The authors have developed a method to automatically detect multiple markers in a pair of projection images that is robust, accurate, and sufficiently fast for clinical use. It can be used for kV, MV, or mixed image pairs and can cope with limited motion between the projection images.

  2. Internal fuel motion as an inherent shutdown mechanism for LMFBR accidents: PINEX-3, PINEX-2, and HUT 5-2A experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Porten, D.R.; Martin, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The PINEX-2 experiment verified the concept of axial internal molten fuel motion within annular fuel, representing an inherent shutdown mechanism for hypothetical transient overpower excursions on the order of 5$/s. The PINEX-3 experiment, simulating a 50 cents/s transient overpower, showed that limitations on the effectiveness of fuel motion may arise from freezing of the fuel and blockage of the internal movement. Analysis of these experiments was performed to assess the physical processes that dominate fuel relocation potential and to apply them to prototypic LMFBR pin conditions. Results indicate that internal fuel motion should be reliable as a shutdown mechanism in LMFBR's for a range of reactivity insertion rates beyond presently available experimental data

  3. 13th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) and the 12th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MoViC), together with the Twelfth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD). MoViC is an event that started in Yokohama, Japan in 1992 and has been organised every two years alternating between Japan, USA and Europe. The eleven previous RASD conferences have been held every three years or so since 1980 primarily in Southampton, UK. The idea of joining the two conferences came quite naturally because of the common ground of the two conferences and the chances of cross-pollination between two otherwise separate research groups. This joint conference is devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in motion/vibration/structural dynamics, their control and application to all types of structures and dynamical systems. The conference reflects the state-of-the- art in these topics, and is an excellent opportunity to exchange scientific, technical and experimental ideas. The Conference Proceedings include over 250 papers by authors from over 20 countries, forty technical sessions and five plenary presentations. The five invited speakers are Professor Roger Goodall (Loughborough University, UK) presenting “Motion and vibration control for railway vehicles”, Professor Takeshi Mizuno (Saitama University, Japan) presenting “Recent advances in magnetic suspension technology”, Professor Kevin Murphy (University of Louisville, USA) presenting “Dynamics of Passive Balancing Rings for Rotating Systems”, Professor David Wagg (University of Sheffield, UK) presenting “Reducing vibrations in structures using structural control”, and Professor Kon-Well Wang (University of Michigan, USA) presenting “From Muscles to Plants - Nature-Inspired Adaptive Metastructures for Structural Dynamics Enhancement”. I would like to thank members of the Organising Committee for their help, over the last year or so, in

  4. Fourteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-05-01

    This report includes description of the state-of-the art in the field of fast reactor technology, research and development, in France, Belgium, India, Italy, USSR, USA, UK, Switzerland, and European Union. The emphasis in the majority of the reports is on the FBR safety issues, sodium cooling system, fuel elements development, reactor materials testing, risk assessment.

  5. Fourteenth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This report includes description of the state-of-the art in the field of fast reactor technology, research and development, in France, Belgium, India, Italy, USSR, USA, UK, Switzerland, and European Union. The emphasis in the majority of the reports is on the FBR safety issues, sodium cooling system, fuel elements development, reactor materials testing, risk assessment

  6. Trapped fast particle destabilization of internal kink mode for the locally flattened q-profile with an inflection point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xian-Qu [Institute of Fusion Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Rui-Bin; Meng, Guo [State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The destabilization of ideal internal kink modes by trapped fast particles in tokamak plasmas with a “shoulder”-like equilibrium current is investigated. It is found that energetic particle branch of the mode is unstable with the driving of fast-particle precession drifts and corresponds to a precessional fishbone. The mode with a low stability threshold is also more easily excited than the conventional precessional fishbone. This is different from earlier studies for the same equilibrium in which the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch of the mode is stable. Furthermore, the stability and characteristic frequency of the mode are analyzed by solving the dispersion relation and comparing with the conventional fishbone. The results suggest that an equilibrium with a locally flattened q-profile, may be modified by localized current drive (or bootstrap current, etc.), is prone to the onset of the precessional fishbone branch of the mode.

  7. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  8. Assessing Respiration-Induced Tumor Motion and Internal Target Volume Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. Helen; Balter, Peter; Tutt, Teresa; Choi, Bum; Zhang, Joy; Wang, Catherine; Chi, Melinda; Luo Dershan; Pan Tinsu; Hunjan, Sandeep; Starkschall, George; Rosen, Isaac; Prado, Karl; Liao Zhongxing; Chang, Joe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess three-dimensional tumor motion caused by respiration and internal target volume (ITV) for radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Respiration-induced tumor motion was analyzed for 166 tumors from 152 lung cancer patients, 57.2% of whom had Stage III or IV non-small-cell lung cancer. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during normal breathing before treatment. The expiratory phase of 4DCT images was used as the reference set to delineate gross tumor volume (GTV). Gross tumor volumes on other respiratory phases and resulting ITVs were determined using rigid-body registration of 4DCT images. The association of GTV motion with various clinical and anatomic factors was analyzed statistically. Results: The proportions of tumors that moved >0.5 cm along the superior-inferior (SI), lateral, and anterior-posterior (AP) axes during normal breathing were 39.2%, 1.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. For 95% of the tumors, the magnitude of motion was less than 1.34 cm, 0.40 cm, and 0.59 cm along the SI, lateral, and AP directions. The principal component of tumor motion was in the SI direction, with only 10.8% of tumors moving >1.0 cm. The tumor motion was found to be associated with diaphragm motion, the SI tumor location in the lung, size of the GTV, and disease T stage. Conclusions: Lung tumor motion is primarily driven by diaphragm motion. The motion of locally advanced lung tumors is unlikely to exceed 1.0 cm during quiet normal breathing except for small lesions located in the lower half of the lung

  9. Twelfth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    Examining several alternative nuclear power scenarios through the long term it showed the comparative needs of advanced reactors for uranium and for supporting services, thereby establishing the basis for further development of uranium resources and specific reactor systems. Even with dramatic increases in known resources, nuclear power would be able to play only a temporary role in satisfying world energy needs. The use of advanced fast breeders can do much to reduce the total rate of depletion of uranium resources. Breeder reactors would provide a virtually inexhaustible source of energy supply within foreseeable extensions of known uranium resources. This document includes status reports on activities related to research, development, construction, operation, experimental data, safety issues of fast breeder reactors in Germany, Italy, European Union, USSR, OECD, Japan, USA, UK, France.

  10. Fast-neutron therapy in advanced head and neck cancer: a collaborative international randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maor, Moshe H; Errington, R Douglas; Caplan, Richard J; Griffin, Thomas W; Laramore, George E; Parker, Robert G; Burnison, Michele; Stetz, Joann; Zink, Sandra; Davis, Lawrence W; Peters, Lester J

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of fast-neutron radiotherapy with that of conventionally fractionated photon therapy in the management of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV disease were randomized to receive either 20.4 Gy/12 fractions/4 weeks of neutrons or 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks of photons (control). Between April 1986 and March 1991, 178 patients were entered, 169 of whom were eligible for analysis. The treatment arms were balanced for age, stage, and performance status, but not for primary site of origin. Results: Complete response occurred in 70 and 52% with neutrons and photons, respectively (p = 0.006). Local regional failure at 3 years for all patients was 63% for neutrons and 68% for photons. Actuarial overall survival curves were virtually identical in both study arms, falling to 27% at 3 years. Acute toxicity was similar in the two arms, but late grade 3-5 toxicity was 40% with neutrons compared to 18% with photons (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Although the initial response rate was higher with neutrons, permanent local control and survival were not improved, and the incidence of late normal tissue toxicity was increased. As a result, fast-neutron therapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck can only be recommended for patients in whom the logistic benefit of treatment in 12 sessions over 4 weeks outweighs the increased risk of late toxicity.

  11. Fast-neutron therapy in advanced head and neck cancer: a collaborative international randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Moshe H.; Errington, R. Douglas; Caplan, Richard J.; Griffin, Thomas W.; Laramore, George E.; Parker, Robert G.; Burnison, Michele; Stetz, Joann; Zink, Sandra; Davis, Lawrence W.; Peters, Lester J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of fast-neutron radiotherapy with that of conventionally fractionated photon therapy in the management of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV disease were randomized to receive either 20.4 Gy/12 fractions/4 weeks of neutrons or 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks of photons (control). Between April 1986 and March 1991, 178 patients were entered, 169 of whom were eligible for analysis. The treatment arms were balanced for age, stage, and performance status, but not for primary site of origin. Results: Complete response occurred in 70 and 52% with neutrons and photons, respectively (p = 0.006). Local regional failure at 3 years for all patients was 63% for neutrons and 68% for photons. Actuarial overall survival curves were virtually identical in both study arms, falling to 27% at 3 years. Acute toxicity was similar in the two arms, but late grade 3-5 toxicity was 40% with neutrons compared to 18% with photons (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Although the initial response rate was higher with neutrons, permanent local control and survival were not improved, and the incidence of late normal tissue toxicity was increased. As a result, fast-neutron therapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck can only be recommended for patients in whom the logistic benefit of treatment in 12 sessions over 4 weeks outweighs the increased risk of late toxicity

  12. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N. A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D{sub {alpha}} emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B{sub {theta}}/B{sub T} and |B| over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  13. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Holcomb, C T; Kaplan, D H

    2010-10-01

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D(α) emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B(θ)/B(T) and ∣B∣ over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0×10(19) m(-3), and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  14. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  15. Measurement of Intervertebral Motion Using Quantitative Fluoroscopy: Report of an International Forum and Proposal for Use in the Assessment of Degenerative Disc Disease in the Lumbar Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Breen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong, over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls.

  16. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zazimi, Mujid [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, Bob [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  17. Control of highly vertically unstable plasmas in TCV with internal coils and fast power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Moret, J.M.; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hofmann, F.; Lister, J.B.; Mayor, J.M.; Perez, A.; Elkjaer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) is to investigate effects of plasma shape, in particular high elongation (up to 3), on tokamak physics. Such elongated configurations (I p ≅1 MA) are highly vertically unstable with growth rates up to γ=4000 s -1 . Control of the vertical position using the poloidal coils located outside the vessel is limited to γ≤1000 s -1 because of the shielding effect of the conductive vessel and because of the relative slow time response of their power supplies (0.8 ms thyristor 12 pulse switching at 120 Hz). This dictated the necessity to install a coil set inside the vacuum vessel fed with a Fast Power Supply (FPS). The choice and design of the system with a special attention to the mechanical and electrical constraints in TCV tokamak, as the results and real performances, will be presented. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  18. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  19. The initial safe range of motion of the ankle joint after three methods of internal fixation of simulated fractures of the medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yoshio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Kume, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Iwase, Hideaki

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the safe passive range of ankle motion for inter-bone stiffness after internal fixation under load but there is a lack of information about the safe range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation in the absence of loading. The present study was designed to assess the effect of ankle movement on inter-bone displacement characteristics of medial malleolus fractures following three types of internal fixation to determine the safe range of motion. Five lower legs obtained during autopsy were used to assess three types of internal fixation (two with Kirschner-wires alone; two with Kirschner-wires plus tension band wiring; and, one with an AO/ASIF malleolar screw alone). Following a simulated fracture by sawing through the medial malleolus the displacement between the fractured bone ends was measured during a passive range of movement with continuous monitoring using omega (Omega) shaped transducers and a biaxial flexible goniometer. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Inter-bone displacement was not proportional to the magnitude of movement throughout the range of ankle motion as, when separation exceeded 25 microm, there was increasingly wide separation as plantar-flexion or dorsal-flexion was increased. There was no statistical significant difference between the small amount of inter-bone displacement observed with three types of fixation within the safe range of dorsal-flexion and plantar-flexion for early rehabilitation. However the inter-bone separation when fixation utilized two Kirschner-wires alone tended to be greater than when using the other two types of fixation during dorsal-flexion and eversion. The present study revealed a reproducible range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation which was estimated to be within the range of 20 degrees of dorsal-flexion and 10 degrees of plantar-flexion without eversion. Also, internal fixation with two Kirschner-wires alone does not seem to

  20. A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová

    2011-01-01

    When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding ...

  1. Application of international safeguards to fast critical assembly facilities. FY 1980 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Nuclear materials inventory-verification techniques for large split-table fast critical assemblies are being studied in this program. Emphasis has been given to techniques that minimize fuel handling in order to reduce facility downtime and radiation exposure to the inventory team. The techniques studied include drawer seals, autoradiography, and spectral index measurements. Two-drawer sealing techniques have been studied, and the relative strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. The rod-type locking mechanism would not disrupt the reactor cooling air flow or interfere with autoradiography but is more expensive to implement. Passive autoradiography was used in a ZPPR inventory to verify to a 93% confidence level that less than 8-kg Pu was missing. The inventory was completed in four days by a five-member team with radiation exposures well within acceptable limits. Two autoradiographic film packages were developed to distinguish HEU from a DU matrix. The 30-mil pack requires an exposure between 4 and 16 hours and fits into most of the drawers. The 40-mil pack requires only a two-hour exposure but fits into less than half the drawers

  2. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  3. Dynamic motion analysis of fetuses with central nervous system disorders by cine magnetic resonance imaging using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition and parallel imaging: a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wan-Yuo; Ono, Shigeki; Oi, Shizuo; Shen, Shu-Huei; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu

    2006-08-01

    The authors present a novel cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, two-dimensional (2D) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) technique with parallel imaging. It achieves temporal resolution at less than half a second as well as high spatial resolution cine imaging free of motion artifacts for evaluating the dynamic motion of fetuses in utero. The information obtained is used to predict postnatal outcome. Twenty-five fetuses with anomalies were studied. Ultrasonography demonstrated severe abnormalities in five of the fetuses; the other 20 fetuses constituted a control group. The cine fetal MR imaging demonstrated fetal head, neck, trunk, extremity, and finger as well as swallowing motions. Imaging findings were evaluated and compared in fetuses with major central nervous system (CNS) anomalies in five cases and minor CNS, non-CNS, or no anomalies in 20 cases. Normal motility was observed in the latter group. For fetuses in the former group, those with abnormal motility failed to survive after delivery, whereas those with normal motility survived with functioning preserved. The power deposition of radiofrequency, presented as specific absorption rate (SAR), was calculated. The SAR of FIESTA was approximately 13 times lower than that of conventional MR imaging of fetuses obtained using single-shot fast spin echo sequences. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) Fetal motion is no longer a limitation for prenatal imaging after the implementation of parallel imaging with 2D FIESTA, 2) Cine MR imaging illustrates fetal motion in utero with high clinical reliability, 3) For cases involving major CNS anomalies, cine MR imaging provides information on extremity motility in fetuses and serves as a prognostic indicator of postnatal outcome, and 4) The cine MR used to observe fetal activity is technically 2D and conceptually three-dimensional. It provides four-dimensional information for making proper and timely obstetrical and/or postnatal management

  4. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knybel, Lukas [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Cvek, Jakub, E-mail: Jakub.cvek@fno.cz [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P<.001). Motion amplitudes >15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P<.001). Interfraction variations and baseline changes >3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe

  5. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain time-dependent thermoplastic analysis has been developed for the ballooning deformation of a thin-wall tube subjected to internal pressure, axial loading, and fast thermal transients. This deformation initiates with the onset of plastic instability in the material, the onset being determined by a plastic-instability criterion for strain-rate sensitive materials. The interaction among the local ballooning geometry, the state of stress, and the plastic flow process was considered, and integration of the flow equations yields the local curvature and the states of stress and strain in the vicinity of the maximum ballooning site. The effects of axial constraint and heating rate were also discussed. The analysis was applied to a LWR Zircaloy cladding subjected to a constant heating rate and a range of internal pressures. The results agree very well with experimental strain-time data obtained from tube-burst tests. In most cases, the time of rupture was accurately predicted despite the lack of complete material-property data

  6. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-01

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of ΔE b /E b =10 -4 . (orig.)

  7. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-15

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of {delta}E{sub b}/E{sub b}=10{sup -4}. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knybel, Lukas; Cvek, Jakub; Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P 15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P 3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe tumors; higher interfraction amplitude variability indicated tumors in contact

  9. Fast adaptation of the internal model of gravity for manual interceptions: evidence for event-dependent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    We studied how subjects learn to deal with two conflicting sensory environments as a function of the probability of each environment and the temporal distance between repeated events. Subjects were asked to intercept a visual target moving downward on a screen with randomized laws of motion. We compared five protocols that differed in the probability of constant speed (0g) targets and accelerated (1g) targets. Probability ranged from 9 to 100%, and the time interval between consecutive repetitions of the same target ranged from about 1 to 20 min. We found that subjects systematically timed their responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects, for both 1 and 0g trials. With training, subjects rapidly adapted to 0g targets by shifting the time of motor activation. Surprisingly, the adaptation rate was independent of both the probability of 0g targets and their temporal distance. Very few 0g trials sporadically interspersed as catch trials during immersive practice with 1g trials were sufficient for learning and consolidation in long-term memory, as verified by retesting after 24 h. We argue that the memory store for adapted states of the internal gravity model is triggered by individual events and can be sustained for prolonged periods of time separating sporadic repetitions. This form of event-related learning could depend on multiple-stage memory, with exponential rise and decay in the initial stages followed by a sample-and-hold module.

  10. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.

    2015-01-01

    with up to 10 MW of heating power, the fast-ion measurements agree best with the theoretical predictions that assume a weak level anomalous fast-ion transport. This is also in agreement with measurements of the internal inductance, a Motional Stark Effect diagnostic and a novel polarimetry diagnostic...

