WorldWideScience

Sample records for farming system development

  1. A New Farming Systems Development Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2010-01-10

    Hendry County Sustainable Bio-Fuels Center (HCSBC) is introduced and its main components are explained. These primarily include (1) farming systems, (2) sustainability analysis, (3) economic analysis and (4) educational components. Each of these components is discussed in further details, main researchers and their responsibility areas and introduced. The main focus of this presentation is a new farming concept. The proposed new farming concept is an alternative to the current "two sides of the ditch" model, in which on one side are yield-maximizing, input-intensive, commodity price-dependent farms, while on the other side are publicly-financed, nutrient-removing treatment areas and water reservoirs trying to mitigate the externalized costs of food production systems and other human-induced problems. The proposed approach is rental of the land back to agriculture corporations during the restoration transition period in order to increase water storage (allowing for greater water flow-through and/or water storage on farms), preventing issues such as nutrients removal, using flood-tolerant crops and reducing soil subsidence. Various pros and cons of the proposed agricultural eco-services are discussed - the advantages include flexibility for participating farmers to achieve environmental outcomes with reduced costs and using innovative incentives; the minuses include the fact that the potential markets are not developed yet or that existing regulations may prevent agricultural producers from selling their services.

  2. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-season drainage in flooded rice is known to reduce CH4 emission, while effects on N2O emission are more variable. Banning of crop-residue burning, and growing markets for organically fertilized rice, are resulting in systems with larger reactive C input, and potentially larger methane emissions. Tight farming systems with 2 or 3 annual crops are effective in mitigating emissions, in that the land sparing value is high, but put serious constraints on mitigation options under increased C input scenarios. In a series of field (Cambodia, Philippines and Vietnam) and greenhouse experiments, we investigated the effect of a variety of organic amendments and wetting and drying cycles on yield and GHG emissions. Specifically we have tested the effect of inserting very early, or even-pre-planting drainage, as a means to accelerate turnover of straw or other C sources, and reduce methane emission later in the season. Overall, our results showed that drying periods had minimal impact on yields, while reducing overall GHG emission. Methane emission was strongly controlled by C availability in the substrate (on equal total C-input basis), increasing in the order: biochar-composts-animal manure-fresh material. Nitrous oxide emissions generally increased with draining cycles, but did not lead to overall increase in GHG emissions as its contribution was balanced by lowered CH4 emissions. Growth chamber experiments showed that methane emission was significantly reduced for extended periods after re-flooding, hence the idea of early drainage was developed. Meanwhile, Cambodian farmers expressed concerns over re-supply of water after drainage. In response to that, we tested if early-season drainage could replace mid-season drainage. With addition of labile carbon substrates (straw) duration of early season drainage was more important for reducing GHG emissions, than duration of mid-season drainage, and had the highest potential for total emission reduction. In a farmers

  3. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  4. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  5. Professional transitions towards sustainable farming systems: The development of farmers' professional worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoît; Béguin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    While farming in France and generally in Europe is continuing to intensify, at the expense of its environmental sustainability, promising alternatives are emerging. The processes whereby farmers change and transform their own work, to shift from an intensive mode of production to a self-sufficient and autonomous one, need to be formalized if we are to further our understanding of why and how these forms of sustainable farming activity emerge. We use the development of professional worlds theory, a systemic representation of workers' activity, whereby their experience is formalized. This can be explained as the praxis1, conceptual and axiological underpinnings form a system with the object of the action. The development of a professional world is analyzed according to the evolution of its components and the search for pragmatic coherence within it. We analyzed professional transitions towards self-sufficient and autonomous mixed farming through a case study. Our findings showed that the transition is initiated by the discovery of the unthinkable, awareness of a discrepancy between what the farmers think and what they do, the appearance of problems, and the response to external constraints. Professional transition is a non-teleological and non-incremental process; it corresponds to a comparison with reality, and a resolution of difficulties. This process is stimulated by the use of artifacts instrumented by the farmers. New perspectives are opened up by this formalization of transitions, in terms of (i) support towards sustainable farming and (ii) the design of sustainable farming systems.

  6. What can organic agriculture contribute to sustainable development? – Long-term comparisons of farming systems in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Zundel, Ch.; Kilcher, L.; Mäder, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high demand for sound data on the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of organic agriculture in developing countries, systematic comparison of organic and conventional farming systems has not so far been carried out. The Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL), together with its partners, is presently establishing long-term comparisons of farming systems in various agro-ecological and agro-economic contexts to study the different parameters that are essential for s...

  7. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved

  8. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  9. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  10. Organic dairy farms in the EU: Productions systems, economics and future development

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly considered in the European Common Agricultural Policy. Sound evaluations of the effects of policy measures on organic farms in the EU are needed to face the challenges in future policy design. The effects of various policy scenarios on profitability and development strategies of typical organic dairy farms are analysed for the EU countries––Germany, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy. Based on an approach which links simulation modelling and focus groups con...

  11. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly......, it provides a theory of functional differentiation and structural couplings that opens up for a new approach to look at sustainability by way of decoupling, recoupling and new forms of coupling.......In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...

  12. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  13. Development of Farm Records Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm records are mostly manually kept on paper notebooks and folders where similar records are organized in one folder or spread sheet. These records are usually kept for many years therefore they becomes bulky and less organized. Consequently, it becomes difficult to search, update and tedious and time consuming to manage these records. This study was carried-out to overcome these problems associated with manual farm records keeping by developing user-friendly, easily accessible, reliable and secured software. The software was limited records keeping in crop production, livestock production, poultry production, employees, income and expenditure. The system was implemented using Java Server Faces (JSF for designing Graphical User Interface (GUI, Enterprises Java Beans (EJB for logic tier and MySQL database for storing farm records.

  14. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  15. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  16. Rainwater harvesting potential for farming system development in a hilly watershed of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Mohabbat Ullah, Md.; Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Hossain, Sahadat

    2017-09-01

    Water resources management is an important part in farming system development. Agriculture in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh is predominantly rainfed with an average 2210 mm monsoonal rain, but rainfall during dry winter period (December-February) is inadequate for winter crop production. The natural soil water content (as low as 7 %) of hillslope and hilltop during the dry season is not suitable for shallow-rooted crop cultivation. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of monsoonal rainwater harvesting and its impact on local cropping system development. Irrigation facilities provided by the managed rainwater harvesting reservoir increased research site's cropping intensity from 155 to 300 %. Both gravity flow irrigation of valley land and low lift pumping to hillslope and hilltop from rainwater harvesting reservoir were much more economical compared to forced mode pumping of groundwater because of the installation and annual operating cost of groundwater pumping. To abstract 7548 m3 of water, equivalent to the storage capacity of the studied reservoirs, from aquifer required 2174 kWh energy. The improved water supply system enabled triple cropping system for valley land and permanent horticultural intervention at hilltop and hillslope. The perennial vegetation in hilltop and hillslope would also conserve soil moisture. Water productivity and benefit-cost ratio analysis show that vegetables and fruit production were more profitable than rice cultivation under irrigation with harvested rainwater. Moreover, the reservoir showed potentiality of integrated farming in such adverse area by facilitating fish production. The study provides water resource managers and government officials working with similar problems with valuable information for formulation of plan, policy, and strategy.

  17. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  18. Development of Organic Farming in Europe at the Crossroads: Looking for the Way Forward through System Archetypes Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, policymakers and stakeholders in the European Union (EU have put considerable effort into increasing the adoption of organic farming, with the overall objective of its sustainable development. However, the growth of the organic sector has come with many challenges that jeopardize its sustainability. The question then is how to move organic farming in Europe forward and at the same time capitalize on its potential contribution to sustainability? Organic farming in the EU is a highly complex and dynamic food system and as such this question cannot be answered in isolation using a one-dimensional mind-set and tools of the past. In this paper, we use three system archetypes—Limits to Growth, Shifting the Burden and Eroding Goals—to sharpen our ability: (1 to analyze and anticipate difficulties in the development of organic farming in the EU under the current policy measures; and (2 to find effective ways to address these difficulties. A system archetype consists of a generic system structure that leads to unintended behavior over time and effective strategies for changing the structure into one that generates desirable behavior. The analysis reveals that in order to move forward, policymakers and stakeholders should reemphasize fundamental solutions rather than quick fixes that often generate unintended consequences. Specifically, Limits to Growth shows us that the leverage for moving organic farming out of the niche does not necessarily lie in increasing subsidies that push engines of growth, but rather in anticipating and managing its limits arising from, for instance, market dynamics or intrinsic environmental motivation. In turn, Shifting the Burden brings to attention how easily and unnoticeably the EU’s organic farming system can become dependent on third countries thereby undermining its own sustainability. Finally, Eroding Goals highlights that is it important to continuously improve regulatory standards

  19. Development of Distributed Simulation Platform for Power Systems and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The study of wind power system strongly relies on simulations in all kinds of methods. In industry, the feasibility and efficiency of wind power projects also will be verified by simulations at first. However, taking time cost and economy into consideration, simulations in large scales often sacr...... and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management System (EMS), etc. to realize non-real-time semiphysical simulation for wind farm and power system control researches....

  20. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been

  1. Systems Engineering Applied to the Development of a Wave Energy Farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Malins, Robert Joseph; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    A motivation for undertaking this stakeholder requirements analysis and Systems Engineering exercise is to document the requirements for successful wave energy farms to facilitate better design and better design assessments. A difficulty in wave energy technology development is the absence to date of a verifiable minimum viable product against which the merits of new products might be measured. A consequence of this absence is that technology development progress, technology value, and technology funding have largely been measured, associated with, and driven by technology readiness, measured in technology readiness levels (TRLs). Originating primarily from the space and defense industries, TRLs focus on procedural implementation of technology developments of large and complex engineering projects, where cost is neither mission critical nor a key design driver. The key deficiency with the TRL approach in the context of wave energy conversion is that WEC technology development has been too focused on commercial readiness and not enough on the stakeholder requirements and particularly economic viability required for market entry.

  2. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lesmes Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries.

  3. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  4. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.3 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.3 Software development and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling routines of the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM version 4.2) and Dairy Gas Emission Model (DairyGEM version 3.2), two whole-farm simulation models developed and maintained by USDA-ARS, were revised with new components for: (1) simulation of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas emissions gene...

  5. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  6. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power...... systems are illustrated....

  7. Development of an Upper Limb Power Assist System Using Pneumatic Actuators for Farming Lift-up Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Harada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    A power assist system has lately attracted considerable attention to lifting-up an object without low back pain. We have been developing power assist systems with pneumatic actuators for the elbow and shoulder to farming support of lifting-up a bag of rice weighing 30kg. This paper describes the mechanism and control method of this power assist system. The pneumatic rotary actuator supports shoulder motion, and the air cylinder supports elbow motion. In this control method, the surface electromyogram(EMG) signals are used as input information of the controller. The joint support torques of human are calculated based on the antigravity term of necessary joint torques, which are estimated on the dynamics of a human approximated link model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and control method of the power assist system.

  8. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Ivan; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...

  9. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...

  10. Developing farm-level sustainability indicators for Ireland using the Teagasc National Farm Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an expanding, export-dependent agri-food sector, indicators of sustainable development and intensification are necessary to measure, assess and verify the comparative advantage afforded by Ireland’s natural pastoral-based food production systems. Such indicators are also necessary to ensure that we produce more food with less adverse impacts on the Irish environment, climate and society. This article outlines the development of farm-level indicators that refect the multifaceted nature of sustainability, which is encompassed in economic, environmental and social indicators. The role of innovation in farm sustainability was also examined. A comparison of indicators across Irish farm systems showed that dairy farms, followed by tillage farms, tended to be the most economically and socially sustainable farm systems. In relation to greenhouse gas emissions in particular, the top-performing dairy farms, in an economic sense, also tended to be the best-performing farms from an environmental sustainability perspective. This trend was also evident in relation to the adoption of innovative practices on farm, which was found to be strongly correlated with economic performance.

  11. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  13. Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzhyk Kateryna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling. The paper presents a dynamic simulation system of sustainable development scenarios on farms using cognitive modeling. The system incorporates relevant variables which affect the sustainable development of farms. Its user provides answers to strategic issues connected with the level of farm sustainability over a long-term perspective of dynamic development. The work contains a description of the model structure as well as the results of simulations carried out on 16 farms in northern Ukraine. The results show that the process of sustainability is based mainly on the potential for innovation in agricultural production and biodiversity. The user is able to simulate various scenarios for the sustainable development of a farm and visualize the influence of factors on the economic and social situation, as well as on environmental aspects. Upon carrying out a series of simulations, it was determined that the development of farms characterized by sustainable development is based on additional profit, which serves as the main motivation for transforming a conventional farm into a sustainable one. Nevertheless, additional profit is not the only driving force in the system of sustainable development. The standard of living, market condition, and legal regulations as well as government support also play a significant motivational role.

  14. Solar Farm Development in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Hillier, David; Comfort, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – Solar energy is the most abundant of all renewable energy sources and the development pressures for solar farms have grown rapidly in the last five years within the UK. With this in mind the purpose of this paper is to offer a general review of solar farm development in the UK.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The paper begins with a description of the characteristics of solar farms, outlines the solar farm market in the UK and discusses the planning policies and issues as...

  15. Effects of addition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and substrates for periphyton developments on pond ecology and production in C/N-controlled freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Benerjee, S.; Akter, T.; Hasan, M.M.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of addition of tilapia and substrates for periphyton development on pond ecology, production and economic performances in C/N controlled freshwater prawn farming system. The absence and presence (0 and 0.5 individual m- 2) of tilapia were investigated in

  16. From rainfall to farm incomes - transforming advice for managing climate risk in Australia. Part I: Development and testing of a bioeconomic modelling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokic, P.; Nelson, R.; Meinke, H.B.; Potgieter, A.; Carter, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report the development of a bioeconomic modelling system, AgFIRM, designed to help close a relevance gap between climate science and policy in Australia. We do this by making a simple econometric farm income model responsive to seasonal forecasts of crop and pasture growth for the

  17. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  18. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  19. Farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the perception of opportunities for farm development is researched in this thesis in relation to differences in the embedding of the farm in the socio-material context. This study contributes to a Sociology of Entrepreneurship in focusing on the decision-maker specific aspects using

  20. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goa...... development of smallholder systems, how genetic diversity of smallholder systems supports adaptation to climate change, and the capacity of smallholder systems to simultaneously produce marketable timber and agricultural crops....

  1. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date

  2. Economic value of management information systems in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on developing and testing methods to determine the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in livestock farming Methods were first applied to evaluating MIS in pig farming. Economic value of MIS arises from the fact that farmers

  3. ANALISIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI LAHAN PASANG SURUT UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI WILAYAH (An Analysis Integrated Farming System in Tidal Swamp Land to Support Regional Agroindustrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed to the efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing the use of agriculture and livestock by-products. Each chain of cycle resulted a new product that has high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize the empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The objective of this research was to analyze integrated farming system in tidal swamp land to support agroindustry development in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. This research was done with survey and interview method in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. Primary data was collected from May 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the management of agro-based enterprises integrated farming (rice, coffee and cattle obtained by the BC Ratio = 1.09, (greater than 1, IRR = 16,7% greater than the rate bank interest rate (12% and NPV values obtained for Rp 37,349,080 is positive (+, then the utilization of integrated agro-based farming in tidal land eligible to be developed. Agro-industry development opportunities based integrated farming in tidal land in the future have a chance to be applied in other areas, it can anticipate the growing number of people who have added each year. Keywords: Integrated farming system analysis, tidal swamp land, agroindustry   ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian terpadu diarahkan pada upaya memperpanjang siklus biologis dengan mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan hasil samping pertanian dan peternakan. Setiap mata rantai siklus menghasilkan produk baru yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi, sehingga dengan sistem ini diharapkan pemberdayaan dan pemanfaatan lahan marginal di seluruh daerah dapat lebih dioptimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sistem usahatani terpadu (Integrated Farming System di lahan pasang surut untuk mendukung pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Pulang Pisau Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode survei dan wawancara

  4. Exploring options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:land use system, modeling, farming system, future-oriented studies, vegetables,

    The sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay requires the development of farming systems that contribute

  5. Farming Systems of the African Savanna

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agronomic and Livestock Aspects. 126. Mixed Farming Systems. 127. Social Aspects. 131. Modernization. 131. Motivation. 132. Risk Aversion. 132. Incentives ...... For example, they quote data for Zaria and Bauchi (Table 11) that show that over 50% of the total labour time on the farm is concentrated in the cropping season ...

  6. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  7. ANEMOS: Development of a next generation wind power forecasting system for the large-scale integration of onshore and offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniotakis, G.; Anemos Team

    2003-04-01

    offshore wind farms taking into account advances in marine meteorology (interaction between wind and waves, coastal effects). The benefits from the use of satellite radar images for modeling local weather patterns are investigated. A next generation forecasting software, ANEMOS, will be developed to integrate the various models. The tool is enhanced by advanced Information Communication Technology (ICT) functionality and can operate both in stand alone, or remote mode, or be interfaced with standard Energy or Distribution Management Systems (EMS/DMS) systems. Contribution: The project provides an advanced technology for wind resource forecasting applicable in a large scale: at a single wind farm, regional or national level and for both interconnected and island systems. A major milestone is the on-line operation of the developed software by the participating utilities for onshore and offshore wind farms and the demonstration of the economic benefits. The outcome of the ANEMOS project will help consistently the increase of wind integration in two levels; in an operational level due to better management of wind farms, but also, it will contribute to increasing the installed capacity of wind farms. This is because accurate prediction of the resource reduces the risk of wind farm developers, who are then more willing to undertake new wind farm installations especially in a liberalized electricity market environment.

  8. Development of an appropriate resource information system to support agricultural management at farm enterprise level : a prototype design for a decision support system in Moghan Agro-industrial Complex, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes development of and experimentation with a prototype of an appropriate resource information system that improves decision making processes in farm management The system includes a geographic information system with a powerful process model that forms a decision support

  9. FARM OPERATIONS FACING DEVELOPMENT: RESULTS FROM THE CENSUS LONGITUDINAL FILE

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines farms in areas undergoing development, using a longitudinal file constructed by linking several agricultural censuses. Individual farms are followed over the 1982-97 period. Survival, exit, and entrance rates are presented for three types of farms: recreational, adaptive, and traditional. The three types of farms are located where one would expect. Traditional farms are concentrated in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) counties, while adaptive farms are concentrated in metro core...

  10. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Pierik; Urban Axelsson; Emil Eriksson; Daniel Salomonsson; Pavol Bauer; Balazs Czech

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical an...

  11. Influence of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In different parts of the world, there is an urgent need for redesigning and innovating farming systems. Such a process may be supported by model-based explorations that enable ex-ante evaluation of a broad range of alternatives. Since a variety of viable patterns of farm development exists related

  12. Characterization of the spatial distribution of farming systems in the Kenyan Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, J.A.; Verburg, P.H.; Baltenweck, I.; Staal, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change maps are not sufficient to identify subtle changes in land use and farming systems. This paper describes a method that is developed to identify the spatial distribution of farming system types without the need to extensively map all farming systems across a large region. Moreover,

  13. Farm-scale biogas development in Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Biogaskontor, Obermarchtal (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    This work provides a description of the development of farm-scale plants in Bayern and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The historical development is explained as well as the technical. Main topics are digester concepts, stirring system and co-generation with dual-fuel and gas-engines. (au)

  14. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  15. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  16. Economic value of management information systems in pig farming

    OpenAIRE

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on developing and testing methods to determine the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in livestock farming Methods were first applied to evaluating MIS in pig farming. Economic value of MIS arises from the fact that farmers have limited time, motivation or skills to decide consistently. Therefore, positive research approaches that derive MIS benefits from actual decision making of farmers, such as survey studies and eco...

  17. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental issues in the agricultural sector in Iran is the absence of optimal water and soil resources utilization and lack of new agricultural science and technology adoption through major prevailing transformations in agricultural land exploitation system. The studies conducted in the history of agricultural development in Iran cast light on the fact that the farming system’s role in the agricultural development in Iran is of great importance. And water and soil resources utilization has been one of the fundamental issues of agriculture which has enjoyed major consideration after the implementation of land restructuring. The agriculture farming systems are referred to as the focus of all activities related to sustainable agricultural development in Iran and it is believed that the shift and transition from traditional agriculture to modern and profitable agriculture through appropriate, improved and newly developed agricultural establishments are the major activities which can increase productivity and improve the overall performance of the agricultural sector and thus contribute to sustainable development more than any other factor. Hence, such significance will be more evident when the small and scattered farmlands in many cases have imposed some limitations in the application of agricultural techniques and machinery, equipping and developing the infrastructure and efficient use of resources with appropriate performance forcing agricultural policymakersto be always looking for ways to deal with it. Therefore, identifying the relative advantage of any farming system specified for each area and region in the country seems important. Accordingly, the Mazandaran province is regarded as one of the production hubs in producing crops such as rice, wheat and canola in the country playing a major role in supplying food. With a detailed analysis of research literature, the economic, ecological, social, technical and policy

  18. IPS – An Information Production System for Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the process of base fertilisation in the context of Precision Farming, IT support for the corresponding service processes was developed as part of a research project. Applying the methods of service engineering, a software system that supports an efficient and transparent service provision was developed in the IPS project (Information Production System for Precision Farming. The paper shows the methodological approach of the project, the potential for innovation of the developed software system and discusses the results. Thereby, the findings presented in this paper can be regarded as an exemplary application of service engineering which may also be advantageous for similar service-orientated agricultural sectors.

  19. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  20. Asset Based Community Driven Development Method For Agrotourism Development On Integrated Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Syah, Muhammad; Zakariah, Muhammad Askari; Zakariah, Muhammad; Azis, Muhammad Asra

    2017-01-01

    This community based research aim to determined effect asset based community driven development (ABCD) method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system were done in Mowewe district, East Kolaka Regency. Qualitative method were used participant observation developed. Approach stage of ABCD method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system are: discovering strengths, organizing and mapping, lingking and mobilizing, community driven initiatives and sustaining the pro...

  1. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  2. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all...... sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...... model searching for an optimal match between farm attributes and spatial characteristics subject to consistency constraints. The objective functions are derived from a Bayesian highest posterior density framework. The allocation procedure recovers the spatial farm type distributions satisfactorilly...

  3. The Farm as an Educative Tool in the Development of Place Attachments among Irish Farm Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the educative role of the farm in the development of relationships between young people and the homeplace they grew up on. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with a cohort of 30 Irish university students (15 men and 15 women) brought up on Irish family farms who would not become full-time farmers. The farm acts as…

  4. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  5. Initiative for Future Agricultural Food Systems (IFAFS) From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Viability and School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Improving the nutritional value of school meals is a growing priority among school systems across the United States. To assist in this effort, the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) funded a coalition, which developed a new program called "From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Viability and School…

  6. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  7. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  8. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G

    2012-01-01

    and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research–development philosophy. The importance...... the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification...

  9. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  10. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh VEISI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the main barriers to development of organic farming system in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Statistical population in this study consisted of all farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. Applying stratified random sampling method, 137 farmers were selected as a sample. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin16 software. Principal component analysis was used as main statistical technique to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis revealed that 4 factors including “Infrastructural”, “technical-managerial”, “economic-financial” and “educational” explained 42.36 percent of the variance. Results of this study have applications for agriculture development policy- makers for development of organic farming in Iran.

  11. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind Farm Design and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  12. Farming systems in two less favoured areas in portugal: their development from 1989 to 2009 and the implications for sustainable land management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, N.M.; Graaff, de J.; Duarte, F.; Rodrigo, I.; Poortinga, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, sustainable land management is one of the objectives of the European Commission in Less Favoured Areas. In this paper, we investigate the economic and environmental sustainability of farming systems in two less favoured areas in Centro and Alentejo areas of Portugal. The

  13. Region-wise development of prototypes of integrated arable farming and outdoor horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands integrated arable farming systems (IFS) are being developed at three regional experimental farms, with region-specific crop rotations and cropping systems. Most pesticide and fertilizer inputs appear to be replacable by non-chemical methods and organic manure, with economic

  14. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  15. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    systems and reduce yield gaps when they occur. Because single diversified farming system practices, such as crop rotation, influence multiple ecosystem services, such research should be holistic and integrated across many components of the farming system. Detailed agroecological research especially is needed to develop crop- and region-specific approaches to control of weeds, diseases, and pests.

  16. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  17. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical s...

  18. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure.

  19. TANK FARM REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN EXERCISE IN TECHNICAL and REGULATORY COLLABORATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Tank Farm Remediation Technology Development Project at the Hanford Site focuses on waste storage tanks, pipelines and associated ancillary equipment that are part of the C-200 single-shell tank (SST) farm system located in the C Tank Farm. The purpose of the project is to obtain information on the implementation of a variety of closure activities and to answer questions on technical, operational and regulatory issues associated with closure

  20. Optimization of Electrical System for Offshore Wind Farms via a Genetic Algorithm Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua

    Offshore wind farms seem to be more attractive than onshore farms. However, offshore wind farms cost more money than onshore wind farms in both installation and maintenance. Due to the fast development of power electronics, more kinds of configurations of offshore wind farm are possible, which lead...... to very different costs, system reliability, power quality, and power losses etc. Therefore, the optimization of electrical system design for offshore wind farms becomes more and more necessary. There are two tasks in this project: 1) the first one is to construct an algorithm for finding the capacity......, and the LTC limitation of transformers, the power generation limits and the voltage operation range are considered as the constraints. The optimization method combined with probabilistic analysis is used to obtain the capacity of a given wind farm site. The OES-OWF is approached by Genetic Algorithm (GA...