  11. Status of liquid metal fast reactor development. Proceedings of the 27. meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors held in Vienna, 17-19 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    These proceedings contain updated and new information on the status of fast reactor development and on activities in the field of advanced nuclear power technology during 1993, as reported at the 27th meeting of the IWGFR held in Vienna, from 17 to 19 May 1994. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Status of liquid metal fast reactor development. Proceedings of the 27. meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors held in Vienna, 17-19 May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These proceedings contain updated and new information on the status of fast reactor development and on activities in the field of advanced nuclear power technology during 1993, as reported at the 27th meeting of the IWGFR held in Vienna, from 17 to 19 May 1994. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. SU-F-303-17: Real Time Dose Calculation of MRI Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy Treatments On Free Breathing Patients, Using a Motion Model and Fast Monte Carlo Dose Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Yang, Y; Agazaryan, N; Lee, P; Low, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate real-time dose calculation of free-breathing MRI guided Co−60 treatments, using a motion model and Monte-Carlo dose calculation to accurately account for the interplay between irregular breathing motion and an IMRT delivery. Methods: ViewRay Co-60 dose distributions were optimized on ITVs contoured from free-breathing CT images of lung cancer patients. Each treatment plan was separated into 0.25s segments, accounting for the MLC positions and beam angles at each time point. A voxel-specific motion model derived from multiple fast-helical free-breathing CTs and deformable registration was calculated for each patient. 3D images for every 0.25s of a simulated treatment were generated in real time, here using a bellows signal as a surrogate to accurately account for breathing irregularities. Monte-Carlo dose calculation was performed every 0.25s of the treatment, with the number of histories in each calculation scaled to give an overall 1% statistical uncertainty. Each dose calculation was deformed back to the reference image using the motion model and accumulated. The static and real-time dose calculations were compared. Results: Image generation was performed in real time at 4 frames per second (GPU). Monte-Carlo dose calculation was performed at approximately 1frame per second (CPU), giving a total calculation time of approximately 30 minutes per treatment. Results show both cold- and hot-spots in and around the ITV, and increased dose to contralateral lung as the tumor moves in and out of the beam during treatment. Conclusion: An accurate motion model combined with a fast Monte-Carlo dose calculation allows almost real-time dose calculation of a free-breathing treatment. When combined with sagittal 2D-cine-mode MRI during treatment to update the motion model in real time, this will allow the true delivered dose of a treatment to be calculated, providing a useful tool for adaptive planning and assessing the effectiveness of gated treatments

  14. FAST TIMING ANALYSIS OF CYGNUS X-1 USING THE SPECTROMETER ON THE INTERNATIONAL GAMMA-RAY ASTROPHYSICS LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanac, Clement; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time the high-frequency analysis of Cyg X-1 up to hard X-ray using the spectrometer on International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). After analyzing the possible contribution from the background, and using the INTEGRAL archive from 2005 March to 2008 May, power density spectra were obtained up to 130 keV. First, we show that their overall shape is very similar to that observed at lower energies as they are well described by sets of Lorentzians. The strength of this fast variability (up to 40 Hz) does not drop at high energy since we show that it remains at ∼25% rms, even in the highest energy bands. Second, the hard X-ray variability patterns of Cyg X-1 are state dependent: the softer the spectrum (or the lower the hardness ratio), the lower the total fractional variability and the higher the typical frequencies observed. The strength of the total variability as a function of energy and state is then investigated. By comparison with simultaneous and published RXTE/Proportional Counter Array data, we show that in the hard state it remains quite constant in the 2-130 keV energy range. In the softer state it is also flat up to 50 keV and may increase at higher energy. The implications of this behavior on the models are then discussed.

  15. Mid-Ventilation Concept for Mobile Pulmonary Tumors: Internal Tumor Trajectory Versus Selective Reconstruction of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Frames Based on External Breathing Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Wilbert, Juergen; Krieger, Thomas; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of direct reconstruction of mid-ventilation and peak-phase four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) frames based on the external breathing signal. Methods and Materials: For 11 patients with 15 pulmonary targets, a respiration-correlated CT study (4D CT) was acquired for treatment planning. After retrospective time-based sorting of raw projection data and reconstruction of eight CT frames equally distributed over the breathing cycle, mean tumor position (P mean ), mid-ventilation frame, and breathing motion were evaluated based on the internal tumor trajectory. Analysis of the external breathing signal (pressure sensor around abdomen) with amplitude-based sorting of projections was performed for direct reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame and frames at peak phases of the breathing cycle. Results: On the basis of the eight 4D CT frames equally spaced in time, tumor motion was largest in the craniocaudal direction, with 12 ± 7 mm on average. Tumor motion between the two frames reconstructed at peak phases was not different in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions but was systematically smaller in the left-right direction by 1 mm on average. The 3-dimensional distance between P mean and the tumor position in the mid-ventilation frame based on the internal tumor trajectory was 1.2 ± 1 mm. Reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame at the mean amplitude position of the external breathing signal resulted in tumor positions 2.0 ± 1.1 mm distant from P mean . Breathing-induced motion artifacts in mid-ventilation frames caused negligible changes in tumor volume and shape. Conclusions: Direct reconstruction of the mid-ventilation frame and frames at peak phases based on the external breathing signal was reliable. This makes the reconstruction of only three 4D CT frames sufficient for application of the mid-ventilation technique in clinical practice.

  16. Dynamics of fast ions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fast ions play a prominent role in the heating of tokamak plasmas by, e.g. neutral-beam injection, ion-cyclotron-resonance heating, and alpha-particle heating. In this thesis, a number of physical and mathematical problems concerning the dynamics of fast ions in tokamaks are addressed. First, the motion under adiabatic perturbations is studied. The frequencies of instabilities excited in tokamaks sometimes vary slowly with time. The existence of an adiabatic invariant of particle motion in such circumstances is shown to lead to a rapid convection of particles in the radial direction. Generalized adiabatic invariants are constructed for systems where the slowly varying parameter is subjected to small, but rapidly varying, fluctuations. Second, the onset of stochastic motion under resonant perturbations is considered. It is shown that the finite width of fast-ion drift orbits significantly affects the threshold for stochastic motion caused by magnetic field ripple or ion-cyclotron-resonance heating. Finite-orbit-width effects are also shown to reduce the strength of resonant interaction between alpha particles and internal kink modes. Third, the diffusive motion in the stochastic regime is analysed mathematically. Monte Carlo operators for the motion on long time-scales are constructed, and the validity of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient is examined. Finally, the effects of close ion collisions are investigated. It is demonstrated that close encounters with fast ions produce a high-energy tail in the distribution functions of impurity ions, and that close collisions between fusion-generated alpha particles give rise to a population of such particles with energies extending up to twice the birth energy. 44 refs

  17. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Internal Motion Tracking Should Be Used to Validate 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Abdominal Radiation Therapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, Leith; Wan, Hanlin; Parikh, Parag; Maughan, Nichole [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Poulsen, Per [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); DeWees, Todd; Klein, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Santanam, Lakshmi, E-mail: lsantanam@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that fiducial tracking during pretreatment Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) can accurately measure tumor motion and that this method should be used to validate 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) margins before each treatment fraction. Methods and Materials: For 31 patients with abdominal tumors and implanted fiducial markers, tumor motion was measured daily with CBCT and fluoroscopy for 202 treatment fractions. Fiducial tracking and maximum-likelihood algorithms extracted 3-dimensional fiducial trajectories from CBCT projections. The daily internal margin (IM) (ie, range of fiducial motion) was calculated for CBCT and fluoroscopy as the 5th-95th percentiles of displacement in each cardinal direction. The planning IM from simulation 4DCT (IM{sub 4DCT}) was considered adequate when within ±1.2 mm (anterior–posterior, left–right) and ±3 mm (superior–inferior) of the daily measured IM. We validated CBCT fiducial tracking as an accurate predictive measure of intrafraction motion by comparing the daily measured IM{sub CBCT} with the daily IM measured by pretreatment fluoroscopy (IM{sub pre-fluoro}); these were compared with pre- and posttreatment fluoroscopy (IM{sub fluoro}) to identify those patients who could benefit from imaging during treatment. Results: Four-dimensional CT could not accurately predict intrafractional tumor motion for ≥80% of fractions in 94% (IM{sub CBCT}), 97% (IM{sub pre-fluoro}), and 100% (IM{sub fluoro}) of patients. The IM{sub CBCT} was significantly closer to IM{sub pre-fluoro} than IM{sub 4DCT} (P<.01). For patients with median treatment time t < 7.5 minutes, IM{sub CBCT} was in agreement with IM{sub fluoro} for 93% of fractions (superior–inferior), compared with 63% for the t > 7.5 minutes group, demonstrating the need for patient-specific intratreatment imaging. Conclusions: Tumor motion determined from 4DCT simulation does not accurately predict the daily motion observed on CBCT or fluoroscopy. Cone-beam CT could

  18. Nuclear fast neutron reactor cooled by a liquid metal and of which internal structures are equipped with a thermal protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, G.; Lions, N.

    1986-01-01

    The internal structures of a nuclear fast neutron reactor are covered at least partially, on the most hot side, by a thermal protection device. This device comprises modular plates arranged end to end with a certain play between themselves and taking approximately the shape of the internal structures. Each plate is fixed in its center on the internal structures by a stud. A small plate fixed at one of the corners of each plate and covering partially the adjacent plates ensures the safety fixing of these ones [fr

  19. National report for United Kingdom. 32nd annual meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors, Vienna, 18-19 May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, T.; Picker, C.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the UK nuclear industry has now completed the transition from state to private ownership. The UK continues to support international development of fast reactor technology, mainly through participation in the European Fast Reactor collaboration, with all funding provided by BNFL. Inactive commissioning is about to begin on the PFR Sodium Disposal Plant, which includes a caesium removal plant. The defuelling machine is being refurbished to permit the control and shutdown rods to be removed. No further reprocessing of fuel has taken place. (author)

  20. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior–posterior external and superior–inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Wu, Abraham J.; Mageras, Gig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Methods: Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior–inferior (SI) internal and anterior–posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Results: Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%–10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6–3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients. PMID:26127033

  1. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior-posterior external and superior-inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D; Goodman, Karyn A; Wu, Abraham J; Mageras, Gig S

    2015-06-01

    To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior-inferior (SI) internal and anterior-posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%-10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6-3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients.

  2. Opening Session [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent Michel

    2013-01-01

    For this opening address, I would like to share with you some thoughts about the evolution of the key drivers during the last decades for the development of fast reactors from the very pioneering age till now, taking into account new concerns and major events occurred since the last international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles held in Kyoto, Japan (FR 2009). There are three major periods: • The pioneering age (1945-1980) with breeding as a main driver followed by a kind of “winter season“ (1980-2000) for the development of fast reactors worldwide; • The so-called “brainstorming” phase (2000-2010), back to physics and nuclear chemistry, with international rebirth of the research on fast reactors and advanced fuel cycle owing to the GENERATION IV initiative, revisiting various reactor concepts along with 4 main drivers: sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and costcompetitiveness. • A new era now (started in 2010) with very promising technological options and projects of prototypes with two main key drivers: → Innovation towards enhanced safety which is a major concern for public acceptance of nuclear power, especially after the FUKUSHIMA accident. → Higher flexibility in the management of fissile materials and nuclear waste in order to take into account various possible options for the contribution of nuclear power in the energy mix

  3. 24. annual meeting of the International working group on fast reactors, Tsuruga, Japan, 15-18 April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The agenda of the meeting included approval of the minutes of the 23rd meeting of the IWGFR, report of the Scientific Secretary regarding the activities of the Working Group, short presentation on national situation in nuclear energy and in the fast reactor field in particular, consideration of conferences on fast breeder reactors, consideration of arrangements for specialists' meetings in 1991, selection of topics for specialists' meetings to be held in 1992, consideration of joint research activities, informal discussion on ''The Economics of Fast Reactors''

  4. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  5. International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Meeting of Specialists on the Value of Plutonium Alpha, Winfrich, UK, 30 June - 1 July 1969. Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-15

    The meeting of specialists on the value of plutonium alpha was held at Winfrith in accordance to the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors, and in agreement with the UK authorities. Participants from six countries and two international organizations took part in the meeting. A short review on available data for plutonium alpha received by the IAEA Nuclear Data Unit was presented. Three experiments recently known where the measurements of the alpha-value have been made in the energy range of interest were referred to.

  6. TU-AB-BRA-06: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An MRI Compatible Externally and Internally Deformable Lung Motion Phantom for Multi-Modality IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabouri, P; Sawant, A [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Arai, T [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI has become an attractive tool for tumor motion management. Current MR-compatible phantoms are only capable of reproducing translational motion. This study describes the construction and validation of a more realistic, MRI-compatible lung phantom that is deformable internally as well as externally. We demonstrate a radiotherapy application of this phantom by validating the geometric accuracy of the open-source deformable image registration software NiftyReg (UCL, UK). Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available dynamic breathing torso phantom was filled with natural latex foam with eleven water tubes. A rigid foam cut-out served as the diaphragm. A high-precision programmable, in-house, MRI-compatible motion platform was used to drive the diaphragm. The phantom was imaged on a 3T scanner (Philips, Ingenia). Twenty seven tumor traces previously recorded from lung cancer patients were programmed into the phantom and 2D+t image sequences were acquired using a sparse-sampling sequence k-t BLAST (accn=3, resolution=0.66×0.66×5mm3; acquisition-time=110ms/slice). The geometric fidelity of the MRI-derived trajectories was validated against those obtained via fluoroscopy using the on board kV imager on a Truebeam linac. NiftyReg was used to perform frame by frame deformable image registration. The location of each marker predicted by using NiftyReg was compared with the values calculated by intensity-based segmentation on each frame. Results: In all cases, MR trajectories were within 1 mm of corresponding fluoroscopy trajectories. RMSE between centroid positions obtained from segmentation with those obtained by NiftyReg varies from 0.1 to 0.21 mm in the SI direction and 0.08 to 0.13 mm in the LR direction showing the high accuracy of deformable registration. Conclusion: We have successfully designed and demonstrated a phantom that can accurately reproduce deformable motion under a variety of imaging modalities including MRI, CT and x-ray fluodoscopy

  7. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  8. Overview of Experiments for Physics of Fast Reactors from the International Handbooks of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, J. D.; Briggs, J. B.; Gulliford, J.; Ivanova, T.; Rozhikhin, E. V.; Semenov, M. Yu.; Tsibulya, A. M.; Koscheev, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    Overview of Experiments to Study the Physics of Fast Reactors Represented in the International Directories of Critical and Reactor Experiments John D. Bess Idaho National Laboratory Jim Gulliford, Tatiana Ivanova Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development E.V.Rozhikhin, M.Yu.Sem?nov, A.M.Tsibulya Institute of Physics and Power Engineering The study the physics of fast reactors traditionally used the experiments presented in the manual labor of the Working Group on Evaluation of sections CSEWG (ENDF-202) issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974. This handbook presents simplified homogeneous model experiments with relevant experimental data, as amended. The Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development coordinates the activities of two international projects on the collection, evaluation and documentation of experimental data - the International Project on the assessment of critical experiments (1994) and the International Project on the assessment of reactor experiments (since 2005). The result of the activities of these projects are replenished every year, an international directory of critical (ICSBEP Handbook) and reactor (IRPhEP Handbook) experiments. The handbooks present detailed models of experiments with minimal amendments. Such models are of particular interest in terms of the settlements modern programs. The directories contain a large number of experiments which are suitable for the study of physics of fast reactors. Many of these experiments were performed at specialized critical stands, such as BFS (Russia), ZPR and ZPPR (USA), the ZEBRA (UK) and the experimental reactor JOYO (Japan), FFTF (USA). Other experiments, such as compact metal assembly, is also of interest in terms of the physics of fast reactors, they have been carried out on the universal critical stands in Russian institutes (VNIITF and VNIIEF) and the US (LANL, LLNL, and others.). Also worth mentioning

  9. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  10. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of Change in Human-Driven and Natural Systems: Fast Forward, Slow Motion, Same Movie? A Case Study from Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Andrivon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary biology and evolutionary ecology deal with change in species and ecosystems over time, and propose mechanisms to explain and predict these. In particular, they look for generic elements that will drive any organism or phylum to adaptive changes or to extinction. This paper, using examples from the field of plant protection against pests and diseases, shows that the patterns of change observed in natural and in human-driven systems are comparable, and proposes that their similarities result from the same mechanisms operating at different paces. Human-driven systems can thus be seen simply as ‘fast-forward’ versions of natural systems, making them tractable tools to test and predict elements from evolutionary theory. Conversely, the convergence between natural and human-driven systems opens opportunities for a more widespread use of evolutionary theory when analyzing and optimizing any human-driven system, or predicting its adaptability to changing conditions.

  12. Measurements of the internal magnetic field on DIII-D using intensity and spacing of the motional Stark multiplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H; Holcomb, C T

    2008-10-01

    We describe a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of Stark split D(alpha) emission from the neutral beams. This system, named B-Stark, has been recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak. To find the magnetic pitch angle, we use the ratio of the intensities of the pi(3) and sigma(1) lines. These lines originate from the same upper level and so are not dependent on the level populations. In future devices, such as ITER, this technique may have advantages over diagnostics based on MSE polarimetry. We have done an optimization of the viewing direction for the available ports on DIII-D to choose the installation location. With this placement, we have a near optimal viewing angle of 59.6 degrees from the vertical direction. All hardware has been installed for one chord, and we have been routinely taking data since January 2007. We fit the spectra using a simple Stark model in which the upper level populations of the D(alpha) transition are treated as free variables. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field obtained using this diagnostic technique compare well with measurements from MSE polarimetry and EFIT.

  13. relaxGUI: a new software for fast and simple NMR relaxation data analysis and calculation of ps-ns and μs motion of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, Michael; D’Auvergne, Edward J.; Gooley, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of protein dynamics on the ps-ns and μs-ms timeframes provides detailed insight into the mechanisms of enzymes and the binding properties of proteins. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an excellent tool for studying protein dynamics at atomic resolution. Analysis of relaxation data using model-free analysis can be a tedious and time consuming process, which requires good knowledge of scripting procedures. The software relaxGUI was developed for fast and simple model-free analysis and is fully integrated into the software package relax. It is written in Python and uses wxPython to build the graphical user interface (GUI) for maximum performance and multi-platform use. This software allows the analysis of NMR relaxation data with ease and the generation of publication quality graphs as well as color coded images of molecular structures. The interface is designed for simple data analysis and management. The software was tested and validated against the command line version of relax.

  14. relaxGUI: a new software for fast and simple NMR relaxation data analysis and calculation of ps-ns and μs motion of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Michael; d'Auvergne, Edward J; Gooley, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    Investigation of protein dynamics on the ps-ns and μs-ms timeframes provides detailed insight into the mechanisms of enzymes and the binding properties of proteins. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an excellent tool for studying protein dynamics at atomic resolution. Analysis of relaxation data using model-free analysis can be a tedious and time consuming process, which requires good knowledge of scripting procedures. The software relaxGUI was developed for fast and simple model-free analysis and is fully integrated into the software package relax. It is written in Python and uses wxPython to build the graphical user interface (GUI) for maximum performance and multi-platform use. This software allows the analysis of NMR relaxation data with ease and the generation of publication quality graphs as well as color coded images of molecular structures. The interface is designed for simple data analysis and management. The software was tested and validated against the command line version of relax.

  15. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Participants: Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Methods: Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3)…

  16. Syntheses of deuterated leu-enkephalins and their use as internal standards for the quantification of leu-enkephalin by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy) Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy)); Icardi, G.; Chen, S. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy)); Fanelli, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy))

    1990-04-01

    We have developed a synthetic method for the preparation of di- and pentadeuterated leu-enkephalin (LE), Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by proton-deuterium exchange using CF[sub 3]COOO[sup 2]H. Four to six deuterium atoms are introduced using a reaction temperature of 120[sup o]C and if 5% of [sup 2]H[sub 2]O is added the di-deuterated LE is obtained. These deuterated compounds are used as internal standards to plot calibration curves of LE using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. (author).

  17. French Strategy and Programs [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    • In spite of the recent Fukushima accident, the use of nuclear energy still remains a necessity for many countries With a mastered and always improved safety, nuclear energy will go on contributing to the world energy needs, reducing fossil fuel dependency and GHG emissions. • With the help of large international collaborations, CEA is committed to demonstrate potential pathways for making significant progress for future fast neutrons reactors and their corresponding fuel cycle. • In synergy with nuclear energy, the renewable energies must be widely developed

  18. Role of small lead-cooled fast reactors for international deployment in worldwide sustainable nuclear energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Wade, D.C.; Moisseytsev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Most recently, the global nuclear energy partnership (GNEP) has identified, as one of its key objectives, the development and demonstration of concepts for small and medium-sized reactors (SMRs) that can be globally deployed while assuring a high level of proliferation resistance. Lead-cooled systems offer several key advantages in meeting these goals. The small lead-cooled fast reactor concept known as the small secure transportable autonomous reactor (SSTAR) has been under ongoing development as part of the US advanced nuclear energy systems programs. Meeting future worldwide projected energy demands during this century (e.g., 1000 to 2000 GWe by 2050) in a sustainable manner while maintaining CO2 emissions at or below today's level will require massive deployments of nuclear reactors in non-fuel cycle states as well as fuel cycle states. The projected energy demands of non-fuel cycle states will not be met solely through the deployment of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in those states without using up the world's resources of fissile material (e.g., known plus speculative virgin uranium resources = 15 million tonnes). The present U.S. policy is focused upon domestic deployment of large-scale LWRs and sodium-cooled fast spectrum Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) working in a symbiotic relationship that burns existing fissile material while destroying the actinides which are generated. Other major nuclear nations are carrying out the development and deployment of SFR breeders as witness the planning for SFR breeder deployments in France, Japan, China, India, and Russia. Small (less that 300 MWe) and medium (300 to 700 MWe) size reactors are better suited to the growing economies and infrastructures of many non-fuel cycle states and developing nations. For those deployments, fast reactor converters which are fissile self-sufficient by creating as much fissile material as they consume are preferred to breeders that create more fissile material than they consume. Thus

  19. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  20. International orientation and export commitment in fast small and medium size firms internationalization: scales validation and implications for the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo André Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of changes in the competitive environment has recently provoked the emergence of a new kind of organization that has since its creation a meaningful share of its revenue being originated from international activities developed in more than one continent. Within this new reality, the internationalization of the firm in phases or according to its growth has resulted in it losing its capacity to explain this process with regard to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME. Thus, in this paper, the international orientation (IO and export commitment (EC constructs have been revised under a theoretical context of the fast internationalization of medium-sized companies, so as to identify scales that more accurately measure these dimensions in the Brazilian setting. After a literature review and an exploratory research, the IO and EC scales proposed by Knight and Cavusgil (2004 and Shamsuddoha and Ali (2006 were respectively applied to a sample of 398 small- and medium-sized exporting Brazilian companies. In spite of conjunction and situation differences inherent to the Brazilian companies, the selected scales presented high measuring reliability. Furthermore, the field research outcomes provide evidence for the existence of a phenomenon of fast internationalization in medium-sized companies in Brazil, as well as support some theoretical assumptions of other empirical investigations carried out with samples from developed countries.

  1. 19 CFR 210.26 - Other motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other motions. 210.26 Section 210.26 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.26 Other motions. Motions pertaining to discovery shall be filed in...

  2. Now What? Think Fast: Using Healthcare Clinics as Universal Language to Maximize Learning for International Students in a Graduate Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Katila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International students in Masters programs come to the US optimistic and willing to learn. Upon arrival and entrance into programs, they often encounter unexpected environments. Culture shock and language barriers may seem like obvious hurdles, but work ethic and scope of visual knowledge also pose unique challenges for both students and design educators. Although all students share new challenges in graduate school, international students face tougher impediments in studio environments where they express themselves both visually and verbally. Additionally, much of design uses humor, idioms, and visual clues only understood in English. So how do educators help international students build on what they already know? How do educators break barriers between domestic and international students so they may teach one another through a shared language? In fall 2015, my Conceptual Development and Implementation class was struggling to exchange ideas in the classroom. We moved through that struggle by developing a shared language around each student's experiences with healthcare clinics in their country of origin. Students explained what makes healthcare clinics reputable; how people access information in India, China, small towns and larger urban areas; and where people look for trustworthy information. This paper discusses how one educator used student experience of healthcare clinics to find a universal language to maximize learning for international students in design education.

  3. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  4. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs

  5. Effect of the nuclear charge of a fast structural ion on its internal effective stopping in collisions with atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusarevich, E. S., E-mail: gusarevich@gmail.com [Lomonosov Nothern (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The energy losses of fast structural ions in collisions with atoms have been considered in the eikonal approximation. The structural ions are ions consisting of a nucleus and a certain number of electrons bound to it. The effect of nuclear charge Z of the ion on its effective deceleration κ{sup (p)} (energy losses associated with excitation of only intrinsic ion shells) has been analyzed. It is shown that the allowance for the interaction of an atom with the ion nucleus for Z{sub a}Z/v > 1, where Z{sub a} is the charge of the atomic nucleus and v is the velocity of collisions in atomic units, considerably affects the value of κ{sup (p)}, which generally necessitates taking into account nonperturbatively the effect of both charges Z{sub a} and Z on κ{sup (p)}.

  6. The 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry; Fast Elementary Processes in Chemical and Biological Systems Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry held in Villeneuve d'Ascq in France. Topics discussed include ultrafast studies in biophysics surface phenomena, photochemical processes, electron and proton transfer, crystalline and microdisperse media and isolated molecules. There were 80 papers presented at the meeting and 14 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  7. Preoperative fasting times: Prescribed and actual fasting times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current international guidelines for preoperative fasting for elective surgery are 6 ... to determine whether this policy was being followed and patients were being starved ..... recommended fasting time, so that autonomous patients take care.

  8. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast predictive control for air-fuel ratio of SI engines using a nonlinear internal model · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. YJ Zhai, DL Yu, R Tafreshi, Y Al-Hamidi, 1-17. Design and control of three fingers motion for dexterous assembly of compliant ...

  9. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  10. A Comparison of Amplitude-Based and Phase-Based Positron Emission Tomography Gating Algorithms for Segmentation of Internal Target Volumes of Tumors Subject to Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jani, Shyam S.; Robinson, Clifford G.; Dahlbom, Magnus; White, Benjamin M.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Low, Daniel A.; Lamb, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the accuracy of tumor volume segmentation in amplitude-based and phase-based respiratory gating algorithms in respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Materials: List-mode fluorodeoxyglucose-PET data was acquired for 10 patients with a total of 12 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumors and 9 lymph nodes. Additionally, a phantom experiment was performed in which 4 plastic butyrate spheres with inner diameters ranging from 1 to 4 cm were imaged as they underwent 1-dimensional motion based on 2 measured patient breathing trajectories. PET list-mode data were gated into 8 bins using 2 amplitude-based (equal amplitude bins [A1] and equal counts per bin [A2]) and 2 temporal phase-based gating algorithms. Gated images were segmented using a commercially available gradient-based technique and a fixed 40% threshold of maximum uptake. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were generated by taking the union of all 8 contours per gated image. Segmented phantom ITVs were compared with their respective ground-truth ITVs, defined as the volume subtended by the tumor model positions covering 99% of breathing amplitude. Superior-inferior distances between sphere centroids in the end-inhale and end-exhale phases were also calculated. Results: Tumor ITVs from amplitude-based methods were significantly larger than those from temporal-based techniques (P=.002). For lymph nodes, A2 resulted in ITVs that were significantly larger than either of the temporal-based techniques (P<.0323). A1 produced the largest and most accurate ITVs for spheres with diameters of ≥2 cm (P=.002). No significant difference was shown between algorithms in the 1-cm sphere data set. For phantom spheres, amplitude-based methods recovered an average of 9.5% more motion displacement than temporal-based methods under regular breathing conditions and an average of 45.7% more in the presence of baseline drift (P<.001). Conclusions: Target volumes in images generated

  11. Audiovisual biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In lung radiotherapy, variations in cycle-to-cycle breathing results in four-dimensional computed tomography imaging artifacts, leading to inaccurate beam coverage and tumor targeting. In previous studies, the effect of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on the external respiratory signal reproducibility has been investigated but the internal anatomy motion has not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: To test the hypothesis 15 healthy human subjects were enrolled in an ethics-approved AV biofeedback study consisting of two imaging sessions spaced ∼1 week apart. Within each session MR images were acquired under free breathing and AV biofeedback conditions. The respiratory signal to the AV biofeedback system utilized optical monitoring of an external marker placed on the abdomen. Synchronously, serial thoracic 2D MR images were obtained to measure the diaphragm motion using a fast gradient-recalled-echo MR pulse sequence in both coronal and sagittal planes. The improvement in the diaphragm motion reproducibility using the AV biofeedback system was quantified by comparing cycle-to-cycle variability in displacement, respiratory period, and baseline drift. Additionally, the variation in improvement between the two sessions was also quantified. Results: The average root mean square error (RMSE) of diaphragm cycle-to-cycle displacement was reduced from 2.6 mm with free breathing to 1.6 mm (38% reduction) with the implementation of AV biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value = 0.012). The diaphragm motion reproducibility improvements with AV biofeedback were consistent with the abdominal motion reproducibility that was observed from the external marker motion variation. Conclusions: This study was the first to investigate the potential of AV biofeedback to improve the motion

  12. Fast ion stabilization of the ion temperature gradient driven modes in the Joint European Torus hybrid-scenario plasmas: a trigger mechanism for internal transport barrier formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, M; Zocco, A [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F, E-mail: Michele.Romanelli@ccfe.ac.u [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Understanding and modelling turbulent transport in thermonuclear fusion plasmas are crucial for designing and optimizing the operational scenarios of future fusion reactors. In this context, plasmas exhibiting state transitions, such as the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB), are particularly interesting since they can shed light on transport physics and offer the opportunity to test different turbulence suppression models. In this paper, we focus on the modelling of ITB formation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [1] hybrid-scenario plasmas, where, due to the monotonic safety factor profile, magnetic shear stabilization cannot be invoked to explain the transition. The turbulence suppression mechanism investigated here relies on the increase in the plasma pressure gradient in the presence of a minority of energetic ions. Microstability analysis of the ion temperature gradient driven modes (ITG) in the presence of a fast-hydrogen minority shows that energetic ions accelerated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system (hydrogen, n{sub H,fast}/n{sub D,thermal} up to 10%, T{sub H,fast}/T{sub D,thermal} up to 30) can increase the pressure gradient enough to stabilize the ITG modes driven by the gradient of the thermal ions (deuterium). Numerical analysis shows that, by increasing the temperature of the energetic ions, electrostatic ITG modes are gradually replaced by nearly electrostatic modes with tearing parity at progressively longer wavelengths. The growth rate of the microtearing modes is found to be lower than that of the ITG modes and comparable to the local E x B-velocity shearing rate. The above mechanism is proposed as a possible trigger for the formation of ITBs in this type of discharges.

  13. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  15. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain, time-dependent thermoplastic analysis of ballooning deformation was developed. The true (or lagorithmic) strains, the Von Mises yield criterion and Prandtl-Reuss flow rules were used. The constitutive equation was expressed in terms of the temperature, effective stress, strain and strain rate. Material isotropy was assumed as a first approximation; note that at high temperatures even zircaloy tends to lose a substantial amount of its low-temperature anisotropy. The axisymmetry of ballooning was also assumed, which has actually been verified by numerous experiments to be accurate throughout the course of ballooning, except in the final stage when rupture is imminent. The thin-shell approximation was made, which proved to be adequate for the standard fuel claddings and which was advantageous in that the averaged state of stress was rendered determinate. The analysis led to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations, which was then integrated by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta routine. The general formulation allows for a direct interpretation of the experimentally-observed effects of the heating rate and cladding axial constraints on the ballooning behavior. Its implications on the flow-blockage and cladding-rupture evaluations were discussed. The analysis was applied to zircaloy claddings subjected to simulated thermal transient conditions. Most of the required material properties were taken from the existing uniaxial tensile test data. Analyses were performed at a uniform heating rate of 115 0 C/sec with internal pressures ranging from 100 to 1200 psi. Satisfactory agreement was obtained between the predictions and the diametral strain-time data available from tube-burst tests

  16. Parametric modelling of nonstationary platform deck motions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    with fast Fourier transform spectra and show good agreement. However, the higher order maximum entropy model can be used for better representation of nonstationary motions. This method also reduces long time series of nonstationary offshore data into a few...

  17. 19 CFR 210.15 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions. 210.15 Section 210.15 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.15 Motions. (a) Presentation and disposition. (1) During the period...

  18. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22 71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear

  19. MURPHYS-HSFS-2014: 7th International Workshop on MUlti-Rate Processes and HYSteresis (MURPHYS) and the 2nd International Workshop on Hysteresis and Slow-Fast Systems (HSFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Foreword MURPHYS-HSFS-2014 was the 7th International Workshop on MUlti-Rate Processes and HYSteresis (MURPHYS) in conjunction with the 2nd International Workshop on Hysteresis and Slow-Fast Systems (HSFS) . It took place at the Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Berlin, Germany, from April 7 to April 11 in 2014. The international workshop on “Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis” continued a series of biennial conferences (Cork, Ireland, 2002-2008; Pecs, Hungary, 2010; Suceava, Romania, 2012) and the international workshop on “Hysteresis and Slow-Fast Systems” was the follow-up of the HSFS-workshop that had taken place in Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Germany, in 2011. More then 60 scientists from nine European countries and from the USA participated in MURPHYS-HSFS-2014. The program of the workshop featured 49 talks, including 15 main lectures and 15 invited talks. Recent mathematical results for systems with hysteresis operators, multiple scale systems, rate-independent systems, systems with energetic solutions, singularly perturbed systems, and systems with stochastic effects were presented. The considered applications included magnetization dynamics, biological systems, smart materials, networks, ferroelectric and ferroelastic hysteresis, fatigue in materials, market models with hysteresis, biomedical applications, chemical reactions, noise-induced phenomena, partially saturated soils, colloidal films and evaporation of automotive fuel droplets. Statement of Peer Review: All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. International steering committee: E. Benoit (France), M. Brokate (Germany), R. Cross (UK), K. Dahmen (USA), M. Dimian (Romania), M. Eleuteri (Italy), G. Friedman (USA

  20. Present status of fuel motion detection by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Makoto; Ara, Katsuyuki; Nakata, Hirokatsu.