  1. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhee Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certification systems for rice farming, including organic farming, non-pesticide farming, and low-pesticide farming. For this study, we constructed a life cycle inventory (LCI of rice farming systems including conventional, low-pesticide, non-pesticide, and organic farming systems in South Korea. Finally, we compared international farming systems in South Korea, the U.S., and the EU. The rice farming systems with eco-labeling certifications have reduced the environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of rice farming by country were highest in the U.S. (100.0, followed by the EU (53.7, and Korea’s conventional (48.6, low-pesticide (35.8, non-pesticide (28.9, and organic (16.7 farming practices. These results may be useful in proliferating and improving the methodology to evaluate eco-labeling and carbon labeling systems.

  2. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could...... moderately attractive to fish. Also investigations into the effects on fish and fish behaviour from electromagnetic fields were made at Nysted. Data documented some effects from the cable route on fish behaviour, with some species avoiding the cable, while other species were attracted. However, only flounder...

  3. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  4. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic,

  5. A participatory framework to identify Gross National Happiness Issues for the development of smallholder mixed farming systems in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory methodological framework to identify Gross National Happiness (GNH) issues at the smallholder level in Bhutan. GNH is a development paradigm of Bhutan that has increasingly drawn international attention. Its four pillars are sustainable and equitable socioeconomic

  6. A perspective for rural development based on the dairy-farming production system in Iporá and surroundings, Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaique Moreira Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the dairy-farming production system in Iporá and adjacent municipalities. In the present work 257 interviews were conducted from April to November 2013 in several locations. Mean milk production per farm was 207.9 liters/day and dairy cow yield was 7.8 liters/day. The indicators of pasture degradation was high (n=111/63.8%. Natural breeding was more frequent (n=155/82.4% than artificial insemination (n=33/17.6%. Milking cows manually was more frequent (n=146/82.9% than mechanical milking (n=30/17.1%. The most predominant milking construction was the roofless shed with packed earth floor (n=98/63.2%. Milk quality may be reduced due to certain procedures adopted during milking (48 herdsmen dry the saliva of the calf on the teat surface with the cow tail, 63 herdsmen remove the saliva of the calf on the teat surface by hand and dry it on the cow coat, and 67 herdsmen remove the saliva of the calf on the teat surface by hand and dry it on their pants. Vaccination against leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and neosporosis was low (n=26, 24, 20 and 7, respectively. The dairy-farming production system in Iporá and surroundings needs improvements to increase milk production and create opportunities for rural development.Uma perspectiva de desenvolvimento rural baseada no sistema de produção de leite em Iporá e adjacências, Estado de GoiásResumo: objetivou-se nesse estudo caracterizar o sistema de produção de leite em Iporá e municípios adjacentes. Realizaram-se 257 entrevistas entre abril e novembro de 2013 em diversos locais. A produção de leite por fazenda foi de 207,9 litros/dia e a produtividade/vaca foi de 7,8 litros/dia. Os indicadores de degradação de pastagens foram altos (n=111/63,8%. A monta natural foi mais frequente (n=155/82,4% que a inseminação artificial (n=33/17,6%. A ordenha manual foi mais frequente (n=146/82,9% que a mecânica (n=30

  7. Strategic planning for wood farming development (Case study: Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeedeh Khayati Nezhad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood farming is one of the strategies of agricultural development programs to reform unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. Poplar is one of the known species for wood farming in the country. This species is fast-growing and has numerous Colognes has the ability to adapt to different climatic conditions. Fast growth, good economic returns and traditional agricultural knowledge, favorable habitat to agriculture are advantages of poplar for agricultural development. However, the result of previous studies indicates existing barriers to the development of plantation and its development need strategic planning. What seem essential today are strategies to overcome these obstacles. Accordingly, this present study with a holistic view trying to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of poplar farming. And the most appropriate strategies for the development of poplar farming in Urmia have offered. This research was a Field study and conducted using questionnaires. In this study, strategies were defined using SWOT analysis and the strategies were prioritized using analysis network process. The results showed the history of poplar farming in this region is the most important benefit to development and the many uses for poplar wood is the next priority. Increasingly replacement of poplar farming with alternative cultures is one of the main weaknesses of poplar farming development in this region. After that long return of profitability in poplar farming is the second priority. The most important opportunities for the development were the development of credit specialists to support of poplar farming and the most important threat was lack of annual financing of farmers. Also the results of strategic prioritization showed, Modern irrigation methods to reduce water consumption and planning to teach correct principles of technical planting, farming and harvesting are considered as the most important strategies.

  8. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO 2  ha −1  yr −1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop–livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms. (paper)

  9. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  10. Contract farming and the development of smallholder agricultural businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contract farming has received renewed attention recently as developing economies try to grapple with how to transform the agricultural sector and its associated value chains. This book examines different contract arrangements for selected crops, applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches...... in order to examine how contract farming affects smallholders and value chain dynamics in Tanzania....

  11. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Kass, Philip H; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized "BRD positive" if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to

  12. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  14. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  15. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can......As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...

  16. A decision support system for strategic planning on pig farms

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Ge B.C.; Timmer, G. Th.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Eidman, V.R.; Vos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported on a decision support system (DSS) for strategic planning on pig farms. The DSS was based . on a stochastic simulation model of investment decisions (ISM). ISM described a farm with one loan and one building using 23 variables. The simulation model calculated the results of a strategic plan for an individual pig farm over a time horizon of a maximum of 20 years for a given scenario. For six distinct replacement strategies, regression metamodels were specified to describe t...

  17. Family farming between national development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda de Torres Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last ten years, Uruguay has pursued public policies aimed at expanding the collective capacity to decide about forms of land use planning, shaping relationships with the environment, and access to public resources. The same impulse has generated specific policies of recognition and support for family farming as a key component of a rural future with greater justice and the preservation of the rural lifestyle to which we aspire. However, the design of this objective competes with another reality of agricultural modernization, determined by corporate agriculture and mining, where the emergence of large-scale capital does not leave much room for collective participation. This article presents the case of a small country, with agricultural potential, that initiated specific policies to support family farming and decentralization during the past decade, but those initiatives have to coexist with economic policies that still favor big business.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP AGROINDUSTRI BERBASIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI WILAYAH PASANG SURUT BAGIAN I: (KONSEP PEMIKIRAN The Concept Development of Agroindustry Based on Integrated Farming System at Tidal Swamp Land Areas Chapter I: Conceptual Thinkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed in efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing use of agriculture and livestock products. Each chain of cycle resulted new product that have high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The problems encountered in agricultural systems in tidal swamp land in general, i.e; (a limitations in the form of land, human resources, technology, and capital owned by farmers, then the potential of local resources need to be managed optimally, directed, integrated and sustainable with a view to improve land productivity and living standards of farmers by way of application of integrated farming systems by integrating crop and livestock based on the potential of local areas, and (b socio-economic problems and constraints in the development of food crops was due to a swamp area. The objective of this research was to produce integrated farming system concept to support agroindustry development in tidal swamp land in Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan province. This research was conducted with a book study method, which identifies a system consisting of integrated farming and agroindustry systems. In the both identification is performed by the system includes four aspects, i,e; economic aspects, technical aspects, social aspects of cultural and environmental. Integrated farming systems concept in tidal swamp land was generated from the production of integrated farming systems should first be processed through the processing system (agroindustry in the form of home industry, or using a mechanical device. After that, it was carried out the marketing of products, systems concepts was expected to increase the added value of agricultural production (rice, coffee and cow. With the application of agroindustry systems in tidal swamp land Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan Province is expected to increase the economic income of farmers in

  19. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  20. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  1. Integration of Rural Aquaculture into Small Scale Farming Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many parts of Niger Delta, farming and fishing activities are the predominant occupation of the people living in the rural areas. To improve the livelihood of the people and to enhance their economy status, there is the need to integrate aquaculture (rearing of fish in ponds) into farming systems especially for the small ...

  2. Wildfires as dominant force driving farming systems in the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildfires have become very influential in the ecology and socio-economic aspects of the rural landscape in the transition zone of Ghana. Eight farming communities around four forest reserves with short fire-return intervals were studied to determine major changes in farming systems that can be attributed to wildfires.

  3. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  4. Mapping Farming Practices in Belgian Intensive Cropping Systems from Sentinel-1 SAR Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chome, G.; Baret, P. V.; Defourny, P.

    2016-08-01

    The environmental impact of the so-called conventional farming system calls for new farming practices reducing negative externalities. Emerging farming practices such as no-till and new inter-cropping management are promising tracks. The development of methods to characterize crop management across an entire region and to understand their spatial dimension offers opportunities to accompany the transition towards a more sustainable agriculture.This research takes advantage of the unmatched polarimetric and temporal resolutions of Sentinel-1 SAR C- band to develop a method to identify farming practices at the parcel level. To this end, the detection of changes in backscattering due to surface roughness modification (tillage, inter-crop cover destruction ...) is used to detect the farming management. The final results are compared to a reference dataset collected through an intensive field campaign. Finally, the performances are discussed in the perspective of practices monitoring of cropping systems through remote sensing.

  5. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  6. Formulating Rural Development Programmes to Aid Low-Income Farm Families

    OpenAIRE

    Findeis, Jill L.; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.

    1989-01-01

    Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...

  7. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...

  8. The development of wind farms in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.I.; Parkinson, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the UK, one of the main barriers to the development of wind farms has been obtaining the consent of the Local Planning Authorities to build wind farms due to their concern over the likely impact of wind turbines on the UK environment. This concern has resulted in several Public Enquiries and shown a need for the planners to have more information on the environmental effect of turbines and more guidance on its interpretation. The first part of this paper reviews progress in establishing operational capacity against this backcloth. The construction of wind farms is being used as an opportunity to monitor the environmental impact of wind turbines and to gain reliable data on their technical and economic performance. This second part of this paper outlines proposed monitoring activities at wind farms and describes recent investigations into several aspects of the environmental impact of wind turbines. (au)

  9. Effect of farming system changes on life cycle assessment indicators for dairy farms in the Italian Alps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penati, C.; Sandrucci, A.; Tamburini, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In some Alpine areas dairy farming is going through a process of intensification with significant changes in farming systems. The aim of this study was to investigate environmental performance of a sample of 31 dairy farms in an Alpine area of Lombardy with different levels of intensification. A

  10. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Gibbon, D.; Dedieu, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run and focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal intitiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. Sustainable

  11. Small - Scale Livestock Farming in Developing Areas of Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shortage of feed, poor breading practice, lack of production skills, poor infrastructure, livestock theft, inadequate veterinary services, poor marketing services, and poor extension services. Keywords: Small scale farmer, livestock farming, agricultural development, socio-economic development, developing areas, Swaziland ...

  12. Development of tourist product on the farms: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In marketing terms, rural tourism becomes significantly more important segment of the Serbian tourist offer. This kind of tourism has been developing in Vojvodina even on farms, as a specific form of traditional agricultural holding. This paper deals with the farms in the region of Bečej, development of farming tourism up to now, as well as the analysis of the standpoint of farmers, both those with and without experience in doing profitable business this way. Questionnaire was used as an instrument in this research and the results collected are aimed at the development of selective tourist offer with the specific packages to be offered, and the development on a viable tourism foundation taken into consideration.

  13. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  14. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  15. Ecological farming in protected areas as a factor in local development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to approximate the issue of the socio-economic development of the municipalities located in protected areas. In order to reconcile the requirements of environmental protection and to provide facilities for exploitation of its resources necessary to apply the principles of sustainable development and financial support of farms and enabled them to be maintained society for the development of systems of protected areas. In the protected areas examined municipalities of Northeast Poland,particularly desirable because of the adjustment to the requirements of environmental protection,is organic farming. It allows for more complete use of the existing productive potential and is apractical extension of the principles of sustainable development. Research has shown, the development of organic farming in the region is determined to a greater extent by economic and organizational factors thannatural conditions. Organic farms although created in communities where there are relatively large natural resources of the natural environment, as demonstrated by this study, the development of organic farming in the region is determined to a greater extent by economic and organizational factors than natural conditions. Changesin the Community agricultural policy followed towards the promotion and financial support farms and maintained in good ecological condition. When the impact of agriculture on the environment is negative oftenmay be takenadaptation actions, to minimize this impact without reducing production.

  16. Development of renewable energies apart from biomass on farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brule, K.; Pindard, A.; Jaujay, J.; Femenias, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance at the development of renewable energies in farms, apart those which are based on the production or use of biomass. Some indicators are defined (energy production and consumption). Stake holders are identified. Some retrospective major and emerging trends are discussed. The major trends are: growth and diversification of renewable energy production, calling to renewable energy production in farms. The emerging trends are: a recent increase of renewable energy production in farms apart from biomass, locally stressed land market, economic profitability of photovoltaic installations due to purchase tariffs. Some prospective issues are discussed: technical support, financial support, development of other energy sources, and tax policy on fossil energy used in agriculture. Three development hypotheses are discussed

  17. Evaluation of ecofriendly management practices of french beanrust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in organic farming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetry, G. K. N.; Mangang, H. C.

    2012-09-01

    Organic farming system emphasises on sustainable development of agriculture. The traditional agriculture system was much akin to the organic system but modernization of agriculture made a shift to this trend. The north east region of India is potential organic farming sites. Most of the farming systems are traditional and are organic by default; however crops in organic farming are prone to many fungal diseases. Hence for validation of the impact of organic practices on the disease development of plants, a study has been conducted for three years under natural environmental conditions on bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Study includes ecofriendly practices like: plant extract treatment, intercropping of beans with maize, organic manure application, influence of cropping season and Trichoderma treatment. Rust is a major prevalent disease in the cultivation of beans as in other parts of the world. Detailed study of the disease in the organic environment and the impact of various treatments and agricultural agronomic practices would help in validation of the practices for the management of the disease in the organic farming system. In our study for three consecutive years it has been revealed that the practices of the traditional farmers likeplant extract application, intercropping, and manure application were found to have significant positive effects in reducing rust development in the bean fields. The treatment of farm yard manure resulted in development of lesser area under disease progress curve. The plant extract of Artemisia vulgaris has marked positive impact on reducing rust disease parameters. Foliar application of Trichoderma reduces the disease parameters of rust. This study would enhance information in understanding the impact of organic farming system on bean rust and would help in validitation of sustainable agricultural practices for use in organic farming system.

  18. Farm Entrepreneurs’ Intentions to Develop Pluriactive Business Activities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Niemelä

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the entrepreneurial intentions literature by applying the theory of planned behaviour and resource-based views to the model of active entrepreneurs’ intention to develop their pluriactive usinesses. Using our 2012 survey data from farm firms in Finland, we address the limited focus on active ntrepreneurs and their intentions to develop on-going income-generating, off-farm related business activities. We found that attitudinal proxy antecedents such as innovation, cooperation and growth for pluriactivity differ for active and non-active entrepreneurs and with respect to the entrepreneurs’ age and production line and innovation behaviour.

  19. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  20. Reliability Assessment of Wind Farm Electrical System Based on a Probability Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejun Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical system of a wind farm has a significant influence on the wind farm reliability and electrical energy yield. The disconnect switch installed in an electrical system cannot only improve the operating flexibility, but also enhance the reliability for a wind farm. Therefore, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique for integrating the electrical topology structure, the isolation operation of disconnect switch, and stochastic failure of electrical equipment into the reliability assessment of wind farm electrical system. Firstly, as the traditional two-state reliability model of electrical equipment cannot consider the isolation operation, so the paper develops a three-state reliability model to replace the two-state model for incorporating the isolation operation. In addition, a proportion apportion technique is presented to evaluate the state probability. Secondly, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique based on the thoughts that through transfer the unreliability of electrical system to the energy transmission interruption of wind turbine generators (WTGs. Finally, some novel indices for describing the reliability of wind farm electrical system are designed, and the variance coefficient of the designed indices is used as a convergence criterion to determine the termination of the assessment process. The proposed technique is applied to the reliability assessment of a wind farm with the different topologies. The simulation results show that the proposed techniques are effective in practical applications.

  1. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  2. Lessons Learned Developing an Extension-Based Training Program for Farm Labor Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Fritz M.; Thissen, Carlene A.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Morera, Maria C.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines a four-step model for developing a training program for farm labor supervisors. The model draws on key lessons learned during the development of the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Farm Labor Supervisor Training program. The program is designed to educate farm supervisors on farm labor laws…

  3. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  4. Differences in farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, Ron; Roep, Dirk; Verhees, Frans; Verstegen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically identifies differences between dairy farmers in their perception of opportunities for farm development. The construct ‘perceived Room for Manoeuvre’ (pRfM) is used which is defined as: ‘the opportunities perceived as viable in order to obtain a (substantial part of) business

  5. [Agricultural policies and farming systems: A case study of landscape changes in Shizuitou Village in the recent four decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yan-bin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural policy in China's rural heartland is driving profound changes to traditional farming systems. A case study covering four decades mapped and recorded farming patterns and processes in Shizuitou Village, a rural village in northwest Shanxi. An integrated geospatial methodology from geography and anthropology was employed in the case study to record the changing dynamics of farming systems in Shizuitou Village to discover the long-term impacts of China's agricultural policies on village farming systems. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural policies on village farming systems were mapped, inventoried and evaluated using Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). The results revealed traditional polycultures are being gradually replaced by industrialized monocultures. The driving forces behind these farming changes come from a series of government agricultural policies aiming at modernization of farming systems in China. The goal of these policies was to spur rapid development of industrial agriculture under the guise of modernization but is leading to the decay of traditional farming systems in the village that maintained local food security with healthy land for hundreds of years. The paper concluded with a recommendation that in future, agricultural policy makers should strike a more reasonable balance between short-term agricultural profits and long-term farming sustainability based on the principles of ecological sustainable development under the context of global changes.

  6. Structural development of livestock farms in a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    as a whole and in agriculture is seen. The vertical integration in the form of contract production and cooperative ownership is increasing in several places in the world. Labor emigration from agriculture is also a general feature during economic development, and this will intensify labor productivity......Structural development in agriculture has several international dimensions, and the topic is relevant and important for several reasons. There is a wide range of economic, structural and technological drivers that in a complex context both inhibits and promotes the structural development....... The structural development in agriculture and in the livestock sector has obvious international trends, where number, size, concentration, specialization of farms and herds change. While rich countries have fewer and larger farms, the development is just the opposite in a number of developing countries. The rich...

  7. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  8. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Environmental Management Systems by Crop and Livestock Farms in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe-Mudalige, Udith K.; Weersink, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    This study examines, both qualitative and quantitatively, the motivation for crop, livestock, and mixed (both crop and livestock) farms in Canada to behave environmentally responsibly by adopting Environmental Management Systems (EMS) in the farm and the impact of a number of human capital, financial, farm structure, and social characteristics of the farmer and/or the farm on this behavior. It uses the data from 16,053 farms that responded to the Farm Environmental Management Survey conducted...

  9. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    . The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...... and consumption of feed and less replacement animals in the herd....

  10. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...... systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... and possibilities for re-configuration of cropping and farming systems. The strategy evaluation will reveal synergies and trade-offs among objectives and their indicators at different scales under GIEC climatic scenarios. Since adaptation is context-specific, the project is based on “Adaptation Pilots” and local...

  11. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive

  12. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    consider the loss that may be experienced by others as the principles for profit has become very prominent. As a result the development of organic agriculture simply stuck into a commercial activity which would be a criticism of the founders One of the factors that led to the involvement of the government regulated organic farming is because of the bickering about what is called organic agricultural products and because many nonorganic products sold as organic products Organic farmers have difficulty in finding locally based seed for organic farming certification of organic farming has changed it is not just the assurance processes into a tradable commodity 3 The Benefits of Organic Farming in Support for Environmental Health organic farming gives a positive impact on public health because it does not cause environmental pollution water air soil by the residues of chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides. Besides organic farming also healthy communities through the provision of agricultural products that are free of pesticides and chemical fertilizer residues 4 The Social Development Model of Sustainable Organic Farming Sustainable agriculture organic farming seeks acre balance of three long-term goals namely a Social-cultural to create quality of life to satisfy personal and community needs for health food safety and happines b Environment to Enhance utilization of soil water air and other resourches limited c Economics to be profitable market forces. These objectives can be achieved if supported by organizational-oriented good governance principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if conducted prior social development within the broad scope of stakeholders 5 The Policy Recomendation for Organic Farming a National Strategic Agenda The Program Go Organic must be forwarded with the 2010 program Go Organic 2020 where the formulation of

  13. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  14. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  15. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  16. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  17. Component Analysis of Farming Systems With Relevance toFing~r ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpretation of farming systems. involves many aspects influencing the systems. Different components of farming systems have been categorized as cropping systems, the farm household system, livestock system and the interaction between these components and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to preface ...

  18. Sub system and component level safety classification evaluation and identification for tank farm safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    This document provides the safety classification, and classification rationale, for all elements of (some) Tank Farm Safety Systems identified in the Tank Farms Final Safety Analyses. It also contains the official Safety Equipment List (SEL) for the safety systems evaluated. The initial issue of this document does not address all Tank Farm safety systems. The remainder will be addressed, and incorporated in this document, in subsequent revisions

  19. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Dârlea, G.-L.; Dumitru, I.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.; Vâlsan, M. L.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web-based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  20. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large fish tank......, nitrogen is removed in a full-scale experimental set-up where sludge from the drum filter is hydrolysed and the VFAs generated used as energy-source for the denitrification process in separate tanks/filters. Final polishing follows in a constructed wetland. For the first 2 years of operation production...... will be focussed on rainbow trout production, mimicking the typical Danish net cage farming cycle, where the cages are stocked with fish of 750 – 1,000 g in April/May and all harvested before Christmas weighing some 4 kg/pcs. During these two years important production parameters such as growth-rate, feed...

  1. Sustainable development of smallholder crop-livestock farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, S.; Cicek, H.; Bell, L. W.; Norman, H. C.; Mayberry, D. E.; Kassam, S.; Hannaway, D. B.; Louhaichi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Meeting the growing demand for animal-sourced food, prompted by population growth and increases in average per-capita income in low-income countries, is a major challenge. Yet, it also presents significant potential for agricultural growth, economic development, and reduction of poverty in rural areas. The main constraints to livestock producers taking advantage of growing markets include; lack of forage and feed gaps, communal land tenure, limited access to land and water resources, weak institutions, poor infrastructure and environmental degradation. To improve rural livelihood and food security in smallholder crop-livestock farming systems, concurrent work is required to address issues regarding efficiency of production, risk within systems and development of whole value chain systems. This paper provides a review of several forage based-studies in tropical and non-tropical dry areas of the developing countries. A central tenet of this paper is that forages have an essential role in agricultural productivity, environmental sustainability and livestock nutrition in smallholder mixed farming systems.

  2. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  3. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  4. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...... of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher windspeeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation...

  5. PERSPECTIVE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN LUBUSKIE VOIVODSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda ZBOROWSKA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the development of organic farming in lubuskie voivodship. Presented in it analysis of changes in this production sector in recent years and identified critical factors for growth for this area of production in the nearest term. In analysis used statistic data coming from public statistics and public institutions dealing with agricul-tural production sector in Poland.

  6. Farming Systems of the African Savanna: A Continent in Crisis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Farmers in the parts of Africa where population growth is near, or has exceeded, the carrying capacity of the land at current technological levels face a serious crisis. This crisis is the result of the breakdown of traditional farming systems. The consequences are environmental deterioration on a massive scale, widespread ...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  8. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems’ deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional powerplants. Therefore, wind turbines also have ...

  9. Evaluation Of Farming Systems And Informal Insurance Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that adoption of risk management techniques, marketing strategies, souring of microcredit and improving information sources simultaneously, ensured higher income. Recommendations include encouraging farmers to adopt the most profitable farming systems and informal insurance measures as well as ...

  10. Farming Systems of the African Savanna : A Continent in Crisis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Farming Systems of the African Savanna : A Continent in Crisis. Auteur(s) : Andrew ... Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en vue d'un nouvel investissement de 25 millions de dollars canadiens à l'occasion du lancement de la... Voir davantageLe ...

  11. PERSPECTIVES OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF EMPIRICAL STUDY SURVEYED AMONG CONVENTIONAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kociszewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the perspectives of development of organic food supply in Poland. The work contains the results of the nationwide survey which was carried out among conventional farms’ owners. It was evaluated that – according to farmers’ declaration – organic farms number can be equal to 6.8-24.2% of all Polish farms. The main incentives influencing conversion into organic farming methods are health and environment care, satisfaction from work and agri-environmental subsidies. The main identified barriers are limited sales possibilities, low profitability of production, high labour intensity, high production cost, and low yield. In a long run the development of organic market could be stimulated by the increase of demand. In the middle time period, there is a need for the increase of subsidies rates which should be combined with the improvement of certification and control system.