    1978-05-01

    In reactor safety research, it is important to know transient fuel behavior under accidental conditions. Transient histories such as temperature and axial expansion of fuel and cladding and internal pressure of fuel rod are thus measured in experiments simulating accidents. If fuel motion could then be observed during and after fuel failure, this would greatly make for fuel behavior research. The present status is reviewed of fuel motion detections by radiations such as neutron, γ-ray and X-ray, including the principle and system. A neutron hodoscope among them is used already with practical results in in-reactor safety experiments of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. So, this is described in detail and its conceptual design as applied to the NSRR is presented. (auth.)

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography internal motion tracking should be used to validate 4-dimensional computed tomography for abdominal radiation therapy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rankine, Leith; Wan, Hanlin; Parikh, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that fiducial tracking during pretreatment Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) can accurately measure tumor motion and that this method should be used to validate 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) margins before each treatment fraction. Methods and Materials For 31 patients with abdominal tumors and...

  2. Temporomandibular joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Itou, S.; Odori, T.; Ishii, Y.; Torizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates MR imaging with the therapeutic effect after splint therapy in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients (19 TMJs) with internal derangement of the TMJ and five normal volunteers (10 TMJs) were examined with sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) MR imaging. MR studies of the patients undergoing splint therapy were performed with an without splints. Pseudodynamic images of TMJ motion provide information that was not available from spin-echo T1-weighted images

  3. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  4. Fast, accurate, small-scale 3D scene capture using a low-cost depth sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicole; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Commercially available depth sensing devices are primarily designed for domains that are either macroscopic, or static. We develop a solution for fast microscale 3D reconstruction, using off-the-shelf components. By the addition of lenses, precise calibration of camera internals and positioning, and development of bespoke software, we turn an infrared depth sensor designed for human-scale motion and object detection into a device with mm-level accuracy capable of recording at up to 30Hz. PMID:28758159

  5. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we

  6. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  7. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  8. A multistage motion vector processing method for motion-compensated frame interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai- Mei; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, a novel, low-complexity motion vector processing algorithm at the decoder is proposed for motion-compensated frame interpolation or frame rate up-conversion. We address the problems of having broken edges and deformed structures in an interpolated frame by hierarchically refining motion vectors on different block sizes. Our method explicitly considers the reliability of each received motion vector and has the capability of preserving the structure information. This is achieved by analyzing the distribution of residual energies and effectively merging blocks that have unreliable motion vectors. The motion vector reliability information is also used as a prior knowledge in motion vector refinement using a constrained vector median filter to avoid choosing identical unreliable one. We also propose using chrominance information in our method. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better visual quality and is also robust, even in video sequences with complex scenes and fast motion.

  9. Opening Address [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    Public confidence in nuclear power was greatly shaken by the Fukushima Daiichi accident. It will take time to rebuild that confidence. This will only be possible if everyone involved in nuclear power has a total commitment to safety and if the sector is open and transparent. The public need to be reassured that nuclear energy is efficient and safe, can mitigate the effects of climate change and can play a key role in meeting the growing global demand for energy. Fast reactors and related fuel cycles will be important for the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. This innovative technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would run out in a few hundred years, using today’s technology, will actually last several thousand years. Fast reactors also reduce the volume and toxicity of the final waste. China’s Experimental Fast Reactor has been connected to the grid. Work is at an advanced stage on construction of India’s 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor and of the large BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Interest in fast reactors with closed fuel cycles is increasing steadily. A number of emerging economies are joining the existing fast reactor technology-holders. Considerable R & D work is being done on advanced designs with enhanced safety characteristics. It is important to gather the operational experience of countries with operating fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities. This can help to achieve higher levels of safety. Events such as the Joint GIF-IAEA Workshop on the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors last week are a useful way of doing this. They also help to ensure that relevant lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident are learned. The IAEA remains the unique collaboration forum for ensuring continued progress in fast reactor technology. We provide an umbrella for knowledge preservation, information exchange and collaborative R&D in which resources and expertise are pooled

  10. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...... of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)]....

  11. Seismic Intensity Map Triggered by Observed Strong Motion Records Considering Site Amplification and its service based on Geo-spatial International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental seismic intensity measurement is carried out at approximately 4,200 points in Japan, but the correct values at points without seismometers cannot always be provided because seismic motion depends on geologic and geomorphologic features. Quick provision of accurate information on seismic intensity distribution over wide areas is required for disaster mitigation. To estimate seismic intensity at specific points, it is important to prepare ground amplification characteristics for local areas beforehand and use an interpolation algorithm. The QuiQuake system (quick estimation system for earthquake maps triggered by using observation records from K-NET and KiK-net that have been released by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), which uses these, was developed; it can be started up automatically using seismograms and can immediately display a seismic intensity distribution map. The calculation results are sent to IAEA and JNES in the form of strong motion evaluation maps with a mesh size of 250 x 250 m. These maps are also sent to the general public via social networking web sites. (author)

  12. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  13. The impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) fasting glucose diagnostic criterion on the prevalence and outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Mei, J; Song, W; Liu, Y; Tan, Y-D; Chi, S; Li, P; Chen, X; Deng, S

    2014-03-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) proposed that a one-time value of fasting plasma glucose of 5.1 mmol/l or over at any time of the pregnancy is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. We evaluated the repercussions of the application of this threshold in pregnant Han Chinese women. This is a retrospective study of 5360 (72.3% of total) consecutively recruited pregnant Han Chinese women in one centre from 2008 to 2011. These women underwent a two-step gestational diabetes diagnostic protocol according to the previous American Diabetes Association criteria. The IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was used to reclassify these 5360 women. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were compared among the women classified as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (approximately 90% were treated), those reclassified as having gestational diabetes by the single IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion (untreated), but not as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria, and those with normal glucose tolerance. There were 626 cases of gestational diabetes defined by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (11.7%) and these cases were associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes when compared with the women with normal glucose tolerance. With the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion, another 1314 (24.5%) women were reclassified as having gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes classified by the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was associated with gestational hypertension (P = 0.0094) and neonatal admission to nursery (P = 0.035) prior to adjustment for maternal age and BMI, but was no longer a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment. The simple IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion increased the Chinese population with gestational diabetes by 200%. The

  14. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  15. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  16. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  17. The MusIC method: a fast and quasi-optimal solution to the muscle forces estimation problem

    OpenAIRE

    Muller , Antoine; Pontonnier , Charles; Dumont , Georges

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The present paper aims at presenting a fast and quasi-optimal method of muscle forces estimation: the MusIC method. It consists in interpolating a first estimation in a database generated offline thanks to a classical optimization problem, and then correcting it to respect the motion dynamics. Three different cost functions – two polynomial criteria and a min/max criterion – were tested on a planar musculoskeletal model. The MusIC method provides a computation frequenc...

  18. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  19. Adaptive motion of animals and machines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    ... single function in a control system and mechanism. That is, adaptation in motion is induced at every level from the central nervous system to the musculoskeletal system. Thus, we organized the International Symposium on Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machines (AMAM) for scientists and engineers concerned with adaptation on various levels to be broug...

  20. Motion compensation for MRI-guided radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glitzner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy aims to deliver a lethal radiation dose to cancer cells immersed in the body using a high energetic photon beam. Due to physiologic motion of the human anatomy (e.g. caused by filling of internal organs or breathing), the target volume is under permanent motion during irradiation,

  1. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  2. Physics in the fast lane: rotors, fast ions and mobile fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.-L.

    1996-09-01

    Dynamic disorder in the high-temperature solid phases of the Zintl compounds CsPb and NaSn is characterized by. fast orientational motions of the polyanions and coupled motions of the cations Melting is characterized by slow translational motions of the centers of mass of the polyanions. The dynamic behavior of the ions is associated with dramatic increases in electrical conductivity characteristic of the behavior expected of a mixed conductor

  3. Correlation-based motion vector processing with adaptive interpolation scheme for motion-compensated frame interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Mei; Nguyen, Truong

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of unreliable motion vectors that cause visual artifacts but cannot be detected by high residual energy or bidirectional prediction difference in motion-compensated frame interpolation. A correlation-based motion vector processing method is proposed to detect and correct those unreliable motion vectors by explicitly considering motion vector correlation in the motion vector reliability classification, motion vector correction, and frame interpolation stages. Since our method gradually corrects unreliable motion vectors based on their reliability, we can effectively discover the areas where no motion is reliable to be used, such as occlusions and deformed structures. We also propose an adaptive frame interpolation scheme for the occlusion areas based on the analysis of their surrounding motion distribution. As a result, the interpolated frames using the proposed scheme have clearer structure edges and ghost artifacts are also greatly reduced. Experimental results show that our interpolated results have better visual quality than other methods. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust even for those video sequences that contain multiple and fast motions.

  4. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  5. Morphological study in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint with MRI. The relationships between the state of the articular disc and limitation of motion of the mandibular head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazu, Hiroko; Sakurai, Takashi; Numayama, Sukenao; Furuya, Nobuaki; Kashima, Isamu

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we used MRI to investigate the relationships between these factors in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients, especially with regard to the range of condylar movement. Bone configurations and articular disc conditions were analyzed in a total of 367 TMJ of 255 internal derangement patients using MRI. We examined the influence of articular disc condition on functional disorder and identified the tendencies of the pathology of patients with internal derangements. Anterolateral displacement was more frequent than anteromedial displacement, and lateral rotary displacement was more frequent than medial rotary displacement. Therefore, the articular disc displaced more readily laterally, rather than medially. With regard to the relationship between the articular disc configuration and reduction, enlargement of the posterior band and biconvex discs showed a tendency for articular disc displacement that did not reduce, while discs with even thickness showed a tendency of articular disc displacement which would reduce. Folding and biconvexity tended to limit condylar movement while less limitation occurred with discs of even thickness. In cases of disc displacement without reduction, there was a significantly higher percentage of cases with limited condylar movement than in cases of displacement with reduction. (K.H.)

  6. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern

  8. An adaptive control algorithm for optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy considering uncertainties in beam profiles, patient set-up and internal organ motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loef, Johan; Lind, Bengt K.; Brahme, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A new general beam optimization algorithm for inverse treatment planning is presented. It utilizes a new formulation of the probability to achieve complication-free tumour control. The new formulation explicitly describes the dependence of the treatment outcome on the incident fluence distribution, the patient geometry, the radiobiological properties of the patient and the fractionation schedule. In order to account for both measured and non-measured positioning uncertainties, the algorithm is based on a combination of dynamic and stochastic optimization techniques. Because of the difficulty in measuring all aspects of the intra- and interfractional variations in the patient geometry, such as internal organ displacements and deformations, these uncertainties are primarily accounted for in the treatment planning process by intensity modulation using stochastic optimization. The information about the deviations from the nominal fluence profiles and the nominal position of the patient relative to the beam that is obtained by portal imaging during treatment delivery, is used in a feedback loop to automatically adjust the profiles and the location of the patient for all subsequent treatments. Based on the treatment delivered in previous fractions, the algorithm furnishes optimal corrections for the remaining dose delivery both with regard to the fluence profile and its position relative to the patient. By dynamically refining the beam configuration from fraction to fraction, the algorithm generates an optimal sequence of treatments that very effectively reduces the influence of systematic and random set-up uncertainties to minimize and almost eliminate their overall effect on the treatment. Computer simulations have shown that the present algorithm leads to a significant increase in the probability of uncomplicated tumour control compared with the simple classical approach of adding fixed set-up margins to the internal target volume. (author)

  9. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller K. B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s to (n,π* internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer.

  10. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, T. S.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Solling, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s) to (n,π*) internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two st...... states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer....

  11. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  12. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient. Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

  13. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  14. Fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Peter

    Bogen omfatter en gennemgang af lovgivning, praksis og teori vedrørende køb af fast ejendom og offentligretlig og privatretlig regulering. Bogen belyser bl.a. de privatretlige emner: købers misligholdelsesbeføjelser, servitutter, naboret, hævd og erstatningsansvar for miljøskader samt den...

  15. Motion correction options in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian

    2015-05-01

    Subject motion is unavoidable in clinical and research imaging studies. Breathing is the most important source of motion in whole-body PET and MRI studies, affecting not only thoracic organs but also those in the upper and even lower abdomen. The motion related to the pumping action of the heart is obviously relevant in high-resolution cardiac studies. These two sources of motion are periodic and predictable, at least to a first approximation, which means certain techniques can be used to control the motion (eg, by acquiring the data when the organ of interest is relatively at rest). Additionally, nonperiodic and unpredictable motion can also occur during the scan. One obvious limitation of methods relying on external devices (eg, respiratory bellows or the electrocardiogram signal to monitor the respiratory or cardiac cycle, respectively) to trigger or gate the data acquisition is that the complex motion of internal organs cannot be fully characterized. However, detailed information can be obtained using either the PET or MRI data (or both) allowing the more complete characterization of the motion field so that a motion model can be built. Such a model and the information derived from simple external devices can be used to minimize the effects of motion on the collected data. In the ideal case, all the events recorded during the PET scan would be used to generate a motion-free or corrected PET image. The detailed motion field can be used for this purpose by applying it to the PET data before, during, or after the image reconstruction. Integrating all these methods for motion control, characterization, and correction into a workflow that can be used for routine clinical studies is challenging but could potentially be extremely valuable given the improvement in image quality and reduction of motion-related image artifacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  17. Status of national programmes on fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Based on the International Working Group on Fast reactors (IWGFR) members' request, the IAEA organized a special meeting on Fast Reactor Development and the Role of the IAEA in May 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status and recent development, to present major changes in fast reactor programmes and to recommend future activities on fast reactors. The IWGFR took note that in some Member States large prototypes have been built or are under construction. However, some countries, due to their current budget constraints, have reduced the level of funding for research and development programmes on fast reactors. The IWGFR noted that in this situation the international exchange of information and cooperation on the development of fast reactors is highly desirable and stressed the importance of the IAEA's programme on fast reactors. These proceedings contain important and useful information on national programmes and new developments in sodium cooled fast reactors in Member States. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  19. Discriminative Vision-Based Recovery and Recognition of Human Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of human motion from images opens up the way for applications in the domains of security and surveillance, human-computer interaction, animation, retrieval and sports motion analysis. In this dissertation, the focus is on robust and fast human pose recovery and action

  20. A system for learning statistical motion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xiao, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhouyu; Xie, Dan; Tan, Tieniu; Maybank, Steve

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of motion patterns is an effective approach for anomaly detection and behavior prediction. Current approaches for the analysis of motion patterns depend on known scenes, where objects move in predefined ways. It is highly desirable to automatically construct object motion patterns which reflect the knowledge of the scene. In this paper, we present a system for automatically learning motion patterns for anomaly detection and behavior prediction based on a proposed algorithm for robustly tracking multiple objects. In the tracking algorithm, foreground pixels are clustered using a fast accurate fuzzy K-means algorithm. Growing and prediction of the cluster centroids of foreground pixels ensure that each cluster centroid is associated with a moving object in the scene. In the algorithm for learning motion patterns, trajectories are clustered hierarchically using spatial and temporal information and then each motion pattern is represented with a chain of Gaussian distributions. Based on the learned statistical motion patterns, statistical methods are used to detect anomalies and predict behaviors. Our system is tested using image sequences acquired, respectively, from a crowded real traffic scene and a model traffic scene. Experimental results show the robustness of the tracking algorithm, the efficiency of the algorithm for learning motion patterns, and the encouraging performance of algorithms for anomaly detection and behavior prediction.

  1. 19 CFR 210.57 - Amendment of the motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of the motion. 210.57 Section 210.57 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.57 Amendment of the motion. A motion for...

  2. Status of pseudo fission product cross sections for fast reactors. Results of the SWG 17, International working party on evaluation coordination of the nuclear science committee, NEA- OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Rimpault, G.; Smith, P.; Ignatyuk, A.; Koshcheev, V.; Nikolaev, M.; Thsiboulia, A.; Kawai, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Watanabe, T.; Zukeran, A.; Nakajima, Y.; Matsunobu, H.

    1998-08-01

    Within the framework of the SWG17 benchmark organized by a Working Party of the Nuclear Science Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), a comparison of lumped or pseudo fission product cross sections for fast reactors has been made. Four institutions participated with data libraries based on the JEF2.2, EAF-4.2, BROND-2, FONDL-2.1, ADL-3 and JENDL-3.2 evaluated nuclear data files. Several parameters have been compared with each other: the one-group cross sections and reactivity worths of the lumped nuclide for several partial absorption and scattering cross sections, and the one-group cross sections of the individual fission products. Also graphs of the multi-group cross sections of the lumped nuclide have been compared, as well as graphs of capture cross sections for 27 nuclides. From two contributions based on JEF2.2, it can be concluded that the data processing influences the capture cross section by about 1% and the inelastic scattering cross section by 2%. The differences between the lumped cross sections of the different data libraries are surprisingly small: maximum 6% for capture and 9% for the inelastic scattering. Similar results are obtained for the reactivity effects. Since the reactivity worth of the lumped nuclide is dominated by the capture reaction, the maximum spread in the total reactivity worth is still only 5.3%. There is a systematic difference between total, elastic and capture cross sections of JENDL-3.2 and JEF2.2 of the same order of magnitude. Possible reasons for this discrepancy have been indicated. The one-group capture and inelastic scattering cross sections of most of the important individual fission products differ by less than 10% (root mean square values). Larger differences are observed for unstable nuclides where there is a lack of experimental data. For the (n,2n) group cross sections, which are rather sensitive to the weighting spectrum in the fast energy range, these differences are several tens of percents. The final

  3. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  4. Proceedings of the 14. International Symposium on the Interaction of Fast Neutrons with Nuclei - Neutron Generators and Application - organized by the Technical University of Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeliger, D.; Jahn, U.

    1985-07-01

    The symposium was devoted to current problems of intense fast neutron sources, especially 14 MeV DT-neutron generators, and their broad spectrum of application in nuclear physics. 56 participants from 12 countries and the IAEA demonstrate the high interest on this selected topics. The submitted contributions can be divided into two general parts. The first one gives a review about the different possibilities of the technical and technological solution in development, the present status of operation and also the problems connected with the use of intense neutron sources. Various experimental arrangements for neutron spectroscopy, determination of nuclear data and theoretical aspects are the content of the second part. The participation in this meeting of designer and operators on the one hand and users of neutron sources on the other hand was a good choice and stimulated productive discussions during the conference. (author)

  5. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  6. Infrared wireless data transfer for real-time motion control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajdusek, M.; Overboom, T.T.; Damen, A.A.H.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper several wireless solution are compared for their suitability for real-time control of a fast motion system. From the comparison, Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) communication link has been found to be an attractive solution for presented wirelessly controlled manipulator. Because standard

  7. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  8. MOTION MODELLINGUSINGCONCEPTS OF FUZZY ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Motlagh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial potential fields (APF are well established for reactive navigation of mobile robots. This paper describes a fast and robust fuzzy-APF on an ActivMedia AmigoBot. Obstacle-related information is fuzzified by using sensory fusion, which results in a shorter runtime. In addition, the membership functions of obstacle direction and range have been merged into one function, obtaining a smaller block of rules. The system is tested in virtual environments with non-concave obstacles. Then, the paper describes a new approach to motion modelling where the motion of intelligent travellers is modelled by consecutive path segments. In previous work, the authors described a reliable motion modelling technique using causal inference of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM which has been efficiently modified for the purpose of this contribution. Results and analysis are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed motion modelling algorithm.

  9. Fast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, E.; Linde, R.; Tiemens, U.; Weiss, H.

    1978-01-01

    A system has been constructed for fast tomosynthesis, whereby X-ray photographs are made of a single layer of an object. Twenty five X-ray tubes illuminate the object simultaneously at different angles. The resulting coded image is decoded by projecting it with a pattern of lenses that have the same form as the pattern of X-ray tubes. The coded image is optically correlated with the pattern of the sources. The scale of this can be adjusted so that the desired layer of the object is portrayed. Experimental results of its use in a hospital are presented. (C.F.)

  10. Self-navigated 4D cartesian imaging of periodic motion in the body trunk using partial k-space compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küstner, Thomas; Würslin, Christian; Schwartz, Martin; Martirosian, Petros; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Seith, Ferdinand; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F; Yang, Bin; Schmidt, Holger

    2017-08-01

    To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging. We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the ky/kz plane. A partial Fourier-like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions. The randomness of the acquisition (induced by periodic breathing pattern) yields a subsampled k-space that is reconstructed using compressed sensing. Local image evaluations (coefficient of variation and slope steepness through organs) reveal information about motion resolvability. Image quality is inspected by a blinded reading. Sequence and reconstruction method are made publicly available. The method is able to capture and reconstruct 4D images with high image quality and motion resolution within a short scan time of less than 2 min. These findings are supported by restricted-isometry-property analysis, local image evaluation, and blinded reading. The proposed method provides a clinical feasible setup to capture periodic respiratory motion with a fast acquisition protocol and can be extended by further surrogate signals to capture additional periodic motions. Retrospective parametrization allows for flexible tuning toward the targeted applications. Magn Reson Med 78:632-644, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  12. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  13. The ELETTRA fast magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasini, D.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the fast magnets to be used to inject the electron beam into the 2 GeV storage ring Elettra is presented and discussed. Injection makes use of two types of fast magnets: the septa and the kickers. There are two identical septa magnets of the so called 'eddy current' type, which will be housed in a vacuum tank. The orbit bump is generated by four identical kicker magnets symmetrically placed around the mid-point of a single straight section: they will be in air with an internal vacuum chamber. Extensive electric and magnetic tests have been performed on prototypes, and the relevant results are presented and discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Fast reactor database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This publication contains detailed data on liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs), specifically plant parameters and design details. Each LMFR power plant is characterized by about 400 parameters, by design data and by relevant materials. The report provides general and detailed design characteristics including structural materials, data on experimental, demonstration, prototype and commercial size LMFRs. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers and university students and professors. The report includes updated information contained in IAEA previous publications on LMFR plant parameters: IWGRF/51 (1985) and IWGFR/80 (1991) and reflects experience gained from two consultants meetings held in Vienna (1993,1994). This compilation of data was produced by members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR)

  15. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  16. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  17. On the motion of internal carbonation layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, A.; Böhm, M.; Schmidt, A.; Franke, L.; Deckelmann, G.; Espinoza-Marzal, R.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonation is the reaction of environmental carbon dioxide with alkaline species in concrete. It is one of the major processes affecting the concrete durability. In this note, we review a few modelling strategies that are behind conceptually different carbonation models which are all able to

  18. Internal motion in high vacuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.

    Three transfer and positioning mechanisms have been developed for the non-air exposed, multistep processing of components in vacuum chambers. The functions to be performed in all of the systems include ultraviolet/ozone cleaning, vacuum baking, deposition of thin films, and thermocompression sealing of the enclosures. Precise positioning of the components is required during the evaporation and sealing processes. The three methods of transporting and positioning the components were developed to accommodate the design criteria and goals of each individual system. The design philosophy, goals, and operation of the three mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  20. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  1. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  2. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Yuan Lin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  3. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hsin-Te

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  4. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  5. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  6. Pre-treatment technologies, and their effect on international bioenergy supply chain logistics. Techno-economic evaluation of torrefaction, fast pyrolysis and pelletisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Ayla; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Bergman, P.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-treatment step has a significant influence on the performance of bioenergy chains, especially on logistics. Torrefaction, pelletisation and pyrolysis technologies can convert biomass at modest scales into dense energy carriers that ease transportation and handling. Torrefaction is a very promising technology due to its high process efficiency (94%) compared to pelletisation (84%) and pyrolysis (64%). When torrefaction is combined with pelletisation, the product (TOP) energy content is as high as 20.4-22.7 GJ/ton. The primary energy requirement for TOP delivery from Latin America to Rotterdam harbour can be as low as 0.05 GJ/GJ, in contrast to 0.12 GJ/GJ for pellets and 0.08 GJ/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. TOP can be delivered to Europe at over 74 EUR/ton (3.3 EUR/GJ) and electricity could be produced as cheap as 4.4 EURcent/kWh e from an existing co-firing plant. Fisher Tropisch fuel costs 6 EUR/GJ HHV for TOP, 7 EUR/GJ for conventional pellets and 9.5 EUR/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. Consequently, fuel production from TOP and conventional pellets is comparable to the current gasoline production cost ranging from 3 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV and diesel from 2 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV , depending on the oil market. Thus, well designed supply chains make international trade of biomass feasible from energy efficiency and economic perspective. (author)

  7. Opening Session [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    In Europe today, the energy supply relies on fossil fuels at over 75% of its primary energy consumption. Worldwide, it is over 82%. Such a massive use of fossil fuels is thus both a threat for the environment, climate and health, and also for our economies. In 2012, for France, fossil fuel imports represent an expense 3 times larger than in 2005, and over 90% of France’s trade deficit. If keeping this current energy mix, we will strongly contribute to a large increase of the risk of climate change, environmental and human health impacts, and their damaging effects. Tackling climate change, environmental and health issues will require the priority use of CO 2 emission free energy sources. Despite Kyoto protocol and many political international statements, the amount of CO 2 emission per year has known a +40% growth from 1990 to 2009, with the correlated increase of temperatures. To ensure a sustainable development, the world needs a sustainable energy supply, which makes a sufficient amount available for everybody at an acceptable price. For all these reasons, the substitution of fossil fuel consumption as soon as possible and as large as possible with CO 2 free energy sources must be our top priority. The corner stone of any sustainable European energy is the reduction of our consumption of fossil fuels with three axes of action relative to the technologies using these fuels: energy savings, improved efficiency, substitution by other technologies which do not use such fuels, as renewable and nuclear energies

  8. Technical committee meeting on material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation in liquid metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Material-Coolant Interactions and Material Movement and Relocation in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors was sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by PNC, on behalf of the Japanese government. A broad range of technical subjects was discussed in the TCM, covering entire aspects of material motion and interactions relevant to the safety of LMFRs. Recent achievement and current status in research and development in this area were presented including European out-of-pile test of molten material movement and relocation; molten material-sodium interaction; molten fuel-coolant interaction; core disruptive accidents; sodium boiling; post accident material relocation, heat removal and relevant experiments already performed or planned

  9. Technical committee meeting on material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation in liquid metal fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Material-Coolant Interactions and Material Movement and Relocation in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors was sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by PNC, on behalf of the Japanese government. A broad range of technical subjects was discussed in the TCM, covering entire aspects of material motion and interactions relevant to the safety of LMFRs. Recent achievement and current status in research and development in this area were presented including European out-of-pile test of molten material movement and relocation; molten material-sodium interaction; molten fuel-coolant interaction; core disruptive accidents; sodium boiling; post accident material relocation, heat removal and relevant experiments already performed or planned.

  10. Fuel-motion diagnostics and cineradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1982-09-01

    Nuclear and non-nuclear applications of cineradiography are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnostic instrumentation for in-pile transient-reactor safety testing of nuclear fuel motion. The primary instrument for this purpose has been the fast-neutron hodoscope, which has achieved quantitative monitoring of time, location, mass, and velocity of fuel movement under the difficult conditions associated with transient-reactor experiments. Alternative diagnostic devices that have been developed have not matched the capabilities of the hodoscope. Other applications for the fuel-motion diagnostic apparatus are also evolving, including time-integrated radiography and direct time- and space-resolved fuel-pin power monitoring. Although only two reactors are now actively equipped with high-resolution fuel-motion diagnostic systems, studies and tests have been carried out in and for many other reactors

  11. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  12. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  13. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1983-07-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  14. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  15. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  16. The open quantum Brownian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using quantum parallelism on random walks as the original seed, we introduce new quantum stochastic processes, the open quantum Brownian motions. They describe the behaviors of quantum walkers—with internal degrees of freedom which serve as random gyroscopes—interacting with a series of probes which serve as quantum coins. These processes may also be viewed as the scaling limit of open quantum random walks and we develop this approach along three different lines: the quantum trajectory, the quantum dynamical map and the quantum stochastic differential equation. We also present a study of the simplest case, with a two level system as an internal gyroscope, illustrating the interplay between the ballistic and diffusive behaviors at work in these processes. Notation H z : orbital (walker) Hilbert space, C Z in the discrete, L 2 (R) in the continuum H c : internal spin (or gyroscope) Hilbert space H sys =H z ⊗H c : system Hilbert space H p : probe (or quantum coin) Hilbert space, H p =C 2 ρ t tot : density matrix for the total system (walker + internal spin + quantum coins) ρ-bar t : reduced density matrix on H sys : ρ-bar t =∫dxdy ρ-bar t (x,y)⊗|x〉 z 〈y| ρ-hat t : system density matrix in a quantum trajectory: ρ-hat t =∫dxdy ρ-hat t (x,y)⊗|x〉 z 〈y|. If diagonal and localized in position: ρ-hat t =ρ t ⊗|X t 〉 z 〈X t | ρ t : internal density matrix in a simple quantum trajectory X t : walker position in a simple quantum trajectory B t : normalized Brownian motion ξ t , ξ t † : quantum noises (paper)

  17. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  18. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  19. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  20. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  1. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  2. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  3. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Arango , Carlos ,; Alata , Olivier; Emonet , Rémi; Legrand , Anne-Claire; Konik , Hubert

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  4. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery outlines the techniques needed to accurately track and compensate for respiratory and pulsatory motion during robotic radiosurgery. The algorithms presented within the book aid in the treatment of tumors that move during respiration. In Chapters 1 and 2,  the book introduces the concept of stereotactic body radiation therapy, motion compensation strategies and the clinical state-of-the-art. In Chapters 3 through 5, the author describes and evaluates new methods for motion prediction, for correlating external motion to internal organ motion, and for the evaluation of these algorithms’ output based on an unprecedented amount of real clinical data. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a brief introduction into currently investigated, open questions and further fields of research. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery targets researchers working in the related fields of surgical oncology, artificial intelligence, robotics and more. ...

  5. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  6. Ion beam heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The characteristics features of the formation of the spatial distribution of the energy transferred to the plasma from a beam of ions with different initial energies, masses and charges under fast ignition conditions are determined. The motion of the Bragg peak is extended with respect to the spatial distribution of the temperature of the ion-beam-heated medium. The parameters of the ion beams are determined to initiate different regimes of fast ignition of thermonuclear fuel precompressed to a density of 300-500 g/cm 3 - the edge regime, in which the ignition region is formed at the outer boundary of the fuel, and the internal regime, in which the ignition region is formed in central parts of the fuel. The conclusion on the requirements for fast ignition by light and heavy ion beams is presented. It is shown that the edge heating with negative temperature gradient is described by a self-similar solution. Such a temperature distribution is the reason of the fact that the ignited beam energy at the edge heating is larger than the minimal ignition energy by factor 1.65. The temperature Bragg peak may be produced by ion beam heating in the reactor scale targets with pR-parameter larger than 3-4 g/cm 2 . In particular, for central ignition of the targets with pR-parameters in the range of 4-8 g/cm 2 the ion beam energy should be, respectively, from 5 to 7 times larger than the minimal ignition energy. The work by S.Ye. Gus'kov, D.V. Il'in, and V.E. Sherman was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the program 'Development of the Scientific Potential of High Education for 2009-2010' (project no. 2.1.1/1505) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 08-02-01394 a ). The work by J. Limpouch and O. Klimo was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (project no. LC528, MSM6840770022).

  7. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  8. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1992-01-01

    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  9. 19 CFR 210.53 - Motion filed after complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motion filed after complaint. 210.53 Section 210.53 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.53 Motion filed after complaint. (a) A...

  10. Laws of motion for interacting Yang-Mills particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    1988-01-01

    Our recent Lagrangian approach to the equations of motion for test particles with internal structure can be enlarged to the laws of motion for interacting particles, at least in principle. As an example we consider the interaction of point particles endowed with a pole-dipole structure of the non-abelian charge. (author)

  11. Bubble Driven Quasioscillatory Translational Motion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjare, Manoj; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Y.-P.

    2012-09-01

    A new quasioscillatory translational motion has been observed for big Janus catalytic micromotors with a fast CCD camera. Such motional behavior is found to coincide with both the bubble growth and burst processes resulting from the catalytic reaction, and the competition of the two processes generates a net forward motion. Detailed physical models have been proposed to describe the above processes. It is suggested that the bubble growth process imposes a growth force moving the micromotor forward, while the burst process induces an instantaneous local pressure depression pulling the micromotor backward. The theoretic predictions are consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Semi-automatic detection and correction of body organ motion, particularly cardiac motion in SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J.C.; Caceres, F.; Vargas, P.

    2002-01-01

    patient and artificially imposed). The method is fast (<20s) and robust as compared with manual or other semi-automatic detection of body organ motions in nuclear medicine studies. Conclusion: A fast and robust semi-automatic patient motion detection and correction for SPECT studies has been developed

  13. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  14. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  15. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  16. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  17. What is the future for fast reactor technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraev, Kamen

    2017-01-01

    NucNet spoke to Vladimir Kriventsev, team leader for fast reactor technology development at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), about the possibilities and challenges of technology development in the fast reactor sector. Today, the field of fast reactors is vibrant and full of fascinating developments, some which will have an impact in the nearer term and others in the longer term.

  18. What is the future for fast reactor technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium). The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency

    2017-08-15

    NucNet spoke to Vladimir Kriventsev, team leader for fast reactor technology development at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), about the possibilities and challenges of technology development in the fast reactor sector. Today, the field of fast reactors is vibrant and full of fascinating developments, some which will have an impact in the nearer term and others in the longer term.

  19. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  20. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  1. Fasting and rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Jokar

    2015-01-01

    Fasting is one of the important religious practices of Muslims, in which the individuals abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Fasting is not obligatory or even not allowed, in case it causes health problems to the fasting individual. Rheumatic diseases are a major group of chronic diseases which can bring about numerous problems while fasting. The aim of this article is to review the impact of Islamic fasting on rheumatic patients, based on the scientific evidences.