  12. 76 FR 53362 - Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... marketing activities, and to farm-related businesses. The Farm Credit banks collectively issue debt securities in the national and international money markets through the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding...-AI91 Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs AGENCY...

  13. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  14. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...

  15. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, J E; Rotz, C A

    2013-06-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.

  16. Vertical farming monitoring system using the internet of things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yap Shien; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Vertical farming had become a hot topic among peak development countries. However, vertical farming is hard to practice because minor changes on the surrounding would leave big impact to the productivity and quality of farming activity. Thus, the aim of this project is to provide a vertical farming monitoring system to help keeping track on the physical conditions of crops. In this system, varieties of sensors will be used to detect current physical conditions, and send the data to BeagleBone Black (BBB) microcontroller either in analog or digital input. Then, the data will be processed by BBB and upload to the Thingspeak Cloud. Furthermore, the system will record the position of equipment in used, which make it easier for maintenance when there is equipment broken down. The system also provide basic remote function where users could turn on/off the watering system, and the LED light via web-based application. The web-based application will also be designed to analyze and display data gathered in the form of graphs, charts or figures, for better understanding. With the improvement implemented on the vertical farming culture, it is expected that the productivity and quality of crops would increase significantly.

  17. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  18. Sustainable Development? Controversies over Prawn Farming on Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Caplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world market for crustaceans has increased exponentially in recent years and so too have the number of production sites. However, the growth of this industry has not been without controversy, particularly regarding its environmental effects. In 2002, a large company based in Kenya applied to locate a prawn farm on Mafia Island, Tanzania, close to the Rufiji Delta. This scheme raised very differing views among various 'stakeholders': villagers living around the proposed site, the Mafia District Councillors (madiwan, government officials at varying levels, local and national activists (some in NGOs, the prawn farming company, and the experts whom they hired to produce environmental impact reports. There were opposing discourses around the rights of locals as citizens to retain control of 'their' resources, on the one hand, versus the needs of 'development' and the creation of jobs, on the other. There were also fierce debates about the importance and meaning of environment and sustainability, and the perceived role of corruption. This paper, based on fieldwork in 2002 and 2004, explores these complex debates and the ways in which the decision was finally made to allow the prawn farm to go ahead. It reveals the means by which the legal rights of citizens at the local level may be trumped by pressures emanating from those coming from above and outside who wield greater power.

  19. Development of Farming Diversification with Implementation Plant Patterns as a Strategy of Economic Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, S.; Setyohadi, D. P. S.; Utami, M. M. D.; Damanhuri; Hariono, B.

    2018-01-01

    Bojonegoro, Tulungagung, and Ponorogo districts are an agrarian area and become one of the leading food crops producers in East Java Province. Diversification of farming in this region is done by applying season-based cropping pattern, which is cultivating various commodities in rotation. Farmers need diversification programs wetland cannot provide an optimal contribution to the income of farmers caused because farmers are not able to cultivate high value-added commodities due to limited capital. This research is to identify the characteristics of farming and to analyse the farming system to know the pattern of planting suggestion and prospect. The research used descriptive method, profit farming analysis, and SWOT. The results showed that each region has a specific planting pattern with rice as the main commodity grown in the rainy season followed by crops and horticultural crops and a suggested planting pattern that needs to be implemented by farmers to increase their income. The prospect of diversification of farming development through the implementation of the proposed planting pattern is very suitable with the character of the region and the market demand.

  20. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  1. Mixing specialised farming systems in Flevoland (The Netherlands) : agronomic, environmental and socio-economic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Ven, van de G.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed farming systems have potential agronomic, environmental and socio-economic advantages over specialized farming systems. This paper attempts to quantify these advantages for the Dutch province Flevoland. A mixed farming system at regional level is characterized by intensive cooperation between

  2. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  3. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

     “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde” Isaurinda Baptista Summary Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  4. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  5. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

    “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Summary

    Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  6. Stakeholder co-development of farm level nutrient management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Cathal; Mechan, Sarah; Macken-Walsh, Aine; Heanue, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over the last number of decades intensification in the use nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural production has lead to excessive accumulations of these nutrients in soils, groundwaters and surface water bodies (Sutton et al., 2011). According to the European Environment Agency (2012) despite some progress diffuse pollution from agriculture is still significant in more than 40% of Europe's water bodies in rivers and coastal waters, and in one third of the water bodies in lakes and transitional waters. Recently it was estimated that approximately 29% of monitored river channel length is polluted to some degree across the Republic of Ireland. Agricultural sources were suspected in 47 per cent of cases (EPA, 2012). Farm level management practices to reduce nutrient transfers from agricultural land to watercourses can be divided into source reduction and source interception approaches (Ribaudo et al., 2001). Source interception approaches involve capturing nutrients post mobilisation through policy instruments such as riparian buffer zones or wetlands. Conversely, the source reduction approach is preventative in nature and promotes strict management of nutrient at farm and field level to reduce risk of mobilisation in the first instance. This has the potential to deliver a double dividend of reduced nutrient loss to the wider ecosystem while maximising economic return to agricultural production at the field and farm levels. Adoption and use of nutrient management plans among farmers is far from the norm. This research engages key farmer and extension stakeholders to explore how current nutrient management planning software and outputs should be developed to make it more user friendly and usable in a practical way. An open innovation technology co-development approach was adopted to investigate what is demanded by the end users - farm advisors and farmers. Open innovation is a knowledge management strategy that uses the input of stakeholders to improve

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A NUTRIENT MANGEMNENT PLAN AT THE FARM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dumitru

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At European level, people and policy makers start to feel very stronglyabout environment issues. The agricultural activities are the main nitrogen supply in soil, through application of the mineral and organic fertilizers doses. In order to optimize the crop production in order to avoid the environmental contamination with nitrates, a nutrient management plan at the farm/village level was developed. The software is an useful tool for the farmer and/or local stakeholders, as well as for local authorities.

  8. Landscape impact assessment of wind farm development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Garrad, A.D.; Morgan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chris Blandford Associates, in association with Garrad Hassan and Partners, was commissioned to carry out a landscape impact assessment of wind turbine development in Dyfed. The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek either to exclude or encourage wind turbine development; provide guidelines to assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape; provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments, as set out in the ''non-fossil fuel obligation'' and the draft planning policy guidance note for renewable energy published last December. (author)

  9. Technical and management support for the development of wind systems for farm, remote, and rural use. Annual report, October 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    During FY1977, the Test Center has been established and a total of eight WTG's have been mounted on towers for testing. At year end, five were undergoing tests, two had been returned to the manufacturers for retrofit of design improvement, and one had been destroyed in a wind storm. In addition, two WTG's were being assembled and prepared for testing and one machine was on order. Specific design improvements have been identified and implemented on two WTG's as a direct result of rf testing. The high-speed data acquisition system at the test center is not yet operational, though the hardware and software are both nearing completion. The system, when completed, will be capable of continuous monitoring of the performance of all the machines at the site as well as intensive testing for measurement of engineering data on any given WTG. Efforts under Task V (Standards Development) have resulted in an informal survey of the wind energy community's opinions on the direction Standards Development should take. Information dissemination has resulted in distribution of approximately 25,000 brochures, with a potential exposure of nearly 200,000 persons, construction of a traveling display, and continuous interface with local and national news media.

  10. The Development of a Virtual Farm for Applications in Elementary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Chang, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Yu, Kein-Fu; Hsieh, Kuen-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a virtual farm for educational applications. Users can play the role of a farmer by planting vegetables and raising poultry on the virtual farm to observe their growth through online learning activities. The virtual farm possesses educational and entertaining functions, and it is designed by simulating the real…

  11. Rural development and the role of game farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmans, Thijs; Hebinck, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of game farming is set in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Game farming reorders the use, meaning and value of land and animal species. However, what it means for rural development processes in the immediate region and beyond is not well accounted for. We perceive game farming as an

  12. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”. Little is known about the knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian citizens regarding food animal production systems. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production systems. Overall, our participants expressed a preference for free-range, cage-free, and more “natural” production systems. They also expressed concerns with livestock production systems that limited the movement or expression of natural behaviours, particularly those that they associated with animal suffering or distress. They recognized farm animals as deserving respect and dignity beyond the provision of basic needs. Our findings indicate that Brazil’s current farm animal housing practices that are associated with restriction of movement may not align with societal expectations. Abstract The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that

  13. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  14. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  15. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  16. A Web-Based Collaborative System for Remote Monitoring and Analysis of Livestock Farm Odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Pan, L. L.; Yang, S. X.

    Monitoring and analysis of livestock farm environments require collection and management of large amount of data from distributed farms. There is an increasing demand for collaboration among livestock producers, environment agencies and governments. This paper presents a collaborative system for

  17. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  18. INTELLIGENT CACHE FARMING ARCHITECTURE WITH THE RECOMMENDER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HIRANPONGSIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Quality of Services (QoS guaranteed by the Internet Service Providers (ISPs is an important factor for users’ satisfaction in using the Internet. The implementation of the web proxy caching has been implemented to support this objective and also support the security procedure of the organizations. However, the success of guaranteeing the QoS of each ISP must be depended on the cache size and efficient caching policy. This paper proposes a new architecture of cache farming with the recommender system concept to manage users’ requirements. This solution helps reducing the retrieval time and also increasing the hit rate although the number of users increases without expanding the size of caches in the farm.

  19. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  20. A Methodological Approach to Evaluate Livestock Innovations on Small-Scale Farms in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón García-Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was deepening the knowledge of livestock innovations knowledge on small-scale farms in developing countries. First, we developed a methodology focused on identifying potential appropriate livestock innovations for smallholders and grouped them in innovation areas, defined as a set of well-organized practices with a business purpose. Finally, a process management program (PMP was evaluated according to the livestock innovation level and viability of the small-scale farms. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of PMP on the economic viability of the farm. Information from 1650 small-scale livestock farms in Mexico was collected and the innovations were grouped in five innovation areas: A1. Management, A2. Feeding, A3. Genetic, A4. Reproduction and A5. Animal Health. The resulting innovation level in the system was low at 45.7% and heterogeneous among areas. This study shows the usefulness of the methodology described and confirms that implementing a PMP allows improving the viability an additional 21%, due to a better integration of processes, resulting in more efficient management.

  1. Smoothing of wind farm output power using prediction based flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farzana

    Being socially beneficial, economically competitive and environment friendly, wind energy is now considered to be the world's fastest growing renewable energy source. However, the stochastic nature of wind imposes a considerable challenge in the optimal management and operation of wind power system. Wind speed prediction is critical for wind energy conversion system since it greatly influences the issues related to effective energy management, dynamic control of wind turbine, and improvement of the overall efficiency of the power generation system. This thesis focuses on integration of energy storage system with wind farm, considering wind speed prediction in the control scheme to overcome the problems associated with wind power fluctuations. In this thesis, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with adjustable speed rotary machine has been considered for smoothing of output power in a wind farm composed of a fixed speed wind turbine generator (FSWTG). Since FESS has both active and reactive power compensation ability, it enhances the stability of the system effectively. An efficient energy management system combined with supervisory control unit (SCU) for FESS and wind speed prediction has been developed to improve the smoothing of the wind farm output effectively. Wind speed prediction model is developed by artificial neural network (ANN) which has advantages over the conventional prediction scheme including data error tolerance and ease in adaptability. The model for prediction with ANN is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and interfaced with PSCAD/EMTDC. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is illustrated using real wind speed data in various operating conditions.

  2. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  3. ORGANIC FARMING AS A DEVELOPMENT FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The market of organic products is now one of the fastest growing sectors of food production in the world and especially in the EU countries. The purpose of this article is to present the status of organic farming in Poland and in the EU countries and to show the impact of these products on sustainable consumption. The article uses data from FiBL, IFOAM and IJHARS. For the presentation of the data we used the time series, cluster analysis, and multidimensional clustering of features and objects. In Europe, in 2012, organic products were produced by approx. 320 thousand manufacturers with a total value of 22.8 billion euros, of which 250 thousand in the EU and its value amounted to 20.9 billion euros. In Poland 26 376 organic producers were registered and the value of organic products was valued at 650 thousand PLN. It is crucial for organic farming to invent capital into processing and distribution of organic products. This will provide for continual development and increase the consumer’s awareness of the importance of organic food for both their health and the environment.

  4. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  5. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  6. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  7. Steady-state Performance Analysis of Collector System Designs for Large-scale Offshore Wind Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez-Varela, G.; Ault, G.W.; McDonald, J.R. [Institute for Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, 204 George St., Glasgow G1 1XW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the steady-state performance of various designs for the electrical collector system of offshore wind farms and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each of these designs and their application within large-scale offshore developments. A series of power systems studies were carried out for a proposed 1 GW wind farm off the northeast coast of Scotland, with the plant set to generate at a range of power outputs in order to investigate the impact on the loading and losses of the collector system. The impact on voltage level changes on the busbars within the wind farm under various conditions of reactive power demand, i.e. considering both typical squirrel-cage machines (with typically low lagging power factors) and modern doubly-fed generators (with capability to vary power factor in lagging/leading ranges), was also investigated. In addition, for collector system designs with redundant cables, contingency conditions of losing one of the cables to the hub end were investigated. The overall results have lead to consider the application of 'single-sided ring' designs for large-scale offshore wind farms since it achieves fewer losses and also provides greater adequacy and reliability. Finally, the authors introduce an alternative design based on 'single-sided ring' arrangement which seems a more suitable option taking into account potential economic barriers from the original one-to-one design.

  8. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...

  9. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... for generators in wind turbine systems. However, despite all these advantageous features, the SRG has not been widely employed in wind energy applications. The most renowned technical disadvantages of the SRG are its nonlinearity and high torque ripples, which should be overcome to promote the application...... are presented to verify the feasibility and operational principles of the proposed converters. Finally, modelling and control of a dc-grid wind farm using one of the proposed dc-dc converters are presented. An average model provides insight into the overall performance of the system. Meanwhile, a switching...

  10. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  11. Farm scale biogas production; Gaardsbaserad biogasproduktion. System, ekonomi och klimatpaaverkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, Mats; Jansson, Lars-Erik; Lantz, Mikael; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Nordberg, Ulf; Nordberg, Aake

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate economic conditions for farm-scale biogas production in Sweden and to calculate the nutrient and greenhouse gas benefits of such systems. To give a more general description of the agricultural sector's possibilities to produce biogas, a comparison is carried out for 3 different scales of production as follows: Alternative 1: Digestion of a small amount of liquid manure from cattle. Evolved biogas is used for heat production which is used to provide space heating and hot water for one or two cottages on the farm. Alternative 2: Digestion of a larger amount of liquid manure from pig production. The biogas is used for co-generation of heat and electricity. The heat produced is used to provide space heating and hot water on 3-4 cottages at the farm. Alternative 3: Production of approx. 6 GWh biogas/year for direct sale on the external gas market. The plant co-digests energy crops, manure and vegetable waste. In this case the following energy crops are compared: a) ensiled ley crop, ensiled maize and c) grain. In the economic analysis, most of the data used comes from German sources. Based on the current market prices for energy in Sweden, only plant alternatives where the biogas is upgraded for use as vehicle fuel are profitable for the farmer. However, one significant barrier is that there is currently no significant market for vehicle fuel-grade biogas in Sweden, makes it difficult for farmers building up new local market. The purchase price of electricity from biogas is lower in Sweden than the most countries in Europe. The current prevailing market price for electricity is on the other hand quite volatile and future price increases are likely. The debate about how to reduce GHG emissions from the agricultural has recently attracted increased interest in wider circles. It is also likely that the Swedish government will start an investment program for farm scale biogas production from year 2009. Taken together, this

  12. A new intelligent electronic nose system for measuring and analysing livestock and poultry farm odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leilei; Yang, Simon X

    2007-12-01

    This paper introduces a new portable intelligent electronic nose system developed especially for measuring and analysing livestock and poultry farm odours. It can be used in both laboratory and field. The sensor array of the proposed electronic nose consists of 14 gas sensors, a humidity sensor, and a temperature sensor. The gas sensors were especially selected for the main compounds from the livestock farm odours. An expert system called "Odour Expert" was developed to support researchers' and farmers' decision making on odour control strategies for livestock and poultry operations. "Odour Expert" utilises several advanced artificial intelligence technologies tailored to livestock and poultry farm odours. It can provide more advanced odour analysis than existing commercially available products. In addition, a rank of odour generation factors is provided, which refines the focus of odour control research. Field experiments were conducted downwind from the barns on 14 livestock and poultry farms. Experimental results show that the predicted odour strengths by the electronic nose yield higher consistency in comparison to the perceived odour intensity by human panel. The "Odour Expert" is a useful tool for assisting farmers' odour management practises.

  13. Grid-connection of offshore wind farms using VSC-HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofan; Dessaint, Louis A. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Gagnon, Richard [Hydro-Quebec Research Institute, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the structure of variable speed PMSG-based offshore wind farms connected to the grid through VSC-HVDC link is presented. And the system models are developed. Also, the corresponding control strategy for this system is proposed. The control objective of the generator side VSC is to achieve the optimal wind power by adjusting the speed of permanent magnet synchronous generator, while the grid side VSC is to maintain DC voltage constant. Furthermore, a case study of 100MW offshore wind farm consisting of 50 individual 2MW PSMG-based wind turbines is developed in MATLAB/SimPowerSystems. Simulation results show the proposed scheme works well. (orig.)

  14. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  15. Perception approaches and practices of local farming and development: an anthropological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, S.A.; Chaudhry, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on recognizing the local approaches of farming in designing and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changing needs of the societies. The research was carried out in the villages of Ghora Gali and Aruka through qualitative and quantitative methods. Sustainable development in Pakistan thus needs to be reinvented in the local perspective considering approaches and practices and, eradicating the alien chains of development completely. (author)

  16. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  17. Co-innovation of family farm systems: A systems approach to sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; García, M.C.; Peluffo, S.; Dieste, J.P.; Pedemonte, A.J.; Bacigalupe, G.F.; Scarlato, M.; Alliaume, F.; Alvarez, J.; Chiappe, M.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the goals of sustainable growth of food production and reducing rural poverty requires assisting family farmers to develop more productive, profitable, resource efficient and environmentally friendly farms. Faced with decreasing product prices and increasing production costs during the last

  18. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  19. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  20. Diversification in Italian farm systems: Are farmers using interlinked strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses interlinkages between farm household diversification strategies in rural Italy. The paper contributes to the literature by providing a quantitative analysis of farm household decisions while explicitly taking into account the potential interaction in the choice of diversification

  1. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  2. Development of a framework and tool to asses on-farm energy uses of cotton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangnan; Baillie, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Within highly mechanised agricultural productions systems such as the Australian cotton industry, operational energy inputs represent a major cost to the growers. In this paper, a framework to assess the operational energy inputs of various production systems and the relative performance of a grower within an adopted system is developed. It divides energy usage of cotton production into six broadly distinct processes, including fallow, planting, in-crop, irrigation, harvesting and post harvest. This enables both the total energy inputs and the energy usage of each production processes to be assessed. This framework is later implemented and incorporated into an online energy assessment tool (EnergyCalc). Using the developed software, seven farm audits are conducted. It is found that overall, depending on the management and operation methods adopted, the total energy inputs for these farms range from 3.7 to 15.2 GJ/ha of primary energy, which corresponds to $80-310/ha and 275-1404 kg CO 2 equivalent/ha greenhouse gas emissions. Among all the farming practices, irrigation water energy use is found to be the highest and is typically 40-60% of total energy costs. Energy use of the harvesting operation is also significant, accounting for approximately 20% of overall direct energy use. If a farmer moves from conventional tillage to minimum tillage, there is a potential saving of around 10% of the overall fuel used on the farm. Compared with cotton, energy uses by other crops are generally much smaller, due to less intensive management practices, and reduced irrigation requirements.

  3. Studies of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Large-Scale Wind Farm Integrated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liu; Hang, Mend

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and construction of large-scale wind farms and grid-connected operation, the series compensation wind power AC transmission is gradually becoming the main way of power usage and improvement of wind power availability and grid stability, but the integration of wind farm will change the SSO (Sub-Synchronous oscillation) damping characteristics of synchronous generator system. Regarding the above SSO problem caused by integration of large-scale wind farms, this paper focusing on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms, aim to summarize the SSO mechanism in large-scale wind power integrated system with series compensation, which can be classified as three types: sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI), sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI), sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). Then, SSO modelling and analysis methods are categorized and compared by its applicable areas. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the suppression measures of actual SSO projects based on different control objectives. Finally, the research prospect on this field is explored.

  4. 12 CFR 615.5560 - Book-entry Procedure for Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry Procedure for Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation Securities. 615.5560 Section 615.5560 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Farm Credit System Financial...

  5. Remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry farm based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongwu; Teng, Guanghui; Ma, Liang; Li, Zhizhong; Yuan, Zhengdong; Li, Minzan; Yang, Xiuslayerg

    2005-09-01

    A remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry layer farm is developed based on distributed data acquisition and internet control. The supervising system applied patent techniques known as arc orbit movable vidicon, wireless video transmission and telecommunications. It features supervising at all orientations, and digital video telecommunicating through internet. All measured and control information is sent to a central computer, which is in charge of storing, displaying, analyzing and serving to internet, where managers can monitor real time production scene anywhere and customers can also see the healthy layers through internet. This paper primarily discusses how to design the remote sensing and monitor system (RSMS), and its usage in a large poultry farm, Deqingyuan Healthy Breeding Ecological Garden, Yanqing County, Beijing, China. The system applied web service technology and the middleware using XML language and Java language. It preponderated in data management, data exchange, expansibility, security, and compatibility. As a part of poultry sustainable development management system, it has been applied in a large farm with 1,200,000 layers. Tests revealed that there was distinct decline in the death ratio of chicken with 2. 2%, as the surroundings of layers had been ameliorated. At the same time, there was definite increase in the laying ratio with 3. 5%.

  6. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  7. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  8. Measures to support the development of organic farming in the EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roljević-Nikolić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper work is analyzing the situation in the sector of organic agriculture, as well as system of support that this production provides in the European Union and Serbia. Organic farming shows a dynamic process of growth and development, especially in economically developed countries. In the past ten years, the area under organic production in the EU increased by 70%, the number of certified producers increased by 60%, while the total market value doubled. On the other hand, the growth and development of organic agriculture in Serbia is very slow. Currently, the area under organic production accounted for only 0.4% of total utilized agricultural area, while in this mode of food production certified 0.3% of the total number of farms. Intensive growth of organic farming in the EU provides a stable support both in terms of rate and financial resources, while in Serbia has been changed not only amount of support from year to year but also types of support. On this basis, it can be concluded that a stable government support is crucial for boosting growth and improving the sector of organic agriculture.

  9. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  10. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  11. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... though the lower number of grazing hours per cow per year on the AMS farms did not affect indicator scores for animal health or milk quality, this reduction in grazing hours might be a problem for consumers to accept AMS use....

  12. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    , respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1yr−1, the landscape...... average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm......Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms...

  13. A Farm Information Model for Development and Configuration of Interoperable ICT Components to support Collaborative Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Goense, D.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.; Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Farm enterprises2
    The objective of this paper is to describe a farm information model and a proof of concept that demonstrates how a collaborative Business Process for farming can be configured using this farm information model. Knowledge to develop this model and a proof of concept is obtained

  14. Training Needs of Farm Women Towards Entrepreneurial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatesan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed that majority (45.83% of the Farm women had medium training need and 30.83 per cent of them had high training need in case of homestead vegetable production. In term of training need in nursery establishment, about 45.00 per cent of the Farm women fell under medium training need category while 35.00 per cent of them fell under high training need category. As regards to their training needs in livestock & poultry rearing, the majority (49.17% of the Farm women had high training needs compared to 35.00 per cent of them having medium training needs. A big share (40.83% of the Farm women had high training needs in food processing, while 33.33 per cent of them had medium training needs. Farmers’ education, farm size, annual income, organizational participation and agricultural knowledge showed negative significant correlation, while fatalism had significant positive association with the training needs. The major problems faced by the Farm women in carrying out their EDPs were: lack of capital/credit, lack of irrigation water, lack of land, lack of knowledge about insect/disease control, marketing & communication facilities and attack of birds/animals, etc.

  15. Work plan for SY Farm Integrated Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, R.P.; Katz, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The SY Farm currently has a temporary Data Acquisition ampersand Control System (DACS) housed in a mobile trailer. The system is currently referred to as DACS-1. It was designed and configured to support engineers and scientists conducting the special performance evaluation and testing program for the safety mitigation test equipment located in waste tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY). It is currently being maintained and utilized by engineering personnel to monitor and control the 101-SY mitigation pump activities. Based upon the results of the mitigation testing program, some of the temporary test mitigation equipment (such as mixing pump) will be replaced with longer-term ''operational'' mitigation equipment. This is resulting in new requirements for the Data Acquisition and Control System which will be full-filled by a newer control facility referred to as the DACS-2. A teaming between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been established for the SY farm mitigation program in order to develop and implement the ''next generation'' of the data acquisition and control system for the mitigation pump operations. The new system will be configured for use by the tank farm operational personnel. It will support the routine operations necessary for safety mitigation and the future waste retrieval of Project W-211. It is intended to replace the existing DACS-1 and provide the necessary control room space for future integration of W-211

  16. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  17. Mapping the Campus Food System: Assessing Consumer Awareness of VT Dining Services Garden at Kentland Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Cricenti, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Student farms and gardens are part of a movement concerning local food systems and direct connections between producers and consumers. Although student farms began decades ago, recently their numbers and impacts have increased. Campuses have integrated student farm and garden projects, offering authentic experiential learning opportunities for students, as successful measures of sustainability. This study explores student perceptions of the campus food systems related to the Virginia Tech (VT...

  18. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  19. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Andrew J.; Kirk, Donald W.; Graydon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MW e of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  20. Impact of an offshore wind farm on wave conditions and shoreline development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The influence of offshore wind farms on the wave conditions and impact on shoreline development is studied in a generic set-up of a coast and a shoreline. The objective was to estimate the impact of a typical sized offshore wind farm on a shoreline in a high wave energetic environment. Especially...

  1. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  2. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors

  3. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus farming system: water quality and environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Frog farming, if not well managed, may cause environmental damages. The use of antibiotics, the organic discharge and the introduction of exotic species can disseminate risks such as eutrophication, changes in the water quality and organic pollution, factors that affect the human consumption. AIM: Evaluating the water quality of a bullfrog farming system, discussing their relations to production and the environment based on the current legislation. METHODS: Sampling was performed on a monthly basis from November 2006 to March 2007 during growth and fattening phases of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus. Sample sites were distributed according to the water flow: upstream from the mixing zone, affluent (supply water, bay, effluent, mixing zone and downstream from the mixing zone. In the field, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity were measured. In laboratory, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations were analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of nutrients was determiner for water quality in the bay and its effluent. According to the current legislation, the effluent exceeded the limits for total phosphorus (> 0.030 mg L-1 and total nitrogen (> 1.27 mg L-1. Other variables presented acceptable values in light of the current laws. CONCLUSION: The high values of nutrients and other factors such as conductivity and turbidity are proportional to the animal growth due to the inadequate management practices evidenced by feed conversion rate. The following management options are proposed: maintaining the flow and decreased density of animals; maintaining the flow and density storage with adequate control of the food supply.

  4. Tree species diversity under pastoral and farming systems in Kilosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of tree diversity through improper land use practices such as overgrazing and poor farming practices in tropical areas and other natural ecosystems is one of today's most worrying environmental problems. This study was conducted to assess the impact of farming and pastoralism on tree species diversity in two forests ...

  5. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability...

  6. Effect of sensor systems on production, health, reproduction and economics on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensor systems for oestrus and disease detection are increasingly used on dairy farms. It is, however, not known whether using sensor systems also improves production, health, reproduction and economic performance of the farm. The first objective of this study is to investigate the effect of

  7. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change,

  8. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Tauer, L.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs

  9. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a life cycle assessment (LCA) for pig farming systems that would account for uncertainty and variability in input data and allow systematic environmental impact comparisons between production systems. The environmental impacts of commercial pig production for 2 regions in Canada (Eastern and Western) were compared using a cradle-to-farm gate LCA. These systems had important contrasting characteristics such as typical feed ingredients used, herd performance, and expected emission factors from manure management. The study used detailed production data supplied by the industry and incorporated uncertainty/variation in all major aspects of the system including life cycle inventory data for feed ingredients, animal performance, energy inputs, and emission factors. The impacts were defined using 5 metrics-global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential (EP), abiotic resource use, and nonrenewable energy use-and were expressed per kilogram carcass weight at farm gate. Eutrophication potential was further separated into marine EP (MEP) and freshwater EP (FEP). Uncertainties in the model inputs were separated into 2 types: uncertainty in the data used to describe the system (α uncertainties) and uncertainty in impact calculations or background data that affects all systems equally (β uncertainties). The impacts of pig production in the 2 regions were systematically compared based on the differences in the systems (α uncertainties). The method of ascribing uncertainty influenced the outcomes. In eastern systems, EP, MEP, and FEP were lower (P < 0.05) when assuming that all uncertainty in the emission factors for leaching from manure application was β. This was mainly due to increased EP resulting from field emissions for typical ingredients in western diets. When uncertainty in these emission factors was assumed to be α, only FEP was lower in eastern systems (P < 0.05). The environmental impacts for

  10. On Farm Feeding Poultry Trial: Wholegrain Wheat in the Commercial System

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Organic systems aim to operate in an ecological and economic way. Importing cereals grown thousands of miles away, processed at a mill and then transported again to our farms is costly in oil and therefore money. It is neither ecologically nor economically sustainable. British farms are capable of producing a large amount of high quality cereal, the majority of which is usually sold. Transportation and processing of the grain uses oil and leaves farms vulnerable to market prices. If farmer...

  11. Optimization of a polygeneration system for energy demands of a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polygeneration system is an energy system capable of providing multiple utility outputs to meet local demands by application of process integration. This paper addresses the problem of pinpointing the optimal polygeneration energy supply system for the local energy demands of a livestock farm in terms of optimal system configuration and optimal system capacity. The optimization problem is presented and solved for a case study of a pig farm in the paper. Energy demands of the farm, as well as the super-structure of the polygeneration system were modelled using TRNSYS software. Based on the locally available resources, the following polygeneration modules were chosen for the case study analysis: a biogas fired internal combustion engine co-generation module, a gas boiler, a chiller, a ground water source heat pump, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic collectors, and heat and cold storage. Capacities of the polygeneration modules were used as optimization variables for the TRNSYS-GenOpt optimization, whereas net present value, system primary energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were used as goal functions for optimization. A hybrid system composed of biogas fired internal combustion engine based co-generation system, adsorption chiller solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors, and heat storage is found to be the best option. Optimal heating capacity of the biogas co-generation and adsorption units was found equal to the design loads, whereas the optimal surface of the solar thermal array is equal to the south office roof area, and the optimal surface of the PV array corresponds to the south facing animal housing building rooftop area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  12. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  13. Success factors in the development of farm vacation tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Holger; Sidali, Katia Laura; Spiller, Achim

    2007-01-01

    Farm vacation tourism allows many families to fully use their domestic resources; furthermore it generates social benefits for the surrounding community. We have conducted a study to examine the success factors of this type of tourism. The results clearly demonstrate that one of the key components relies on the entrepreneurial skills of the farmer.

  14. 36 Problems and Prospect of Organic Farming in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    address issues of environmental, economic and social sustainability in its approach apart from inputs or tools .... environment-friendly products. At the same time, the public were gradually recognizing organic farming ..... foods in term of growing, harvesting, transportation and storage. Organically produced foods must meet.

  15. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Le; MacDonald, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the role of landowners in determining the success of wind projects. • A cost-of-energy (COE) model with realistic landowner remittances is developed. • These models are included in a system-level wind farm layout optimization. • Basic verification indicates the optimal COE is in-line with real-world data. • Land plots crucial to a project’s success can be identified with the approach. - Abstract: This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustry. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability

  16. Factors Influencing the Integration of Alternative Farm Enterprises into the Agro-Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Y.; Damianos, D.; Dimara, E.; Kasimis, C.; Skuras, D.

    2001-01-01

    Financial stress and general crisis in European agriculture recently have generated a widespread interest in alternative paths of farm business development and structural adjustment. One of the options suggested by policy makers and adopted by farmers was the development of alternative farm enterprises (AFEs), in which farmers recombine resources…

  17. Three-Fold Embedding: Farm Development in Relation to Its Socio-Material Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Methorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding heterogeneity in farm development strategies is important in order to design effective policies and support programs to increase the sustainability of agriculture in relation to its socio-material context. Using a unique case study of 102 dairy farmers in The Netherlands, all operating in a highly similar socio-material context, this paper studies the differences in the relation of farms with the socio-material context. To this end, the concept of three-fold embedding is developed and tested using the ideal-typical characteristics of three patterns of farm development that were identified in the case study: (1 maximising total milk production; (2 optimising milk production using mainly on-farm resources; and (3 diversified on-farm production. Three-fold embedding was conceptualised in relation to the following dimensions: (1 value chain relations; (2 socio-cultural relations; and (3 natural resource relations, while using a scale ranging from a Close to a Stretched set of relations. The concept of three-fold embedding proves to be useful to identify in a non-normative and non-binary manner meaningful differences between patterns of farm development. These differences relate to differences in opportunity identification and strategic decision-making. The concept supports a relational perspective in studying farm strategy development using a sociology of entrepreneurship approach.

  18. Assessment of farmers perception to corporate institutional for the development of sheep farming in the village : Case study in the villages of Jambu sub district, district of Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pranadji

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine that sheep farming in the villages to increase farmers welfare could be developed taken into consideration of farmers perception and attitude which were included in the planning of development programme. In order to achieve the objective more effectively, the institutional system of sheep farming needs to be transformed into a corporate institution. Field study was conducted during the period of 1994-1997 in two villages of Jambu sub district, District of Semarang. Two approaches were used simultaneously, i.e. ideografis and nomotetis to analyze the data and information. Result s showed that, first, sheep farming in the villages still had big development opportunity .second, the threat of stagnation in the sheep farming may occur due to high dependency on family labor and lack of capital. Third, due to top down policy and lack of vision on the agrobusiness activities, the development of sheep farming could be hampered. Fourth, transforming into a corporate institution may increase economic profitability of sheep farming as well as performance of the farms. Fifth, in order to realize the development of corporate business systems, need to establish a pilot project. To implement the concept, support from banking institution especially for discount rate was necessary, along with the involvement of ATAI (Agricultural Technology Assessment Institutes, local livestock services, credit system and local government leader that has people oriented vision.

  19. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN CHINA AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of factors determining the transition to organic farming and provide some recommendations for government’s policy relating to organic farming. Material and research method. An analysis was based on questionnaire survey on the willingness of organic farming by small farmers in the province of Jiangsu. Binary logistic regression model was used in the research. Concluding remarks. Five factors affecting organic agricultural production were discovered: farmers’ age, risk preferences, labour costs, expected benefi ts and the environment. On this ground, the authors suggest, that Chinese government should adopt policies assisting farmers in the transition to organic farming for the sustainable development of China’s organic agriculture. Cooperation of farmers’ cooperatives and research institutions to improve organic farming techniques should also be promoted.

  1. Integration of large wind farms into weak power grids. Emphasis on the Ethiopian interconnected system (ICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantyirga Gessesse, Belachew

    2013-07-18

    The impact of increased wind power on the steady state and dynamic behavior of the Ethiopian power system is the main focus of this thesis. The integration of wind power to the existing grid with conventional generators introduces new set of challenges regarding system security and operational planning, the main cause of the difference arising from the uncertainty of the primary source of energy and the response time following a disturbance. For incorporating wind turbine models into the overall dynamic model of the system and investigating the effect of wind on the dynamic behavior of the wind first models of wind turbine components were put together by reviewing the current state of the art in wind turbine modeling and control concepts. The theoretical insight thus gained was applied to the Ethiopian power system as a case study. Since the models of the installed turbines were either not available or incomplete, an alternative modeling approach based on generic models was adopted. The generic model, in addition to obviating the need for technology or manufacturer specific models, reduces the complexity the dynamic model. Using this procedure, generic dynamic models for wind farm in the system were developed. The capability of dynamic models to reproduce the dynamic response of the system has been verified by comparing simulation results obtained with a detailed and generic wind farm model. It could be shown that the generic wind turbine model is simple, but accurate enough to represent any wind turbine types or entire wind farms for power system stability analysis. The next task was the study of the effect of increased wind power level on the general behavior of the Ethiopian system. It is observed that overall the impact of wind turbines on the operational indices of the system was -as could be expected- more pronounced in the vicinity of the wind farm. But the power angle oscillation following a disturbance was observed across the whole system. Further, as a

  2. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government,

  3. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was

  4. Scientific development of smart farming technologies and their application in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieisson Pivoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming (SF involves the incorporation of information and communication technologies into machinery, equipment, and sensors for use in agricultural production systems. New technologies such as the internet of things and cloud computing are expected to advance this development, introducing more robots and artificial intelligence into farming. Therefore, the aims of this paper are twofold: (i to characterize the scientific knowledge about SF that is available in the worldwide scientific literature based on the main factors of development by country and over time and (ii to describe current SF prospects in Brazil from the perspective of experts in this field. The research involved conducting semi-structured interviews with market and researcher experts in Brazil and using a bibliometric survey by means of data mining software. Integration between the different available systems on the market was identified as one of the main limiting factors to SF evolution. Another limiting factor is the education, ability, and skills of farmers to understand and handle SF tools. These limitations revealed a market opportunity for enterprises to explore and help solve these problems, and science can contribute to this process. China, the United States, South Korea, Germany, and Japan contribute the largest number of scientific studies to the field. Countries that invest more in R&D generate the most publications; this could indicate which countries will be leaders in smart farming. The use of both research methods in a complementary manner allowed to understand how science frame the SF and the mains barriers to adopt it in Brazil.

  5. [Energy flow characteristics of the compound agriculture-fruit farming system in Xipo Village, Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fa-Qi; Zhu, Li; Wang, Hong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Taking the crop-fruit farming system in Xipo Village in Chunhua, Shaanxi Province as a case, the energy flow path, input and output structure, and the indices of energy cycle for the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding and human subsystems were compared between 2008 and 2010. Results showed that during the study period the total investment to the agriculture-fruit farming system (CAF) decreased by 1.6%, while the total output increased by 56.7%, which led to a 59.4% increase of the output/input ratio. Energy output/input ratio of the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding, human subsystems increased by 36.6%, 21.0%, 10.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The Xipo Village still needed to stabilize the agriculture, develop stockbreeding and strengthen fruit to upgrade the compound agriculture-fruit farming system.

  6. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  7. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  8. Agricultural Innovation Systems and Farm Technology Adoption: Findings from a Study of the Ghanaian Plantain Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Amare, Mulubrhan; Garming, Hildegard; Waibel, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We assess farm technology adoption in an integrated analysis of social networks and innovation in plantain production in Ghana. The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. Methodology/Approach: The paper uses social network…

  9. 76 FR 75542 - Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 23, 2011... Farm, LLC (Rail Splitter or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Ameren Services Company...

  10. Resilience of Organic versus Conventional Farming Systems in Tropical Africa: The Kenyan Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Muriuki, Anne; Musyoka, Martha; Fließbach, Andreas; Forster, Dionys

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya, agriculture is largely carried out by smallholder farmers, in a mixed farming noncommercialised setting where application of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides is minimal. Agricultural production is low and constrained by declining soil fertility, pest and diseases and increasingly unpredictable weather due to global warming. This calls for more resilient farming systems.

  11. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  12. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Karyne M.; Ruth, Van Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine

  13. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  14. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  15. A County-Level Program to Assess Farming System Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John

    2012-12-12

    The survival of Florida’s biodiversity and economy is dependent on finding ways to balance farm economics with proper management of water and other natural resources. Taking on this challenge of maximizing the delivery of ecosystems services from agricultural production systems is the mandate of the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center. Given that sea level rise is the overarching, long-term threat to the south Florida and its ecosystems, the most valuable ecosystems services for the state of Florida are those that mitigate climate change. Biofuels are put forward as one approach to forestalling climate change, but its value as an industry in providing this and other ecosystem services is unproven. The Sustainable Biofuels Center has developed a set of programs to both document and enhance the ecosystems services values of the evolving Florida biofuels industry. The Center engages in agricultural systems evaluation, sustainability indexing and sustainability research. Methods employed for documenting ecosystems services and costs include Life Cycle Assessment, Emergy Analysis, and optimization of cost-benefit functions. Radically new farming and economic compensation systems must be created and implemented if we are to achieve a successful agricultural business model built upon balanced revenue streams from these varied services. Accordingly, the Center also supports field research and demonstration projects to document the capacity for innovative farming systems to deliver ecosystems services such as water storage. To help promote the inclusion of ecosystems services considerations in farm operations, the program includes curriculum development at both the K-12 and college level, as well as programs to bring diverse stakeholders in to collaborative visioning process. Lastly, since county governments are often the level where new industry seek entry to the landscape, the Center is also developing metrics and tools through which economic development officers

  16. Policy and Environmental Implications of Photovoltaic Systems in Farming in Southeast Spain: Can Greenhouses Reduce the Greenhouse Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Carreño-Ortega

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have grown in popularity in the farming sector, primarily because land area and farm structures themselves, such as greenhouses, can be exploited for this purpose, and, moreover, because farms tend to be located in rural areas far from energy production plants. In Spain, despite being a country with enormous potential for this renewable energy source, little is being done to exploit it, and policies of recent years have even restricted its implementation. These factors constitute an obstacle, both for achieving environmental commitments and for socioeconomic development. This study proposes the installation of PV systems on greenhouses in southeast Spain, the location with the highest concentration of greenhouses in Europe. Following a sensitivity analysis, it is estimated that the utilization of this technology in the self-consumption scenario at farm level produces increased profitability for farms, which can range from 0.88% (worst scenario to 52.78% (most favorable scenario. Regarding the Spanish environmental policy, the results obtained demonstrate that the impact of applying this technology mounted on greenhouses would bring the country 38% closer to reaching the 2030 greenhouse gas (GHG target. Furthermore, it would make it possible to nearly achieve the official commitment of 20% renewable energies by 2020. Additionally, it would have considerable effects on the regional socioeconomy, with increases in job creation and contribution to gross domestic product (GDP/R&D (Research and Development, allowing greater profitability in agrifood activities throughout the entire region.

  17. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  18. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coping with the work constraints in crop-livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taher Sraïri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to characterize the ways crop-livestock farms adapt themselves to work constraints. A follow-up of work activities was achieved in a sample of 14 family farms. Work times in each agricultural activity (livestock and crops were quantified, distinguishing the contributions of family members and that of the off-farm workers. Results showed that the annual working time averaged 1030 days per year per farm. It increased with multiple activities within farms. Work devoted to livestock averaged 581 days a year, mainly achieved by family members, while crops necessitated 449 days of work, mostly assumed by off farm workers. Farms with limited arable land devoted significant time to livestock. The results also revealed that the gross incomes from one day of work in livestock were almost 50-times less than those from the same duration in cash crops. Altogether, the results confirm the necessity to consider work as a crucial variable determining farming systems’ performances and the use efficiency of this input. As a consequence, in many developing countries, the assumption of plenty of family workers availability may not be valid anymore to justify agricultural policies mainly based on intense on-farm work uses.

  20. Impact of an offshore wind farm on wave conditions and shoreline development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The influence of offshore wind farms on the wave conditions and impact on shoreline development is studied in a generic set-up of a coast and a shoreline. The objective was to estimate the impact of a typical sized offshore wind farm on a shoreline in a high wave energetic environment. Especially...... the shoreline’s sensitivity to the distance from the OWF to the shoreline was studied. The effect of the reduced wind speed inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm was incorporated in a parameterized way in a spectral wind wave model. The shoreline impact was studied with a one-line model....

  1. Optimal Active Power Control of A Wind Farm Equipped with Energy Storage System based on Distributed Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Distributed Model Predictive Control (D-MPC) of a wind farm equipped with fast and short-term Energy Storage System (ESS) for optimal active power control using the fast gradient method via dual decomposition. The primary objective of the D-MPC control of the wind farm...... is power reference tracking from system operators. Besides, by optimal distribution of the power references to individual wind turbines and the ESS unit, the wind turbine mechanical loads are alleviated. With the fast gradient method, the convergence rate of the DMPC is significantly improved which leads...... to a reduction of the iteration number. Accordingly, the communication burden is reduced. Case studies demonstrate that the additional ESS unit can lead to a larger wind turbine load reduction, compared to the conventional wind farm control without ESS. Moreover, the efficiency of the developed D-MPC algorithm...

  2. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  3. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain; David, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios. (letter)

  4. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  5. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  6. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Torres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99 with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and

  7. Coupling Dairy Manure Storage with Injection to Improve Nitrogen Management: Whole-Farm Simulation Using the Integrated Farm System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Duncan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of livestock manure to farm soils represents a priority nutrient management concern in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Historically, strong emphasis has been placed on adding manure storage to dairy operations, with the recognition that manure application methods can be improved. The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate manure management on a typical Pennsylvania dairy farm (100 milking cows, 80 ha. Converting the operation from daily haul to 6 mo of storage with broadcast application did not substantially change nitrogen (N losses to the environment. However, switching to manure injection conserved ammonium N and improved manure N use efficiency by crops, even though it increased N leaching by 27% with 6-mo storage and 13% with 12-mo storage. Increasing manure storage from 6 to 12 mo with manure injection reduced nitrate N leaching by 38%, due to better timing of manure application to crop growth, but lowered annual net returns. Overall, manure injection and 6 mo of storage resulted in the best combination of profit and environmental outcome.

  8. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  9. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  10. An Action Research on Food and Farming Education Curriculum Development in a Rural Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural agricultural demographics and farming structure has shown fierce changes in the modernizing society over the past years. The young generation in rural areas has distanced from the land and their families’ farmer identity. Countries worldwide has revamped their “food & farming curriculum” to include cooking lessons and school gardens at the elementary school stage to strengthen children’s connection with food, environment and the community. This study developed a framework of “food & farming curriculum” through action research to establish farm-to-table experience for elementary students. The framework includes “farming experience activities”, “cooking lessons” and “knowledge of food and farming lessons.” The curriculum was carried out for fifth and sixth grade students for three semesters in a rural elementary school in Miaoli County, from 2011 to 2012. The study found that this curriculum brings positive changes to pupils and helps in regaining their passion to learning. The curriculum is suitable to be applied especially in rural schools because of the accessibility of land, agricultural knowledges and community support. The study proposed five suggestions to teachers who are interested in food and farming education, including hands-on and flexibility teaching; using the local human resources; applications of unused space in the school; looking for like-minded teachers to form a teaching team; and combining environmental education with school-based curriculum.

  11. Development of a wind farm noise propagation prediction model - project progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.; Bullmore, A.; Bass, J.; Sloth, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a twelve month measurement campaign which is part of a European project (CEC Project JOR3-CT95-0051) with the aim to substantially reduce the uncertainties involved in predicting environmentally radiated noise levels from wind farms (1). This will be achieved by comparing noise levels measure at varying distances from single and multiple sources over differing complexities of terrain with those predicted using a number of currently adopted sound propagation models. Specific objectives within the project are to: establish the important parameters controlling the propagation of wind farm noise to the far field; develop a planning tool for predicting wind farm noise emission levels under practically encountered conditions; place confidence limits on the upper and lower bounds of the noise levels predicted, thus enabling developers to quantify the risk whether noise emission from wind farms will cause nuisance to nearby residents. (Author)

  12. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  13. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  14. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  15. A group-based spatial decision support system for wind farm site selection in Northwest Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Cathcart, Steven C.; Mirzaei, Golrokh; Jamali, Mohsin M.; Ye, Xinyue; Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of applying a spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for evaluating the suitability for wind farm siting in Northwest Ohio. The multiple criteria evaluation (MCE) prototype system is intended for regional planning but also for promoting group decision making that could involve participants with different interests in the development of decision alternatives. The framework integrates environmental and economic criteria and builds a hierarchy for wind farm siting using weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques and GIS functionality. The SDSS allows the multiple participants to interact and develop an understanding of the spatial data for assigning importance values to each factor. The WLC technique is used to combine the assigned values with map layers, which are standardized using fuzzy set theory, to produce individual suitability maps. The maps created by personal preferences from the participants are aggregated for producing a group solution using the Borda method. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine how small changes in the factor weights affect the calculated suitability scores. The results from the sensitivity analysis are intended to aid understanding of compromised solutions through changes in the input data from the participant's perspective. - Highlights: ► We present a prototype tool that we developed for wind farm site selection. ► Multiple participants rank the factors for promoting group-based decision making. ► The factors are aggregated by WLC technique to generate maps from participants. ► Group-based solution uses Borda method to aggregate the maps from participants. ► Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine solution affects

  16. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  17. The development of organic farming in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMOROWSKA Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present the size of organic farming and organic food market in each region of the world based on available statistics. The largest area of agricultural land farmed using organic methods is located in Australia, Europe and South America, while the biggest organic food markets are located in the rich countries of North America, mainly in the United States, and in the Western European countries. Fruits and vegetables are the organic products that are the most eagerly bought and dominate the organic food market. Rezumat. Articolul îşi propune să prezinte dimensiunea agriculturii ecologice şi a pieţei produselor alimentare ecologice în fiecare regiune a lumii în baza datelor statistice disponibile. Cea mai mare suprafaţă de teren agricol cultivat folosind metode organice se află în Australia, Europa şi America de Sud, în timp ce cele mai mari pieţe de produse alimentare ecologice sunt situate în ţările bogate din America de Nord, în special în Statele Unite ale Americii, precum şi în ţările din Europa de Vest. Fructele şi legumele sunt produsele organice care se vând cel mai bine şi care domină piaţa produselor alimentare ecologice.

  18. Simulant Development for Hanford Tank Farms Double Valve Isolation (DVI) Valves Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.