  2. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  3. Advanced motion control for next-generation precision mechatronics: Challenges for control, identification, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturing equipment and scientific instruments, including wafer scanners, printers, microscopes, and medical imaging scanners, require accurate and fast motions. Increasing requirements necessitate enhanced control performance. The aim of this paper is to identify several challenges for advanced

  4. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems Based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with the requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study, but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts, during the course of extensive discussions, analyzed the country/region/world context data; discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the CNFC-FR systems; identified technologies suitable for the INS; and arrived at a broad definition of a common CNFC-FR system. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of CNFC-FR systems for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the area of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee in meetings held in Vienna 2005 - 2007. The authors of the Joint Study report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of the INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report, a summary of the results was produced, which is the content of this publication. The full text of the Joint Study

  5. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts in course of extensive discussions analyzed the country/region/world context data, discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the INS CNFC-FR, identified technologies suitable for the INS, and arrived at a broad definition of a common INS CNFC-FR. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of INS CNFC-FR for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the domain of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee meetings held in Vienna 2005-2007. The authors of the report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report a summary of the results was produced, which was published as a hard copy. The full text of the Joint Study report is available on the CD

  6. Impaired Perception of Biological Motion in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaywant, Abhishek; Shiffrar, Maggie; Roy, Serge; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined biological motion perception in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Biological motion perception is related to one’s own motor function and depends on the integrity of brain areas affected in PD, including posterior superior temporal sulcus. If deficits in biological motion perception exist, they may be specific to perceiving natural/fast walking patterns that individuals with PD can no longer perform, and may correlate with disease-related motor dysfunction. Method 26 non-demented individuals with PD and 24 control participants viewed videos of point-light walkers and scrambled versions that served as foils, and indicated whether each video depicted a human walking. Point-light walkers varied by gait type (natural, parkinsonian) and speed (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 m/s). Participants also completed control tasks (object motion, coherent motion perception), a contrast sensitivity assessment, and a walking assessment. Results The PD group demonstrated significantly less sensitivity to biological motion than the control group (pperception (p=.02, Cohen’s d=.68). There was no group difference in coherent motion perception. Although individuals with PD had slower walking speed and shorter stride length than control participants, gait parameters did not correlate with biological motion perception. Contrast sensitivity and coherent motion perception also did not correlate with biological motion perception. Conclusion PD leads to a deficit in perceiving biological motion, which is independent of gait dysfunction and low-level vision changes, and may therefore arise from difficulty perceptually integrating form and motion cues in posterior superior temporal sulcus. PMID:26949927

  7. Decoherence recuperating fast environmental dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinbas, Murat

    2010-01-01

    We examine the exact internal decoherence dynamics of a qubit in an isolated Josephson charge-qubit quantum computer in the presence of one- and two-body static internal imperfections. By help of open system dynamics quantifiers, i.e. purity, fidelity, covariance and Loschmidt echo, we distinguish between non-unitary and unitary components of internal decoherence dynamics and show that the non-unitary component consists of two processes: system-environment entanglement and incoherence. Our results indicate that the incoherence process is the major source of internal decoherence rather than system-environment entanglement. We find that strong one-body intra-environmental interactions, which generate fast environmental dynamics, result in a rapid suppression of decoherence induced by both system-environment entanglement and incoherence processes. We explain the mechanisms of suppression of decoherence for these two processes and discuss our results.

  8. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  9. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  10. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  11. Inter-fraction variations in respiratory motion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J R; Modat, M; Ourselin, S; Hawkes, D J [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London (United Kingdom); Hughes, S; Qureshi, A; Ahmad, S; Landau, D B, E-mail: j.mcclelland@cs.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' s Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-07

    Respiratory motion can vary dramatically between the planning stage and the different fractions of radiotherapy treatment. Motion predictions used when constructing the radiotherapy plan may be unsuitable for later fractions of treatment. This paper presents a methodology for constructing patient-specific respiratory motion models and uses these models to evaluate and analyse the inter-fraction variations in the respiratory motion. The internal respiratory motion is determined from the deformable registration of Cine CT data and related to a respiratory surrogate signal derived from 3D skin surface data. Three different models for relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal have been investigated in this work. Data were acquired from six lung cancer patients. Two full datasets were acquired for each patient, one before the course of radiotherapy treatment and one at the end (approximately 6 weeks later). Separate models were built for each dataset. All models could accurately predict the respiratory motion in the same dataset, but had large errors when predicting the motion in the other dataset. Analysis of the inter-fraction variations revealed that most variations were spatially varying base-line shifts, but changes to the anatomy and the motion trajectories were also observed.

  12. Novel instrumentation to detect sliding and erratic bed load motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, HJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available stationary beds on thick-walled pipes within a minute, only the 2 mm-thin spool pieces were able to detect erratic bed motions due to the sensors’ fast response capability. This required additional features to focus the sensing area directly onto the pipe...

  13. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  14. Galileo and the Problems of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Wallace Edd

    Galileo's science of motion changed natural philosophy. His results initiated a broad human awakening to the intricate new world of physical order found in the midst of familiar operations of nature. His thinking was always based squarely on the academic traditions of the spiritual old world. He advanced physics by new standards of judgment drawn from mechanics and geometry, and disciplined observation of the world. My study first determines the order of composition of the earliest essays on motion and physics, ca. 1588 -1592, from internal evidence, and bibliographic evidence. There are clear signs of a Platonist critique of Aristotle, supported by Archimedes, in the Ten Section Version of On Motion, written ca. 1588, and probably the earliest of his treatises on motion or physics. He expanded upon his opening Platonic -Archimedean position by investigating the ideas of scholastic critics of Aristotle, including the Doctores Parisienses, found in his readings of the Jesuit Professors at the Collegio Romano. Their influences surfaced clearly in Galileo's Memoranda on Motion and the Dialogue on Motion, and in On Motion, which followed, ca. 1590-1592. At the end of his sojourn in Pisa, Galileo opened the road to the new physics by solving an important problem in the mechanics of Pappus, concerning motion along inclined planes. My study investigates why Galileo gave up attempts to establish a ratio between speed and weight, and why he began to seek the ratios of time and distance and speed, by 1602. It also reconstructs Galileo's development of the 1604 principle, seeking to outline its invention, elaboration, and abandonment. Then, I try to show that we have a record of Galileo's moment of recognition of the direct relation between the time of fall and the accumulated speed of motion--that great affinity between time and motion and the key to the new science of motion established before 1610. Evidence also ties the discovery of the time affinity directly to Galileo

  15. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  16. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  17. Brane-world motion in compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Parikh, Maulik

    2011-08-01

    The topology of extra dimensions can break global Lorentz invariance, singling out a globally preferred frame even in flat spacetime. Through experiments that probe global topology, an observer can determine her state of motion with respect to the preferred frame. This scenario is realized if we live on a brane universe moving through a flat space with compact extra dimensions. We identify three experimental effects due to the motion of our universe that one could potentially detect using gravitational probes. One of these relates to the peculiar properties of the twin paradox in multiply-connected spacetimes. Another relies on the fact that the Kaluza-Klein modes of any bulk field are sensitive to boundary conditions. A third concerns the modification to the Newtonian potential on a moving brane. Remarkably, we find that even small extra dimensions are detectable by brane observers if the brane is moving sufficiently fast. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

  18. Report on the specialists' meeting on passive and active safety features of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors organized by the international atomic energy agency at Oarai Engineering Centre of power reactor and nuclear development corporation, Japan, November 5-7, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjpe, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    As recommended by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a specialists' meeting on passive and active safety features of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. Specialists from all member countries of IWGFR-China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States-participated in the meeting and made presentations as listed in Table 1. The Commission of European Communities also sent representatives to the meeting. Table 2 contains a list of participants. The meeting consisted of five sessions: (1) an overview, (2) safety characteristics of decay heal removal systems, (3) safely characteristics of reactor protection systems and reactor shutdown systems, (4) safely characteristics of reactor cores, and (5) general discussions antiformulation of recommendations

  19. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  20. Fusion of optical flow based motion pattern analysis and silhouette classification for person tracking and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is

  1. Modeling a space-variant cortical representation for apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Jeremy; Mingolla, Ennio; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2013-08-06

    Receptive field sizes of neurons in early primate visual areas increase with eccentricity, as does temporal processing speed. The fovea is evidently specialized for slow, fine movements while the periphery is suited for fast, coarse movements. In either the fovea or periphery discrete flashes can produce motion percepts. Grossberg and Rudd (1989) used traveling Gaussian activity profiles to model long-range apparent motion percepts. We propose a neural model constrained by physiological data to explain how signals from retinal ganglion cells to V1 affect the perception of motion as a function of eccentricity. Our model incorporates cortical magnification, receptive field overlap and scatter, and spatial and temporal response characteristics of retinal ganglion cells for cortical processing of motion. Consistent with the finding of Baker and Braddick (1985), in our model the maximum flash distance that is perceived as an apparent motion (Dmax) increases linearly as a function of eccentricity. Baker and Braddick (1985) made qualitative predictions about the functional significance of both stimulus and visual system parameters that constrain motion perception, such as an increase in the range of detectable motions as a function of eccentricity and the likely role of higher visual processes in determining Dmax. We generate corresponding quantitative predictions for those functional dependencies for individual aspects of motion processing. Simulation results indicate that the early visual pathway can explain the qualitative linear increase of Dmax data without reliance on extrastriate areas, but that those higher visual areas may serve as a modulatory influence on the exact Dmax increase.

  2. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  3. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  4. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  5. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  6. Fast reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    1.Three aspects of nonproliferation relevant to nuclear power are: Pu buildup in NPP spent fuel cooling ponds (∼ 104 t in case of consumption of ∼ 107 t cheap uranium). Danger of illegal radiochemical extraction of Pu for weapons production; Pu extraction from NPP fuel at the plants available in nuclear countries, its burning along with weapon-grade Pu in NPP reactors or in special-purpose burners; increased hazard of nuclear weapons sprawl with breeders and closed fuel cycle technology spreading all over the world. 2.The latter is one of major obstacles to creation of large-scale nuclear power. 3.Nuclear power of the first stage using 235 U will be able to meet the demands of certain fuel-deficient countries and regions, replacing ∼ 5-10% of conventional fuels in the global consumption for a number of decades. 4.Fast reactors of the first generation and the currently employed fuel technology are far from exhausting their potential for solving economic problems and meeting the challenges of safety, radioactive waste and nonproliferation. Development of large-scale nuclear power will become an option accepted by society for solving energy problems in the following century, provided a breeder technology is elaborated and demonstrated in the next 15-20 years, which would comply with the totality of the following requirement: full internal Pu breeding deterministic elimination of severe accidents involving fuel damage and high radioactivity releases: fast runaway, loss of coolant, fires, steam and hydrogen explosions, etc.; reaching a balance between radioactive wastes disposed of and uranium mined in terms of radiation hazard; technology of closed fuel cycle preventing its use for Pu extraction and permitting physical protection from fuel thefts;economic competitiveness of nuclear power for most of countries and regions, i.e. primarily the cost of NPPs with fat reactors is to be below the cost of modern LWR plants, etc

  7. Trajectory of coronary motion and its significance in robotic motion cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, Philippe; Dave, Hitendu; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Szekely, Gabor; Turina, Marko; Zünd, Gregor

    2004-05-01

    To characterize remaining coronary artery motion of beating pig hearts after stabilization with an 'Octopus' using an optical remote analysis technique. Three pigs (40, 60 and 65 kg) underwent full sternotomy after receiving general anesthesia. An 8-bit high speed black and white video camera (50 frames/s) coupled with a laser sensor (60 microm resolution) were used to capture heart wall motion in all three dimensions. Dopamine infusion was used to deliberately modulate cardiac contractility. Synchronized ECG, blood pressure, airway pressure and video data of the region around the first branching point of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery after Octopus stabilization were captured for stretches of 8 s each. Several sequences of the same region were captured over a period of several minutes. Computerized off-line analysis allowed us to perform minute characterization of the heart wall motion. The movement of the points of interest on the LAD ranged from 0.22 to 0.81 mm in the lateral plane (x/y-axis) and 0.5-2.6 mm out of the plane (z-axis). Fast excursions (>50 microm/s in the lateral plane) occurred corresponding to the QRS complex and the T wave; while slow excursion phases (movement of the coronary artery after stabilization appears to be still significant. Minute characterization of the trajectory of motion could provide the substrate for achieving motion cancellation for existing robotic systems. Velocity plots could also help improve gated cardiac imaging.

  8. Resolving Fast, Confined Diffusion in Bacteria with Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David J; Tuson, Hannah H; Biteen, Julie S

    2016-05-24

    By following single fluorescent molecules in a microscope, single-particle tracking (SPT) can measure diffusion and binding on the nanometer and millisecond scales. Still, although SPT can at its limits characterize the fastest biomolecules as they interact with subcellular environments, this measurement may require advanced illumination techniques such as stroboscopic illumination. Here, we address the challenge of measuring fast subcellular motion by instead analyzing single-molecule data with spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) with a focus on measurements of confined motion. Our SPT and STICS analysis of simulations of the fast diffusion of confined molecules shows that image blur affects both STICS and SPT, and we find biased diffusion rate measurements for STICS analysis in the limits of fast diffusion and tight confinement due to fitting STICS correlation functions to a Gaussian approximation. However, we determine that with STICS, it is possible to correctly interpret the motion that blurs single-molecule images without advanced illumination techniques or fast cameras. In particular, we present a method to overcome the bias due to image blur by properly estimating the width of the correlation function by directly calculating the correlation function variance instead of using the typical Gaussian fitting procedure. Our simulation results are validated by applying the STICS method to experimental measurements of fast, confined motion: we measure the diffusion of cytosolic mMaple3 in living Escherichia coli cells at 25 frames/s under continuous illumination to illustrate the utility of STICS in an experimental parameter regime for which in-frame motion prevents SPT and tight confinement of fast diffusion precludes stroboscopic illumination. Overall, our application of STICS to freely diffusing cytosolic protein in small cells extends the utility of single-molecule experiments to the regime of fast confined diffusion without requiring advanced

  9. Fast reciprocating probe system on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, J. F.; Wan, B. N.; Xu, G. S.; Li, B.; Xu, C. S.; Yan, N.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Jiang, M.; Liu, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Xiao, C. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A new fast reciprocating probe system (FRPS) has been built and installed on the outer midplane of the EAST tokamak to investigate the profiles of the boundary plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature. The system consists of a two-stage motion drive mechanism: slow motion and fast motion. The fast motion is powered by a servo motor, which drives the probe horizontally up to 50 cm to scan the edge region of the EAST tokamak. The maximum velocity achieved is 2 m/s. High velocity and flexible control of the fast motion are the remarkable features of this FRPS. A specially designed connector installed at the front end of the probe shaft makes it easy to install or replace the probe head on FRPS. During the latest experimental campaign in the spring of 2010, a probe head with seven tips, including two tips for a Mach probe, has been used. An example is given for simultaneous profile measurements of the plasma temperature, plasma density, and the plasma flow velocity.

  10. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  11. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  12. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  13. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  14. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  15. Real-time motional Stark effect in jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.; Stephen, A.; Hawkes, N.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Fernandes, H.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing importance of real-time measurements and control systems in JET experiments, regarding e.g. Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) and q-profile control, has motivated the development of a real-time motional Stark effect (MSE) system. The MSE diagnostic allows the measurement of local magnetic fields in different locations along the neutral beam path providing, therefore, local measurement of the current and q-profiles. Recently in JET, an upgrade of the MSE diagnostic has been implemented, incorporating a totally new system which allows the use of this diagnostic as a real-time control tool as well as an extended data source for off-line analysis. This paper will briefly describe the technical features of the real-time diagnostic with main focus on the system architecture, which consists of a VME crate hosting three PowerPC processor boards and a fast ADC, all connected via Front Panel Data Port (FPDP). The DSP algorithm implements a lockin-amplifier required to demodulate the JET MSE signals. Some applications for the system will be covered such as: feeding the real-time equilibrium reconstruction code (EQUINOX) and allowing the full coverage analysis of the Neutral Beam time window. A brief comparison between the real-time MSE analysis and the off-line analysis will also be presented

  16. Pebble bed pebble motion: Simulation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This dissertation presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to

  17. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  18. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  20. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...

  1. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  2. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  3. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  4. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  5. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  6. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  7. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  8. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  9. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  10. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  11. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  12. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  13. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  14. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  15. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  16. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  17. INTERACTIVE MOTION PLATFORMS AND VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Thöndel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  18. Action Recognition by Joint Spatial-Temporal Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for human action recognition based on optical flow motion features extraction. Automatic spatial and temporal alignments are combined together in order to encourage the temporal consistence on each action by an enhanced dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. At the same time, a fast method based on coarse-to-fine DTW constraint to improve computational performance without reducing accuracy is induced. The main contributions of this study include (1 a joint spatial-temporal multiresolution optical flow computation method which can keep encoding more informative motion information than recent proposed methods, (2 an enhanced DTW method to improve temporal consistence of motion in action recognition, and (3 coarse-to-fine DTW constraint on motion features pyramids to speed up recognition performance. Using this method, high recognition accuracy is achieved on different action databases like Weizmann database and KTH database.

  19. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  20. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  1. Motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Damien; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Triple echo steady state (TESS) uses the lowest steady state configuration modes for rapid relaxometry. Due to its unbalanced gradient scheme, however, TESS is inherently motion-sensitive. The purpose of this work is to merge TESS with a balanced acquisition scheme for motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry, termed MIRACLE. The lowest order steady state free precession (SSFP) configurations are retrieved by Fourier transformation of the frequency response of N frequency-shifted balanced SSFP (bSSFP) scans and subsequently processed for relaxometry, as proposed with TESS. Accuracy of MIRACLE is evaluated from simulations, phantom studies as well as in vivo brain and cartilage imaging at 3T. Simulations and phantom results revealed no conceptual flaw, and artifact-free configuration imaging was achieved in vivo. Overall, relaxometry results were accurate in phantoms and in good agreement for cartilage and for T2 in the brain, but apparent low T1 values were observed for brain white matter; reflecting asymmetries in the bSSFP profile. Rapid T1 and T2 mapping with MIRACLE offers analogous properties as TESS while successfully mitigating its motion-sensitivity. As a result of the Fourier transformation, relaxometry becomes sensitive to the voxel frequency distribution, which may contain useful physiologic information, such as structural brain integrity. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Magn Reson Med 78:518-526, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  3. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  4. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  5. Analyzing locomotion synthesis with feature-based motion graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Mentar; Kallmann, Marcelo

    2013-05-01

    We propose feature-based motion graphs for realistic locomotion synthesis among obstacles. Among several advantages, feature-based motion graphs achieve improved results in search queries, eliminate the need of postprocessing for foot skating removal, and reduce the computational requirements in comparison to traditional motion graphs. Our contributions are threefold. First, we show that choosing transitions based on relevant features significantly reduces graph construction time and leads to improved search performances. Second, we employ a fast channel search method that confines the motion graph search to a free channel with guaranteed clearance among obstacles, achieving faster and improved results that avoid expensive collision checking. Lastly, we present a motion deformation model based on Inverse Kinematics applied over the transitions of a solution branch. Each transition is assigned a continuous deformation range that does not exceed the original transition cost threshold specified by the user for the graph construction. The obtained deformation improves the reachability of the feature-based motion graph and in turn also reduces the time spent during search. The results obtained by the proposed methods are evaluated and quantified, and they demonstrate significant improvements in comparison to traditional motion graph techniques.