    2012-12-21

    Leakage testing of a representative sample of the safety-significant isolation valves for Double Valve Isolation (DVI) in an environment that simulates the abrasive characteristics of the Hanford Tank Farms Waste Transfer System during waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to be conducted. The testing will consist of periodic leak performed on the DVI valves after prescribed numbers of valve cycles (open and close) in a simulated environment representative of the abrasive properties of the waste and the Waste Transfer System. The valve operations include exposure to cycling conditions that include gravity drain and flush operation following slurry transfer. The simulant test will establish the performance characteristics and verify compliance with the Documented Safety Analysis. Proper simulant development is essential to ensure that the critical process streams characteristics are represented, National Research Council report “Advice on the Department of Energy's Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges”

  19. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  20. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.

    In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in

  1. 12 CFR 615.5182 - Interest rate risk management by associations and other Farm Credit System institutions other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by associations and other Farm Credit System institutions other than banks. 615.5182 Section 615.5182 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND...

  2. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  3. An offshore wind farm with dc grid connection and its performance under power system transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The continuous increase in wind power penetration level brings new requirements for wind turbine integration into the network. The grid code requires that after clearance of an external short-circuit fault, grid-connected wind turbines should restore their normal operation without power loss caused...... by disconnections. This paper presents a transient performance study of an offshore wind farm with HVDC transmission for grid connection, where the wind turbines in the offshore wind farm are also connected with dc collection network. A power-reduction control strategy (PRCS) for transient performance improvement...... is proposed for the offshore wind farm that allows it to withstand severe voltage dips. A simulation model of a 400 MW offshore wind farm developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented. The transient performance of the offshore wind farm is studied, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control...

  4. Genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Maria C.; Wibberg, Daniel; Lozano, Mauricio; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Albicoro, Francisco J.; Jaenicke, Sebastian; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Petroni, Alejandro; Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, M.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Schlueter, Andreas; Puehler, Alfred; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Del Papa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of biopurification systems (BPS) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. BPS environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic

  5. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  6. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  7. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and to buy other foodstuffs (27%). The majority of ... It would appear that future expansion of goat farming in this area is severely constrained by labour constraints and the fact that goat meat ranked lowest on the scale of eating preferences.

  8. Evaluation of fodder production systems for dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the feasibility and challenges of implementing sprouted fodder on dairy farms. In Study 1, five grains (barley, oats, wheat, rye and triticale) were sprouted for 7 d and analyzed for yield and nutritional content. In Study 2, lactating cows were fed a TMR during winter and suppl...

  9. Trees in the traditional farming systems in Southeastern Nigeria. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately one-half of the entire food collected from the fallow and on-farm tree/shrub species are consumed by the family members, accounting for as much as 36.4% of the family food ... Keywords: agro forestry, traditional knowledge, key informants, species abundance, wildlings, trees, shrubs, seed bank, gene bank

  10. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  11. Integration of membrane distillation into traditional salt farming method: Process development and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizam, S.; Bilad, M. R.; Putra, Z. A.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers still practice the traditional salt farming in many regions, particularly in Indonesia. This archaic method not only produces low yield and poor salt quality, it is also laborious. Furthermore, the farming locations typically have poor access to fresh water and are far away from electricity grid, which restrict upgrade to a more advanced technology for salt production. This paper proposes a new concept of salt harvesting method that improves the salt yield and at the same time facilitates recovery of fresh water from seawater. The new concept integrates solar powered membrane distillation (MD) and photovoltaic cells to drive the pumping. We performed basic solar still experiments to quantify the heat flux received by a pond. The data were used as insight for designing the proposed concept, particularly on operational strategy and the most effective way to integrate MD. After the conceptual design had been developed, we formulated mass and energy balance to estimate the performance of the proposed concept. Based on our data and design, it is expected that the system would improve the yield and quality of the salt production, maximizing fresh water harvesting, and eventually provides economical gain for salt farmers hence improving their quality of life. The key performance can only be measured via experiment using gain output ratio as performance indicator, which will be done in a future study.

  12. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  13. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  14. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  15. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  16. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILY FARMS IN UKRAINE, FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupryyanchyk I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It studies the preconditions of creation, functioning of farms in Ukraine and foreign countries. In the course of the study revealed that over the years 1990-2015, the number of farms increased from 332 to 54 302 is 915, 40 thousand hectares of land. For a specified period on one farm had between 12.0 to 78.8 ha of agricultural land (the most notable growth occurred in the period from 1990-1995, he was almost 100 times. Despite this, farming did not become efficient producers of agricultural products. In contrast, in the world more than 500 million farms (87,7% of the total number belong to families that produce 56% of such production. In the US, family farms handle 78% of the agricultural land of the country, producing 84% of all agricultural products worth 230 billion dollars. In foreign countries is significantly different size of farms. In North America for a farmer falls from 190,0 to 600,0 ha, in most of the countries of Asia and Africa – 2,0 - 100,0 ha of land in Australia and New Zealand from 2 to 20 thousand hectares, and the like. In the EU land farms range from 2,0 – 500,0 ha. These countries are moving towards support of small, home gardens and farms. The results of the research showed that farmers that are the main producers of agricultural products in the developed world are high-performance enterprises despite the size of the economy, because in these countries there is a deliberate policy to support agricultural producers to improve production efficiency, ensuring sustainable land management. The competitiveness of these farms is justified by the presence of the developed forecasting and planning their development strategies. Besides, in world practice there are three main types of enterprise development strategies, each of which is fully justified by the specificity of production: growth strategy (development, a strategy of constancy and survival strategy.

  17. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  18. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION IN THE PRECISION FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Jurišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of precision farming as a larger amount of information is its availability to the farmer in making decision. Direct comparison of perennial parameters obtained from the plot results in purposefully, argumentative and optimal use of resources for work (while keeping in mind the ecological impact. Today, the development of satellite navigation technology and monitoring of agricultural machinery, and reducing the cost of these devices again revived the question of the precision agriculture application. Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries already regularly apply some of the technological possibilities of precision farming. Precision agriculture and plant protection allow the farmer realizing high incomes while keeping safe natural resources. Using modern GIS technology machines collect data directly from the plot using sensors and integrate themselves into the data processing system. Processed information is used by a farmer taking GreenStar system for the new planned operation and achieving significant time and money spare. Precision agriculture offers the possibility of optimal care of each plant, not just the average, or the entire field. Low risk investments are one of the main factors of choice precise plant protection. The use of pilotless aircrafts remote sensing allow fast and economical obtaining data and sufficient precision information. Using modern technology such as Variable Rate Application (applying a variable volume and GreenStar software package it is possible to regulate the amount of care and protection.

  19. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates......The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation...

  20. System Level Design of Reconfigurable Server Farms Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangook Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As today’s hardware architecture becomes more and more complicated, it is getting harder to modify or improve the microarchitecture of a design in register transfer level (RTL. Consequently, traditional methods we have used to develop a design are not capable of coping with complex designs. In this paper, we suggest a way of designing complex digital logic circuits with a soft and advanced type of SystemVerilog at an electronic system level. We apply the concept of design-and-reuse with a high level of abstraction to implement elliptic curve crypto-processor server farms. With the concept of the superior level of abstraction to the RTL used with the traditional HDL design, we successfully achieved the soft implementation of the crypto-processor server farms as well as robust test bench code with trivial effort in the same simulation environment. Otherwise, it could have required error-prone Verilog simulations for the hardware IPs and other time-consuming jobs such as C/SystemC verification for the software, sacrificing more time and effort. In the design of the elliptic curve cryptography processor engine, we propose a 3X faster GF(2m serial multiplication architecture.

  1. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  2. Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Wei, X.; Islam, A. F. M. S.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in long-duration space missions for other planets will be highly dependent on amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the space farming system with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and cultivars and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. In this study, we developed a new hydroponic method for producing tuberous roots and fresh edible leaves and stems of sweetpotato. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of water contents in the rooting substrate on growth and tuberous root development of sweetpotato. The rooting substrates made with rockwool slabs were inclined in a culture container and absorbed nutrient solution from the lower end of the slabs by capillary action. Tuberous roots developed on the lower surface of the rockwool slabs. The tuberous roots showed better growth and development at locations farther from the water surface on the rockwool slabs, which had lower water content. In the second experiment, three sweetpotato cultivars were cultured in a hydroponic system for five months from June to November under the sun light in Osaka, Japan as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming system. The cultivars employed were ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’. The hydroponic system mainly consisted of culture containers and rockwool slabs. Dry weights of tuberous roots developed in the aerial space between the rockwool slab and the nutrient solution filled at the bottom of the culture container were 0.34, 0.45 and 0.23 kg/plant and dry weights of the top portion (leaves, petioles and stems) were 0.42, 0.29 and 0.61 kg/plant for ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’, respectively. Young stems and leaves as well as

  3. Canadian Whole-Farm Model Holos - Development, Stakeholder Involvement, and Model Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroebel, R.; Janzen, H.; Beauchemin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Holos model, based mostly on emission factors, aims to explore the effect of management on Canadian whole-farm greenhouse gas emissions. The model includes 27 commonly grown annual and perennial crops, summer fallow, grassland, and 8 types of tree plantings, along with beef, dairy, sheep, swine and other livestock or poultry operations. Model outputs encompass net emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O (in CO2 equivalents), calculated for various farm components. Where possible, algorithms are drawn from peer-reviewed publications. For consistency, Holos is aligned with the Canadian sustainability indicator and national greenhouse gas inventory objectives. Although primarily an exploratory tool for research, the model's design makes it accessible and instructive also to agricultural producers, educators, and policy makers. Model development, therefore, proceeds iteratively, with extensive stakeholder feedback from training sessions or annual workshops. To make the model accessible to diverse users, the team developed a multi-layered interface, with general farming scenarios for general use, but giving access to detailed coefficients and assumptions to researchers. The model relies on extensive climate, soil, and agronomic databases to populate regionally-applicable default values thereby minimizing keyboard entries. In an initial application, the model was used to assess greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian beef production system; it showed that enteric methane accounted for 63% of total GHG emissions and that 84% of emissions originated from the cow-calf herd. The model further showed that GHG emission intensity per kg beef, nationally, declined by 14% from 1981 to 2011, owing to gains in production efficiency. Holos is now being used to consider further potential advances through improved rations or other management options. We are now aiming to expand into questions of grazing management, and are developing a novel carbon

  4. Understanding the Strategic Decisions Women Make in Farming Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Decision-systems theory (DST) was developed from in-depth interviews with farming families and provides an interpretation of the processes farming families use in making strategic decisions in regard to the family members, the farm and the businesses the farming family run. Understanding the nature and justifications used for different decisions…

  5. Current situation, potentials and prospects for the development of organic farming in Šumadija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Šumadija is rich in natural potentials which provide a good basis for the future development of organic farming, given the fact that natural resources are limited. The composition and structure of natural resources are highly suitable for organic production. The region's relatively unpolluted land, favourable climate, abundant water resources and preserved biodiversity are some of the main organic farming requirements satisfied. Organic production is not possible without ensuring at least a minimum level of preservation of natural resources in areas where organic farming is practised; on the other hand, organic production itself has a positive effect on the preservation and improvement of environmental quality in these areas. Small plots of land can be advantageous for this production, particularly in upland areas, and used specifically for organic production as the conversion period is short. They can be used for vegetable farming because the soil is uncontaminated owing to distance from roads. Positive experience indicates that potatoes, rye, oats and root vegetables can be successfully grown in these areas. Another advantage is the wealth of indigenous cultivars of apples, pears and plums which are highly resistant to pathogenic pests and environmental conditions, and hence suitable for cultivation without the use of mineral fertilisers and chemical agents. Major issues currently facing organic farming are a small-scale organic market and low prices of organic products, a low level of consumer awareness of the advantages of organic farming, suspicion and ignorance, low purchasing power, low availability of organic products through sales channels, etc.

  6. Farm republic is Thomas Jefferson's political ideal in the further development of the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Statsenko, Tеtіana

    2013-01-01

    American bourgeois revolution of the eighteenth century led to the formation of the independent United States of America. Among the leaders who led the fight the special place is occupied by the apostle, the founder of American democracy - Thomas Jefferson. He sharply criticized the social system that existed in the time of monarchy and was based on private ownership. Based on the natural and socio-economic conditions, he proposed the farm development as the best political path of the United ...

  7. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  8. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  9. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Solhee Kim; Taegon Kim; Timothy M. Smith; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC) for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certific...

  10. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  11. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to

  12. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  13. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  14. Planning and costing of agricultural adaptation in the the integrated hill farming systems of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Bikash; Tamang, B.B.; Lamsal, Krishna; Paudel, Pratima

    2011-09-15

    Despite an existing information gap in scientific evidence regarding the effects of future changes in climate patterns and options for the future, the community-based adaptation process should nevertheless be initiated. This requires community involvement through participatory planning in order to make use of local experiences and knowledge. The existing technologies at the community level, and among researchers supporting communities in undertaking adaptations to climate change, are currently inadequately disseminated. While the generation of additional technologies is regarded as a priority in the long term, transfer of already available technologies to the user community should be the immediate priority. The local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) is an effective means to mainstream adaptation options in national and local governmental plans, and to support local communities in planning for adaptation. Although the initial costs of defining this methodology are high, they will decrease as soon as it is evolved and scaled up. Hence, the adaptation costs and resulting benefits will also remain at the local level. The majority of the adaptation actions identified for the hill farming system in Nepal are long-term actions. In order to achieve sustainability, the adaptation actions should not be part of any project or one-time investment, but must be integrated into the regular agricultural development process. Adaptation priorities for the hill farming system of Nepal mainly incorporate improved practices for integrated soil, land, hedgerow and water management – for instance, through water harvesting and small-scale irrigation measures.

  15. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  16. 75 FR 64728 - Cooperative Operating Philosophy-Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Following Policy Statement: Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Member of Farm Credit System... System (System) institutions are required to operate.\\1\\ The FCA emphasizes cooperative principles by.... Policy on Implementing a Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Members The System, through its...

  17. Development and validation of a work stressor scale for Australian farming families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar J; Quirk, Frances; Swinbourne, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research was to gain insight into the key stressors for Australian farming families. It is well established that the farming work environment consists of a number of unique stressors which arise from dependency on factors beyond an individual's control (e.g. climate conditions) as well as the overlap between work and family environments. Despite this, limited research has included family factors in the assessment of stress felt by farmers and their families. This research sought to develop a scale of stressors for farming families in an Australian sample. A survey design was used for validity and reliability studies. The validity study involved assessment of factor structure, concurrent validity and discriminant validity. The reliability study used a test-retest reliability design. Participants were recruited from across Australia (38% Queensland; 30% New South Wales) and multiple industries (43% beef; 27% broadacre cropping; 26% horticulture). The validity study involved 278 participants and the reliability study involved 53 participants. Development of a Farming Family Stressor scale. The generated Farming Family Stressor scale presented satisfactory levels of concurrent validity (e.g. r = .73 against the Farm Stress Survey total score), discriminant validity (e.g. r = -.42 to r = .53 against the Satisfaction with Life and Kessler-10 total scores, respectively), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >.90) and test-retest reliability (rho > .66). This research lends insight into the complexity of stressors for farming families and has implications for occupational health and mental health programs that seek to reduce stress and improve health outcomes for that group. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  19. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  20. A cloud-based Farm Management System: Architecture and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Groumas, A.; Sarris, V.; Katsikas, L.; Magdalinos, P.; Antoniou, E.; Politopoulou, Z.; Wolfert, J.; Brewster, C.; Eigenmann, R.; Terol, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances have paved the way for developing and offering advanced services for the stakeholders in the agricultural sector. A paradigm shift is underway from proprietary and monolithic tools to Internet-based, cloud hosted, open systems that will enable more effective

  1. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, S J; Udo, H M J; Viets, T C

    2014-08-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and livestock populations are found within smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems, which should, therefore, contribute significantly towards this increase in livestock production. The present paper argues that increased livestock production in smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems faces many constraints at the level of the farm and the value chain. The present paper aims to describe and explain the impact of increased production from the farm and farmers' perspective, in order to understand the constraints for increased livestock production. A framework is presented that links farming systems to livestock value chains. It is concluded that farming systems that pass from subsistence to commercial livestock production will: (1) shift from rural to urban markets; (2) become part of a different value chain (with lower prices, higher demands for product quality and increased competition from peri-urban producers and imports); and (3) have to face changes in within-farm mechanisms and crop-livestock relationships. A model study showed that feed limitation, which is common in tropical farming systems with livestock, implies that maximum herd output is achieved with small herd sizes, leaving low-quality feeds unutilised. Maximal herd output is not achieved at maximal individual animal output. Having more animals than required for optimal production - which is often the case as a larger herd size supports non-production functions of livestock, such as manure production, draught, traction and capital storage - goes at the expense of animal-source food output. Improving low-quality feeds by treatment allows keeping more animals while maintaining the same level of production. Ruminant

  2. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  3. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.

  4. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  5. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  6. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  7. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kacejko; Michał Wydra; Robert Jędrychowski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  8. Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on Diversified Farming Systems is motivated by a desire to understand how agriculture designed according to whole systems, agroecological principles can contribute to creating a more sustainable, socially just, and secure global food system. We first define Diversified Farming Systems (DFS as farming practices and landscapes that intentionally include functional biodiversity at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales in order to maintain ecosystem services that provide critical inputs to agriculture, such as soil fertility, pest and disease control, water use efficiency, and pollination. We explore to what extent DFS overlap or are differentiated from existing concepts such as sustainable, multifunctional, organic or ecoagriculture. DFS are components of social-ecological systems that depend on certain combinations of traditional and contemporary knowledge, cultures, practices, and governance structures. Further, as ecosystem services are generated and regenerated within a DFS, the resulting social benefits in turn support the maintenance of the DFS, enhancing its ability to provision these services sustainably. We explore how social institutions, particularly alternative agri-food networks and agrarian movements, may serve to promote DFS approaches, but note that such networks and movements have other primary goals and are not always explicitly connected to the environmental and agroecological concerns embodied within the DFS concept. We examine global trends in agriculture to investigate to what extent industrialized forms of agriculture are replacing former DFS, assess the current and potential contributions of DFS to food security, food sovereignty and the global food supply, and determine where and under what circumstances DFS are expanding rather than contracting.

  9. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  10. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  11. Solar Farm Suitability Using Geographic Information System Fuzzy Sets and Analytic Hierarchy Processes: Case Study of Ulleung Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar farm suitability in remote areas will involve a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE process, particularly well suited for the geographic information system (GIS environment. Photovoltaic (PV solar farm criteria were evaluated for an island-based case region having complex topographic and regulatory criteria, along with high demand for low-carbon local electricity production: Ulleung Island, Korea. Constraint variables that identified areas forbidden to PV farm development were consolidated into a single binary constraint layer (e.g., environmental regulation, ecological protection, future land use. Six factor variables were selected as influential on-site suitability within the geospatial database to seek out increased annual average power performance and reduced potential investment costs, forming new criteria layers for site suitability: solar irradiation, sunshine hours, average temperature in summer, proximity to transmission line, proximity to roads, and slope. Each factor variable was normalized via a fuzzy membership function (FMF and parameter setting based on the local characteristics and criteria for a fixed axis PV system. Representative weighting of the relative importance for each factor variable was assigned via pairwise comparison completed by experts. A suitability index (SI with six factor variables was derived using a weighted fuzzy summation method. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess four different SI based on the development scenarios (i.e., the combination of factors being considered. From the resulting map, three highly suitable regions were suggested and validated by comparison with satellite images to confirm the candidate sites for solar farm development. The GIS-MCE method proposed can also be applicable widely to other PV solar farm site selection projects with appropriate adaption for local variables.

  12. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA...

  13. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  14. A Wide Span Tractor concept developed for efficient and environmental friendly farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Grøn Sørensen, Claus; Oudshoorn, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    of agricultural machines is compromising the productivity of soils, and the size is a challenge when manoeuvring on public roads. Tractors were successful in replacing horses, but it is now time for redesigning the basic tractor design. In an attempt to counter the mentioned negative effects of modern...... agricultural machines a new Wide Span (WS) tractor concept has been designed and a prototype tractor with a span of 9.6 m (wheel centre to wheel centre) has been built. It is designed to optimise the Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) system that is already in place on the vegetable farm where it is being tested...

  15. Modelling as a tool to redesign livestock farming systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttenoire, L; Cournut, S; Ingrand, S

    2011-12-01

    Livestock farming has recently come under close scrutiny, in response especially to environmental issues. Farmers are encouraged to redesign their livestock farming systems in depth to improve their sustainability. Assuming that modelling can be a relevant tool to address such systemic changes, we sought to answer the following question: 'How can livestock farming systems be modelled to help farmers redesign their whole farming systems?' To this end, we made a literature review of the models of livestock farming systems published from 2000 to mid-2009 (n = 79). We used an analysis grid based on three considerations: (i) system definition, (ii) the intended use of the model and (iii) the way in which farmers' decision-making processes were represented and how agricultural experts and farmers were involved in the modelling processes. Consistent rationales in approaches to supporting changes in livestock farming were identified in three different groups of models, covering 83% of the whole set. These could be defined according to (i) the way in which farmers' decisions were represented and (ii) the model's type of contribution to supporting changes. The first type gathered models that dynamically simulated the system according to different management options; the farmers' decision-making processes are assumed to consist in choosing certain values for management factors. Such models allow long-term simulations and endorse different disciplinary viewpoints, but the farmers are weakly involved in their design. Models of the second type can indicate the best combination of farm activities under given constraints, provided the farmers' objectives are profit maximisation. However, when used to support redesigning processes, they address neither how to implement the optimal solution nor its long-term consequences. Models of the third type enable users to dynamically simulate different options for the farming system, the management of which is assumed to be planned according

  16. Olivebranches and idiot's guides: Frameworks for community engagement in Australian wind farm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, renewable energy is under pressure in the context of a highly politicised debate about how to act on climate change. The recent repeal of an established carbon tax has seen the defunding of significant renewable energy initiatives and a controversial review of the national Renewable Energy Target is threatening key drivers for investment in renewable energy. The current regulatory focus on community ‘acceptance’ does not facilitate the active community support necessary to challenge this increasingly hostile policy context. This research considers current experiences of community engagement in wind farm governance in one Australian jurisdiction. Through documentary analysis and two qualitative case studies, it examines legal and non-legal requirements for community governance mechanisms and considers how these influence wind farm development in rural areas. Findings include a problematic reliance on procedural compliance in assessing wind farm consultation, domination by vested interests, and reduced expertise in community engagement at the time it is needed most. Recommendations include integration of best practice guidelines in current regulation; harmonisation of policy settings to ensure equity across energy sectors; and an evidence-based commitment to benefit sharing as a strategy for increasing community support of rural wind farm development. - Highlights: • Changes to renewable energy policy in Australia threaten wind farm development. • Active community support is required to ensure ongoing viability of the industry. • Benefit sharing models are shown to increase community support for wind farms. • Legal frameworks reinforce a minimum compliance paradigm and entrench vested interests. • Best practice guidelines improve implementation of community engagement procedures

  17. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  18. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers’ perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Viets, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and

  19. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Caloosahatchee River Citizens Association (Riverwatch), LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Ed A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  20. Linking development and growth to personalitites in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene

    early ontogeny, personality/stress coping styles, and growth potential in farmed rainbow trout. Two strains of rainbow trout selected for a low (LR) and high (HR) post stress plasma cortisol response have been shown to resemble proactive and reactive coping styles respectively. Results presented here....... Furthermore, the results demonstrated that farmed rainbow trout with an intermediate emergence time grew larger compared to both early and late emerging fry, suggesting that intermediate emerging individuals have a stress coping style lying in-between the proactive-reactive continuum, and that the behavioral...... and physiological traits of these fish are beneficial in aquaculture settings. Taken together, the results presented in this thesis demonstrate a relationship between traits expressed early in development and differences in personalities/stress coping styles and growth later in ontogeny of farmed rainbow trout...

  1. Optimization of Electrical System for a Large DC Offshore Wind Farm by Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization platform based on Genetic Algorithm, where the main components of the electrical system of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the topology of the electrical system is to be optimized for a minimum cost and high...... reliability. A method to encode and decode an electrical system is studied. The reliability evaluation for a given network is also investigated. Genetic Algorithm is implemented to find the optimum network design for a large DC wind farm. It is concluded that different topologies may cause very different cost...... and reliability, and the Genetic Algorithm is capable of finding the optimum solution....

  2. Long-term effect of rice-based farming systems on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Priyanka; Nayak, A K; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Shahid, M; Raja, R; Tripathi, R; Bhattacharyya, P; Panda, B B; Mohanty, S; Rao, K S

    2015-05-01

    Integrated rice-fish culture, an age-old farming system, is a technology which could produce rice and fish sustainably at a time by optimizing scarce resource use through complementary use of land and water. An understanding of microbial processes is important for the management of farming systems as soil microbes are the living part of soil organic matter and play critical roles in soil C and N cycling and ecosystem functioning of farming system. Rice-based integrated farming system model for small and marginal farmers was established in 2001 at Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha. The different enterprises of farming system were rice-fish, fish-fingerlings, fruits, vegetables, rice-fish refuge, and agroforestry. This study was conducted with the objective to assess the soil physicochemical properties, microbial population, carbon and nitrogen fractions, soil enzymatic activity, and productivity of different enterprises. The effect of enterprises induced significant changes in the chemical composition and organic matter which in turn influenced the activities of enzymes (urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in the C, N, and P cycles. The different enterprises of long-term rice-based farming system caused significant variations in nutrient content of soil, which was higher in rice-fish refuge followed by rice-fish enterprise. Highest microbial populations and enzymatic properties were recorded in rice-fish refuge system because of waterlogging and reduced condition prolonged in this system leading to less decomposition of organic matter. The maximum alkaline phosphatase, urease, and FDA were observed in rice-fish enterprise. However, highest acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity were obtained in vegetable enterprise and fish-fingerlings enterprise, respectively.

  3. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania : a quest for sustainable production under structural adjustment programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has triggered several changes in farming systems. One important change ...

  4. Organic Trends 12 - Newsletter for Organic farming and food development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sternfeld, Eva

    2008-01-01

    ORGANIC TRENDS aims to promote environmentally friendly and healthy food production and processing. Offering a forum for producers, distributors, retailers, consumers as well as academicians, it reports on recent trends in organic farming and food development and provides consumer information. Contributions are welcome!

  5. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  6. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  7. Planning and development of wind farms: Environmental impact and grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given by DTUWind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to planning procedures, environmental impact assessments, and grid connection....

  8. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...

  9. Urban Farming as a Civic Virtue Development in the Environmental Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyo, Wibowo Heru; Budimansyah, Dasim; Roslidah, Navila

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the impact of urban farming carried out by Bandung Berkebun community as an attempt to develop the civic virtue in the environmental field. Research method used is a case study with qualitative approach. The results show that this program has educational, economic, social, and ecological impact to the society. This…

  10. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  11. Modelling the fate of pesticides in paddy rice-fish pond farming system in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, M.; Nguyen, N.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decade rice production in Vietnam has tremendously increased due to the introduction of new high yield, short duration rice varieties and an increased application of pesticides. Since pesticides are toxic by design, there is a natural concern on the possible impacts of their presence in the environment on human health and environment quality. In North Vietnam, lowland and upland rice fields were identified to be a major non-point source of agrochemical pollution to surface and ground water, which are often directly used for domestic purposes. Field measurements, however, are time consuming, costly and logistical demanding. Hence, quantification, forecast and risk assessment studies are hampered by a limited amount of field data. One potential way to cope with this shortcoming is the use of process-based models. In the present study we developed a model for simulating short-term pesticide dynamics in combined paddy rice field - fish pond farming systems under the specific environmental conditions of south-east Asia. Basic approaches and algorithms to describe the key underlying biogeochemical processes were mainly adopted from the literature to assure that the model reflects the current standard of scientific knowledge and commonly accepted theoretical background. The model was calibrated by means of the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and validated against measured pesticide concentrations (dimethoate and fenitrothion) during spring and summer rice crop season 2008, respectively, of a paddy field - fish pond system typical for northern Vietnam. First simulation results indicate that our model is capable to simulate the fate of pesticides in such paddy - fish pond farming systems. The model efficiency for the period of calibration, for example, was 0.97 and 0.95 for dimethoate and fenitrothion, respectively. For the period of validation, however, the modeling efficiency slightly decreased to 0.96 and 0.81 for dimethoate and fenitrothion

  12. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  13. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Nykvist, Björn; Malinga, Rebecka; Jaramillo, Fernando; Lindborg, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  14. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  15. The development of the biofuels in the french farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treguer, D.; Sourie, J.C.

    2005-03-01

    At first, developed to compensate the farmers incomes after 1993, the biofuels are going today on a second development phase, in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. The aim of this paper is to define the particularities of the biofuels production agricultural phase. The most important aspects of the common agricultural policy (PAC) for the biofuels are underlined. The costs of the raw material and the tool developed by the INRA to estimate the biofuels costs are also presented. In conclusion the authors propose some reference results. (A.L.B.)

  16. The Dutch programme on soil ecology of arable farming systems : farm management monitoring programme and general results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, G.; Faassen, van H.G.; Ouwerkerk, van C.; Brussaard, L.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made between conventional farm management (CONV) and integrated farm management (INT) on a calcareous silty clay loam soil, with a crop rotation of winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley and potatoes. Both types of management were started at two levels of soil organic matter, 2.2%

  17. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  18. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  19. Mark Online, a Full Scale GIS-based Danish Farm Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bligaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With its oceanic climate with moderate summers and mild winters in combination with a highly organized infrastructure, farming has traditionally been very intensive in Denmark. The cultivated land constitutes 26,000 km² out of a total of 43,000 km². Most of the arable land is used for intensive plant production with a high level of mechanization and management practices. For more than three decades The Knowledge Centre for Agriculture (KCA has developed and implemented ICT Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS for planning and documentation of all aspects of crop production. Today, updated field specific information on field size, soil type, crops, varieties, soil tillage, sowing, fertilization, pesticide usage etc. is now hosted in the GIS-based FMIS, Mark Online covering more than 80% of the arable land. A centralized Microsoft SQL data base forms the core base for all the information. Based on a MS .NET framework a number of multi-tier client-server applications have been developed. Most of the desk top applications consist of relative thick clients based on Win forms, whereas HTML5 apps and Android/IOS native apps are used for the mobile platform. Data exchange between the clients and server are based on a web service layer using data compression to improve performance. Farmers are one of the two primary target groups. Local agricultural advisors working on behalf of farmers not having their own software is the other primary target group. Nonetheless, both groups are mainly focusing on field record planning, decision making and documentation. Data is transferred between the Mark Online system and the authorities by XML-based web services or ordinary file upload to official websites. The Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Feature Service (WFS provides another interface allowing requests for geospatial features, which is used between Mark Online and external GIS.

  20. Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ► A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ► Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ► Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ► Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

  1. Coordinated Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Farm Integration via VSC-HVDC for System Frequency Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yujun; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated control strategies to provide system inertia support for main grid from offshore wind farm that is integrated through HVdc transmission is the subject matter of this paper. The strategy that seeks to provide inertia support to the main grid through simultaneous utilization of HVdc...... scheme. Both strategies can effectively provide inertia support while the second one minimizes the control impacts on harvesting wind energy with the aid of communication between onshore and offshore ac grids. Case studies of a wind farm connecting with a HVdc system considering sudden load variations...... have been successfully conducted to compare and demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategies in DIgSILENT/PowerFactory....

  2. Wind farm non-linear control for damping electromechanical oscillations of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.D. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Electronica. Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Km. 4, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Battaiotto, P.E. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Mantz, R.J. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, CICpba, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    This paper deals with the non-linear control of wind farms equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). Both active and reactive wind farm powers are employed in two non-linear control laws in order to increase the damping of the oscillation modes of a power system. The proposed strategy is derived from the Lyapunov Theory and is independent of the network topology. In this way, the strategy can be added to the central controller as another added control function. Finally, some simulations, showing the oscillation modes of a power system, are presented in order to support the theoretical considerations demonstrating the potential contributions of both control laws. (author)

  3. Impact of wind farms on a power system. An eigenvalue analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.D. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Electronica. Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Km. 4, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Mantz, R.J.; Battaiotto, P.E. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-08-15

    This paper analyzes the frequency dynamic behavior in a power system with a high wind power penetration. To this end, wind farms equipped with squirrel cage and doubly fed induction generators are compared. Aspects of the modeling of the different kinds of wind generation and power systems are cited. Then, it is shown, through an eigenvalue analysis, that wind farms equipped by doubly fed induction machines, adequately controlled, can contribute to improve the frequency dynamics. Simulations are presented which verify the theoretical results. (author)

  4. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  5. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  6. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers and the ......In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers...... and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed....... The obtained results reflect the long term economic effect of implementing new production methods in Denmark where soil fertility increases over time due to reduced traffic increasing yields. Over all, the Danish GDP is estimated to increase by 34 million € due to the implementation of PF and CTF on larger...

  7. A method to assess ecosystem services developed from soil attributes with stakeholders and data of four arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, M; van Wijnen, H J; Schouten, A J; Mulder, C; Kuiten, A M P; Brussaard, L; Breure, A M

    2012-01-15

    Ecosystem-service indicators and related accounting units are crucial for the development of decision frameworks for sustainable land management systems. With a management concept using ecosystem services, land-use expectations can be linked to quantifiable soil features in a defendable and transparent way. A method to define a set of site-specific ecosystem services and indication system for quantification was set-up and run. First, we interviewed a wide group of land users profiting from ecosystem services of the soil at four arable farms in the polder Hoeksche Waard (S-SE of Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Subsequently, site-specific ecosystem services were defined and weighted according to land use expectations at different spatial and temporal scales. Second, a practical set of indicators was taken from 'Best Professional Judgment' and used to quantify the performance of the ecosystem services for these four farms. The indicators were derived from biotic and abiotic soil parameters. The performance of ecosystem services was related to a reference situation (MEP: maximum ecological potential) with the same land use and soil type combination (i.e., arable fields on silt loam) taken from the database of our national soil survey. In many cases, the performance of ecosystem services was relatively poor if compared to MEP. However, the performances of natural attenuation and/or climate-related services were better. In addition, the different management of these farms (i.e. conventional, intensive and organic farming) was reflected in the performance of the ecosystem services of their soils. Third, land management measures to improve the targeted ecosystem services were incorporated in the outlined method, but not worked out with illustrative field data in this study. Together with concordant data, we show opportunities for a quantification of ecosystem services to improve land-users' awareness and to assess management sustainability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Feist, Chris [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  9. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwest part of Rio de Janeiro state water availability is one of the main limiting factors for human development and crop productivity. In the same way that shortage of freshwater is one of the main problems, the tomato production systems waste water and highly degrade the environment. The search for the water use efficiency is a challenge in tomato sustainable development production systems. This study aimed to contribute towards the development of sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in the northwestern part or Rio de Janeiro state, as well as increase water use efficiency and the improvement of our understanding on the role played by soil and water management practices on soil hydrology, especially on the amount of water available for the plants. The study was carried out at an experimental watershed in the city of São José do Ubá, in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro state. This city has one of the worst human development index (HDI = 0718) of the state, occupying one of the last 6 positions (85 in 91), with serious problems of education, sanitation, water supply and public health. This area is characterized by an extensive steep hilly topography constituted by long convex-concave hillslopes separated by flat valley-bottoms. The original Atlantic Forest was continuously removed for the introduction of farming and grazing activities, which currently dominate the landscape of the region. The combination of such topographic and land-use characteristics tend to generate a variety of erosional processes, including rill and interrill erosion, gullies and even landslides. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 1,171 mm, with most of rain concentrated during the summer season, making December the wetter and July the drier months. The water balance is negative for most of the year, with the exception of the period from November to January. The cultivation in the area is traditionally done using production systems that

  10. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. The protocol, which highlights key points and motivates farmers to achieve improvements, has received much attention from interested parties. Abstract Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfare on the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype including animal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up. The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing the prototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptability among stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status, based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to the first contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimal handling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfare problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individual evaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported by an effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goat app. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfare conditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol may be a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrument for

  11. Animal production systems of small farms in the Kaski district of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Laurel; Chetri, Dipesh Kumar; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Chay, Yoon; Aldinger, Lauren; Ferguson, James

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe animal production on small farms in the Kaski district of Nepal, with the goal of identifying areas where animal health and productivity could be improved. Eighty-five randomly selected farms from four different Village Development Committees were visited. Farmers were interviewed and premises and animals visually inspected on all farms. Feed samples were collected from a subset of farms. The most commonly kept species were water buffalo (used for milk and meat), cattle (used for milk and labor), and goats (used for meat). Average milk production levels were 4.7 kg/day for water buffalo and 1.9 kg/day for cattle. All animals were milked manually, no calves were weaned, and only one farm practiced artificial insemination. A majority of cattle and goats had access to pasture, and a majority of farms fed their working or producing animals concentrates; however, nutritional input was insufficient in terms of energy, protein, and micronutrient content to increase levels of production. Goat-raising was the most profitable endeavor, followed by water buffalo and cattle. We conclude that animals have the potential to contribute significantly to improved livelihoods of farmers in terms of both income generation and non-tangible benefits. However, we found that significant constraints on animal production exist, including insufficient nutritional levels and a lack of preventative care resulting in animal disease. Furthermore, cultural considerations reflecting attitudes toward cattle shape farming in ways that may limit production. Nevertheless, targeted interventions that improve animal health and productivity are possible without being cost prohibitive.

  12. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  13. Development of Wind Farm AEP Prediction Program Considering Directional Wake Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoungboo; Cho, Kyungho; Huh, Jongchul [Jeju Nat’l Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    For accurate AEP prediction in a wind farm, it is necessary to effectively calculate the wind speed reduction and the power loss due to the wake effect in each wind direction. In this study, a computer program for AEP prediction considering directional wake effect was developed. The results of the developed program were compared with the actual AEP of the wind farm and the calculation result of existing commercial software to confirm the accuracy of prediction. The applied equations are identical with those of commercial software based on existing theories, but there is a difference in the calculation process of the detection of the wake effect area in each wind direction. As a result, the developed program predicted to be less than 1% of difference to the actual capacity factor and showed more than 2% of better results compared with the existing commercial software.

  14. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  15. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary

  16. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  17. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  18. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ELEMENTS OF PRECISION FARMING SYSTEMS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES BIOLOGIZATION, RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lobkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of practical methods of computer-aided design elements of precision farming systems on the basis of biological function, resource and environmental security for the producers of different specialization, ownership and financial security is the actual direction of development of modern agricultural science. Proposed development, which may serve as a basic programming model, allowing for expanded reproduction of soil fertility through the use of new ways to maximize the amount of phytomass in the agricultural lands, increase soil biological activity and reduce the costs of manufacturing nitrogen on yield formation of crops.

  19. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  20. Decision support for mastitis on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.

    2010-01-01

    For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with

  1. Soil quality improvement under an ecologically based farming system in northwest Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologically based farming conserves and improves the soil resource and protects environmental quality by using organic or natural resources without application of synthetic chemicals. Soil quality assessment indicates the ability of management systems to optimize soil productivity and to maintain i...

  2. Implications of livestock feeding management on soil fertility in smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delve, R.J.; Cadisch, G.; Tanner, J.C.; Thorpe, W.; Thorne, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The role of livestock in nitrogen cycling in mixed crop–livestock farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa was explored. Cattle were fed a range of diets to investigate the effects on partitioning of nitrogen between urine and faeces and on the chemical composition of the manures produced. The

  3. Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia : what roles can scattered trees play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sida, Tesfaye Shiferaw

    2018-01-01

    Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the integration of scattered trees with crops could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade- offs.

  4. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  5. Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Pig Farm Integrated Management System in Ubiquitous Agricultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jiwoong; Lee, Hochul; Yoe, Hyun

    The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the 'Pig Farm Integrated Management System' based on WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pig farm. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pig farm. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pig farm facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

  6. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Climate change; Increased climate variability; Vulnerability; Smallholder farmers; Adaptation

    Climate change and increased climate variability are currently seen as the major constraints to the already stressed smallholder farming livelihood system in

  7. Diagnosis for ecological intensification of maize-based smallholder farming systems in the Costa Chica, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Kleine Koerkamp-Rabelista, J.; Navarro-Garza, H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced utilization of ecological processes for food and feed production as part of the notion of ecological intensification starts from location-specific knowledge of production constraints. A diagnostic systems approach which combined social-economic and production ecological methods at farm and

  8. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  9. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Bonareri Oruru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers’ needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility.

  10. Co-learning cycles to support the design of innovative farm systems in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mourik, Van Thomas A.; Adam, Myriam; Sogoba, Bougouna; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farm systems were re-designed together with farmers during three years (2013–2015) in Southern Mali with the aim to improve income without compromising food self-sufficiency. A cyclical learning model with three steps was used: Step 1 was the co-design of a set of crop/livestock technical

  11. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...

  12. Development and Evaluation of Ergonomic Interventions for Bucket Handling on Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Fadi A; Tang, Steven C H; Waters, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate two interventions, Ergo Bucket Carrier (EBC) and Easy Lift (EL), for youths (and adults) to handle water/feed buckets on farms. The physical activities of both adult and youth farm workers contribute to the development of low-back disorders (LBDs). Many of the activities youths perform on farms are associated with increased LBD risk, particularly, the handling of water and feed buckets. Seventeen adult and youth participants (10 males and seven females) participated in this study. To assess the risk of LBDs, the participants were instrumented with a three-dimensional spinal electrogonio-meter while lifting, carrying, and dumping water buckets using the traditional method and the two interventions. For both the adult and youth groups, the results showed that the two interventions significantly decrease the magnitudes of LBD risk in many of the tasks evaluated. Overall, the use of the EBC resulted in a 41% reduction in the level of LBD risk for the carrying task and a reduction of 69% for the dumping task. Using the EL, on the other hand, is especially effective for lifting tasks (55% reduction in LBD risk). Results of the subjective response were consistent with the objective evaluations. This study demonstrated the potential for ergonomic interventions in reducing LBD risk during the common farming task of bucket handling. Potential application of this study includes the introduction of the EBC and EL in family farms to reduce the LBD risk among youth and adult farmers. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module...... decreasing frequency oscillations and fuel consumptions of the platform, with respect to the simplified configuration. On the other hand, the dynamic response of the combined cycle units is slower due to the thermal inertia of the heat transfer equipment....

  14. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  15. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  16. Profile and Role of Woman Involvement in Dry System Pig Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartoko Hartoko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to study the profile and role of woman involvement in dry system pig farming (pig housing with mattress from grass, pig manure, vegetable waste and kitchen waste.  The research was carried out from August to November 2003.  Pig housing areas were located on eight villages of Kertek District in Wonosobo Regency (Central Java.  The method applied was survey with intensive observation.  Sample were randomly selected, involved 180 respondents (15 percent of total pig farmers, while the locations of the sample were selected based on purposive sampling method.  The result showed that respondents were in productive age, with low formal education level. Most of all are Moslems (98% and they have small family size.  The level of woman involvement in pig farming was high, approximately 85 percent.  They have other income source and they involve in pig farming to help their husbands in generating income.  Experience in the dry system pig farming was quite long (more than 10 years and skill come from imitating their neighbours otherwise of autodidact. (Animal Production 6(1: 23-29 (2004   Key Words: Pig, Dry System, Woman Profile and Role

  17. Policies of territorial development and the multi-functionality of family farming in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bonnal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to analyze the ways that public actions geared toward the rural enviroment have made reference to the notion of agricultural multifunctionality and the territorial perspective on development, in this article we analyze the variety of public policies that are part of the Multiple Year Plan 2004-2007. Within a context that is marked simultaneously by the globalization of the economy and strengthening of democratic processes, we give emphasis to public managers’ concern for inducing a process of social and territorial re-balancing through the implantation of two different logics: sectoral policies that favor family farming and policies seeking to dynamize land-based economic activities. We note that these policies make implicit reference to the multi-functional character of family farming and explicit reference to the territorial perspective. In conclusion, we point to the essentially fragmented and differentiated nature of policies of rural development and the need to integrate them through clearer references to both notions. Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, public policies, family farming, multiple year plans.

  18. Assessment of Reproductive Performance and Abortion Occurrence of Boer Goats as Influenced by Farm Systems and Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhazirah, A.H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of farm systems (intensive and semi-intensive and feeding practices on reproductive performance (kidding rate and abortion occurrence of female Boer goats in Peninsular Malaysia. By using a survey-purposive sampling approach, a total of 212 goat farms were surveyed and 123 farms rearing Boer goats either in intensive or semi-intensive farm system with at least of a year of operation were included in the analysis. Data on feeding practices were also gathered. In both farm systems, majority of the goat producers fed their goats twice a day and about half of them (48.6% provided feed supplement to the pregnant goat. This feeding practice was mentioned as a method to improve the kidding rate. However, no significant different was found between the two farm systems in kidding rate (P>0.05: intensive 1.19 ? 0.09; semi-intensive 1.10 ? 0.07. In addition, the abortion incidence was rare, particularly in early and late pregnancy in intensive and semi-intensive farm systems (p>0.05; X2 = 7.57 and 2.21, respectively. In conclusion, the rearing Boer female goats either in intensive or semi-intensive farm systems does not affect their kidding rate and abortion frequency.

  19. The Potential of ecological farming in delivering social and economic development to small holder farming families (The Rwenzori experience)

    OpenAIRE

    Tibasiima, Thaddeo; Dissing, Inge Lis; Dissing, Aage; Nalunga, Jane; Isgren, Ellinor; Masereka, Longino

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009 collaboration between Sustainable Agriculture Trainers’ Network (SATNET), National Organic Agriculture Movement of Uganda (NOGAMU) and Organic Denmark (OD) has seen the establishment of over 130 ecological Farmer Family Learning Groups (FFLGs) in the Rwenzori region composed of up to 3255 farming families. Compared to the forms of conventional agriculture in which much effort has been invested in this part of the country and in the country as a whole, the FFLGs in the Rwenzori r...

  20. Systems Approach to Farm Mechanization in Nigeria | Anazodo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some fundamental questions are then raised which the author argues can best be studied by a multidisciplinary team using the systems approach in evaluating the appropriate levels of mechanization suitable for Nigerian agricultural systems Attention is ... Solution by linear programming aided by a computer is advocated.

  1. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    and services, and contribute to local livelihoods for rural communities is discussed. Strategies to transform traditional smallholders’ systems into market-oriented systems to better serve environmental and economic goals are also discussed. Most of the research presented in this thesis was conducted...

  2. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jonas; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Fátima; Carneiro, Jeferson; Santos, Simôni; Rodrigues, Luis R; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2013-01-01

    The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  3. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  4. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ethan; Wang, Qingbin; Li, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  5. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  6. Study of the ubiquitous hog farm system using wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring and facilities control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  7. Farm Population Estimates for 1977. Rural Development Research Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.

    The U.S. farm population continued its long-term downward trend during 1977, indicating that the population growth characteristic of nonmetropolitan counties since 1970 has not extended to population living on farms. In the 12-month period centered on April 1977, the farm population was 7,806,000, or 450,000 fewer farm residents (5.4%) than in…

  8. Local Farm Structure and Community Ties. Rural Development Research Report Number 68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Thomas A.; Green, Bernal L.

    Whether large-scale or small farms dominate, a county's farm structure is influenced not only by changes within farming but also by key factors such as nonfarm economic activity, geography, and population growth. Large-farm counties where agriculture dominates the economy are concentrated in the Plains, Midwest, and Mississippi Delta. Small-farm…

  9. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.

  10. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  11. Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: Effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzschuh, A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kleijn, D.; Tscharntke, T.

    2007-01-01

    1. Agri-environment schemes promote organic farming in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of agricultural intensification on farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination. Farming system, landscape context and regional differences may all influence biodiversity, but their

  12. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

      In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a

  13. Targeting resources within diverse, heterogeneous and dynamic farming systems: Towards a ‘uniquely African green revolution’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Misiko, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are highly diverse and heterogeneous, often operating in complex socio-ecological environments. Much of the heterogeneity within the farming systems is caused by spatial soil variability, which results in its turn from the interaction between inherent

  14. Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to convert all the possible potentials to reality. This is done by following values premises for the adoption of taungya system in the real sense of it in most of the forest estates in the state. Keywords: Taungya, economic potential, income, revenues, concession. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 11, No.

  15. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  16. Life cycle energy use, costs, and greenhouse gas emission of broiler farms in different production systems in Iran-a case study of Alborz province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishgar-Komleh, Seyyed Hassan; Akram, Asadollah; Keyhani, Alireza; van Zelm, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve sustainable development in agriculture, it is necessary to quantify and compare the energy, economic, and environmental aspects of products. This paper studied the energy, economic, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission patterns in broiler chicken farms in the Alborz province of Iran. We studied the effect of the broiler farm size as different production systems on the energy, economic, and environmental indices. Energy use efficiency (EUE) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) were 0.16 and 1.11, respectively. Diesel fuel and feed contributed the most in total energy inputs, while feed and chicks were the most important inputs in economic analysis. GHG emission calculations showed that production of 1000 birds produces 19.13 t CO 2-eq and feed had the highest share in total GHG emission. Total GHG emissions based on different functional units were 8.5 t CO 2-eq per t of carcass and 6.83 kg CO 2-eq per kg live weight. Results of farm size effect on EUE revealed that large farms had better energy management. For BCR, there was no significant difference between farms. Lower total GHG emissions were reported for large farms, caused by better management of inputs and fewer bird losses. Large farms with more investment had more efficient equipment, resulting in a decrease of the input consumption. In view of our study, it is recommended to support the small-scale broiler industry by providing subsidies to promote the use of high-efficiency equipment. To decrease the amount of energy usage and GHG emissions, replacing heaters (which use diesel fuel) with natural gas heaters can be considered. In addition to the above recommendations, the use of energy saving light bulbs may reduce broiler farm electricity consumption.