  6. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  7. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  8. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  9. ECONOMIC APPROACH ON FAST-FOOD UNITS - CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana TINDECHE; Liliana POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    The globalization phenomenon that characterizes the century we are living in includes even the food we consume which is mostly fast-food products. Fast-foods are internationally expanding at an amazing pace. In the century of speed, when the modern man is in a permanent rush for confirmation, success, money and the time is passing unbelievably fast, the fast-food is a perfect alternative for having a meal out in the city or for preparing dinner at home [5]. Because fast-food products are del...

  10. Status of the DEBENE fast breeder reactor development, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1979-01-01

    Status report of the Fast-breeder reactor development in Germany covers the following: description of the political situation in Federal republic of germany during 1978; international cooperation in the field of fast reactor technology development; operation description of the KNK-II fast core experimental power plant; status of construction of the SNR-300; results of the research and development programs concerned with fuel element, cladding, absorber rods and core structural materials development; sodium effects; neutron irradiation effects on SS properties; reactor physics related to experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast reactor safety issues; core disruption accidents; sodium boiling experiments, measuring methods developed; component tests

  11. Status of the DEBENE fast breeder reactor development, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeunert, U; Kessler, G

    1979-07-01

    Status report of the Fast-breeder reactor development in Germany covers the following: description of the political situation in Federal republic of germany during 1978; international cooperation in the field of fast reactor technology development; operation description of the KNK-II fast core experimental power plant; status of construction of the SNR-300; results of the research and development programs concerned with fuel element, cladding, absorber rods and core structural materials development; sodium effects; neutron irradiation effects on SS properties; reactor physics related to experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast reactor safety issues; core disruption accidents; sodium boiling experiments, measuring methods developed; component tests.

  12. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  13. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  14. The effect of motion on dynamic nuclear polarization: A new theoretical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffino, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is a magnetic resonance technique which uses two different radiation sources: a radiofrequency field and microwave field to radiate nuclei and electrons, respectively. The DNP experiment probes the nature of the interaction between nuclei and electrons. The maximum of the resonance signal from the nucleus is plotted as a function of microwave frequency for the case of the microwaves on and off. The DNP signal is the ratio of these two signals and is termed the enhancement of the nuclear signal. This thesis considers the theory of the DNP signal based on the density matrix formulation of the Stochastic Liouville Equation, which incorporates the spin-spin interactions, spin-field interactions and a stochastic dynamics process which modulates these interactions. The case of one electron coupled to one spin one-half nucleus is considered. Such a formulation has never been developed. The thesis demonstrates that previous partial theories have attempted to incorporate dynamics have been incorrect. This theoretical development demonstrates, for the first time, how dynamics affects the DNP lineshapes. This theory predicts that DNP spectra change smoothly from the no motion to the fast motion region, and reproduces the known analytic answers in both the no-motion and the fast-motion limit. The most important observation of the results is that a DNP signal for a motional rate in the intermediate motional region looks like a superposition of a no-motion and fast-motion signal

  15. Dynamic chaos phenomenon and coherent radiation accompanying high energy particle motion through crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Truten', V.I.; Shul'ga, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    A crystal has a regular structure, therefore every motion in such a structure seems to be regular. However, it is not actually so and even in perfect crystals the particle motion may be either regular or chaotic. Everything depends on the number of integrals of motion determining a particle trajectory. The character of particle motion in a crystal, i.e. its regularity or chaoticity, affects many physical processes accompanying the particle's motion. In this paper we shall consider the effect of dynamic chaos on the coherent radiation of fast particles in a crystal. We also consider the validity conditions of coherent radiation theory results, the role of the second and higher Born approximations in the radiation theory of fast particles in crystals, the continuous string approximation in this theory, the coherent radiation in the model of random strings, and the multiple scattering effect on the coherent radiation. (author)

  16. The Southern Proper Motion Program. IV. The SPM4 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Terrence M.; van Altena, William F.; Zacharias, Norbert; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Castillo, Danilo; Herrera, David; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Monet, David G.; López, Carlos E.

    2011-07-01

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20° declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr-1, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr-1.

  17. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  18. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  19. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  1. Thermal-hydraulic methods in fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.P.; Briggs, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for the solution of thermal-hydraulic problems in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) arising primarily from transient accident analysis are reviewed. Principal emphasis is given to the important phenomenological issues of sodium boiling and fuel motion. Descriptions of representative phenomenological and mathematical models, computational algorithms, advantages and limitations of the approaches, and current research needs and directions are provided

  2. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  3. Reviews Book: Marie Curie: A Biography Book: Fast Car Physics Book: Beautiful Invisible Equipment: Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Book: Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You Book: Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book: Seven Wonders of the Universe Book: Special Relativity Equipment: LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition Places to Visit: Edison and Ford Winter Estates Places to Visit: The Computer History Museum Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Fun fly stick introduces electrostatics to youngsters Special Relativity Text makes a useful addition to the study of relativity as an undergraduate LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition LabVIEW sets industry standard for gathering and analysing data, signal processing, instrumentation design and control, and automation and robotics Edison and Ford Winter Estates Thomas Edison's home is open to the public The Computer History Museum Take a walk through technology history at this computer museum WORTH A LOOK Fast Car Physics Book races through physics Beautiful Invisible The main subject of this book is theoretical physics Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You A guide to physics on the large and small scale Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book explores the mathematics behind chaotic behaviour Seven Wonders of the Universe A textual trip through the wonderful universe HANDLE WITH CARE Marie Curie: A Biography Book fails to capture Curie's science WEB WATCH Web clips to liven up science lessons

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  5. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  6. Multiscale sampling model for motion integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbakov, Lena; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2013-09-30

    Biologically plausible strategies for visual scene integration across spatial and temporal domains continues to be a challenging topic. The fundamental question we address is whether classical problems in motion integration, such as the aperture problem, can be solved in a model that samples the visual scene at multiple spatial and temporal scales in parallel. We hypothesize that fast interareal connections that allow feedback of information between cortical layers are the key processes that disambiguate motion direction. We developed a neural model showing how the aperture problem can be solved using different spatial sampling scales between LGN, V1 layer 4, V1 layer 6, and area MT. Our results suggest that multiscale sampling, rather than feedback explicitly, is the key process that gives rise to end-stopped cells in V1 and enables area MT to solve the aperture problem without the need for calculating intersecting constraints or crafting intricate patterns of spatiotemporal receptive fields. Furthermore, the model explains why end-stopped cells no longer emerge in the absence of V1 layer 6 activity (Bolz & Gilbert, 1986), why V1 layer 4 cells are significantly more end-stopped than V1 layer 6 cells (Pack, Livingstone, Duffy, & Born, 2003), and how it is possible to have a solution to the aperture problem in area MT with no solution in V1 in the presence of driving feedback. In summary, while much research in the field focuses on how a laminar architecture can give rise to complicated spatiotemporal receptive fields to solve problems in the motion domain, we show that one can reframe motion integration as an emergent property of multiscale sampling achieved concurrently within lamina and across multiple visual areas.

  7. Fast Reactors and Nuclear Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrorina, E.N.; Chebeskovb, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion remarks: 1. Fast reactor start-up with U-Pu fuel: – dependent on thermal reactors, – no needs in U enrichment, – needs in SNF reprocessing, – Pu is a little suitable for NED, – practically impossible gun-type NED, – difficulties for implosion-type NED: necessary tests, advanced technologies, etc. – Pu in blankets is similar to WPu by isotopic composition, – Use of blanket for production isotopes (e.g. 233 U), – Combined reprocessing of SNF: altogether blanket and core, – Blanket elimination: decrease in Pu production – No pure Pu separation. 2. Fast reactor start-up with U fuel: - Needs in both U enrichment and SNF reprocessing, - Independent of thermal reactors, - Good Pu bred in the core let alone blankets, - NED of simple gun-type design, - Increase of needs in SWU, - Increased demands in U supply. 3. Fast reactors for export: - Uranium shortage, - To replace thermal reactors in future, - No blankets (depends on the country, though), - Fuel supply and SNF take back, - International centers for rendering services of NFC. Time has come to remove from FRs and their NFC the label unfairly identifying them as the most dangerous installations of nuclear power from the standpoint of being a proliferation problem

  8. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  9. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  10. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  11. Fast multichannel analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, A; Przybylski, M M; Sumner, I [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1982-10-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format.

  12. A fast multichannel analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, A.; Przybylski, M.M.; Sumner, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10 7 s -1 has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format. (orig.)

  13. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  14. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  15. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  16. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  17. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  18. Islamic Fasting and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting in normal individuals and diabetics. During fasting days of Ramadan, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meal taken bepore dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and defend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting; but fasting is not recommended for type 1, non complaint, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals and well controlled diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetics and diabetics with complications should consult physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

  19. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  20. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  1. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  2. Phantom investigation of 3D motion-dependent volume aliasing during CT simulation for radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanyi, James A; Fuss, Martin; Varchena, Vladimir; Lancaster, Jack L; Salter, Bill J

    2007-01-01

    To quantify volumetric and positional aliasing during non-gated fast- and slow-scan acquisition CT in the presence of 3D target motion. Single-slice fast, single-slice slow, and multi-slice fast scan helical CTs were acquired of dynamic spherical targets (1 and 3.15 cm in diameter), embedded in an anthropomorphic phantom. 3D target motions typical of clinically observed tumor motion parameters were investigated. Motion excursions included ± 5, ± 10, and ± 15 mm displacements in the S-I direction synchronized with constant displacements of ± 5 and ± 2 mm in the A-P and lateral directions, respectively. For each target, scan technique, and motion excursion, eight different initial motion-to-scan phase relationships were investigated. An anticipated general trend of target volume overestimation was observed. The mean percentage overestimation of the true physical target volume typically increased with target motion amplitude and decreasing target diameter. Slow-scan percentage overestimations were larger, and better approximated the time-averaged motion envelope, as opposed to fast-scans. Motion induced centroid misrepresentation was greater in the S-I direction for fast-scan techniques, and transaxial direction for the slow-scan technique. Overestimation is fairly uniform for slice widths < 5 mm, beyond which there is gross overestimation. Non-gated CT imaging of targets describing clinically relevant, 3D motion results in aliased overestimation of the target volume and misrepresentation of centroid location, with little or no correlation between the physical target geometry and the CT-generated target geometry. Slow-scan techniques are a practical method for characterizing time-averaged target position. Fast-scan techniques provide a more reliable, albeit still distorted, target margin

  3. Motion-Blur-Free High-Speed Video Shooting Using a Resonant Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Inoue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel concept of actuator-driven frame-by-frame intermittent tracking for motion-blur-free video shooting of fast-moving objects. The camera frame and shutter timings are controlled for motion blur reduction in synchronization with a free-vibration-type actuator vibrating with a large amplitude at hundreds of hertz so that motion blur can be significantly reduced in free-viewpoint high-frame-rate video shooting for fast-moving objects by deriving the maximum performance of the actuator. We develop a prototype of a motion-blur-free video shooting system by implementing our frame-by-frame intermittent tracking algorithm on a high-speed video camera system with a resonant mirror vibrating at 750 Hz. It can capture 1024 × 1024 images of fast-moving objects at 750 fps with an exposure time of 0.33 ms without motion blur. Several experimental results for fast-moving objects verify that our proposed method can reduce image degradation from motion blur without decreasing the camera exposure time.

  4. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  5. Utilize target motion to cover clinical target volume (ctv) - a novel and practical treatment planning approach to manage respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianyue; Ajlouni, Munther; Kong Fengming; Ryu, Samuel; Chetty, Indrin J.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To use probability density function (PDF) to model motion effects and incorporate this information into treatment planning for lung cancers. Material and methods: PDFs were calculated from the respiratory motion traces of 10 patients. Motion effects were evaluated by convolving static dose distributions with various PDFs. Based on a differential dose prescription with relatively lower dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) than to the gross tumor volume (GTV), two approaches were proposed to incorporate PDFs into treatment planning. The first approach uses the GTV-based internal target volume (ITV) as the planning target volume (PTV) to ensure full dose to the GTV, and utilizes the motion-induced dose gradient to cover the CTV. The second approach employs an inhomogeneous static dose distribution within a minimized PTV to best match the prescription dose gradient. Results: Motion effects on dose distributions were minimal in the anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral directions: a 10-mm motion only induced about 3% of dose reduction in the peripheral target region. The motion effect was remarkable in the cranial-caudal direction. It varied with the motion amplitude, but tended to be similar for various respiratory patterns. For the first approach, a 10-15 mm motion would adequately cover the CTV (presumed to be 60-70% of the GTV dose) without employing the CTV in planning. For motions 15-mm. An example of inhomogeneous static dose distribution in a reduced PTV was given, and it showed significant dose reduction in the normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose gradient can be utilized to cover the CTV and minimize the lung dose without the need for more sophisticated technologies

  6. Scalable Photogrammetric Motion Capture System "mosca": Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment) has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  7. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  8. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  9. Fast flux test facility noise data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive collection of spectra from an automated data collection system at the Fast Flux Facility has features from neutron data extracted and managed by database software. Inquiry techniques, including screening, applied to database results show the influences of control rods on wideband noise and, more generally, abilities to detect diverse types of off-normal noise. Uncovering a temporary 0.1-Hz resonance shift gave additional diagnostic information on a 13-Hz mechanical motion characterized by the interference of two resonances. The latter phenomenon is discussed generically for possible application to other reactor types. (author)

  10. PROMO – Real-time Prospective Motion Correction in MRI using Image-based Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan; Roddey, Cooper; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Han, Eric; Rettmann, Dan; Santos, Juan; Kuperman, Josh; Dale, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Artifacts caused by patient motion during scanning remain a serious problem in most MRI applications. The prospective motion correction technique attempts to address this problem at its source by keeping the measurement coordinate system fixed with respect to the patient throughout the entire scan process. In this study, a new image-based approach for prospective motion correction is described, which utilizes three orthogonal 2D spiral navigator acquisitions (SP-Navs) along with a flexible image-based tracking method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm for online motion measurement. The SP-Nav/EKF framework offers the advantages of image-domain tracking within patient-specific regions-of-interest and reduced sensitivity to off-resonance-induced corruption of rigid-body motion estimates. The performance of the method was tested using offline computer simulations and online in vivo head motion experiments. In vivo validation results covering a broad range of staged head motions indicate a steady-state error of the SP-Nav/EKF motion estimates of less than 10 % of the motion magnitude, even for large compound motions that included rotations over 15 degrees. A preliminary in vivo application in 3D inversion recovery spoiled gradient echo (IR-SPGR) and 3D fast spin echo (FSE) sequences demonstrates the effectiveness of the SP-Nav/EKF framework for correcting 3D rigid-body head motion artifacts prospectively in high-resolution 3D MRI scans. PMID:20027635

  11. Fasting glycaemia to simplify screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser Rüetschi, J; Jornayvaz, F R; Rivest, R; Huhn, E A; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2016-12-01

    Recommendations in Switzerland on screening for gestational diabetes endorse the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group consensus. As universal testing is time consuming and glucose loading is unpleasant, the recommendations include a simplification, not performing the glucose loading in women with fasting glycaemia fasting glycaemia was fasting glycaemia. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 10.9% in our population. Among 251 women with gestational diabetes, fasting glycaemia was ≥5.1 mmol/l in 119 women (47.4%), between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia is an attractive alternative to universal screening with the complete 75-g glucose tolerance test. This strategy is, however, slightly less sensitive than previously reported in higher-risk populations. Fasting glycaemia can be considered as an alternative to the complete test for gestational diabetes screening. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Illusory Motion Reproduced by Deep Neural Networks Trained for Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiji; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Yasugi, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenta

    2018-01-01

    The cerebral cortex predicts visual motion to adapt human behavior to surrounding objects moving in real time. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, predictive coding is one of the leading theories. Predictive coding assumes that the brain's internal models (which are acquired through learning) predict the visual world at all times and that errors between the prediction and the actual sensory input further refine the internal models. In the past year, deep neural networks based on predictive coding were reported for a video prediction machine called PredNet. If the theory substantially reproduces the visual information processing of the cerebral cortex, then PredNet can be expected to represent the human visual perception of motion. In this study, PredNet was trained with natural scene videos of the self-motion of the viewer, and the motion prediction ability of the obtained computer model was verified using unlearned videos. We found that the computer model accurately predicted the magnitude and direction of motion of a rotating propeller in unlearned videos. Surprisingly, it also represented the rotational motion for illusion images that were not moving physically, much like human visual perception. While the trained network accurately reproduced the direction of illusory rotation, it did not detect motion components in negative control pictures wherein people do not perceive illusory motion. This research supports the exciting idea that the mechanism assumed by the predictive coding theory is one of basis of motion illusion generation. Using sensory illusions as indicators of human perception, deep neural networks are expected to contribute significantly to the development of brain research.