  17. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  18. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  19. The recent development of the family farm in the agrarian capitalism of the Argentinean Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Neiman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n34p339 The development of agrarian capitalism in the so called Pampas region of Argentina early involved small and medium-size family farms, immersed in commodities´ production for international markets. These farms had characteristics that distinguished them from the large producers in the region, mainly because the family origin of their labor. In its historical evolution, these units have transformed both their labor-productive organization and their family dynamics. This article shows these changes and discusses the difficulty for defining this social actor in terms of its past characteristics, at the same time that it seeks to understand its current distinguishing features. The methodological approach is qualitative and is based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers, their sons/daughters and wives, and professional staff linked to those farms. In addition, secondary sources of information are used to explain the structural factors related to the expansion of production and the rise of the land prices. The research was carried in the area of Junín, at the northwest region of the Province of Buenos Aires.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY FARMING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES WITH PREDOMINANCY OF AGRIBUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Margaret Avelar Guimarães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of agricultural activities enabled the consolidation of agribusiness and transformed the rural production structures. In cities where the economic base is agribusiness, family farms is viewed from two perspectives: the first considers that farmers can be inserted independently and competitive in the horticultural and second they need to survive through compensatory public policies, not to become surplus labor in the cities. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that family farming is feasible, even in a city dominated by agribusiness and this may be potentiated by the action of social actors and researchers. The study was conducted in Rio Verde - Goiás, considered an exponent of Brazilian agribusiness through the adaptation of the Policy Delphi methodology, with the participation of different social actors. The results indicate a need for organization of family farmers in cooperatives and/or associations with political and financial support of the state. Family farming is essential for the sustainable and integrated development and enhancement of family farmers is crucial and strategic for this.

  1. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Kennedy, Christina M; Kremen, Claire; Batáry, Péter; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Snyder, William E; Williams, Neal M; Winfree, Rachael; Klatt, Björn K; Åström, Sandra; Benjamin, Faye; Brittain, Claire; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Clough, Yann; Danforth, Bryan; Diekötter, Tim; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ekroos, Johan; Elle, Elizabeth; Freitas, Breno M; Fukuda, Yuki; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Grab, Heather; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Isaia, Marco; Jha, Shalene; Jonason, Dennis; Jones, Vincent P; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Letourneau, Deborah K; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mallinger, Rachel E; Martin, Emily A; Martinez, Eliana; Memmott, Jane; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia G; Pfiffner, Lukas; Pocock, Michael J O; Ponce, Carlos; Potts, Simon G; Poveda, Katja; Ramos, Mariangie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary; Saunders, Manu E; Schon, Nicole L; Sciligo, Amber R; Sidhu, C Sheena; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja; Veselý, Milan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilson, Julianna K; Crowder, David W

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a pilot investigation into irrigation activities and the need for a reform to attain food security in Nigeria. Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the. Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin was chosen as epitome of irrigation projects in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were administered on the 135 farmers ...

  3. Farming systems and strategies for sustainable livelihood in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Cultivating fruits particularly banana, apple, guava and papaya and out-of-season vegetables are also practiced in the highlands and mid-slopes but their proportion in the cultivated land is smaller, on the one hand, and they are traditionally cultivated and ...

  4. Projecting carbon footprint of Canadian dairy farms under future climate conditions with the integrated farm system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms are an important sector of Canadian agriculture, and there is an on-going effort to assess their environmental impact. In Canada, like many northern areas of the world, climate change is expected to increase agricultural productivity. This will likely come along with changes in environme...

  5. An automated microfluidic chip system for detection of piscine nodavirus and characterization of its potential carrier in grouper farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    Full Text Available Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small amounts of sample and has been developed and applied for managing grouper fish farms. Epidemiological investigations revealed an extremely high detection rate of piscine nodavirus (89% of fish samples from 5 different locations in southern Taiwan. In addition, positive samples from the feces of fish-feeding birds indicated that the birds could be carrying the virus between fish farms. In the present study, we successfully introduced this advanced technology that combines engineering and biological approaches to aquaculture. In the future, we believe that this approach will improve fish farm management and aid in reducing the economic loss experienced by fish farmers due to widespread disease outbreaks.

  6. Economic Value Assessment and Optimal Sizing of an Energy Storage System in a Grid-Connected Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Gu Choi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the optimal management policy of a given energy storage system (ESS installed in a grid-connected wind farm in terms of maximizing the monetary benefits and provides guidelines for defining the economic value of the ESS under optimal management policy and selecting the optimal size of the ESS based on economic value. Considering stochastic models for wind power and electricity price, we develop a finite-horizon periodic-review Markov decision process (MDP model to seek the optimal management policy. We also use a simple optimization model to find the optimal storage capacity and charging/discharging capacity of the ESS. By applying our analytic approach to a real-world grid-connected wind farm located in South Korea, we verify the usefulness of this study. Our numerical study shows that the economic value of the ESS is highly dependent on management policy, wind electricity variability, and electricity price variability. Thus, the optimal size of ESS should be carefully determined based on the locational characteristics and management policy even with limited investments. Furthermore, this study provides a meaningful policy implication regarding how much of a subsidy the government should provide for installing ESS in a wind farm.

  7. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  8. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  9. Determinants of wind and solar energy system adoption by U.S. farms: A multilevel modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Xiarchos, Irene; Beckman, Jayson

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the first national examination of the determinants of adoption of wind and solar energy generation on U.S. farming operations. The inclusion of state policies and characteristics in a multilevel modeling approach distinguishes this study from past research utilizing logit models of technology adoption which focus only on the characteristics of the farm operation. Results suggest the propensity to adopt is higher for livestock operations, larger farms, operators with internet access, organic operations, and newer farmers. The results find state characteristics such as solar resources, per capita income levels, and predominantly democratic voting increasing the odds of farm adoption. This research suggests the relevance of state policy variables in explaining farm level outcomes is limited, although in combination best practice net metering and interconnection policies—policies designed to encourage the development of small scale distributed applications—are shown to increase the likelihood of farm solar and wind adoption. The prevalence of electric cooperatives—which are often not subject to state renewable energy policies and often service farms—is negatively related with the propensity to adopt and suggests that policy design may be a factor. - Highlights: • This is the first national examination of wind and solar energy adoption on U.S. farms. • Controlling for state policies distinguishes this study from past research of technology adoption. • We find net metering and interconnection policies increase the likelihood of farm adoption. • Results suggest that the design of renewable energy policies may limit their impact on farms

  10. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Global agriculture is at a critical juncture when competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. Livestock production, especially ruminant livestock is central to this debate. Ruminants make an important contribution to global food security by converting feed that is unsuitable for human consumption to high value protein, demand for which is currently increasing at an unprecedented rate. Sustainable intensification of ruminant livestock production may be applied to pastoral grazing, mixed-cropping, feedlot and housed production systems. All these systems have associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, such as reduced animal fertility, health and welfare, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. Further, in many societies livestock represent a resource far greater than just food, e.g. fibre, draught, fertiliser, fuel, bank and social. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice, e.g. temperate grassland. The North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) was established during 2010 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland temperate grasslands. Following construction, a typical beef and sheep system based on permanent pasture receiving chemical fertilisers on first grade pasture (>60% perennial ryegrass) was implemented across the 67.2 ha farm platform in order to obtain baseline

  11. Towards a Theoretical Grounding of Climate Resilience Assessments for Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience assessments are increasingly used to inform management decisions and development interventions across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In light of current and future climate change and variability, there is growing interest in applying such tools and frameworks to assess and strengthen the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems. However, these assessments are often undertaken without explicit consideration of the resilience thinking in which they are grounded. This makes it difficult to understand how the conceptual aspects of resilience are translating into resilience assessment practice. This paper provides an important first step in tackling this gap, by identifying and using key characteristics of resilience thinking to evaluate existing resilience assessment tools and frameworks and drawing insights for assessing the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems. We find that power, politics, and agency, identified as important in the resilience literature, are not fully incorporated within current tools and frameworks. This leads to inadequate consideration of spatial and temporal trade-offs. We propose six recommendations for assessing the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems in SSA in order to enhance the linkages between resilience theory and practice. These are: (1 better integrate vulnerability and resilience; (2 recognize that resilience does not equal development or poverty reduction; (3 recognize the benefits and limitations of adopting flexible, participatory approaches; (4 integrate issues of power into assessment tools; (5 target specific systems; and (6 encourage knowledge sharing, empirical studies, and critical evaluation. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of applications of resilience thinking to enhance natural resource management.

  12. Monitoring of Aquatic Biota in Intensive Fish Farming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Mareš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct a detailed research of aquatic invertebrates in the intensive breeding system of salmonid fish in order to determine the taxonomic composition of the community and its seasonal dynamics, and to identify those species that may be hosts of parasitic disease agents. To date, this issue has not been studied at all in the Czech Republic. Monitoring was conducted on the Danish type recirculation system near the municipality of Pravíkov in the Highlands of the Czech Republic from April till November 2015. A total of 9 series of samples were taken. Macrozoobenthos was evaluated in terms of taxonomic composition and abundance. Basic physicochemical properties of water (temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and conductivity were also measured. In total, 69 taxa of aquatic invertebrates were noted, with the wall being the richest with a mean abundance of 756 pcs/m2. Permanent groups predominated; the most numerous group was the subphylum Crustaceae, represented by a single species, Asellus aquticus.

  13. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.

    2013-01-01

    in the farms with the highest stocking rate. The organic Danish farms had the lowest impact on biodiversity loss, which in general was positively influenced by the share of grassland in the system. A high proportion of grassland also had a significant positive effect on GWP, acidification and energy use...... systems (confinement vs. pasture) and annual production levels (6275–10,964 kg ECM cow−1). There was large variability in stocking rates (1.1–11.0 LU ha−1) among farms, which has a major impact on the production per unit area of farmland, on feed self-sufficiency and on farm surplus of nitrogen...... of conventional soymeal in the feed concentrate. There were strong and positive correlations between the four impact categories, and overall the results indicate that improving greenhouse gas emissions would improve the general environmental sustainability of the dairy farm. The land occupation was lowest...

  14. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  15. No-till systems on the Chequen Farm in Chile: A success story in bringing practice and science together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reicosky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No-till cropping systems provide an opportunity to protect the soil from erosion, while contemporaneously maintaining high yields and contributing to global food security. The historical aspects and the remarkable development of no-till systems on the Chequen Farm in Chile are reviewed. The adoption of no-till over the last 40 years has been a major turning point in reducing the devastating effects of soil erosion and a model for the evolution of sustainable crop production in highly erodible terrain in other parts of the world. The process of adoption of no-till systems in severely eroded foothills of Chile is described, as well as the environmental benefits and the sustainability of the system. The practical aspects of these developments are supported by scientific literature where appropriate, illustrating the value and coincident knowledge gained when combining analogue observations and information with scientific principles.

  16. Peatland vulnerability to energy-related developments from climate change policy in Ireland: the case of wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ireland enjoys a wet and windy climate which is highly suitable for both peatlands and wind farms. There are currently 73 wind farms in Ireland, 39 of which are located on upland peatland - the oldest one on an industrially extracted blanket bog. The national and local (county level policy in relation to wind farms is to promote renewable energy in order to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change by reducing carbon emissions from non-renewable energy sources, whilst taking account of statutory obligations for planning and sustainable development. Lessons learned from past developments and ongoing monitoring have been applied in adapting guidelines for planning authorities and environmental impact assessment. However, although the vulnerability of peatland habitats is emphasised in the guideline documents, wind farm proposals for sensitive upland peatland sites continue to appear. Any development that involves drainage and fragmentation of peatlands has irreversible impacts on these ecosystems. Furthermore, the perceived ‘green profile’ of wind farms means that they tend to be viewed in a different light from other developments. It is proposed that any development on the nationally and internationally significant peatland resource of Ireland should undergo rigorous examination and impact assessment, and that degraded peatlands such as the industrial peat extraction areas in the Irish Midlands be selected as alternative locations for wind farm development.

  17. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  18. Seed quality of common bean accessions under organic and conventional farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Medeiros Gindri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is essential for a sustainable food production, and the knowledge of the potential characteristics of landrace seeds may prompt farmers to adopt the habit of seed conservation for this species. This study aimed at categorizing landrace and commercial common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions, according to the physiological quality (viability and vigor of seeds produced in the field, during two growing seasons, under organic and conventional farming systems. Germination percentage, field emergence, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, cold test and seedling length were assessed. The landrace bean accessions exhibit diversity in the physiological seed quality, in terms of their viability and vigor. No differences were observed between the farming systems, in relation to the physiological quality of the seeds produced. The categorization of landrace common bean accessions allows to identify those with superior physiological seed quality.

  19. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Sorensen, Poul; Iov, Florin

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn to t...

  20. A simulation of the SDC on-line processing farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Chen, Y.; Dorenbosch, J.; Lee, J.; Sayle, R.

    1993-10-01

    In the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) data acquisition system (DAQ), an enormous amount of data flows into a processor farm for extraction of interesting physics events. To design an efficient on-line filter, the operations in the farm must be carefully modeled. The authors present a simulation model developed at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory which efficiently allocates physics events to the farm

  1. EVALUATING ECONOMICS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION UNDER HIGH AND LOW INPUTS FARMING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Khakbazan, Mohammad; Monreal, M.; Derksen, D.A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    A serious concern about the sustainability of existing production systems has resulted from the low profitability of agriculture and the deterioration of the natural resource base. As a result of these concerns, increased attention has been given to alternative farming practices in order to decrease the use of fossil fuels, to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization, and to increase the implementation of conservation tillage practices. Farmers are recommended to include pulse crop in...

  2. Self-synchronisation of wind farm in MMC-based HVDC system

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Molinas Cabrera, Maria Marta

    2016-01-01

    The stability of an offshore wind power network connected through a high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission line is a critical problem since there is no direct connection to a strong ac collection (ACC) bus. Field experience has shown that sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) and harmonic resonance can occur between the wind farms and the HVDC systems. The oscillations can appear in the presence of background harmonics and is arguably resulting from the controller interaction of the Wind Energy Conv...

  3. Temporal effects of organic and conventional farming systems on the chemical properties of vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Ulfet; Ongun, Ali Rıza; Sökmen, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    In this study, It is aim to compare the effects of chemical properties in organic and conventional vineyard farming system for 9 year long between 2000-2009.in Manisa,Salihli, in Aegean Region. The study was carried out in 5 replicates completely randomized design According to soil analysis results, certified fertilizer and green manure and ground pruned branches were applied as plant nutrition material in organic plots. On the other hand, 21% ammonium sulphate, 26% ammonium nitrate, 43% trip...

  4. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  5. Network systems and cloud applications in livestock farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Automatisierungstechnik und von Sensoren zur Tierüberwachung wächst und damit auch die Datenmenge aus der Tierhaltung. Die Herausforderungen an die Datenanalyse und einfache Informationsdarstellung steigen. Die Beispiele aus Wissenschaft und Praxis zeigen Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Dabei müssen Anlagen unterschiedlicher Hersteller gekoppelt und Daten zielgerichtet ausgewertet werden. Während in wissenschaftlich orientierten Projekten meist Systeme unterschiedlicher Hersteller vertreten sind, um z. B. die Kommunikation und Kooperation zu stärken sowie komplexe Fragestellungen zu beantworten, wird dies in herstellerspezifischen Projekten eher vermieden, da hier der konkrete Anwendervorteil im Vordergrund steht. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele wird dargestellt, dass mobile Anwendungen als Frühwarnsysteme für Gesundheitsveränderungen in Beständen oder zur Anlagensteuerung implementiert und genutzt werden. Insgesamt ist deutlich zu erkennen, dass sich die Datenauswertung und –nutzung in die Cloud verschiebt. Mit diesen Cloudsystemen erweitert sich das Spektrum der Datenauswertung dahingehend, dass komplexe Algorithmen und mobile Services (Apps, Webberatung oder soziale Netzwerke umgesetzt werden.

  6. Oscillation Performance and Wide‐area Coordination Control of Power System with Large‐scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi

    in the power system; investigating the possible influence of large‐scale wind power integration on system oscillation performance; developing oscillation mitigation strategies for wind farms; and coordinating various damping controllers in the power system. For the power system operation aspect, an optimal...... and a residue identification technique is used. Furthermore, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based coordinating strategy to select the locations, input signals and parameters of multiple PSSs is proposed. Simulation results show that this method is able to find a group of PSSs to improve the target mode...... by observing the oscillation damping change in relation with the change of the ancillary controller parameters. Furthermore, the forced oscillation in the power system activated by the wind power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is analyzed. The forced oscillation amplitude is found...

  7. Developing web-based data analysis tools for precision farming using R and Shiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshiri, Ebrahim; Mohd Shariff, Abdul Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Technologies that are set to increase the productivity of agricultural practices require more and more data. Nevertheless, farming data is also being increasingly cheap to collect and maintain. Bulk of data that are collected by the sensors and samples need to be analysed in an efficient and transparent manner. Web technologies have long being used to develop applications that can assist the farmers and managers. However until recently, analysing the data in an online environment has not been an easy task especially in the eyes of data analysts. This barrier is now overcome by the availability of new application programming interfaces that can provide real-time web based data analysis. In this paper developing a prototype web based application for data analysis using new facilities in R statistical package and its web development facility, Shiny is explored. The pros and cons of this type of data analysis environment for precision farming are enumerated and future directions in web application development for agricultural data are discussed.

  8. Maximizing your wind farm development value in the eyes of the investor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrigle, P.

    2010-01-01

    While there are now a significant number of wind power projects on the market, few buyers have access to sufficient capital funds to build. This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of maximizing the value of wind farm development projects in order to attract investors. The poor investment climate was attributed to low power and natural gas prices, as well as to the high cost of wind farms and a shortage of capital. Factors that influence the value of a wind power project included the quality of the asset, project risks, project size, and the stage of development. Developers must demonstrate to investors that transmission access is ensured, that there is sufficient stakeholder support and adequate wind resources. The ability to develop and expand on an initial project should also be demonstrated. Investors require documentation in relation to transmission information, stakeholder consultation work, and constraint maps with industry standard setbacks. Information must be consistent and credible. The use of qualified, experienced consultants was recommended. tabs., figs.

  9. Strategy to Develop Rice Farm Business Insurance in PT Asuransi Jasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graita Gaiety Jatmiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector has very significant roles in Indonesian economy, some of which are as the contributor of the second highest PDB and the biggest labor absorber with the contribution of 13.6% and 32% respectively. Even though, it is the biggest labor absorber,agricultural business is not interesting to the community nowadays. This is because this business has a quite high risk to fail to harvest. This research aimed to analyze the external and internal factors affecting the development of Rice Farm Business Insurance (AUTP, to know the position of the company in carrying out the AUTP, and to formulate the strategy to develop AUTP in PT Asuransi Jasa Indonesia (Jasindo. This research used descriptive method through case study with the analysis equipment, like Five Forces Porter, IFE/EFE Matrix, IE Matrix, SWOT, and QSPM. The results showed that there were several strategic factors influencing the implementation of AUTP, i.e. a wide market opportunity. The position of the company in the implementation of AUTP was in the position of hold and maintain with the recommended strategy, of market penetration and product development. In this research, eight alternative strategies were obtained with the with the highest priority was to expand the distribution channel network.Keywords: development stragety, rice farm business insurance,agricultural risk, Jasindo, QSPM

  10. Developing web-based data analysis tools for precision farming using R and Shiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahanshiri, Ebrahim; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that are set to increase the productivity of agricultural practices require more and more data. Nevertheless, farming data is also being increasingly cheap to collect and maintain. Bulk of data that are collected by the sensors and samples need to be analysed in an efficient and transparent manner. Web technologies have long being used to develop applications that can assist the farmers and managers. However until recently, analysing the data in an online environment has not been an easy task especially in the eyes of data analysts. This barrier is now overcome by the availability of new application programming interfaces that can provide real-time web based data analysis. In this paper developing a prototype web based application for data analysis using new facilities in R statistical package and its web development facility, Shiny is explored. The pros and cons of this type of data analysis environment for precision farming are enumerated and future directions in web application development for agricultural data are discussed

  11. Development of sustainability reports for farming operations in the Basque Country using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alvarez Etxeberria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, publications of sustainability reports from a variety of organisations all over the world have significantly increased. Most of these companies are large and belong to the secondary and tertiary sector. This paper uses stakeholder theory to attempt to contribute to the development of sustainability reports specifically related to farming operations. This paper also uses the Delphi methodology to collect information from different stakeholders that, in turn, represent different groups of agents within the organisations involved. The conclusions indicate a difference in the assessments from the three subgroups of experts that comprise the panel.

  12. Ecological-photosynthetic system for the treatment of swine wastewater in farm; Proceso ecologico-fotosintetico para la depuracion de purines en grajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The Ecological-Photosynthetic System (Paten n. 8901368, C.S.I.C.) is a low cost process of operational simplicity; his only energetic source is solar radiation. It is based on the ecological development of different communities of microorganisms in order to avoid negative interactions between them, immobilized on clayey support. The present work went in pursuit of the study of an integral biological plant in a piggery farm, from October of 1993 to June of 1995. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating waste water from small farms. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus and their parasitism rates in farming systems in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Williane Maria de Oliveira; Justo, Márcia Cristina Nascimento; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cohen, Simone Chinicz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus from fish farms in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil, and their parasitism rates. Between June 2014 and March 2015, 200 specimens were sampled from two fish farms: one with a semi-intensive system and the other with an extensive system (100 fish from each farm: 50 during the dry season and 50 during the rainy season). Fifteen species of parasites were found, with seasonal variations of some according to the farming system. In the semi-intensive fish farm, there was greater prevalence of infection during the dry season. Also, Urocleidoides paradoxus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Goezia leporini and Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) acuminata presented differences in their parasitism rates between the seasons. In the extensive fish farm, no variation in the prevalence of infection was observed between the seasons and two species Tereancistrum parvus and G. leporini demonstrated differences only regarding the mean intensity of infection. The data presented here may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of L. macrocephalus in farming systems during the dry and rainy seasons in the state of Acre.

  14. Seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus and their parasitism rates in farming systems in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyze the seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus from fish farms in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil, and their parasitism rates. Between June 2014 and March 2015, 200 specimens were sampled from two fish farms: one with a semi-intensive system and the other with an extensive system (100 fish from each farm: 50 during the dry season and 50 during the rainy season. Fifteen species of parasites were found, with seasonal variations of some according to the farming system. In the semi-intensive fish farm, there was greater prevalence of infection during the dry season. Also, Urocleidoides paradoxus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Goezia leporini and Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona acuminata presented differences in their parasitism rates between the seasons. In the extensive fish farm, no variation in the prevalence of infection was observed between the seasons and two species Tereancistrum parvus and G. leporini demonstrated differences only regarding the mean intensity of infection. The data presented here may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of L. macrocephalus in farming systems during the dry and rainy seasons in the state of Acre.

  15. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  16. Flexibility of Scope, Type and Temporality in Mustang, Nepal. Opportunities for Adaptation in a Farming System Facing Climatic and Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Holmelin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to increase the seasonality in river flows in the great river systems of Himalaya and impose challenges to regional food production. Since climate change increases the uncertainty in local weather patterns, people’s ability to maintain local agricultural production will probably depend on how flexible the local farming systems are to adjust to unpredictable changes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the flexibility of one such farming system which is located in Mustang, Nepal, Himalaya. Defining flexibility as “uncommitted potentialities for change” following Gregory Bateson, the paper identifies opportunities for change in the farming system, as well as factors that constrain flexibility. Further developing the concept of flexibility, it is suggested that flexibility may be analyzed in terms of scope, type and temporal flexibility. Although there are several underexploited resources in the studied farming system, the present situation is not regarded as one of irrational and suboptimal exploitation of resources. Instead, unexploited resources imply opportunities for change, which provide the system with flexibility to rapidly adjust agricultural production to varying and uncertain conditions of production.

  17. Biometry traits and geometric morphometrics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Tibaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the farming system on biometry traits and dressing out yield were inves- tigated in market-size European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax cultured extensively or intensively in sea cages or land-based basins. Fish external appearences and shapes were studies with geometric morphometrics in order to assess the potential of combined methodologies in the assessment of finfish quality. Both standard biometry and geometric morphometrics were able to discriminate between sea bass farmed extensively from those cultured under intensive conditions. Geometric morphometrics has been shown to be a valuable tool for describing changes in shape features and could result a useful technique to be associated to biometry traits in the context of fish quality assessment.

  18. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  19. Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: Supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as the environment and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatised pluralistic agricultural extension systems. Hence policy measures have been proposed to stimulate farmer demand for such sustainable farm management advice (pull

  20. Evaluating the Effects of Farming Systems on Potato Production Factors Productivity; a Case Study in Kordesatan and Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasibeh zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the effects of farming systems on potato production factors productivity were investigated in the 2011-2012. The data were collected using two stages cluster sampling and preparing 208 questionnaires submitted to farmers in the Koredestan and Hamedan Provinces. The efficacy of farming systems computed using dummy variable, and to select the best produce function, flexible and non-flexible functions were studied. Results indicated that production function Cobb-Douglas is better than the other tested functions. In addition, the effect of ownership farming system on production factors productivity was positive while the effect of other farming systems was found to be negative. Therefore, it is recommended that Ministry of Jahad-e-Agriculture encourage farmers to buy rental land and wells over the long-term period by giving low interest loans.