  13. Illusory Motion Reproduced by Deep Neural Networks Trained for Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Watanabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex predicts visual motion to adapt human behavior to surrounding objects moving in real time. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, predictive coding is one of the leading theories. Predictive coding assumes that the brain's internal models (which are acquired through learning predict the visual world at all times and that errors between the prediction and the actual sensory input further refine the internal models. In the past year, deep neural networks based on predictive coding were reported for a video prediction machine called PredNet. If the theory substantially reproduces the visual information processing of the cerebral cortex, then PredNet can be expected to represent the human visual perception of motion. In this study, PredNet was trained with natural scene videos of the self-motion of the viewer, and the motion prediction ability of the obtained computer model was verified using unlearned videos. We found that the computer model accurately predicted the magnitude and direction of motion of a rotating propeller in unlearned videos. Surprisingly, it also represented the rotational motion for illusion images that were not moving physically, much like human visual perception. While the trained network accurately reproduced the direction of illusory rotation, it did not detect motion components in negative control pictures wherein people do not perceive illusory motion. This research supports the exciting idea that the mechanism assumed by the predictive coding theory is one of basis of motion illusion generation. Using sensory illusions as indicators of human perception, deep neural networks are expected to contribute significantly to the development of brain research.

  14. An Improved Perturb and Observe Algorithm for Photovoltaic Motion Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Xu, Wei; Li, Liming; Zheng, Shubin

    2018-03-01

    An improved perturbation and observation algorithm for photovoltaic motion carriers is proposed in this paper. The model of the proposed algorithm is given by using Lambert W function and tangent error method. Moreover, by using matlab and experiment of photovoltaic system, the tracking performance of the proposed algorithm is tested. And the results demonstrate that the improved algorithm has fast tracking speed and high efficiency. Furthermore, the energy conversion efficiency by the improved method has increased by nearly 8.2%.

  15. Back-to-back technical meetings (TMs): 'TM on the coordinated project (CRP) analyses of and lessons learned from the operational experience with fast reactor equipment and systems' and 'TM to coordinate the Agency's fast reactor knowledge preservation international project in Russia'. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since the early 1960's, several countries have undertaken important fast breeder reactor development programs. Fast test reactors were constructed and successfully operated in a number of countries, including Rapsodie (France), KNK-II (Germany), FBTR (India), JOYO (Japan), DFR (UK), BR-10, BOR-60 (Russia), and EBR-II, Fermi, FFTF (USA). This was followed by commercial size prototypes (Phenix, Superphenix (France), SNR-300 (Germany), MONJU (Japan), PFR (UK), BN-350 (Kazakhstan), BN-600 (Russia)], either just under construction, coming on line, or experiencing long term operation. However, from the 1980s onward, and mostly for economical and political reasons, fast reactor development in general began to decline. By 1994, in the USA, the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) had been cancelled, and the two fast reactor test facilities, FFTF and EBR-II had been shutdown - EBRII permanently, and FFTF, until recently, in standby condition, but now also facing permanent closure. Thus, in the U.S., effort essentially disappeared for fast breeder reactor development. Similarly, programs in other nations were terminated or substantially reduced. In France, Superphenix was shut down at the end of 1998; SNR-300 in Germany was completed but not taken into operation, and KNK-II was permanently shut down in 1991 (after 17 years of operation) and is scheduled to be dismantled by 2004. In the UK, PFR was shut down in 1994, and in Kazakhstan, BN-350 was shut down in 1998. As the interest and activity in the fast breeder reactor diminished, the retirement of many of the developers and acknowledged experts of this technology reached its peak, between 1990 and 2000. The effort and investment required to replace these skills also diminished in parallel. In addition, the facilities (e.g., hot cells, fuel fabrication and inspection lines, seismic test rigs) required to develop and maintain the fast reactor program are drifting into a degraded state or are being shut down. This leads to the

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Reference Ranges for Fasting Profiles and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow .... medical textbooks [4, 5] and internet. In the.

  17. A dual-Kinect approach to determine torso surface motion for respiratory motion correction in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heß, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.hess@uni-muenster.de; Büther, Florian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Gigengack, Fabian [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce blurring effects and attenuation correction artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Established clinically available methods that employ body-attached hardware for acquiring respiration signals rely on the assumption that external surface motion and internal organ motion are well correlated. In this paper, the authors present a markerless method comprising two Microsoft Kinects for determining the motion on the whole torso surface and aim to demonstrate its validity and usefulness—including the potential to study the external/internal correlation and to provide useful information for more advanced correction approaches. Methods: The data of two Kinects are used to calculate 3D representations of a patient’s torso surface with high spatial coverage. Motion signals can be obtained for any position by tracking the mean distance to a virtual camera with a view perpendicular to the surrounding surface. The authors have conducted validation experiments including volunteers and a moving high-precision platform to verify the method’s suitability for providing meaningful data. In addition, the authors employed it during clinical {sup 18}F-FDG-PET scans and exemplarily analyzed the acquired data of ten cancer patients. External signals of abdominal and thoracic regions as well as data-driven signals were used for gating and compared with respect to detected displacement of present lesions. Additionally, the authors quantified signal similarities and time shifts by analyzing cross-correlation sequences. Results: The authors’ results suggest a Kinect depth resolution of approximately 1 mm at 75 cm distance. Accordingly, valid signals could be obtained for surface movements with small amplitudes in the range of only few millimeters. In this small sample of ten patients, the abdominal signals were better suited for gating the PET data than the thoracic signals and the correlation of data-driven signals was

  18. A dual-Kinect approach to determine torso surface motion for respiratory motion correction in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heß, Mirco; Büther, Florian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P.; Gigengack, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce blurring effects and attenuation correction artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Established clinically available methods that employ body-attached hardware for acquiring respiration signals rely on the assumption that external surface motion and internal organ motion are well correlated. In this paper, the authors present a markerless method comprising two Microsoft Kinects for determining the motion on the whole torso surface and aim to demonstrate its validity and usefulness—including the potential to study the external/internal correlation and to provide useful information for more advanced correction approaches. Methods: The data of two Kinects are used to calculate 3D representations of a patient’s torso surface with high spatial coverage. Motion signals can be obtained for any position by tracking the mean distance to a virtual camera with a view perpendicular to the surrounding surface. The authors have conducted validation experiments including volunteers and a moving high-precision platform to verify the method’s suitability for providing meaningful data. In addition, the authors employed it during clinical 18 F-FDG-PET scans and exemplarily analyzed the acquired data of ten cancer patients. External signals of abdominal and thoracic regions as well as data-driven signals were used for gating and compared with respect to detected displacement of present lesions. Additionally, the authors quantified signal similarities and time shifts by analyzing cross-correlation sequences. Results: The authors’ results suggest a Kinect depth resolution of approximately 1 mm at 75 cm distance. Accordingly, valid signals could be obtained for surface movements with small amplitudes in the range of only few millimeters. In this small sample of ten patients, the abdominal signals were better suited for gating the PET data than the thoracic signals and the correlation of data-driven signals was found

  19. Enhancing physics demos using iPhone slow motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-12-01

    Slow motion video enhances our ability to perceive and experience the physical world. This can help students and teachers especially in cases of fast moving objects or detailed events that happen too quickly for the eye to follow. As often as possible, demonstrations should be performed by the students themselves and luckily many of them will already have this technology in their pockets. The "S" series of iPhone has the slow motion video feature standard, which also includes simultaneous sound recording (somewhat unusual among slow motion cameras). In this article I share some of my experiences using this feature and provide advice on how to successfully use this technology in the classroom.

  20. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  1. Effect of Pitching Consecutive Days in Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Tournaments on Objective Shoulder Strength and Subjective Shoulder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillington, S Andrew; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Smith, Matthew V

    2017-05-01

    The windmill pitching motion has been associated with risk for shoulder injury. Because there are no pitching limits on youth fast-pitch softball pitchers, these athletes often pitch multiple games across consecutive days. Strength changes, fatigue levels, and shoulder pain that develop among female fast-pitch pitchers over the course of consecutive days of pitching have not been investigated. Over the course of 2- and 3-day fast-pitch softball tournaments, pitchers will develop progressive objective weakness and increased subjective shoulder fatigue and pain without complete recovery between days. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fourteen female fast-pitch softball pitchers between the ages of 14 and 18 years were evaluated for strength and fatigue changes across 2- and 3-day tournaments. At the beginning and end of each day of tournament play, pitchers were asked to quantify shoulder fatigue and shoulder pain levels of their dominant throwing arm using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). Shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, internal rotation, elbow flexion, and elbow extension strength measurements were gathered using a handheld dynamometer. Over the course of an average single day of tournament participation, pitchers developed significant increases in VAS scores for shoulder fatigue (median, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and pain (median, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.5-2.3) and significant strength loss in all tested motions. Pitchers also developed significant increases in VAS shoulder fatigue (median, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-5.5), VAS shoulder pain (median, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5), and strength loss in all tested motions over the entire tournament. Shoulder pain, fatigue, and strength do not fully recover between days. The accumulation of subjective shoulder pain and fatigue over the course of tournament play were closely correlated. Among youth female fast-pitch softball pitchers, there is a progressive increase in shoulder fatigue, pain, and weakness over the

  2. Core of a fast neutron nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometti, Christian; Mougniot, J.-C.; Ravier, Jean.

    1974-01-01

    The fast neutron nuclear reactor described includes an internal area in fissile material completely enclosed in an area of fertile material forming the outside blanket. The internal fissile area is provided with housings exclusively filled with fertile material forming one or more inside blankets. In this core the internal blankets are shaped like rings vertically separating superimposed rings of fissile material. The blanket of material nearest to the periphery is circumscribed externally by a contour having an indented shape on its straight section so as to increase the contact area between this blanket and the external blanket [fr

  3. Femtosecond dynamics of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (piroxicam) in solution: The involvement of twisting motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michał; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2008-06-01

    In this contribution, we report on fast and ultrafast dynamics of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam (PX), in methyl acetate (MAC) and triacetin (TAC), two solvents of different viscosities. The enol form of PX undergoes a femtosecond (shorter than 100 fs) electronically excited state intramolecular proton-transfer reaction to produce keto tautomers. These structures exhibit an internal twisting motion to generate keto rotamers in ˜2-5 ps, a time being longer in TAC. The transient absorption/emission spectrum is very broad indicating that the potential-energy surface at the electronically excited state is very flat, and reflecting the involvement of several coordinates along which the wavepacket of the fs-produced structures evolve.

  4. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  5. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The twenty-second Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors took place in Vienna, 18-21 April 1989. Nineteen representatives from twelve Member States and International Organizations attended the Meeting. This publication is a collection of presentations in which the participants reported the status of their national programmes on fast breeder reactors. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the twelve papers from this collections. Refs, figs, tabs and 1 graph

  6. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar Colome, J.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  7. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  8. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux under Rolling Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jinseok; Lee, Yeongun; Park, Gooncherl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The aim to this paper may be summarized as follows: identify the flow regime compare with existing void-quality relationship and void fraction at OAF derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to annular flow criterion, develop and evaluate the correlation for accurate prediction of CHF ratio under rolling motion. Experimentally measured CHF results from the previous study were not well-predicted by existing CHF correlations developed for wide range of pressure under rolling motion in vertical tube. Specifically, existing correlations do not account for the dynamic motion parameter, such as tangential and centrifugal force. This study reviewed some existing correlation and experimental studies related to reduction and enhancement of CHF and heat transfer and flow behavior under heaving and rolling motion, and developed a CHF ratio correlation for upward flow vertical tube under rolling motion. Based upon dimensionless groups, equations and interpolation factor, an empirical CHF correlation has been developed which is consistent with experimental data for uniformly heated tubes internally cooled by R-134 under rolling motion. Flow regime was determined through the prediction method for annular flow. Non-dimensional number and function were decided by CHF mechanism of each region. Interaction of LFD and DNB regions is taken into account by means of power interpolation which is reflected void fraction at OAF. The suggested correlation predicted the CHF Ratio with reasonable accuracy, showing an average error of -0.59 and 2.51% for RMS. Rolling motion can affect bubble motion and liquid film behavior complexly by combination of tangential and centrifugal forces and mass flow than heaving motion. Through a search of literature and a comparison of previous CHF ratio results, this work can contribute to the study of boiling heat transfer and CHF for the purpose of enhancement or reduction the CHF of dynamic motion system, such as marine reactor.

  9. International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris – March 4-7, 2013: Closing Session. Summary of Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles Panel Session II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability was discussed in terms of the social, environment and economic perspectives, which arise from the original Brundtland definition of sustainability. The panel presented their perspectives of the need to move towards a sustainable future, involving better use of uranium, reductions in high-level radioactive waste, safe, secure and economic operation of nuclear reactors and the fuel cycle. In all cases, it was considered that sustainability in the long-term must involve fast reactors and a closed nuclear fuel cycle, although both Korea and the IAEA pointed out that these are clearly national decisions and there will not be a single solution for all countries

  10. Motion compensation for structured light sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debjani; Mertz, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In order for structured light methods to work outside, the strong background from the sun needs to be suppressed. This can be done with bandpass filters, fast shutters, and background subtraction. In general this last method necessitates the sensor system to be stationary during data taking. The contribution of this paper is a method to compensate for the motion if the system is moving. The key idea is to use video stabilization techniques that work even if the illuminator is switched on and off from one frame to another. We used OpenCV functions and modules to implement a robust and efficient method. We evaluated it under various conditions and tested it on a moving robot outdoors. We will demonstrate that one can not only do 3D reconstruction under strong ambient light, but that it is also possible to observe optical properties of the objects in the environment.

  11. The sarcomeric cytoskeleton: from molecules to motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautel, Mathias; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered organisation of striated muscle is the prerequisite for the fast and unidirectional development of force and motion during heart and skeletal muscle contraction. A group of proteins, summarised as the sarcomeric cytoskeleton, is essential for the ordered assembly of actin and myosin filaments into sarcomeres, by combining architectural, mechanical and signalling functions. This review discusses recent cell biological, biophysical and structural insight into the regulated assembly of sarcomeric cytoskeleton proteins and their roles in dissipating mechanical forces in order to maintain sarcomere integrity during passive extension and active contraction. α-Actinin crosslinks in the Z-disk show a pivot-and-rod structure that anchors both titin and actin filaments. In contrast, the myosin crosslinks formed by myomesin in the M-band are of a ball-and-spring type and may be crucial in providing stable yet elastic connections during active contractions, especially eccentric exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. FastStats: Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... measles, mumps, rubella: 91.9% (2015) Percent of adolescents aged 13-17 years vaccinated against measles, mumps, ...

  13. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF 2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF 2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 350 0 C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60 Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated [pt

  14. Dounreay fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, R.; Eggar, T.; Skeet, T.

    1992-01-01

    The short debate which followed a private notice question asking for a statement on Government policy on the future of the European fast breeder nuclear research programme is reported verbatim. In response to the question, the Minister for Energy said that the Government had decided in 1988 that the Dounreay prototype fast reactor would close in 1994. That decision had been confirmed. Funding of fast breeder research and development beyond 1993 is not a priority as commercialization is not expected until well into the next century. Dounreay will be supported financially until 1994 and then for its subsequent decommissioning and reprocessing of spent fuel. The debate raised issues such as Britain losing its lead in fast breeder research, loss of jobs and the Government's nuclear policy in general. However, the Government's position was that the research had reached a stage where it could be left and returned to in the future. (UK)

  15. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  16. Brug af faste vendinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bjærge, Esben

    Ordbogen indelholder tekstproduktionsangivelser til ca. 17.000 idiomer, ordsprog, bevingede ord og andre faste vendinger. Det drejer sig bl.a. om angivelser til betydningen, grammatik, kollokationer, eksempler, synonymer og antonymer....

  17. Markerless motion estimation for motion-compensated clinical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Se, Stephen; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2018-05-01

    Motion-compensated brain imaging can dramatically reduce the artifacts and quantitative degradation associated with voluntary and involuntary subject head motion during positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). However, motion-compensated imaging protocols are not in widespread clinical use for these modalities. A key reason for this seems to be the lack of a practical motion tracking technology that allows for smooth and reliable integration of motion-compensated imaging protocols in the clinical setting. We seek to address this problem by investigating the feasibility of a highly versatile optical motion tracking method for PET, SPECT and CT geometries. The method requires no attached markers, relying exclusively on the detection and matching of distinctive facial features. We studied the accuracy of this method in 16 volunteers in a mock imaging scenario by comparing the estimated motion with an accurate marker-based method used in applications such as image guided surgery. A range of techniques to optimize performance of the method were also studied. Our results show that the markerless motion tracking method is highly accurate (brain imaging and holds good promise for a practical implementation in clinical PET, SPECT and CT systems.

  18. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  19. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  20. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a supporting memorandum. Within 10 days after a written motion is served, or such other time period... writing. If made at the hearing, motions may be stated orally; but the Administrative Law Judge may require that they be reduced to writing and filed and served on all parties in the same manner as a formal...