  1. Applying a transdisciplinary process to define a research agenda in a smallholder irrigated farming system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defining an agenda is critical to a research process, and a transdisciplinary approach is expected to improve relevance of an agenda and resultant research outputs. Given the complexity of farming systems, farmer differences and the involvement...

  2. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  3. Performance of different biofilters in a recirculating system for rainbow trout farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of different biofilters in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS for trout farming. Materials and methods. It was used a 1m3 plastic tank for fries farming; fabric bags to solids retention; a submersible pump; a constant water level and flow distribution box; six up flow biofilters in 3” PVC tube; sand of D10=0.45mm as carrier. The reactors were operated at local temperature and with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 11 min, the biofilters were inoculated in the next way: R1-Control: RAS water; R2-Fish culture farm sludges; R3- Water from aerated lagoon of Antanas landfill (AL; R4-Aquarium sediments; R5- Aerated lagoon of AL sludges; R6-Sludges from sulfidogenic reactor of AL. The weight gain (WG and the food conversion (FC were evaluated, some physic-chemical parameters were monitored and the nitrogen and suspended solids removal efficiency were evaluated. Results. The WG of the cultured animals was 1.58 g/d and the FC was 1.41. There were no differences for ammonium and nitrite removal between the reactors; the average removal efficiencies were: ammonium 4.78%, nitrite 27.2%, nitrate 32.3%, suspended solids 37.5%; R4 and R5 reactors presented the best performance on nitrate removal, with average efficiencies of 47.4% and 42.8%. R3 presented the best SS removal with an average of 58.2%. Conclusions. The RAS water treatment system guaranteed appropriated liquid quality conditions for trout farming; the most efficient reactor for removal of the different forms of nitrogen was the inoculated with the aerated lagoon of AL sludges.

  4. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming - profitability, productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow trout grow-out systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    German farms profit from local market prices and advanced farm management. Danish farms using recirculating techniques remain competitive thanks to enhanced productivity and economy of scale. However, small traditional farms in Germany and Denmark may struggle to stay competitive in the long term....... Organic farms in both countries face challenges of high feed costs and comparatively low productivity with mixed success. Using edible protein energy return on investment (epEROI) as an indicator of ecological sustainability, all surveyed farms compared very favourably with the terrestrial systems...

  5. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting representative milk samples compared with devices used by certified milk recording providers on farms with conventional milking systems (CMS) and (2) devices used on both AMS and CMS comply with accuracy crite...

  6. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  7. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect. Results: Exposure concentrations were variable and had......Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed...... in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = -0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest...

  8. The Study on Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System Connecting with Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan

    furnish the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm with a fast and reliable LVRT ability. The voltage fluctuation caused by the intermittent wind power is another important challenge to the system stability. As in the case of the LCC-HVDC links, their stable operations are highly dependent on the AC side voltage...... with the short electrical distance. And consequently, a so-called Multi-Infeed Direct Current (MIDC) transmission system is formed. On the other hand, as the fast growing of wind power in electrical grids, the Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links have becoming a favorable choice for connecting...

  9. Report on developing bottom-up Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCS) for representative farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eory, V.; MacLeod, M.; Faverdin, P.

    2015-01-01

    years, discussing the variability in these estimates. The second study reports on marginal abatement cost curves for beef cattle production in Brazil. Finally, the last report presents the conceptual basis of a tool to assess the financial implications of the mitigation measures to be used in parallel...... number of reports done in developed countries show a high variability in the country-level cost-effectiveness estimates, and suggest that approaches providing higher granularity at the spatial and farm type could suit better to the purpose of regional policy development. At the same time, there is still...... a gap in our understanding of economic mitigation potential of agriculture in developing and newly industrialised countries. To address these questions this report presents three studies. The first is a literature review of the cost-effectiveness estimates of mitigation measures published in the past 15...

  10. Influence of automatic feeding systems on design and management of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Da Borso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many dairy farmers have actively advanced their farms toward automation. Automatic concentrate dispensers and automatic milking systems have been utilised for years, and several manufacturers have introduced automatic feeding systems (AFS. AFSs allow for the increase in frequency of feed distribution with significant advantages in terms of health and production. Furthermore, they provide a reduction of man labour related to preparation of feed, distribution, and propelling the ration closer to the feeding rack. The present research was focused on the monitoring of a dairy farm, located in the Veneto region of Italy, during the transition from a conventional feeding system (CFS, based on a tractor operated mixing wagon, to an automatic system equipped with stationary feeding hoppers, mixing unit, and distribution wagon operating on rail. The article reports a comparative analysis of the structural modifications required for the adoption of AFS, including an analysis of the AFS/CFS systems based on their functionality, energy, and man labour requirements. In the case study, AFS represented an affordable way to reduce covered area of the housings, as a result of the reduction in width of foraging lane and the reduction of manger front length. In addition, AFS demonstrated a reduction in labour requirements and improvement of quality and consistency of work when feeding total mixed ration. Finally, the research was addressed to study dairy cow behaviour. A method for monitoring the feeding, resting, and standing indexes was applied to the CFS farm. As a preliminary result of this activity, a positive correlation between cow resting activity and milk production was discovered.

  11. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraseni, T N; Mushtaq, S; Reardon-Smith, K

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia. (letter)

  12. CH4 Emission Model from Bos Primigenius Waste in Fish-Water: Implications for Integrated Livestock-Fish Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Okeniyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a methane (CH4 emission model from the waste of cattle (B. primigenius based on trends in integrated livestock-fish farming adoption by farmers in Nigeria. Dung of B. primigenius was employed as substrate in fish-water, obtained from a fish-rearing farm, as a matrix medium for simulating a low-oxygen wastewater environment of an agriculture-aquaculture system. A substrate to fish-water mass ratio of 1:3 was used, developed in a laboratory-size digesting reactor system. Volumetric readings, at ambient temperature conditions and with a retention time of thirty-two days, were then subjected to the logistic probability density function, and tested against correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency criteria. The readings show that a volume of CH4-containing gas as high as 65.3 x 10−3 dm3 was produced on the 13th day from the B. primigenius substrate. Also, production of 234.59 x 10−3 dm3/kg CH4-containing gas, totaling 703.76 x 10−3 dm3, was observed through the studied retention time. The 60% CH4 constituent model of the measured gas generation showed a potency of 2.0664 kg emission per animal, which is equivalent to 43.3944 CO2eq of global warming potential (GWP annually per animal. This bears environmental and climate change implications, and therefore alternative sustainable practices for integrated livestock-fish farming adoption are suggested.

  13. The Potential of Integrating Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize in Smallholder Farming Systems to Reduce Malnourishment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthokozisi K. Zuma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification interventions have the potential to combat malnutrition. This review explored the use of provitamin A-biofortified maize (PVABM as a vitamin A deficiency (VAD reduction agricultural-based strategy. Maize has been identified as one of the key staple crops for biofortification to reduce hidden hunger in Africa. Most nutrition interventions have not been successful in reducing hunger because rural communities, who mainly rely on agriculture, have been indirectly excluded. The biofortification intervention proposed here aims to be an inclusive strategy, based on smallholder farming systems. Vitamin A is a micronutrient essential for growth, immune function, reproduction and vision, and its deficiency results in VAD. VAD is estimated to affect more than 250 million children in developing countries. In Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food for rural communities, consumed by most household members. Due to carotenoids, PVABM presents an orange color. This color has been reported to lead to negative perceptions about PVABM varieties. The perceived agronomic traits of this maize by smallholder farmers have not been explored. Adoption and utilization of PVABM varieties relies on both acceptable consumer attributes and agronomic traits, including nutritional value. It is therefore important to assess farmers’ perceptions of and willingness to adopt the varieties, and the potential markets for PVABM maize. It is essential to establish on-farm trials and experiments to evaluate the response of PVABM under different climatic conditions, fertilizer levels and soils, and its overall agronomic potential. For the better integration of PVABM with smallholder farming systems, farmer training and workshops about PVABM should be part of any intervention. A holistic approach would enhance farmers’ knowledge about PVABM varieties and that their benefits out-compete other existing maize varieties.

  14. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  15. New approaches to sustainable rural development: Social farming as an opportunity in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni F. Tulla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “Green Revolution” has marginalized and depopulated many rural areas, but economic diversification has emerged since the 1980s. Consumer appreciation for organic farming and proximity sourcing has increased, and farmers have responded to this market. Since 2008 the economic crisis has led to importation of low-quality food products at an unsustainable level of energy costs, and the lack of employment opportunity has led people to seek economic opportunities in the countryside, producing foods with ecological criteria for short food supply chains. Within this scenario, Social Farming (SF has appeared as a multifunctional innovative strategy. It gives a return to society through the production and processing of agricultural products by incorporating direct social benefits in employment, training, and therapy or rehabilitation of groups at risk of social exclusion. SF offers social cohesion, empowerment of vulnerable groups, local development in rural and peri-urban settings, and an equitable balance between revenues and costs to society.

  16. Developing a software for tracking the memory states of the machines in the LHCb Filter Farm

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Harshit

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb Event Filter Farm consists of more than 1500 server nodes with a total amount of roughly 65 TB operating memory .The memory is crucial for the success of the LHCb experiment, since the proton-proton collisions are temporarily stored on these memory modules. Unfortunately, the aging nodes of the server farm occasionally suffer losses of their memory modules. The lower the available memory, the lower performance we can get out of it. Inducing the users or administrators to pay attention to this matter is inefficient. One needs to upgrade it to an acceptable way. The aim of this project was to develop a software to monitor a set of test machines. The software stores the data of the memory sticks in advance in a database which will be used for future reference. Then it checks the memory sticks at a future time instant to find any failures. In the case of any such losses the software looks up in the database to find out which memory sticks have lost and displays all information of those sticks in a log fi...

  17. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

  18. Effect of contrasting crop rotation systems on soil chemical and biochemical properties and plant root growth in organic farming: First results

    OpenAIRE

    Elga Monaci; Serena Polverigiani; Davide Neri; Michele Bianchelli; Rodolfo Santilocchi; Marco Toderi; Paride D'Ottavio; Costantino Vischetti

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming is claimed to improve soil fertility. Nonetheless, among organic practices, net C-inputs may largely vary in amount and composition and produce different soil conditions for microbial activity and plant-root system adaptation and development. In this study, we hypothesised that, in the regime of organic agriculture, soil chemical and biochemical properties can substantially differ under contrasting crop rotation systems and produce conditions of soil fertility to which the pla...

  19. Energy Self-sufficiency from an Emergy Perspective Exemplified by a Model System of a Danish Farm Cooperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads Ville

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary food production is highly dependent on fossil fuel for production of fertilizer and as diesel for field operations. One way to enhance agricultural resilience is to increase self-sufficiency at the farm level with necessities such as energy, food, fodder, nutrients and seed. It is even...... better if the farm is a net energy producer since energy used for processing, distribution and trade of farm products should be supplied also by agriculture in order to increase the resilience of food supply systems. In this project we analyze these potentials based on a model system of a multifunctional...... flow for labor in different ways. The five farms produce bioenergy (biodiesel from oil seed rape and electricity and hot water from anaerobic fermentation of grass-clover), food and fodder (cereals and legumes) and green manure (effluent from biogas production). All green manure, about half...

  20. Power fluctuations from large wind farms - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Pinson, P.; Cutululis, N.A.; Madsen, Henrik; Jensen, Leo Enrico; Hjerrild, J.; Heyman Donovan, M.; Vigueras-ROdriguez, A.

    2009-08-15

    Experience from power system operation with the first large offshore wind farm in Denmark: Horns Rev shows that the power from the wind farm is fluctuating significantly at certain times, and that this fluctuation is seen directly on the power exchange between Denmark and Germany. This report describes different models for simulation and prediction of wind power fluctuations from large wind farms, and data acquired at the two large offshore wind farms in Denmark are applied to validate the models. Finally, the simulation model is further developed to enable simulations of power fluctuations from several wind farms simultaneously in a larger geographical area, corresponding to a power system control area. (au)

  1. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  2. Developing COMET-Farm and the DayCent Model for California Specialty Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwerth, K. L.; Barker, X. Z.; Carlson, M.; Killian, K.; Easter, M.; Swan, A.; Thompson, L.; Williams, S.; Paustian, K.

    2016-12-01

    Specialty crops are hugely important to the agricultural economy of California, which grows over 400 specialty crops and produces at least a third of the nations' vegetables and more than two thirds of its fruit and nut tree crops. Since the passage of AB32 Global Warming Solutions Act in 2006, the state has made strong investments in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and developing climate adaptation solutions. Most recently, Governor J. Brown (CA) has issued an executive order to establish reductions to 40% below 1990 levels. While agriculture in California is not regulated for greenhouse gas emissions under AB32, efforts are being made to develop tools to support practices that can enhance soil health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. USDA-NRCS supports one such tool known as COMET-Farm, which is intended for future use with incentive programs and soil conservation plans managed by the agency. The underlying model that that simulates entity-scale greenhouse gas emissions in COMET-Farm is DayCent. Members of the California Climate Hub are collaborating with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, CO to develop DayCent for 15 California specialty crops. These specialty crops include woody perennials like stone fruit like almonds and peaches, walnuts, citrus, wine grapes, raisins and table grapes. Annual specialty crops include cool season vegetables like lettuce and broccoli, tomatoes, and strawberries. DayCent has been parameterized for these crops using existing published and unpublished studies. Practice based information has also been gathered in consultation with growers. Aspects of the model have been developed for woody biomass production and competition between herbaceous vegetation and woody perennial crops. We will report on model performance for these crops and opportunities for model improvement.

  3. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, B

    2002-01-01

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  4. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for 14% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries (Vermeulen et al 2012). Agricultural intensification and expansion in these regions is expected to catalyze the most significant relative increases in agricultural GHG emissions over the next decade (Smith et al 2008, Tilman et al 2011). Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares (FAO 2012). One can therefore posit that smallholder farming significantly impacts the GHG balance of these regions today and will continue to do so in the near future. However, our understanding of the effect smallholder farming has on the Earth's climate system is remarkably limited. Data quantifying existing and reduced GHG emissions and removals of smallholder production systems are available for only a handful of crops, livestock, and agroecosystems (Herrero et al 2008, Verchot et al 2008, Palm et al 2010). For example, fewer than fifteen studies of nitrous oxide emissions from soils have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa, leaving the rate of emissions virtually undocumented. Due to a scarcity of data on GHG sources and sinks, most developing countries currently quantify agricultural emissions and reductions using IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors. However, current Tier 1 emissions factors are either calibrated to data primarily derived from developed countries, where agricultural production conditions are dissimilar to that in which the majority of smallholders operate, or from data that are sparse or of mixed quality in developing countries (IPCC 2006). For the most part, there are insufficient emissions data characterizing smallholder agriculture to evaluate the level of accuracy or inaccuracy of current emissions estimates. Consequentially, there is no reliable information on the agricultural

  5. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  6. 77 FR 8179 - Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...) System Audit Committee (SAC) and the Farm Credit System (System) annual report to investors. The proposed... final rulemaking on the governance of System institutions.\\3\\ Those regulations changed the structure, responsibilities, and authority of existing audit committees at the banks and the SAC, and it required audit...

  7. Studies for Characterisation of Electrical Properties of DC Collection System in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu-Hsing; Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Olsen, Rolant Joannesarson

    2016-01-01

    Offshore HVDC-connected wind farms where the wind plant power collection network becomes DC, rather than AC, offer reduced electrical losses, lower equipment ratings potentially leading to lower bill-of-material cost, and undiminished functionality. However, no standards exist for an offshore...... medium-voltage DC power collection cable-based system, routing power from MVDC wind turbines all the way to the HVDC export cable. To progress, it is therefore important to establish some common reference for the design and performance of the components needed in an MVDC collection network. Any suggested...

  8. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, Robert K; Schulte, Lisa A; Hall, Richard B; Hallam, Arne; Heaton, Emily A; Gunther, Theo; Moore, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  9. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  10. Statistical analysis and dimensioning of a wind farm energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waśkowicz Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth in renewable power generation and more strict local regulations regarding power quality indices will make it necessary to use energy storage systems with renewable power plants in the near future. The capacity of storage systems can be determined using different methods most of which can be divided into either deterministic or stochastic. Deterministic methods are often complicated with numerous parameters and complex models for long term prediction often incorporating meteorological data. Stochastic methods use statistics for ESS (Energy Storage System sizing, which is somewhat intuitive for dealing with the random element of wind speed variation. The proposed method in this paper performs stabilization of output power at one minute intervals to reduce the negative influence of the wind farm on the power grid in order to meet local regulations. This paper shows the process of sizing the ESS for two selected wind farms, based on their levels of variation in generated power and also, for each, how the negative influences on the power grid in the form of voltage variation and a shortterm flicker factor are decreased.

  11. Efficacy and Efficiency of Italian Energy Policy: The Case of PV Systems in Greenhouse Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of energy from renewable sources is a form of energy production that has less impact on the environment than the traditional one. For the farmer this new form of production represents an opportunity, especially for the economic benefits that can produce, both in terms of the incentives provided by the public operator and for higher revenues, deriving from the sale of energy back to the grid and/or the savings generated by self-consumed energy, that help to increase the farmer’s income. In this paper, we analyzed a case study of a farm that has realized a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system on a greenhouse. In particular, firstly the farm profitability has been estimated and subsequently, in order to assess the efficiency of the energy policy adopted by the Second Conto Energia in Italy, the minimum incentive tariff at which the entrepreneur has an economic advantage to realize a PV system has been determined. Results show that PV system relegates to a marginal role the cultivation of agricultural products compared to energy production and that government PV remuneration policies far outweigh the minimum threshold that makes the investment advantageous.

  12. Choosing CPUs in an Open Market: System Performance Testing for the BaBar Online Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, Tomas J

    1998-01-01

    BABAR is a high-rate experiment to study CP violation in asymmetric e + e - collisions. The BABAR Online Farm is a pool of workstations responsible for the last layer of event selection, as well as for full reconstruction of selected events and for monitoring functions. A large number of machine architectures were evaluated for use in this Online Farm. We present an overview of the results of this evaluation, which include tests of low-level OS primitives, tests of memory architecture, and tests of application-specific CPU performance. Factors of general interest to others making hardware decisions are highlighted. Performance of current BABAR reconstruction (written in C++) is found to scale fairly well with SPECint95, but with some noticeable deviations. Even for machines with similar SPEC CPU ratings, large variations in memory system performance exist. No single operating system has an overall edge in the performance of its primitives. In particular, freeware operating systems perform no worse overall than the commercial offerings

  13. Choosing CPUs in an Open Market: System Performance Testing for the BaBar Online Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Tomas J

    1998-11-17

    BABAR is a high-rate experiment to study CP violation in asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. The BABAR Online Farm is a pool of workstations responsible for the last layer of event selection, as well as for full reconstruction of selected events and for monitoring functions. A large number of machine architectures were evaluated for use in this Online Farm. We present an overview of the results of this evaluation, which include tests of low-level OS primitives, tests of memory architecture, and tests of application-specific CPU performance. Factors of general interest to others making hardware decisions are highlighted. Performance of current BABAR reconstruction (written in C++) is found to scale fairly well with SPECint95, but with some noticeable deviations. Even for machines with similar SPEC CPU ratings, large variations in memory system performance exist. No single operating system has an overall edge in the performance of its primitives. In particular, freeware operating systems perform no worse overall than the commercial offerings.

  14. In-Service Development of Vocational Teachers for Competencies in Non-Farm Agricultural Occupations. Vocational Agriculture Special Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Obed L.; McMinn, J. H.

    In order to help vocational agriculture teachers develop competencies needed in giving instruction in off-farm agricultural occupations, 10 teachers were selected from Mississippi schools to help develop training programs, to conduct a home community survey, and to engage in a work experience program. After completion of their training, each…

  15. THE COOPERATIVE WORK AND FAMILY FARMING ECOLOGICALLY BASED: ACTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM THE LOCAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana da Silva Andersson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the associated farmers to Cooperativa Sul Ecológica de Agricultores Familiares Ltda., and to understand the organization of the cooperative institution. For this, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the family farmers ecological base and development agents along Cooperative, together the use of secondary sources. Since the Cooperative presents their work ethics and press for horizontal beginning, it allows collective decision making. In addition, your audience - family farmers ecological base - has an active history of sustainable and cooperative work. Therefore, we can measure both the public research on the family farm as the institution Cooperativa Sul Ecológica actual actions and what Costabeber & Caporal established as ecologically based agriculture.

  16. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...

  17. Phosphorus management in cropping systems of the Paris Basin: From farm to regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Noë, Julia; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of phosphorus (P) fertilization in cropping systems is an important issue because P resources on earth are limited and excess P in soils can lead to ecological damage such as eutrophication. Worldwide, there is an increasing interest in organic farming (OF) due to its good environmental performance. However, organic cropping systems are suspected of generating negative P budgets, which questions their ability to provide sustainable P management. The design of agricultural systems at a broader scale also largely influences the shape of the P cycle and the possibility of its recycling to cropland. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of (i) OF versus conventional farming (CF) practices and (ii) the structure of agro-food systems at the regional scale, on P cycling and availability on cropland. For this purpose, we examined P budgets and soil P status of 14 organic and conventional cropping systems in commercial farms located in the Paris Basin. Available P was analyzed using two different methods: resin P and Olsen P. The results revealed no significant differences between CF and OF in available P stocks. Phosphorus budgets were always negative and significantly lower in CF systems, indicating that P was mined from soil reserves. In parallel, we estimated P budgets over cropland in all French regions for two distinct periods, 2004-2014 and 1970-1981, and showed that specialized intensive cropping systems in the Paris Basin led to a high, positive P budget in the latter period. However, this trend was reversed in the 2004-2014 period due to a sharp reduction of the mineral fertilizer application rate. The shift from very high P budgets to much lower and sometimes negative P budgets would not be a threat for agriculture due to the current high level of Olsen P in these regions, which was consistent with our measurements at the plot scale. Overall, these results suggest that OF would not lead to more P deficiency

  18. Development of Cattle farming as a Model For Sustainable Rural Development Goal using Spatial Approach (Case in Southern Parts of Merapi Volcano Slope Sleman Regency of Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Widiati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a model of beef cattle farming development using spatial approach in rural areas of the southern slopes of Merapi Volcano Sleman Regency of Yogyakarta after eruption 2010. Samples were taken Glagaharjo sub-district (Cangkringan district as impacted area and Wonokerto (Turi district as unimpacted areas. Survey method were used to land evaluation analysis and  Geographic Information System (GIS software for spatial analysis. Materials were used RBI map in 1:25 000 scale, map of land use, landform, slope, and IKONOS imagery (2015. Analysis potential of land capability  for forage cattle using the production unity in kg of TDN per AU. The research result showed that based on the land capability and suitability class maps, both villages had the potential of land carrying capacity of cattle feed of 2604.84 AU in Glagaharjo and 2162.26 AU in Wonokerto. However, further research to explore the potential of agricultural land use to develop smallholder model of beef cattle farming in both villages was still open to the researchers.

  19. A Dynamic Decision Support System for Farm Water Management in Surface Irrigation: Model Development and Application Un Sistema de Soporte Dinámico de Decisión para la Gestión de Agua Predial en Riego Superficial: Desarrollo y Aplicación del Modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I. Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An online dynamic decision support system (DDSS was developed, to support the farm water management in surface irrigation. The online DDSS was based on the formulation and integration of three components: a dynamic-relational data base, an administrator model, and a graphical user interface. The DDSS allows routines of actualization, edition and addition of online data, providing information in real time. The online DDSS was applied in an orange orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late under furrow irrigation. The results pointed out that the time irrigation cutoff was the main significant management factor, to decrease the hazard of leaching, superficial runoff and percolation. Applying the results obtained with the DDSS, furrow irrigation efficiencies could be improved up to values equals to 95.89% for application efficiency and 94.61% for total distribution efficiency. As a conclusion, the DDSS demonstrated to be a useful tool to assist the decision making process, providing proper information for the management of the available water resource at farm level.Se desarrolló un sistema de soporte dinámico de decisión (SSDD en línea, con el objetivo de asistir la gestión del agua predial en riego superficial. El SSDD en línea se basó en la formulación e integración de tres componentes: una base de datos relacional dinámica, un modelo administrador y una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El SSDD permite rutinas de actualización, edición y adición de información en línea, proporcionando información en tiempo real. El SSDD en línea se aplicó en un huerto de naranjos (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late bajo riego por surcos. Los resultados indicaron que el tiempo de corte es la variable significativa de decisión para disminuir el riesgo de lixiviación, escorrentía superficial y percolación. Aplicando los resultados obtenidos con el SSDD, las eficiencias del riego por surco podrían mejorarse, alcanzando valores

  20. Collection System Cable Routing and Wake Losses Optimization in Offshore Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragoso Rodrigues, S.M.; Bauer, P.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Pierik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with high installed capacities and located further from the shore are starting to be built by northern European countries. Furthermore, it is expected that by 2020, several dozens of large offshore wind farms will be built in the Baltic, Irish and North seas. These wind farms